Tapir conservation

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Tapir conservation the newsletter of the IUCNSSC Tapir Specialist Group
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Tapir conservation (Print)
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IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group
IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group
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Tapir Conservation
The Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group

Sharon Matola, TSG Chairperson
Sheryl Todd, TSG Deputy Chair

The views in Tapir Conservation do
not necessarily reflect those ofthe
IUCN nor the entire IUCN/SSC Tapir
Specialist Group (TSG). The objective
ofTapir Conservation is to offer the
members ofthe IUCN/SSC Tapir
Specialist Group and others concerned
with thefamily Tapirida, new bies,
opinions, and general information
about this threatened mammalian
genus. Anyone wishing to contribute to
Tapir Conservation, please send
materials to:

Sharon Matola
IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group
PO. Box 1787
Belize City, Belize, Central America
Phone 501.081.3004
Fax 501-081-3004

Sheryl Todd
Deputy Chair
IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group
PO. Box 1432
Palisade, Colorado 81526 USA
Phone (970) 464-0321
Fax (970) 464-0377

Produced with assistance from
Wildlife Preservation Trust,
International, 1520 Locust Street,
Suite 704, Philadelphia,
PA 19102 USA;
Ph (215) 731-9770;
Fax (215) 732-9766;

Volume 10, Number

Letter from the
Deputy Chair and
Retiring Chair

As we begin the year 2000, Sharon
Matola will step down as Chair of the
Tapir Specialist Group. Patricia Medici of
Brazil has been proposed by Sharon to fill
the position. The Executive Committee of
SSC will meet at the end of March and
will review the Specialist Group Chair
appointments for 2000-2004. The
appointments will be made after October
Sharon has been Chair since 1990. As
she completes a decade ofwork for the
group, we look back on the newsletter she
created, publishing the first six issues of
Tapir Conservation working from a
manual typewriter in her office at the
Belize Zoo. In 1991, Sharon began
submitting regular contributions to
Specie, the official magazine of the
IUCN/SSC. The magazine is a valuable
and under-utilized forum for making SSC
group work known to other members,
and Sharon made sure the tapir group
was represented regularly. Under her
direction, the TSG Action Plan was
written, and was published in 1997. In
1998, the Tapir Specialist Group grew to
its present size, with members in almost
every tapir range country.
Communication expanded among tapir
researchers, students, and
conservationists, and a web site for the
group was developed. Recently, the
conservation struggle in Belize has
escalated, claiming all of Sharon's time.
As this newsletter goes to press, the Belize
Zoo itself is threatened. It is through this
zoo and its related Tropical Education
Center that Sharon carries on much of
her important work in Belize, and her

March 2000

attention there is critical. She will
continue to represent Belize in the TSG.
Sharon and Sheryl both support
Patricia's appointment enthusiastically.
Many of you know Patricia already. Those
who do not will find her easy and
delightful to work with. Patrfcia has every
qualification for the job. She is an
excellent communicator, original thinker
and fine organizer, and has extensive
experience in the field working with
lowland tapirs. She is currently
completing her Master's thesis. Patricia's
e-mail is:
Sheryl Todd will work with Patricia as
TSG's Deputy Chair. She will continue to
edit Tapir Conservation and develop the
TSG web site.

Sharon Matoa

Sheryl Todd
Deputy Chair

The drawing on our masthead was
donated by arist Kevin Burkhil of
Birmingham, England.

See ple 3 for detailed contues

Tapir Cnservaion, Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Tapir Specalist Group Co-Edtor: Sheryl Todd Box1432, Palisade, Colorado USA

Editors' note

The Editors wish to thank you for your
contributions to this issue. We've seen
the newsletter expand over the past few
years, and your efforts are very much
appreciated. We have an excellent
collection of articles and notes this issue,
and we are grateful to everyone who
helped. Due to time constraints, we were
unable to get all of the interesting
material in print this issue, particularly if
it required questions or updates. We will
try to include this material next issue,
which we expect will be out by fall, 2000.
We had intended to publish two issues in
1999, but were unable to do so before the
end of the year. If you have paid by
subscription, your subscription will be
extended to include the correct number
of issues. Thanks for your patience.
Please continue to send in your reports
and notices. It will be helpful if you can
submit them in electronic form, either by
c-mail or by file (either Word or
WordPerfect is fine). A minimum of text
formatting is preferable. Photos, tables,
and figures are welcome.

Sluryl Todd
Co-Editor, Tapir Conservation

Tapir workshop

report from


by Olga Montenegro, Patricia Medici, and
Richard Bodmer

The Tapir Workshop was held on
October 5, 1999, in Asuncion, Paraguay,
during the IV International Congress on
Wildlife Management in the Amazon and
Latin America. The workshop lasted for
four hours of intensive work and
included four different sessions. The first
session was an introduction to the
workshop and welcome to the
participants (about 60 people).
The second session consisted of
presentations made by twelve tapir
researchers from eight different
countries: Patricia Medici (Brazil), Diego
Lizcano (Colombia), Juan Pablo Julia

(Argentina), Enrique Richard
(Argentina), Jorge Segundo (Bolivia),
Paulo Rogerio Mangini (Brazil), Sonia
Foerster (USA-Costa Rica), Clara Solano
(Colombia), Nancy Vargas (Colombia),
Olga Montenegro (Peru), Richard
Bodmer (USA-Peru), and Eduardo
Naranjo (Mexico). The presentations
included several topics regarding the
three Latin American species of tapirs
(Tapirus trreslris, Tapirs bahrdii and
Tapirus pinchaque). The presentations
made it possible to become acquainted
with each other's most recent activities
and plans for the future, and also to
make a preliminary diagnosis of the tapir
population's status in the study sites
covered by the participants. Diego
Lizcano, Clara Solano, and Nancy Vargas
showed that the mountain tapir' original
distribution in Colombia was
considerably reduced, mainly due to
habitat destruction and fragmentation.
Diego Lizcano is beginning a new phase
of his project. He will capture and radio-
collar four animals at one of his study
sites to investigate their use of area and
habitat. Sonia Foerster and Eduardo
Naranjo showed that the Central
American tapir was affected by depletion
of habitat and poaching in Costa Rica
and Mexico. According to forge
Segundo's presentation about his work in
Bolivia, the lowland tapir, despite having
the largest distribution range of the three
species, has been over-hunted In some
areas. The majority of the locations in
which tapirs still survive are protected
areas, and their situation outside of these
areas is a very serious problem. Richard
Bodmer, during his presentation, showed
that some rural communities in the
Peruvian Amazon are monitoring their
own subsistence hunting of lowland tapir
in order to help sustain the tapirs'
numbers. The ongoing field research
conducted by Patricia Medici in Brazil
showed that lowland tapirs are able to
move through the landscape, probably
searching for resources or using the
nearby forest fragments as a refuge.
Medici's plans for the future include
investigating why these animals visit
other forest fragments, using her
previous three years'worth of data to
investigate the tapirs' preferred habitats,
and the capture of animals in the smaller
fragments of the Pontal Region. Sonia
Foerster and Paulo Rogerio Mangini,
both veterinarians, discussed the

veterinary aspects (immobilization, health
studies, etc.) of tapir studies in Costa
Rica and Brazil respectively. Sonia is the
responsible veterinarian for her husband's
ecological study on Tapirs bairdii in
Costa Rica, and Paulo Mangini is
responsible for veterinary aspects of
Medici's project in Brazil. Juan Pablo
Juli and Enrique Richard talked about
their experience in captive management
and breeding in Argentina, demonstrating
that there is potential for ex-situ
conservation of the lowland tapir. Olga
Montenegro presented tools to determine
potential areas for tapir conservation.
The third session consisted of a short
presentation by Patricia Medici about the
Tapir Specialist Group and Tapir
Preservation Fund. Previous to the
workshop, Sheryl Todd (President of the
Tapir Preservation Fund and Deputy-
Chair of the Tapir Specialist Group) and
Sharon Matola (Chairperson of the Tapir
Specialist Group) prepared press releases
about both groups, and copies of these
releases were distributed to workshop
participants. Copies of the most recent
Tapir Consermtion newsletter (a
publication ofthe TSG) were also
distributed. During her presentation,
Medici talked briefly about the group's
main activities and objectives, and also
about the need to improve
communication among tapir people and
participation in the TSG and in TPF
The fourth session consisted of another
short presentation by Sonia Focrster,
who discussed her intentions to organize
an International Tapir Meeting for 2001.
According to her presentation, the
meeting will probably be held in Costa
Rica or Miami in June 2001. She has
recruit several others, including Rick
Barongi (TAG Tapir Advisory Group),,
Sheryl Todd (TPF/TSG), Sharon Matola
(TSG, Belize Zoo), and Donald Janssen
(San Diego Zoo) as initial planners.
Approximately 60 people attended to
the workshop a turnout that was
extremely gratifying for the organizers. It
was also exciting and rewarding to see
the amount of valuable and useful
information that has been gathered by
researchers. This data is fundamental for
tapir conservation. We would also like to
mention that most of the research has
been done on a long-term basis, and this
is important for understanding the real
issues involved in the conservation of

page 2 / TapirConseaWaon, Newsletter of ie IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialst Group Co-Edito Sheryt Todd, Box 1432, Palisade, Coorado USA taplr@aplracfcorn

We would also like to highlight that
while not making presentations, other
tapir researchers were present at the
workshop and contributed by asking
questions, making suggestions, and
creating discussions. Some of these
researchers were Joe Fragoso, Sivia
Chalukian, Andrew Noss, Daniel Brooks,
Robert Wallace, and Lilian Painter.
Joe Fragoso has studied Tapirus bairdi in
Belize, and is still interested in tapir
conservation. Andrew Noss is working on
Tapirus terresris in the Bolivian Chaco,
and is concentrating his efforts on
capturing and radio-collaring animals at
his study site. Daniel Brooks studied
Tapirus terrestris in Paraguay several
years ago, and was one of the editors of
the Tapir Action Plan (1997), together
with Richard Bodmer and Sharon
Matola. Robert Wallace and Lilian
Painter, both from Wildlife Conservation
Society (WCS), are starting a new
project on Tapirus errestris (and several
other animals) in Bolivia. They will be
using satellite radio-collars for their
Others who attended the workshop
were Andrew Taber (WCS), Cltudio
Valladares-Ptdua (IPA Brazil), Laury
Cullen, Jdnior (IPi Brazil), Kent
Redford, Peter Fcislnger, Bruce Young,
William D. Toone (San Diego Zoo), and
several other researchers and students
from Latin America and the United
Finally, the workshop was also an
excellent opportunity for the researchers
to meet each other, to exchange Ideas,
and also to have fun. We would like to
say that we are really pleased with the
way the workshop turned out, and that it
was an excellent opportunity to spread
"tapir fever." We thank the Congress
organizers, who helped tremendously in
putting everything together; we also
thank Fundaci6n Mois6s Bertoni, Florida
University, Sheryl Todd (TPF and TSG),
Sharon Matola (TSG Belize Zoo) and
all the participants who were with us
during the workshop's long sessions.
Special thanks to all the tapir researchers
who did their best to make it to Paraguay
and to share with us all their amazing
experience and insights!

Patricia Medici
Olga Montenegro
Richard Bodmer

Tapir people who attended the
Patricia Medici (IPE Brazil)
Paulo R Mangini (IPE Brazil)
Diego Lizcano (Colombia)
Juan Pablo Julia (Argentina)
Enrique Richard (Argentina)
Jorge Segundo (Bolivia)
Sonia Foerster (Costa Rica-USA)
Clara Solano (Colombia)
Eduardo J. Naranjo (Mexico)
enarano@sclc.ecosurmx or
Olga Lucia Montenegro (USA-Peru)
olnd@grove.ujedu or olnmd@ufledu
Dr. Richard Bodmer (Florida University-
Laury Cullcn (IPE Brazil)*
Claudio Padua (IPE Brazil)
Robert B. Willace (WCS-Bolivia)
Joe Fragoso (FAU-USA)
Silvia Chalukian (Argentina)

1. Conservation Biology of lowland
tapirs (Tapiru terrstris) and their
potential as "landscape detectives" at
Pontal do Paranapanema Region, Sio
Paulo State, Brazil. Medici, E. P. &
Valladares-Pgdua, C.
2. Tapir (Tapirus terrestris): diet and
management in an environment of
mountain forests (Horco Molle
Experimental Station), Tucuman,
Argentina. Richard, E. & Julia, J. P.
3. Population status of the mountain
tapir (Tapins pinchaque) in Colombia.
LUzcano M., D. J. & Cavalier, J.
4. Tapirus tenmstris at the Bolivian
Chaco. Barrientos Segundo, J.
5. Veterinary aspects of the study of
Tapirus erresris in the wild at Pontal do
Paranapanema Region, Sao Paulo State,
Brazil. Mangini, R. & Medici, E P.
6. Effects of the anaesthetic and health
studies of a hTpirus bairdii population in
Costa Rica. Foerster, S.

Table of Contents

Letter from the Deputy Chair and
Retiring Chair 1
Editors' note 2
Tapir workshop report from Paraguay 2
2001 tapir conference in planning
slage 3
Who adopts zoo tapirs? 4

Central America 4
South America 9
Southeast Asia 14

"Proyecto Danta" takes shape in
Venezuela 17
More about omnivorous tapirs 18
Zoo standards for keeping tapirs in
captivity 18
TAG news 20
Studbook news 20


7. Tapir population status at the
Peruvian Amazon. Bodmer, R.
8. Status of the three species of tapir in
Colombia. Solano, C. & Vargas, N.
9. Identifying tools for the conservation
of tapirs at the Colombian Amazon.
Montenegro, 0. L.
10. Tapirus bairdii in Mexico. Naranjo,

2001 tapir

conference In

planning stage

Sonia Foerster and Rick Barongi head a
committee to discuss plans for a world-
wide tapir conference to be held in the
summer of 2001. The date is expected to
be in July, and the venue will probably be
either Miami, Florida, or San Jose, Costa
Rica. Please mark your calendar and keep
in touch, as it would be nice to have as
many tapir people there as possible.
Further announcements will be made
through Tapir Talk, other e-lists, and in

TapirCcosemrvaon, Newsletter of the IUCNSSC Tapir Specialist Group Co-Edor: Sheryl Todd, Boa 1432, Palisade, Colorado USA / page 3

upcoming issues of Tapir Conservation as
plans progress.

Sonia Ferster

Rick Barngi

Who adopts zoo


Many oos have adoption programs for
their animals, including tapirs, by which
the public can pay to help maintain the
animals. The adoptive "parents" are given
certificates, visiting privileges, or other
acknowledgement for their help. Some
fans go further, supporting other
organizations that benefit the conservation
of the species. Mark and Carol Reid of
Canada are two such people. Over the
years they haw helped support tapirs
through the Panamanian Tapir Trust, the
Tapir Preservation Fund and in other
ways. Carol has made tapir earrings and
place mats for the Tapir Gallery Gift
Shop, and both Carol and Mark have
supported the organization in various
wa3y. We wanted to get to know Mark and
Carol better, and we thought our readers
might enjoy hearing about their
experiences. Both members ofthis
peaceful and conservation-minded couple
work at the Canadian War Museum
preserving Canada's history

The interview
Q0 How did the two of you first become
interested in tapirs?
A: We've always enjoyed a shared
interest in animals, and when we read an
article by Rick Barongi about tapirs we
contacted him to find out how we could
help these endangered lovelies." Rick
very kindly directed us towards the Tapir
Preservation Fund (TPF) and we
discovered other like-minded people.
Q: I gather that tapirs now occupy a
large part of your life?
A: So our friends and families tell us!
No one who visits our place can leave
without learning something about tapirs,
if only because our living room is
dominated by a full-size paper mache
tapir head. One of our bathrooms is
decorated in a tapir motif, complete with
antique prints of them, a ship's crest of
H.M.S. Tapir and a jungle shower
curtain. The bedroom is also home to a
small colony of plush Malayan tapirs,
everything from ones that can sit in your
hand to a huge Steiff critter."
Q: Imn told that you even plan your
vacations around zoos that have tapirs?
A: Well, yes, even our honeymoon was
planned to include a visit to Bertie and
Eva, a couple whom we adopted at
London Zoo. We visit the UK every
couple of years (Mark was born there)
and have been fortunate to adopt others
at Colchester, Port Lympne and Marwell.
We even manage to occasionally visit a
couple of Canadian tapirs at the Toronto
Zoo. Carol and I had quite a nice greeting
when we arrived at Regents Park Zoo on
our honeymoon to find Bertie, the male
Brazilian tapir, padding about in the

outdoor paddock. No doubt recognizing
us as tapir aficianados, he unleashed a
"stream of welcome" over Carol's new
leather jacket. I thought
it was rather thoughtful of him, but Carol
expressed different views as she sponged
off with a few Klecnexes (and
expletives!). The day was saved, however,
when, after making contact with a zoo
employee called Steve, we were invited
back for the afternoon feeding at 3:00
pm. We went behind the scenes and were
actually able to feed and touch Eva. Carol
still considers it the highpoint of our
honeymoon (sigh!) and we have a
marvelous photo of her with a mile-wide
smile, stroking an enormous "snoutie"
who has collapsed under an overdose of
petting and bananas (er, Eva, that is, not
Carol). I could wax poetic about other
encounters, but figure that I should
leave it at that for now.
Q: What reactions have you received
from zoo staff (not the tapirs!) when you
A: Keepers and staff are always
delighted, if sometimes a little surprised,
to learn that people have actually adopted
animals other than the lions, tigers,
monkeys, etc. On occasion, they have
actually allowed us to have a more
personal visit with the tapirs, no doubt in
contravention of the rules, but greatly
appreciated and a guarantee of renewed

Mark A. Reid

Carol Reid


All countries from which we have reports
are listed. The arrangement is generally
north-to-south beginning with the
Americas and continuing to Asia. Please
help by sending reports fom the country
in which you work Population estimates
have been omitted due to lack of accurate
information, as much more research is
needed. Reports are welcomed by the

IUCN Categories:
Mountain tapir (Tapirus pirhaque):
Endangered (EN)
Asian tapir (Tapirus indicus):
Vulnerable (VU)
Baird's tapir (Tpirus bairdi):
Vulnerable (VU)
Lowland tapir (Tapirus terrstris):
Lower Risk (LR) Near Threatened

Central America

Batns tapir (T0itureba

The Upper Macal and Raspaculo river
system, located within the Central Maya
Mountains of Belize, remains a sanctuary

page 4 / TapirConservanon, Newsletter of the IUCWSSC Tapir Specialist Group Co-Editor Sheryl Todd, Box 1432, Palisade, Colorado USA tapir@taplback.con

for the Central American tapir, Tapirus
bairdii. Due to the rich riverine
vegetation found there, the herbivore
populations are robust Visiting scientists
have remarked that few places exist
within the region, so unspoilt and
harboring endangered species. Past
studies have focused upon tapir densities
within the river system, making careful
count of tracks, trails, feces and animal
sightings. Seed dispersal has been looked
at through the examination of feces, as
well. In one field study, it was found that
only remains of riverine vegetation,
mainly a cane species Tripsacwn
andersonnii, was present in the tapir
feces. This indicates how important the
riverine vegetation is to the diet of T.
bairdii in this region. This region is
presently under threat by a proposed
hydro project. Should the project go
forward, the habitat which supports
healthy populations of tapir, would be

Sharon Matoa

Bairs tapir (TaNWusbd)

Update on the tapirs of
northeastern Honduras

by Kevbin PFsher

It had been five years since I visited
Honduras when I returned this past
August. My objectives were to visit the
colonization front in the southern buffer
zone of the Rio Platano Biosphere
Reserve to see if it had advanced, to
collect more data on the status of the
tapir (Tapirus bairdi), to see how
Hurricane Mitch had affected the forest,
and to find out if any conservation work
is being done. I spent one month in
Honduras with 10 days in the field.

Area visited (figure 1)
I entered the biosphere reserve along the
Dulce Nombre de Culmi-La LUorona
road, stayed with a family in the upper
Saguazon watershed, and spent eight
days walking in the mountains in this
area. I also crossed into the Rio Chiquito
(on the IGN maps this river is called the
Rio del Pino) and the Rio Cristal basins.

My guide and main Informant was Tanito
Avila, who has lived there for 15 years.
Tapir tracks and bedding sites
I found seven sets of tapir tracks and
three bedding sites, with tapir signs found
in each of the three basins visited (table
1). Sets of tracks were spaced at
approximately 1 km from other sets of
tracks and track size differences suggests
that several individuals were represented.
In addition to the tracks and bedding
sites, we found tapir trails along many of
the ridgetops. All signs were found in
areas that are infrequently visited (once a
year or less) and > 1.5 km from the
nearest house.

Threats to tapir persistence
Habitat loss changes in the colonization
Clearings in the areas visited have
changed little in the past five years and
most farms in the upper Saguazon basin
and ast of here are still predominantly
under forest cover. The population
density in the areas settled 10-20 years
ago does not appear to have changed
much, which is explained by local people
as a consequence of all the land being
claimed. This means that in order to
acquire land one must buy it from
someone who is moving out, so
immigration and emigration are linked
and the population remains stable even
though the inhabitants change. For
peasants without the means to buy land,
the only way to acquire a plot is to clear
previously unclaimed land. This has
resulted in the continuing expansion of
the colonization front (which has now
reached the Rio Pao in the nuclear zone of
the reserve) and a net increase in the
biosphere's human population. The newly
opened trail to the Pao will probably draw
more people in the coming years and lead
to more habitat loss for tapirs.

Foret disturbance changes in economic
Farmers are making just enough from
their harvest surplus to pay for the basic
necessities they require from the outside
world. The value of coffee (their main
cash crop) fluctuates yearly and provides
little economic stability, and farmers are
always on the lookout for ways to improve
their incomes. In the last two years,
COHDEFOR (the government agency
responsible for environmental protection
and forestry regulation) has sanctioned

peasant co-operatives that harvest caoba
(Swietenia macrophyla) trees, and this
has led to intensive exploitation of this
species. The caoba produces a large fruit
with wind-dispersed seeds, and its
extirpation will probably have little or no
impact on the tapir food supply, but the
increase in trails and human presence in
the forest means less undisturbed habitat
and an increased chance of encounters
with hunters.

Informants said that no tapirs had been
killed in the last five years in the upper
Saguazon and Saguazito watersheds or
along the Aner or Mahor rivers. Many
people claim that they do not hunt tapirs
and that as a result the animals come
close to their fields. Some hunters, on
the other hand, are known as tapir killers
and one man has killed 15 animals in the
past 15 years. These individual
differences in the choice of quarry makes
assessing the impact of hunting on the
tapir population difficult. Hunting
appears to be mostly concentrated within
1.5 km of a hunter's house, so a tapir
hunter's impact on the population covers
a small geographic area. This would
suggest that the spacing of human
settlements is key for minimizing the
effect of hunting on tapir persistence in
this region.
A man in Cielo Azul (Aner River)
caught a baby tapir in June and took it
home to raise it, but it escaped. In the
Agalta Mountains, a large male tapir was
killed on the Tolagua River in July, about
a two-hours' walk from Catacamas.

Hurricane Mitch
The hurricane caused extensive damage
to the forest throughout the mountains,
particularly devastating riparian
vegetation. As the water accumulated
during days of rain, the soil along the
waterways become saturated and slipped
down-slope carrying the forest with it,
leaving landslide scars visible on many
slopes in both cultivated and pristine
areas. Erosion has been severe and the
major rivers and streams were still
running red 10 months after the
hurricane. Tree damage away from the
streams was also extensive, and there is
an abundance of new trcefall gaps. Plants
are just starting to sprout in the landslide
areas, and it will take years for the
riparian forests to grow back. While the

Tapir Caservas Newsletter of the IUCWSSC Tapir Specialist Group Co-Editor. Sheryl Todd, Box 1432, Palisade, Colrado USA tapi@taplrbaciccom / page 5

Figure 1. Southwestern Section of the io
Platano Biospher Reserve. The Wampu River
marks the southern and southwestern boundary
of the reserve. Arrows indicate the main routes
used by colonists. Open circles = tapir track
locations 1999. Xs = tapir track locations 1994.
Small dash marks = footmule trails. Dashes
and crosses = the road from Culmi to La
Llorona/Plan Grande (end of the line for
vehicles). Dashes and dots = the Culmi-Las
Marias road (and connections to Catacamas and
Tegucilgalpa). The tapir symbol indicates areas
that still have the species and those that do not
(line through the tapir).

tapirs may suffer a temporary shortage of
herbaceous riparian vegetation, this should
change to a surplus as the vegetation grows back
and these areas become dominated by low
secondary growth. The increase in trefall gaps
will probably also increase the tapir food supply.
One can only imagine that many animals,
including tapirs, were killed during the storm, as
few animals caught in the path of one of these
landslides would have been likely to escape. A
farmer told Leone Marineros (TSG member
who works in the El Chile cloud forest reserve)
that two dead tapirs floated down the river
coming out of El Chile after the hurricane.

What has allowed tapirs to persist on an old
colonization front?
The particularly rugged topography of the
Montana Punta de Piedra is probably the main
reason why tapirs still exist in this area. The
steep, folding slopes of the range have acted as a
barrier to settlers, channeling them around its
northern and southern flanks along the relatively
flat Negro and Malo drainages and along the
Lagarto River (figure 1). With the exception of a
small amount of clearing on the lower Rio
Cristal, the southern and eastern slopes of the
range support pristine forest, and the range was
referred to by one local as "un fuente de dantos'
(a source of tapirs).

Will tapirs persist in this area?
Despite the availability of 4-6,000 ha of
unclaimed land, colonists have continued to push
eastward in their quest for property rather than
attempting to settle in the Punta de Piedra, and
as long as this is so, the tapirs should be safe.
However, the likelihood of this range remaining
unoccupied in the long-run seems slight, and
one farmer who owns several hundred hectares
in the upper Chiquito basin has plans to clear
land in the coming years. It is also likely that as
local farmers' children mature (my guide has

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eight), at least a few of them will consider
settling there, as the range contains some
of the only remaining unclaimed land in
the area. With each new arrival, the
chance of tapirs persisting goes down.

Conservation efforts
Since 1997, CODEHFOR, with the
financial and technical assistance of the
German government, has initiated a
conservation program in the buffer zone
of the Rio Platano Biosphere Reserve
aimed at finding solutions to forest
degradation and the economic stagnation
afflicting the area. The program is new,
and so far has concentrated on trying to
stop encroachment in the nuclear zone of
the reserve along the Guaraska River. No
work has been done in the area I visited,
and in the past five years the only
outsiders to pass this way were a group of
adventure travelers. Work continues to be
done in the northern section of the
biosphere reserve and in the Agalta and
Carbon ranges, with several Peace Corps
volunteers, foreign and Honduran
scientists, and COHDEFOR officials
involved, but much work remains to be

Kevin easher
Department ofHuman Ecology
Program in Ecology and Evolution
Rutgers Unirersity, New Jersey, USA

Costa Rica
BaMns tapir (rkwpus ad)

In October, 1999, Mathias Tobler
returned to Switzerland, having
completed a study in the Cordillera de
Talamanca in Costa Rica. Abstracts are
printed below in English and Spanish.
Mathias can be contacted for a full report
of his work.

Habitat use of tapirs was studied using
24 transects in three different areas in a
montane cloud forest of Costa Rica.
Tapirs were more abundant in the area
further away from the next village (Villa
Mills) and less abundant in the area with
greatest disturbance. Eight variables were
tested for correlation with the abundance
of tapirs. Slope was lower (P<0.05) in
parts used by tapirs, especially on

Table I (Update on the tapirs of northeastern Honduras). Tapir signs. The
smallest of the clear tracks from each set are the ones listed. Mature forest = with
trees reaching 20-30 m dominant. Bedding sites consisted ofpressed vegetation
forming ovals approximately 65 x 160 cm. Two of the bedding sites were in short,
dense stands of bamboo and one in fairly dense herbaceous vegetation. The three
beds were on ridgctops. All tapir sign were found between 660 and 960 masl.

Tapir # Track size (cm)
1 15 wide x 14.5 long

2 13 x12

3 13x12

4 17 x 17

5 15.5 x 13.5

6 13 x 13

7 15x 15

browsing sites (P<0.005), the other
variables showed no significant difference.
One of the three study areas was located
in the permanent plots of a forestry
project. In this area, 20 to 30 percent of
the basal area of all trees was harvested in
1991 and forest roads were built to extract
the timbers. Tapir abundance was lowest
in this area, probably due to disturbance
by people passing on the forest roads.
Nevertheless, a relatively high number of
browsing sites was found in this area,
indicating that the harvest of timber does
not alter the habitat in a way that would
leave it unsuitable for tapirs.
Recommendations are made for
sustainable forestry with regard to tapir
protection. Feces were analyzed to
determine the composition of the tapir's
diet. Fibers were found to be the largest
component, making up 40 to 55 percent
of the diet. Bamboo (Chusquea spp.) was
found In all samples and probably is
responsible for the high proportion of
fibers. Twigs made up about 15 percent
and leaves between 10 and 30. Twenty-
seven plant species were identified to be
eaten by tapirs. Fifteen inhabitants of Villa
Mills, the closest village to the study sites,
were interviewed and asked about hunting
in the area and sightings of animals.

Basin Habitat
Saguazon mature forest with a palm
dominant understoty
Saguazon mature streamside forest
fairly dense understory to
Cristal mature ridgetop forest
saplings dense to 3-5 m
Chiquito mature ridgetop forest
saplings fairly dense to 3 m
Chiquito mature ridgetop forest
saplings fairly dense to 3 m

Chiquito mature forest
open understory
Chiquito in open near large stream
up small stream with
dense herbaceous veg.

Tapirs were overhunted during a time
period of about 25 to 15 years ago.
During that time eight to 20 animals were
killed each year. The population is
probably still in a phase of recovery with
an estimated population density between
0.14 and 0.29 ind/km'.

En un bosque montano nuboso de Costa
Rica se recorrieron 24 transectos en tres
diferentes Areas para estudiar el uso del
habitat por las dantas. Se encontr6 mayor
abundancia de dantas en el Area mis
alejada del pueblo mds cercano (Villa
Mills) y menos abundancia on el Area con
mayor presencia humana. De ocho
variables analizadas en cada Area,
solamente los sitios de baja pendiente
(P<0.05), resultaron correlacionados con
mayors abundancias, especialmente en
lugares donde los animals so alimentan
(P>0.005), mientras que las demis
variables no mostraron una correlaci6n
significativa con la presencia de los
animals. Una de las tres Areas estudiadas
estuvo localizada en las parcelas
pcrmanentes de un proyecto forestal. En
1991 sc aprovcch6 entire un 20 y un 30
por cicnto del Area basal de estas parcelas
y so construycron pistas de arrastres para

page 8 / Tapir Conservan, Newsletter of the IUCNSSC Tapir Specalst Group Co-Eitor: Sheryl Todd, Box 1432, Palisade, Colorado USA

[a extracci6n de las tucas. La abundancia
de las dantas fue menor en este sitio,
probablemente debido al paso frecuente
de personas locales a investigadores del
proyecto. Sin embargo, so encontr6 un
ndmero relativamente alto de Areas en
donde las dantas so habian alimentado, Io
que indica que un aprovechamiento
moderado de la madera no deja
inapropiado el habitat para las dantas. Se
hacen recomendaciones para el
aprovechamiento sostenible do estos
bosques, con respect a la protecci6n do
las dantas. La composici6n de la dicta de
las dantas fue evaluada medianto el
andlisis de heces. Las fibras
constituyeron centre un 40 y un 55 por
ciento de las muestras, de las cuales todas
contcnfan restos dc bambi (Chusquca
spp.) quc es probablemento responsible
por cl alto contenido do fibras. El
contenido de ramitas fue de un 15 pot
ciento, mientras que el de hojas fue entire
un 10 y un 30 por ciento. En las mucstras
se identificaron 27 species de plants
comidas por la danta. Informacidn sobre
caoria y avistamientos do dantas fue
obtenida mediante entrevistas a quince
personas del pueblo de Villa Mills.
Aparent nte la caccria fue muy
intense durante la d6cada 1975 -1985,
period on quo so mataban entire 8 y 20
animals por aiio, pero ha disminuldo
fucrtcmente en alios recientes. Es possible
que la poblaci6n de dantas esta en una
fase de lenta recuperaci6n con una
densidad actual estimada centre 0.14 y
0.29 individuos por kil6metro cuadrado.

Mathias Tobrer

Baws tapir (TIprs baM)

Eva Bravo reports that she completed her
graduate thesis in veterinary science in
1997, basing it on her study of Baird's
tapir in her home country of Panama.

Em Bravo

Availability of info for students

Also from Panama, Alex Cardenas, now a
physics student at Purdue University,

wrote to tell us about growing up as a
tapir fan in Panama. He says, in Panama,
"tapirs are known as 'macho do monte.' I
don't think most people have heard the
word 'tapir,' but they certainly know what
a 'macho de monte' is. When I was a kid
(mid 1980s), I heard stories about people
seeing macho de montes in the forest, but
I didn't know what they looked like. Also,
to increase the myth around them, one of
the toughest divisions of the panamanian
army was called 'macho de montes' Oust
like navy seals in the US). So I grew up
and came to college in the US without
ever having seen a tapir. Then during a
vacation, I went with my parents to a zoo
called Los Nisperos in the very popular
tourist town ofValle de Anton. In that
zoo, I was amazed to see many signs
pointing to the tapir exhibits. They
seemed to be the main attraction.... So
I went in, and saw this wonderful animal,
and that's when all those years of
curiosity ended. My interest grew....
Years passed by, and now I'm interested
because not only pandas and bald eagles
have the right to be saved."
Recently the Tapir Preservation Fund
was pleased to loan a photo of Baird's
tapirs from our web site to Ariel R.
Rodriguez, Museo de Vertebrados,
Universidad de Panama, for publication
in a newspaper article. The purpose of
the article was environmental education.

South America

Balmns tapir (Tais bard)
Lowand tapir (TF'a- asWMs)
Mounain tapir (Tapius phichaqw)

27 July 1999: Farallones
Expedition after Tapirs

In summer of 1999, the Tapir Preseration
Fund helped pay epenses for an -apediton
into the Parallones organized by Emilio
Constantino of Colombia. The purpose
was to try to determine whether the tapirs
present in the are were Baird's or
mountain tapirs. The findings were not
conclusive due to weather, but another tip
is being funded for 2000. Emilio reports
on the 1999 expedition:

Finally there was a weather break and the
trip to the upper Farallones de Call was
made during the first week of July (2nd
to 9th), 1999. Warfare situations where
"very hot" at this time due to the
kidnapping ofabout 120 church
attendants that were taken hostage to the
Farallones, by the ELN (National
Liberation Army). Participants were:
Sr. Alirlo Silva, Farallones Guide and
tracker; leader of the expedition. He
participated in the last expedition to the
Upper Farallones last January, when they
reported seeing tapir tracks in the upper
Sr. Emilio Cardoaa, tracker and
hunter; he currently lives at La Cascada, a
place in the western part of the Farallones
at 800 masl., near the park border, where
he hunts and travels all of the territory.
He has hunted several tapirs in the
western slopes, among other rare
mammals. He participated in the
expedition as tracker and without a
Sr. Juan; he participated as a guide
and as a porter; a friend of Alirio.
The expedition took two days to reach
the upper ridges towards the Faralloncs
del Cajarnbr, a region that very few
people have had the opportunity to visit;
it is in pristine condition without any
human intervention. The weather had
been quite dry in the paramos, opposite
to the heavy rainfalls in the lower regions
for the past months. Besides camping
equipment for very cold and windy
weather they took light rations of food
and water and the material to register the
tracks: odontological gypsum (or
plaster), plastic cases for transporting the
samples and paraffin to try it as a track
After setting camp in the lagoon of the
paramos of Farallones del Cajambre, at
3600 masl. they spent three days looking
for tapir tracks; they found the pdramo
quite dry, but no tapir tracks were found
in the same place they were found last
January, nor even for several kilometers
around the place. Many spectacled bear
tracks, scats and feeding remains were
found on Puya; also many puma scat
and tracks. They collected several scats of
both species. They also observed several
small tracks of a deer species that could
be either from brocket deer (Mazama sp.)
or ven from the rare pudu deer (Pudu
mephistophiles), the smallest deer in the
world, and not reported for the western

Tapir Consmevan, Newsletter of the IUCWSSC Tapr Specialist GSup Co-Editor Sheryl Todd, BK 1432, Palsale, CoItado USA tapl@tapback.con / page 9

cordillera north of Munchique. The
expedition found a wide and worn trail
(supposedly a tapir trail) that goes from
the upper piramos down to the montane
jungles of the upper Cajambre, but it
seemed unused for a number of months
previously, because there were no tracks
on it. An interesting point is that Sr.
Emilio Cardona, who has hunted the
tapirs in the region of Las Dudas in the
upper Anchicayd, at aprox. 1600 masl.
said that the tapirs move upwards to the
paramos during the rainy season. So, it is
probable that the species involved is
Tapirus bairdii and not T pinchaque, but
the question remains.
It is recommended that we make
another expedition during the first
months of the year (January-February)
when the right weather and season
conditions can be found. According to
Dr. Jorge Hernindez-Camacho, who is
currently writing the tapir chapter for a
book on Colombian mammals, there is an
urgent need to know which tapir species
inhabit the Farallones de Call.
During a recent visit to a new private
reserve in the Magdalena Medio 1 was
able to locate a remaining population of
the very rare Tapirus terrestris
colombianus; it still lives in a highly
fragmented area near Puerto Berrio,
where I was able to look at many tracks
and trails of at least six individuals (five
adults and a baby). The forest fragment is
located in the reserve and in a
neighboring farm, which is actually for
sale; we fear that the new owners will try
to destroy the forest to convert it to
pastures for cattle.

EnmiUo Constanino
National Network of Private Reserves
of the Civilian Society

Murdered conservationist

Emilio Constantino brought to our
attention the murder of a Colombian
conservationist whose passing is
mourned widely. Sr. Eusberto Jojoa of La
Cocha, a member of the board of the
Network of Private Reserves was killed 6
January by guerillas for promoting

"strange" (i.e. conservationist) ideas to
his people. Eusberto lived In one of the
prime areas for mountain tapirs, and was
a strong defender of the tapir and other
wildlife. He was very concerned about the
future of this tapir species and other
endangered mammals that still live
around La Cocha. Information and
quotes in the following paragraph are
from WWF, Colombia.
Eusberto and his family were among
the 52 peasant families living around the
shores of Cocha Lake in the south of
Colombia. Their "incredible organizing
process and efforts to create an
alternative way of living, and their love
and compromise for taking care of our
mother Earth" had become known to
many. "They are an excellent example of
the ecovillage at a grassroots level." Of
Eusberto, the writer said, "He was one of
these persons about whom no-one could
think that anyone could wish something
negative to happen to him.... With this
message I just want to share with you the
sadness for us and the Planet of losing
such a beautiful person, a rainbow
warrior, a dreamer, an ecovillage builder,
a conservationist, a peasant" Because the
murder was officially committed by "an
unknown" group, the Network of Private
Reserves has had to launch a protest in
order to press authorities to clarify the
injustice done to Eusberto Jojoa.


Project In Santa Marta receives

21 December 1999
We now have some funding for a tapir
flag project in order to contribute to a
sustainable development plan for the
Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. The study
area is located on the northern slope of
the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta within
the departments of Magdalena and
Guajira. Specific study sites are situated
in tropical lowland forest, premontane
evergreen and temperate forest within the
San Salvador Valley, including an
altitudinal gradient from sea level to 2300
masl. The valley has been identified as a
priority region for conservation because
of ecological significance and social and
operational considerations (including the

security situation). Other sites within the
northern slope of the Sierra Nevada will
be assessed for gathering additional
information on the distribution and key
habitats of Tapirus terrstris.

Fundacion Pro-Sierra Neadade
Santa Marta
Calle 17 # 3-83
Santa Marta, Magdalena
Colombia 575
Ph 57 5 4310551

Loaland tapi (Taprs MresMis)

TSG Member Denis Torres reports on
"Proyecto Danta" ("Tapir Project") in
the "News from Captivity" section of this
newsletter. Denis reports that this is the
first pragmatic step for tapir
conservation in Venezuela.

French Guyana
Lowland tapir (fpnus awrmsls)

Tapirs have no specially protected status
in French Guyana. Local people report
that tapirs are hunted and their meat is
sold, which is acknowledged by certain
environmentalists. As reported by non
governmental groups in French Guyana
it is legal to trade tapirs and to hunt
them. As a proof, they showed copies of
lists of protected mammals edited by the
Office National de la Chasse, dated
15/5/86. There the Tapir is not
mentioned as a protected species. On
one of the other lists of the Office
National de la Chasse, the tapir is listed
as a species which is allowed to be
traded. At the moment we are attempting
to get an official statement and more
recent information.

Lowland tapir (TWrus tlenrsrs)

Medici study continues in

For the past three years, Patricia Medici
(IPE Institute de Posquisas

page 10 / Tapir Consvain, Newsletter of the IUCWSSC Tapir Specialist Group Co-Edor: Sheryl Todd, Box1432, Palsade, Colorado USA tapir@lapirback.coan

Ecoldgicas) and her team have been
capturing and radio-collaring lowland
tapirs (Tapirs tearestris) in Morro do
Diabo State Park and surrounding
landscape (Pbntal do Paranapancma
Region extreme west of Sao Paulo
State, Brazil). The main objective today is
to investigate the tapirs' potential as
"landscape detectives," showing Patr(cia
the most used dispersal routes and
pathways in the landscape, and thus the
potential areas to be conserved and
restored as wildlife corridors. The project
has caught and radio-collared eight
animals so far, and has collected much
data. This data is in the process of
preliminary analysis. Patricia was able to
use five of these eight animals as
landscape detectives, as they frequently
wander outside the large forest source
which is Morro do Diabo State Park.
They normally cross open areas
(pastureland) to reach the nearest forest
fragments. Patricia suggests that these
individuals use the smaller fragments as
"stepping stones" during their temporary
movements outside main forest sources.
Specific objectives of this study include
describing and mapping these dispersal
routes through the landscape. Preliminary
information about the tapirs' dispersal
behavior has shown that this large and, to
some extent, generalist mammal, is still
surviving in very small forest patches,
mainly because it is able to exploit
surrounding resources and move long
distances between forest fragments. It is
necessary to restore and conserve the
most used dispersion routes or corridors,
keeping landscape connectivity and,
therefore, the metapopulation scenario
for this large keystone species in its
threatened ecosystem.
During 2000, Patricia intends to
conduct four rounds of captures and
radio-collar at least 10 more animals.
From 2000 onward, she will concentrate
her field efforts on the smaller and
isolated forest fragments around the Park.

Acknowledgements: Forestry Institute of Sio
Paulo State; IBAMA; WPTI Wildlife
Preservation Trust Intemational USA; CERC -
Center for Environmental Research ad
Conservation USA; Fundo Nacional do Meio
Ambicnte (FNMA); Smithsonian Institution;
Chicago Zoological Society Brooklield Zoo;
Lincoln Park Zoo Scott Neotropic Fund;
Tapi Preservation Fund Club Tapir; Tapir
Speialist Gomup/IUCN; Idea Wild; Woodland
Park Zoo Jungle Party Conservation Fund

and, Tapir Preservation Fund Anonymous

Patricia Medici
Conseraton Biologist
IPE Instiluto de Pesqusas Ecol6gicas
Ph 55 14 356 14 64

J como: Study outlined in Emas
National Park

Anah Teresa de Abneida dcomon, a
Brasilan PhD candidate in Animal
Biology at the University of Braslia
(UNB), central Brazi reports on local
conservation work and a proposed study.
She writes:

I am a biologist and have been working
with my husband Leandro Silveira at
Emas National Park since 1994 with
ecology and conservation of the carnivore
community, especially with jaguars,
pumas and maned wolf. Now the
study will be extend to the top predators
(jaguars and pumas) and their largest
prey (tapirs and peccaries). The study
will Involve aspects of the ecology and
conservation of these species at Emas
National Park, one of the largest Cerrado
reserves of Brazil. Below is a summary of
my project:

Ecology and conservation of tapirs and
peccaries in Emas National Park and
surrounding farmland
The Cerrado, a savanna-like vegetation
distributed in mosaics ofgrassland,
scrubby field, marsh, gallery forest and
others, is Brasil's second most extensive
biome. It covers 2 million km2 and spans
21 degrees of latitude. The Cerrado has
lost around 6596 of its natural vegetation
to farming activities, reservoirs from
dams, mining, urbanization, etc.
Consequently, natural habitats and fauna
of this biome becomes confined to
conservation units.
Emas National Park is situated in
central Brasil in the extreme southwest of
Gois State (18'19 S e 52' 45'W). Itis
one of the largest Cerrado reserves of
Brazil (132,000 hectares) under
protection. However its fauna and flora
have been suffering the consequences of
the rapid process of insularization due to

intense agriculture activities in its
The Park is known for protecting
populations of large mammals such as
tapirs, and white lipped and collared
peccaries. However, these species
eventually leave the Park to feed in
surrounding crop fields. During this
period, they are illegally killed by farmers
in retaliation for the damage caused.
These species play an important role in
the maintenance of the Park's fauna and
flora communities, as they are important
seed disperses and prey for large
predators. Despite their ecological
importance, there are no published
studies considering the ecology and
conservation threats of tapir and
peccaries in the Cerrado.
It is proposed in this study to raise
information on the ecological
requirements and conservation status of
these species in and around the Park as
well as to evaluate their real predation
impact on crops. Ten tapirs and three
individuals of each group of peccaries will
be captured in and around Emas Park,
radio-collared and monitored during 24
consecutive months. Crop damage by
these species will be quantified in the
surrounding farmland of the Park during
farming cycles. The results may be used
in the conservation and management of
tapirs and peccaries in the Park as well as
in other Cerrado areas.

Anah Terea de Almeida Jdcomo
Depto. de Biologia Geral ICB UFG
Caoa postal 131
Goidnia, GO, Brasil, 74001-970
Ph (062)821-11-09
Fax (062)821-11-09

Field notes from Brasil: Tapirs
(T. terrestris) in the Chapada
das Mangabeiras

by Kevin Flsher

While visiting a fazenda recently acquired
by the Fundacao BioBrasil in southern
Piaui, I had a chance to search for signs
of tapirs in the area. Here are some notes
on what I found.
Geography The Chapada das
Mangabeiras is a mesa or tableland which
lies at the point where the states of Piaul,
Bahia, Maranhao, and Tocantins meet in

Tapir Cmsenva Newsletter of the IUCWSSC Tapir Speclast Group Co-Edtor Sheryl Todd, Bot 1432, Palsade, Colorado USA taplr@tapirbackcon / page 11

northeastern Brasil and forms the divide
between the Parnaiba and the Tocantins
(Amazon Basin) river basins. The
chapada rises 200-300m above a vast
sand plain forming a solid wall of
spectacular sandstone cliffs over 200
kilometers long. The vegetation consists
of a variety of cerrado (savanna) types
including open campos with very little
tree cover, mature woodland with a fairly
closed canopy and trees reaching 10 m,
and areas of dense bush forming an
impenetrable thicket growing to 2-3 m.
The most notable habitats, however, are
the extensive sedge wetlands (veredas)
and gallery forests which form along the
many rivers and streams. The buriti palm
is the dominant tree species along the
wetlands and is a crucial resource for
many wildlife species including the blue
and yellow macaw. Just to the east of the
chapada along highway BR-135 the
vegetation begins to grade into the
caatinga (xerophetic shrubland) which
characterizes so much of northeastern
Humaa landuse The region Is
sparsely populated, and for the past
200+ years has been mostly used for
cattle ranching. Ranching consists of
turning cattle loose and checking in on
them every two weeks. Attempts to plant
pasture have repeatedly failed, so there is
practically no clearing of vegetation,
although controlled burning is common.
While people used to live on the ranches,
most now live in small towns along the
highway. Up until the past 10 years, the
land on the chapada top was considered
useless, as access was difficult and there
are very few streams. It was recently
discovered, however, that this flat, largely
reckless plateau has good water-retaining
soils ideally suited for industrial
agriculture, and now the soy boom that
has affected so many other parts of the
Brasllian cerrado has reached the
Chapada das Mangabciras. The plateau is
still mostly covered in natural habitat, but
vast tracts have been cleared, and a newly
paved road and money from large
national and international interests
guarantees that a good deal more of the
land will be cleared in the future.
Wildlife The region abounds with
wildlife, especially birds, including three
macaw species, but the large mammal
community has been impacted wherever
hunters have easy access. Tapirs have
been extirpated from the areas I visited

along the base of the cliffs in Piaui, and
hunters who have been active in the area
for over 20 years do not remember tapirs
occurring there. One rancher saw tapir
tracks in the gallery forest of his ranch
near the town of Sao Goncalo last year,
but he hasn't seen tracks since and
believes the animal was a transient
(perhaps a dispersing individual?). Other
species that have largely disappeared from
this area are the two peccary species, the
campo deer, the giant armadillo, and the
giant anteater. Maned wolf, the marsh
deer, jaguars, and pumas are still present,
as are brown capuchin and black howler
monkeys. The situation on the chapada
top is different, however, and the large
mammal community is intact. In the two
days we spent on the plateau, we saw
brown brocket deer, campos deer, yellow
armadillo, and black-rumped agoutis, and
found the tracks ofjaguar, ocelot,
peccary, maned wolf, giant armadillo,
and, finally, tapir. The tapir tracks were
about three days old. We found them on
the old dirt road which lies beside the
newly paved road. A single tapir with a
foot size of 11 cm wide x 14 long and a
stride (4 steps) of 176 cm had walked
about 1.3 km along the road. The
location was km62, right where the road
runs along the plateau edge at the
headwaters of the Rio Sao Jose (Bahia).
The guide said that this is a common
place to see tapir tracks, as they
sometimes climb the escarpment along
the stream to visit the plateau. The
vegetation consisted of dense bush
growing to 1.8-2m with some more open
areas of tall grasses (1.5m) and 2.3m
shrubs. The tapir had come within 1.5
km of the extensive soy development of
Fazenda Sao Jose. Close by were tracks
of agoutis, maned wolf, giant armadillo,
and two jaguars one of which had paw
measurements of 10 x 10cm (a large
enough animal to kill a tapir, I imagine).
Other parts of the Chapada das
Mangabeiras with tapirs The Serra de
Jalapinha in Tocantins is reported to be a
part of the chapada with many tapirs.
Several people reported that tapirs are
common in the Maranhao section as well.
People say that tapirs stay mostly below
the cliffs during the dry season, but
ascend the escarpment during the rainy
season when water accumulates on the
otherwise dry plateau.
Conservation It is unclear how the
development of industrial agriculture will

affect the tapirs. The federal government
environmental protection agency
(IBAMA) has stipulated that a minimum
of 20% of each farm must be left under
natural vegetation and two APAs
(multiple-use reserves) have been
declared which give some protective
status to the land along the cliff sides. If,
in fact, 80% of the landscape is converted
to soy and rice fields, it is hard to believe
that many of the large mammals will
survive. Whether the clearing ever
reaches this extent remains to be seen,
and will undoubtedly be influenced by
factors far beyond this remote region,
such as the world market for soy and the
availability of goverment-backed loans.
The cattle ranches below the cliffs
generate little money, and many are for
sale. With people now living in the towns,
the countryside is largely empty, which
will hopefully lead to a reduction in
hunting, which in turn may allow tapirs
to re-colonize some of the areas they have
lost over the past decades the habitat is
still there, the tapirs just need protection
in order to move back in.
Additional notes It makes little sense
in terms of long-term conservation if the
20% is fragmented into a series of
discreet habitat islands, whereas in area
as large as the Chapada das Mangabeiras
where 20% = hundreds of km sq., if the
20% of each property are coordinated
into a continuous habitat unit, the
conservation area could be very valuable
for long-term conservation. The owners
of at least three of the farms I visited on
the plateau are all leaving 2-3 km
distance between their fields and the cliff
sides, which means that their 20% areas
are all linked. It is hard to know what will
really happen as the process of
deforestation and soy planting are in the
initial phase, but the fact that the farmers
have stated these plans is a hopeful sign.
The APAs were designed to protect the
habitat along the cliffs, so these farmers
are following the law. I have requested
copies of the APAs in order to know what
exactly has been stipulated as the terms
for multiple-use and protection. The
habitat below the plateau remains intact,
so if the cliffs and a distance of 2-3 km in
from the cliffs on the plateau are in fact
protected, then this will mean that
animals can move up and down the cliffs
moving through natural habitat the whole
way. The low population density, the low
profitability of cattle ranching, and the

page 12 / Tapir Consweva#,r NewseLter of the IUCSSC Tapir Specilist Group Co-Edtor: Sheryl Todd, Box 1432, Palisade, Colorado USA

fact that moat of the land owners are
absentee owners who have no interest in
killing wildlife (in fact the few I know of
like having wildlife around) allows for
cautious optimism.
There Is a lot of land speculation going
on now that the area has been
"discovered" as good for industrial
agriculture, so the coming decade will see
much change on the plateau. Even so, I
suspect the land below the cliffs will
continue on as it is now or be gradually
abandoned as fewer people are willing to
work as cowboys.

Kevin Flesher
Department ofHuman Ecology
Program in Ecology and Evolution
Rutgers University, New Jerse, USA

Vidolin proposes two studies

Funds are being sought for both ofthe
following projects.

1. Tapirus terrestris: feeding ecology
and habitat use in the Parque Estadual
das LaurLceas, Parana state, Brazil
A population of tapir (Tapirus terrastris)
will be studied in the Parque Estadual das
Lauriceas, a nature preserve managed by
the Instituto Ambiontal do Parane. This
reserve has 27,524.32 ha and is located
within the municipalities of Tunas do
Parain and Adrian6polis (25015' 2522'
S and 48"33' 48037 W). The objectives
of this study are: 1. to study the feeding
ecology of the tapir, with emphasis on
seed predation and dispersal that will
include phenological studies and
germination tests; 2. to evaluate the
diversity and the relative importance of
each food item found in the diet of the
species based on their recording
frequency in faecal samples; 3. to identify
the habitat preference and home range of
the species on this area based on the
spatial distribution of tracks and faeces;
4. to estimate the population size of the
species in the study area; and 5. to initiate
an environmental education program with
the local community that will emphasize
the importance of this species in the
maintenance of the local ecosystem. The
results to be obtained with this study will
not only improve the knowledge on the
biology of this poorly known species but
also be an important tool in the
elaboration of management plans for the

conservation of the study area.

2. The use of track measurements to
identify sex and age in the tapir,
Tapirus tmersrie s
The present proposal will complement the
study on the ecology of the tapir that is
being conducted in the Parque Estadual
das Laurfceas, Parana state, Brazil. The
objective of this study is to identify the
sex and to estimate the age of free-
ranging individuals based on their track
size. To do so, track measurements will
be obtained from captive animals held in
zoos and private collections. To obtain the
footprints we will conduct the animals
whose sex and age are known to an
appropriate substrate within their cages.
After this, the following measurements of
the track will be taken: length and width
of the anterior and posterior feet, cushion,
and longest digit. A mold in plaster will
also be taken. Data analysis will be done
with Statistica to check whether there are
significant differences between the
measurements of the tracks of males and
females of different ages. If so, the results
will be used to estimate the proportion of
males, females, juveniles and young
individuals within the population of the
Parque Estadual das Laur ceas.
Note: Paula told the editors she has
begun measuring tapir footprints at the
Curitiba Zoo. There are five tapirs there,
three of which have white spots on their
legs, even though they are adults. The
zoo's veterinarian said that all the three of
these tapirs came from Mato Grosso do
Sul. The editors have pictures of other
adult tapirs marked in this way and will
pubish them next issue. If anyone knows of
adult tapirs retaining juvenile markings,
please contact Sheryl Todd:

Gisley Paula Vidolti
Institute Ambiental do Parand
Depto. de Flom e Fauna
R. Engenheir Reboufas, 1375
CEP 80.215100
Curitiba, Parand, Brasil

Tracks found in Serra do Cip6

In November, 1999, while taking a field
course in Serra do Cip6 National Park in
Minas Grais State northeast of Belo
Horizonte, Patricia Medici discovered

tracks of Tapirus terrtris in the park.
Although jaguar were plentiful and
Patrfcia saw her first maned wolf in the
wild, she had been told that tapir did not
exist in this high savannah. Feeling that
they must be here (tapirs inhabit
savannahs in other parts of Brazil), she
continued watching the ground during
the fieldwork portion of the course. Her
dedication paid off when she saw "huge"
tapir tracks near the river that runs
through the center of the park. Returning
the next day, Patricia found more fresh
tracks. This is "one more place where we
know tapirs still survive in Brazil,' she

Patriia Medid

Mountain tapir (Tqikl phadrque)
Lowland tapk (Tsaph aresish)

Craig C. Downer attempts
relocation of T pinchaque

Between December, 1998, and May,
1999. Craig Downer attempted to
capture and relocate a pair of mountain
tapirs from the Upper Rio Cofanes area
to the Golondrinas Reserve, both in
northern Ecuador. The project, which
was funded by Wildlife Conservation
Society of New York (WCS) had been in
planning stages since 1997. The project
was not able to capture any tapirs in
1998/99, and the translocation will be re-
attempted in 2000.

Craig C. Downer
Andean Tapir Fund
PO Box 456
Minden Neada 89423 USA

Tapr Camervsoir, Newsletter of the IUCWSSC Tapir Speclaist Grop Co-Edtor Sheryl Todd, Box 1432, Palisade, Cdorado USA / page 13

Lowland tapr (TUrus T18anSs)

Lowland tapir project in Bolivia;
needs reference materials

Biologist Guido Ayala is completing his
Masters Degree in Ecology and
Conservation in the city of La Paz. His
thesis is entitled, Monitoring Tapirus
terestris at the Kaa-lya del Gran
Chaco National Park through the use of
radiotelemetry as a bash for a
management plan by local
communities. Guido reports: "The field
work has begun. We have five radio-
collared tapirs and are collecting data. In
Bolivia, information on these areas of
study is difficult to obtain, and I am
looking for additional material on
methods for estimating mammal density
and abundance, and tapir management."
Any help with study materials will be

Guide Ayala

Lizcano helps on Bolivian

Diego Lizcano of Colombia spent some
time with Andrew Noss in Bolivia. He
reports that during three weeks there,
they caught and radio-collared three
tapirs (two females and one male) in four
days, using dogs to capture the animals.
It seems that most of the projects in
Colombia and Bolivia use this method,
whereby hunters and their dogs are hired
to catch animals for collaring rather than
for the usual reason killing. Lizcano
said he may also use dogs in Colombia,
but in addition he will try pitfall traps.
Patricia Medici reports that Eduardo
Naranjo in Mexico will be using both
pitfalls and box traps.

Lowland tapir (Tqphs tsenasas)

Oikov6va: "Project Chaco"

Officers of the newly-formed French
conservation organization, Oikovea,

visited Argentina at the end of 1999 to
make contacts and evaluate projects for
collaboration. Jean-Marie Carentn and
CecileFlamen both work at the Br nflr6
Zoo in the La Bretagne area of france
Jean-Marie writes:

16 December1999
We returned home one week ago, having
seen a tapir (T. terstris) in the wild for
the first time. It was incredible! In reality,
it was more exciting to see tapir than most
of the other mammals, because it was
during the night, and the atmosphere
made the event seem almost magical. The
sightings took place in El Rey National
Park in northwestern Argentina. We saw
at least one tapir every evening by car. 1
tried to search for them alone on foot, but
I could not find any this way. I suspected
they might smell me and be more afraid
than when we were using the car.
Concerning our project in Argentina, we
are very happy to report that we have met
several people with whom we will work to
promote conservation. We have decided
to study two emblematic species to
protect their environment: the maned wolf
and the tapir. The Anta Project will be a
component of Project Chaco. Dr. Enrique
Richard adn Florencia Tola are two of our
several contacts. Florencia is an
Argentinian PhD student specializing in
anthropology. She will accompany us this
year to meet the Toba people and to study
their relationship with the tapir, which
they hunt. Our objective is education
concerning the tapir's conservation. One
of our contacts is a zoo which has asked
us to help with conservation efforts in the
area. We realize there is a lot of work
ahead ofus, but that's fine!
We would particularly appreciate
contacting anyone who has created
material for education about tapirs that
could be used in our area (picture poster,
teaching booklet, etc.).
Oikov6va is a very young association,
born the 17th May 1999. The name
comes from the Guarani language. It
means "nature and the human beings
living together in one place" which is to
say that we see Oikoveva as a
consolidation of the human being and
nature. We are seeking to create That why
we want to create a multidisciplinary team
(biologist, anthropologist, educator)
which will settle in Formosa.
I have volunteered in Africa working
with chaimpanzees, but was disappointed

because there was no educational
component to the project, and the
underlying problems were not addressed;
essentially, nothing changed. That was
when CCcile, who had previously worked
in Thailand, and I decided to created our
own association. For a number of
reasons, we selected the Chaco of
Argentina as a focus. The maned wolf,
tapir, and giant-anteater all attracted our
attention as well as the various habitat
types in the area. And finally, the woman
who established the Branf6r6 Zoo also
loved the Chaco. She was an artist, and
her last picture was of that region.

Jean-Mare Carenton
President, Oikovuva
21 rue du puits de Bas
56220 Malansac, France
Ph (33) 02 97 66 20 16
XFlamen@aoL co

Southeast Asia

Asian tapir (Tapirus da)

TSG Member Tony Lynam writes: "I
would like to introduce Mr Suwat
Kaewsirisuk to the Tapir Specialist
Group. Mr Suwat is Chief
Superintendent of Halabala Wildlife
Sanctuary in southern Thailand. Since
1998 he has been studying the
distribution and feeding ecology of
Malayan tapirs in the sanctuary,
specifically the effect of forest edges on
the species. Mr Suwat would like to
receive the newsletter Tapir Conservation,
and in the future would like to share the
results of his work with the group." Mr
Suwat's details are:

Mr Suwat Kaewsrisuk
Halabala Wildife Sanctuary
PO. Box
Amphur Waeng
Narathwoai 96160

page 14 / Tapir Consevaon, Newsletter of the IUCNSSC Tapir Specialst Group Co-Edor: Sheryl Todd, Box 1432, Palsade, Colorado USA tapki alrtack.comn

Asia tapir (Tkg is nds)

The status of Malayan tapir
(Tapirus indicus) in Peninsular

by Jasmi bin Abdul

The Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus) or
Badak Cipan in the Malay language, is
one of the four species of tapir in the
world. This animal is believed to be the
most common species of large mammal
in Peninsular Malaysia. Tapir were also
found in Sabah and Sarawak on the
island of Borneo. The prime habitat of
tapir is the lowland dipterocarp forest
with an altitude less than 300 meters
above sea level. This animal is active early
in the morning and late evening, while
resting at midday and late at night. Tapir
are usually solitary, but often adult males
and females are together during breeding
or mating season. Tapir reach maturity at
the age of about 2.5 years and the
gestation period is about 13 months. The
baby tapir is colored differently than the
adults. It has a dark brownish color with
white spots along the body. This color
will change after eight to nine months,
and it becomes black on the anterior and
white on the posterior except for the legs.
Tapirs feed on jungle fruits, leaves and
young shoots. The most common jungle
fruit is simpoh (Dilenia areaa, ara or
Ficus sp., and pauh kijang (IUingia
malayana). Leaves of senduduk or
Malastoma malabathricum and
mengkimi, Terma sp. are the most
favored by this animal. Tapir re-use the
same trails and visit nearby salt licks for
minerals and nutrients.
The Malayan tapir were considered to
be the most fortunate animals in the
country. Due to cultural and religious
beliefs, tapir is considered a taboo animal,
even to the native people, the Orang Asli.
There is no record of tapir being hunted
for food in Malaysia. There are no cases
of tapir being poached illegally by
hunters. Wire snares set by poachers
intending to trap wild boar or barking
deer may accidentally catch tapir. Young
tapirs may become prey to tigers, and
several pictures of tapirs show scars,
probably from tiger or leopard attacks.

The most serious problem faced by tapir
and many other large mammals is the loss
of their prime habitat. Many lowland
dipterocarp forests, prime habitat for
significant numbers of large mammals,
are slowly declining due to rapid
development such as land clearing for
agriculture and human settlement. Only
45% of the total land area of Peninsular
Malaysia is covered with forest, and only
5% is under the protected areas system,
which includes national parks, wildlife
reserves, and wildlife sanctuaries.

Survey by camera trapping
Survey by camera trapping was begun In
November, 1997, and continues until
today. These cameras were sponsored by
the Wildlfe Conservation Society of New
York (WCS) and the United States
Wildlife and Fisheries Services. The main
objective is to study the population of the
Indo-Chinese tiger (Psthsera tigris
corbertti) in the forests of Peninsular
Malaysia. Thirty camera traps were set
within 40 square kilometers of forest
areas. Six different locations and forest
types were chosen for the survey. The total
area surveyed is about 240 square
kilometers. This work involves at least ten
wildlife rangers and one researcher from
the DWNP. Each camera is triggered
automatically by an infrared beam. The
cameras were set up along clear jungle
trails commonly used by large mammals,
including tiger, leopard, Malayan honey-
bear, sambar deer, and tapir. When set,
the cameras were left on site for two
weeks and then taken back for processing.
Negative Fuji film, ASA 400, was used.

As many as 6,480 color prints were
developed from the six survey areas. Only
790 images turned out to be good wildlife
pictures, and 113 pictures were of the
Malayan tapir. From these prints,
individual tapirs were identified. It was
estimated that approximately 50 tapirs
were found within the 240 square
kilometers of forested areas. This will give
an average of five tapirs for 40 square
kilometers, which means that along with
the tiger and sun bear, the tapir is the
most common large mammal found in the
Malaysian jungle after wild boar and
barking deer. Some of the pictures also
indicated breeding populations of tapir,
since mothers with young were seen
together. Pictures of tapir are not only

taken in the undisturbed forest, but also in
the secondary and logged forest areas.
Tapirs were found using the same trails
used by other mammals such as tiger,
leopard, clouded leopard, sambar deer,
Malayan honey-bear, wild boar and
barking deer.
The Wildlife Department and National
Parks (DWNP) will continue the camera
trapping program throughout Peninsular
Malaysia at the different habitat types and
locations. This program may take
between three and four years to
complete. The main objective is to
estimate the number of tiger and other
large mammal populations, including
tapir, in the forests of Peninsular
Malaysia. Several conservation measures
have been taken by the Federal and State
Governments in order to sustain some of
their natural forest areas. Some states
have begun to adopt the National
Biodiversity Policy by establishing more
state parks and other protected areas for
the conservation of Peninsular Malaysia's
endangered wildlife species. Rules and
regulations on the possession of firearms
are becoming stricter for the owner and
new applicant. Increased public
awareness programs for wildlife
conservation are also important in the
long-run for the conservation of wildlife,
including tapir, in this country.
The Malayan tapir is listed under
Schedule One of the Wildlife Protection
Act 76/1972 and considered a totally
protected animal. This means no licenses
or permit may be given for keeping,
hunting or killing this animals. Fines of
up to MR 5000 (US $2000) or five years
in jail may be levied against the an

Jasmi bin Abdul
Department of Wildlife and National
Bangunan Hup Heng Motor
45 Jalan Tun Abd. Raak
30100 poh, Perak, Darn Ridzuan

TpairCasevamn. Newetller of the IUCIWSSC Tapir Specdast roup Co-Edltor Sheryl Todd, Be 1432, Pasade, Colorado USA t @taplrbadccam / page 15

Asiantapir (Tapkas ads)

Regular market exists for tapir
meat in Sumatra

In July, TSG Member Debbie Martyr
reported from Sumatra, "We had a visit
today from a lecturer from Andalus
University, Padang (West Sumatra)
whose colleague, Ardinis Arbein, is
studying tapir habitat and population just
south of Padang. We were told of a tapir
caught in a pig trap (snare) in February
which was instantly butchered and the
flesh taken to Padang for sale to members
of the Chinese community there. Our
guest reported that tapir are regularly
caught in snares in this area and that
there is a regular market for tapir meat in
the Chinese community in Padang. This
is the first time we have had a report of
an active/actual market for tapir meat."
TSG Member Jeremy Holden uses
camera traps to monitor large mammals
in the area, including tapirs; Debbie
reported an incident in which a tapir in
their area attacked a camera. *... The
same day [we head about] tapir attacking
a canoe [in Belize] Jeremy got camera
trap film developed and found that the
animals that had destroyed one camera
and damaged a second was not the usual
Sumatran tiger (they've damaged or
destroyed four traps to date) or even a
sun bear (one) but... Malay tapir....
Tapir very often stroll up to the cameras
and units and make a close examination,
but they've never done something like this
before." The next day another camera
was knocked over by a tapir, again at a
salt lick, but without damage to the
camera. This feat had previously only
been accomplished by an elephant.

Debbie Martyr
Jereamy Holdn

Novarino conducting feeding
and habitat studies in Sumatra

Several field studies in West Sumatra,
Indonesia, have reported occurrence of
Asian tapir (Tapirus indicus), however, no
information was available concerning a

study on the species.
Our previous studies showed that
conditions in Taratak area (West
Sumatra) appear to be good for
populations of Asian tapir. The result of
that study, based on three census line
track counts totalling 6 km in length,
showed the population of Asian tapir
reach six to 10 individuals. The
population is, of course, supported by the
habitat condition and food supplies.

The purposes of this study are to know
what species of plants comprise the tapirs'
habitat, and which species are eaten and
preferred by them. This result can be used
as a base line in order to maintain and
manage the habitat and population of the
Asian tapir here. The results can also be
used for preparing food storage for Asian
tapirs at the Bukitting Zoo.

Proposed schedule of work, and
This program will be conducted for three
months. Equipment will be used as
follows: DBH meter, altimeter, compass,
tape, alcohol, plastic for collection and
herbarium apparatus and other field
equipment. The two main components of
fieldwork in this program will be:
I. Anaes ofvegetation: using a line
transect method (Michael, 1984). The
plots attach at systematic range along the
track of Asian tapirs. Sizes of plots are 10
x 10 m for trees, 5 x 5 m for saplings, and
1 x 1 m for seedlings. All plant species will
be collected for making a herbarium.
Plant species will be identified at
Herbarium Andalas University and the
data will be analyzed as follows; the
density, abundance, frequency,
dominance and importance will be valued
for each species.
2. Food preference: The preference for
several food plants will be predicted by
collecting plant species that are eaten by
the tapirs. Feces will also be collected to
help recognize food items. If possible,
when we encounter a tapir we will attempt
to follow it along its track.

Completed studies
The initial step, now completed, involved
identifying the distribution of the Asian
tapir in West Sumatra based on
information obtained from local people,
references, clippings from newspapers
and magazines, and from field work.

From these results, we chose two
locations in which to predict tapir
The second step, also completed, was
to study the population at the two sites
selected above. We determined that the
population was about 6-16 individuals. At
one location (Taratak, Pesisir Selatan,
Sumatera Barat, a buffer zone of Kerinci
Seblat National Park), we predict that
there are 6-10 individuals. We also
obtained some interesting data in this
location. Local people here say that the
tapir Is a pest for destroying paddy fields
and crops on their plantations. The
Tapirs eat certain crops such as
watermelon, cucumber, spinach, and
tomatoes, and they trample other crops,
including the red pepper plant and
seedling rubber trees. The local people set
traps, and if a tapir is caught, it is sold in
the Chinese market in Padang. In field we
found tracks of juvenile individuals as
well as adults, and we believe this area
has good potential to become a sanctuary
for the tapirs if it can be protected from
the activities of local people. We have
chosen this site for further studies.

Future work
We plan to study the tapir's habitat and
feeding in this region as described above.
Additionally, we hope our study will
enable Bukitting Zoo to give the tapir
fresh food of the type it prefers in the
wild, and possibly to plant this type of
food in the exhibit. After this stage, we
will move on to behavioral studies,
examinging the tapir's home range and
territory. If possible, we would like to
create a research study centre at Taratak,
and propose to Province government to
protect this area for the Asian tapir of
West Sumatra.

Wilson Novarino
Andalus University
Padang, Sumatra

Fires threaten Sumatran wildlife

On 10 March 2000, Reuters news service

Indonesia's neighbors on Friday sent in
firefighters to train Indonesian crews
battling bushfires on Sumatra island as

page 16 / Tapr Consvatin, Newletter of the IUCWSSC Tapir Specialist Group Co-Edor: Sheryl Todd, Box 1432, Palsade, Colorao USA taplr@taplrbackcom

the haze-making blazes spread. The
firefighters were sent under a plan drawn
up after health-threatening smoke from
Indonesian fires blanketed large swathes
of southeast Asia in 1997, the Association
of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN)
said in a statement ... The fires, which
started in the province of Rau on
Sumatra with the onset of the dry season,
have spread to southern parts of the huge

island, said an official with the Indonesian
government's Forest Fire Prevention and
Control Project, Ifran Destianto Imanda.
"South Sumatra and Jambi should be on
alert now as firespots are appearing on
our monitors," he told Reuters. Sumatra
lies west of Singapore and Malaysia.
Many of the fires are illegally set and
officials and environmental groups accuse
palm oil plantation companies of lighting

them to clear land. Indonesia said
Thursday it would name and revoke the
licenses of companies guilty of lighting

Ed Caljn
The Indonesian Nature Conservation
Database (INCD)


"Proyecto Danta"

takes shape in


byDenis Torrms

Proyecto Danta is a conservation project
developed by AndfgenA Foundation
(Venezuela) with funding assistance from
he Tapir Preservation Fund (USA).

The tapir (Tapiun terreslris) is one of the
least known and highly threatened
mammalian species in Venezuela. Its
current status is uncertain, which can be
argued due to the lack of information and
field research. Nevertheless, the species
has recently been classified as Vulnerable
in the Red Data Book of the Venezuelan
Fauna (Rodrfguez & Rojas-Sudrez
1999). The fact that important extensions
of its habitat still remain in the southern
portion of the country leave us optimistic
that there may be viable populations in
this region. On the contrary, to the north
of the Orinoco River, the species has
vanished in many areas, and the
remaining populations continue to
decrease as a consequence of poaching
and habitat destruction.
In its first stage, Proyecto Danta is
focused on two main objectives:
environmental education and captive
In Venezuela, there are a fair number of
live tapirs housed in many private
collections and zoological parks. This
notwithstanding, there has been
inadequate management that would help
sustain conservation actions in situ, and

little exchange between parks to favor
genetic integrity. Proyecto Danta
proposes to begin an automated database
of all, or a great part of, the captive
individuals in Venezuela. This will aid as
a framework in promoting the exchange
of specimens within national zoos,
elaboration of captive breeding protocols,
and as a starting point of a series of
research projects in captivity and the
field, among many other goals.
In this stage, it is also planned to
promote a pilot program of captive
breeding in the Chorros de Milla Zoo,
located in the city of MErida, in the
homonymous state, Venezuela. The park
has an appropriate exhibit for the tapir,
where a male specimen named "Pijiguao"
(a Venezuelan indigenous name), will
serve as breeding stock. In order to find a
female partner, we have made contact
with other zoological parks in the
country. The project will also include:
* The performance of some minor
improvements to tapir exhibit (finish the
handling den) and
* Execute an educational campaign for
the zoo's visitors, focusing the
conservation of tapirs and the tropical
forests that constitute their habitats.

This project Is undertaken with the
official support of the Corporaci6n
Meridefia de Turismo, which administers
the Chorros de Milla Zoo, and with
financial support from the Tapir
Preservation Fund. If you wish to
collaborate or require further information
on this project, please see our contact
information below.

dermen Cited
aRdrguez, I. P.& F. Rojas-Sudrez. 1999.
Libmo Rojo de la Fauna Vmezolana. 2da.
edicidn. PROVITA. Fundacidn Polar. Caracas,
Venezuela. 472 pp.

Denis Torres
Fundaci6n AndigenA
Apdo. Postal210, Mdrida 5101-A
Estado Mdrida, Venezuela

Club Tapir contributions enable
project to begin

Contributions from the members of the
Tapir Preservation Fund's Club Tapir
program at the end of 1999 have allowed
the project described above by Denis
Torres to begin. A potential mate for
Pijiguao was located at the Barquisimeto
Zoo in Lara State, Venezuela. However,
before she is brought in, upgrades will be
made to the exhibit. The animal
accommodations will be repaired and
refurbished, and native planting will be
added to the exhibit, which encompasses a
lake, but is currently without much
vegetation. The cost of the project is
estimated to be about US $1500.00, a
portion of which has been raised.
AndigenA, which has partnered with
the zoo on this project, has a track record

Tapir Consaervat, Newsletter of the IUCSSC Tapir Specialist Group Co-Edito Sheryl Todd, BoK 1432, Palisade, Colorado USA ~ aplr@tapirback.corn / page 17

for environmental education, which will
be an important component of the tapir
project. They have also developed an
environmental education program
focused on Andean bears with financial
support from the Cleveland Metroparks
Zoo. For the tapir project, AndfgcnAwill
serve as technical advisors in
environmental education and captive
management for the tapirs. They will
develop an environmental education
campaign, including production of a
poster, and activities that will include zoo
visitors, particularly children.
Dr. Alberto Osuna, Managing Director
of Chorros de Mila Zoo and Zoot.
Hemando Gordils, Supervisor, report
that they have had the male tapir for
more than six years in an enclosure of
1,400 square meters with a 700-square.
meter fresh-water pond provided by the
Chorros de Milla River. Thousands of
students visit the zoo each year with their
teachers, making the zoo a prime
candidate to carry out an education
program focused on local conservation
education. The Andean condor exhibit is
also being upgraded with funds from the
Cleveland Metroparks Zoo. Osuna and
Gordils feel that Chorros de Milla could
become a major source of motivation to
preserve T. Terrestris and other species in

Sheryl Todd
Tapir Preservation Fund
PO. Box 1432
Palisade, Colorado 81526 USA

Australia's first T. indicus birth

Fourteen-year-old Denise gave birth to
Australia's first T indicus baby on
November 16, 1999, at the Taronga Zoo,
Sydney. Denise's mate is Bernai, four
years old. There are only four adult Asian
tapirs in Australia. Denise and Bernal
came to Australia from the Philadelphia
and Houston Zoos in the U.S. The
baby's name, "Scangka," means
"watermelon" in Indonesian.
Sadly, one of the keepers was attacked
by the new mother. Apparently the baby
gave a distress call, a keeper tripped and
was bitten. At last report, the keeper,
Shona Wssely, was recovering well
despite multiple serious injuries requiring
a number of surgeries. The dam had been

gentle throughout her pregnancy and
delivery, but apparently circumstances
caused a quick change in behavior to
protect the calf from a perceived threat.

More about

omnivorous tapirs

The keeper of the lowland tapirs at the
Dortmund Zoo, Germany, told me that
the tapirs eat meat when it's available.
She doesn't feed any meat (but will give
animal protein such as eggs) considering
the consequences to the digestive system.
But once she observed the female
chewing a rabbit in her mouth. Young
rabbits enter the enclosure at night, and
one had died there. Several times the
tapirs ate dead chicks which had been fed
to the stork in the same exhibit.

Stefan Setz

Zoo standards for

keeping tapirs In


by Rick Barongi

Tapirs are relatively easy to maintain in
captivity provided their owners have a
sound knowledge of the animals' biology
and behavior. Reproduction is
commonplace. It is a lack of information
that Is largely responsible for many of the
medical and behavioral problems
experienced by managers of captive
tapirs. While managers should allow for
variables in individual behavior,
compatibility, and degree of human
interaction when maintaining these
animals, the following list of standards
should be considered minimal when
developing a program for successful and
humane tapir management.

The family Tapiridae is represented by
four extant species, one from Southeast
Asia and three others from Central and

South America. All four species are
classified by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife
Service as Endangered. Under CITES
regulations, trade in Brazilian or Lowland
tapirs is monitored by its Appendix II
regulations; the other three species are
protected by more restrictive Appendix I
regulations. Scientific names and
distributions of all four species are listed
Tapirus indicus: Malayan or Asian
tapir Southern Burma, Malayan
Peninsula, Southeast Asia and Sumatra
Tapirus bairdi Central American or
Baird's tapir Southern Mexico to
northern Colombia and Ecuador west of
the Andes
Tapirus terrstri&s Brazilian or
Lowland tapir Colombia and Venezuela
to northern Argentina and southern Brazil
Tapirus pinchaqu: Mountain or
Woolly tapir The Andes from
northwestern Venezuela to northwestern

Behavioral and social groupings
Most older studies suggest that tapirs are
solitary and nocturnal. Recent field
observations have shown tapirs to be
more tolerant of conspecfics and more
active during the day than previously
believed. The social behavior of tapirs in
captivity is largely dependent upon
individual personalities, past experiences,
food availability, and the size or layout of
their enclosures. Some zoos have
problems getting two animals to remain
together while others have 5-10 animals
together in the same enclosure.
Some tapirs may be extremely
aggressive toward conspecifics and
humans while others are easily
approached and enjoy being scratched by
their keepers. Through a safe barrier,
many tapirs can be trained to lay down by
being "scratched down" by their keepers.
This scratching or massaging seems to be
particularly enjoyable to many individuals
and while being scratched, some readily
tolerate additional veterinary procedures
which reduce the need for anesthesia.
Regardless of their seeming docility, a
tapir's behavior can be unpredictable and
caution should always be exercised when
working around these large and powerful
animals. There are numerous records of
tapir attacks on keepers, some of which
have resulted in serious bite wounds and
loss of fingers.

page 18 / Tapir Coasero, Newsletter of the IUCWSSC Tapir Specialist Group Co-Edtor: Sheryl Todd, Box 1432, Palisade, Colorado USA laptap irbacltcom

Prior to parturition, females should be
separated from males. After birth, some
females can be introduced to the male or
other tapirs when the calf is only 1-2
months old. Other pairings require the
owner to wait until the calf is three or
four months old. In a few cases,
reintroduction of the adults is not
possible until the calf Is permanently
separated from its dam.

Enclosure requirements
Except for the warmest parts of the
country, tapirs require indoor housing if
outdoor areas are part of their living
space. In the very warmest regions, adult
tapirs may not require indoor housing
but night time housing should be
equipped for supplemental heat,
especially if young are present. Where
pairs are maintained, alternate areas are
necessary to allow for the separation of

Indoor facilities
Stall size Where primary or outside
housing is present, indoor or evening
stalls for a single adult tapir should have
a minimum dimension of 6 ft x 6 ft (1.83
m x 1.83 m). If only a single stall is
present for all housing, minimum stall
dimensions for a single animal should
measure at least 10 ft x 10 ft (3.05 m x
3.05 m), and should be increased by 50%
if young are present.
Where multiple stalls are present, each
stall should be interconnected by 3 feet
(one meter) wide sliding gates that can
be operated without placing the keeper at
risk. If more than one tapir is
maintained, each should have its own
stall so that animals can be separated for
birth, medical, or behavioral problems.
Walls and floors Indoor holding pen
walls should be a minimum of 6 feet
(1.83 m) high. Walls should be solid
(wood or concrete) or vertical steel bars
with less than 8 inches (20.32 cm)
between verticals bars, 6 inches (15.24
cm) if young are anticipated. Because
tapirs can climb to some degree,
horizontal bars should not be used.
Floors should be concrete and easy to
clean. Surfaces should not be too rough,
i.e. heavy brush finish, as to be too
abrasive to the animals' feet All floors
should be sloped toward covered drains.
Indoor temperature Stall
temperatures should be maintained
between 65-85 degrees F (20-29 degrees

C). Radiant heaters are acceptable heat
sources although managers in colder areas
may also need to use heated flooring, hog
warmers, or provide ample bedding to
further insulate animals from cold. If
young are present, floor temperatures
should also be monitored because they are
susceptible to pneumonia until 6-8
months old. Humidity levels should be
kept above 50% unless an indoor pool is
Water Fresh drinking water should be
available at all times. If a pool is not
available, containers should be heavy or
secured so that they cannot be overturned.
Automatic waterers are also satisfactory.
Tapirs being kept indoors without access
to a pool should be hosed daily.
Pools If there is no outdoor bathing
area or if the animals) must be kept
indoors for extended periods of time,
indoor quarters should include a pool.
Each should be large enough for an adult
tapir to completely submerge itself. Safe
and easy entrance and exit to the pool
should be provided by gradual inclines
and non-skid surfaces.
Sanitation All indoor holding areas
should be cleaned and disinfected daily.
For safety reasons, animals) should be
transferred to an adjacent pen during

Outdoor or primary housing:
Enclosure size- Tapirs are relatively
inactive during the day but do require
ample space for movement. Each adult
should be allotted a minimum of 200 sq.
feet (18.6 sq. m) for normal movement.
If pairs of adults or additional individuals
are kept, 50% more space per additional
animal is required for breeding and other
normal activities.
Pool For health and behavioral
reasons, all tapirs maintained outside
should have access to an outdoor pool. At
a minimum, pools should be large enough
for two adult animals to submerge, and
should be cleaned and refilled with fresh
water daily. Tapirs frequently defecate in
water, and deprivation of this ability may
increase the incidence of rectal prolapses
as well as being unsanitary.
Barriers Tapirs are easily maintained
by shallow dry slanted moats that have a 6
foot (1.83 m) vertical outer moat wall.
Non-moated enclosures should also have
at least a 6 foot (1.83 m) high barrier.
Fences can be wood or chain link (10

gauge or heavier). Tapirs do not jump
but can easily climb over vertical walls or
other objects as high as 4 feet (1.22 m).
Because of their large size, tapirs can
push over chain link fencing unless it is
properly secured. Observers or public
visitors should be kept at least three feet
(one meter) away from yards to prevent
contact with an animal.
Shade Tapirs are forest animals and
require access to shade at all times.
Tapirs maintained in southern climates
will require more shade than those in
northern regions. Without shade,
corneal clouding and ulceration may
Substrate The surface of outdoor
exhibits may be grass or hard packed soil.
The substrate should provide good
drainage as well as facilitate easy and
complete removal of feces. Tapirs should
not be kept permanently on concrete

Tapirs should be fed a diet of hay and
commercial pellets as long as it is
supplemented with fresh produce (fruits
and vegetables) and other plant material.
Although bananas are a favorite food,
they should only be fed as treats or for
use when medicating animals or they may
stop eating other food items. Produce
should be cut into bite size or smaller
pieces and fed fresh daily. Diets should
be fed in separate containers or tubs.
The daily intake for a mature adult
New World tapir (400-700 lb/181.5-
317.8 kg) or Asian tapir (600-900
1b/272.4-408.6 kg) should be
approximately 4-5% of the animal's body
weight. Females may be larger than
males and require more food, especially
pregnant or lactating females.

Veterinary and health requirements
The only prophylactic vaccination
recommended at this time (1994) is
tetanus toxoid. In areas where rabies or
encephalitis is prevalent, vaccination
against these diseases should be
considered. Tuberculosis has been
recorded. Fecal examinations should be
made at least twice yearly. Because some
individuals are sensitive to fire ant bites,
insect control in both primary and
evening areas is important in areas where
this pest is found.

Tapir Conservan, Newsletter of the IUC4SSC Tapr Specialist group Co-Edito Sheryl Todd, Bc 1432 Palisade, Colorado USA tapl~ / page 19

Additional references
Barongi, R. 1986. Tapirs in captivity and
their management at Miami Metrozoo. 1986
AAZPAAnual Proceedings. pp.96-108.
Barongi, R., and K. Kenyon 1990. Tapirs
(Tapirida): A Bibliogaphy. AAZPA Librarian
Special Interest Group, National Zoological
Park, Washington, DC.
Crandal LS. 1964. Family Tapiridae. In:
Managemn of Wild Animals in Captivity.
Univ. Chicago Press. pp.499-504.
Grzimek, B. 1990. Tapirs. In: Orzimbls
Encyclopedia of Mammas, 2nd ed. McGraw-
Hill USA. 4:598-608.
Horan, A. 1983. An outline of tapir
management. Proceedings ofAssoc. British
Wld Animal eprs. pp.24-29.
Jansen, D. 1992. Tapir Immobilization
Recordfrom Panama. Unpublished report.
Veterinary Department, Zoological Society of
San Diego.
Kuieh, G. 1986. Tapiridae. In: Zoo and
Wild Animal Mdiine, Murray Fowler, ed.
pp.931-934. Saunders Phila.
Nowak, R.M. 1991. Tapirs. In: Walkr's
Mammals of th World, 5th ed. pp. 1319-
1322. Johu Hopkins Univ. Press, Baltimoe.
Read, B. 1986. Breeding and management
of the Malayan tapir, Tapirus indicus, at the St.
Louis Zoo. Inteational Zoo Yearbook 24/25:
Willams, K.D. 1978. Aspect oflse ae gy
and behavior of the Malayan tapir in he
nationalpark of wel Malaysia. M.S. thesis,
Michigan State University, Ann Arbor, MI.

Rick Bamnsi
Disneys Animal Kingdom
POB 10,000
Lake Buna Vista, FL 32803

TAG news

Report from the European TAG
meeting for Tapirs and Hippos

The third meeting of the European
Taxon Advisory Group for Tapirs and
Hippos was held in Basle, Switzerland,
during the annual EEP meeting which
took place in September. This TAG
meeting is always well attended
demonstrating the high level of interest in
both tapirs and hippos.
As far as tapirs are concerned there are
currently three species held in captivity in
Europe. There is an EEP for the Malayan
tapir and ran European studbook for the
South American tapir. The Baird's tapir

population consists of only five individuals
at Wuppcrtal Zoo In Germany and is co-
ordinated through the North American
Helmut Magdefrau from Nuremburg
Zoo in Germany is the EEP coordinator
for the Malayan tapir and has held this
position for about three years. The
European population has not been doing
well for some time. However, for the first
time in years all the animals are in
breeding situations and at least three
births have already been recorded for
1999. This EEP has 19 participants
(including one in South Africa) with a
population of 43 (20.23) individuals at
the beginning of 1999. Nuremburg Zoo
is planning a veterinary survey for this
species and we hope to have the European
studbook transferred to SPARKS and
published early next year. The species has
proved difficult to coordinate in the past
due to some zoos not cooperating in the
movement of older animals. However,
most of these problems seem to have been
resolved and we hope that the Malayan
tapir population in Europe is now
stabilised and will hopefully increase.
However, research needs to be
undertaken to try and ascertain why there
is such a high level of infant mortality for
this species in captivity.
The South American tapir studbook is
compiled by Franck Haelewin and Aude
Desmoulins from Lille Zoo in France. The
first studbook was published in 1999.
This population does not present any
problems apart from the usual lack of
A lot of time was spent discussing
hippos, but other tapir business included a
reiteration of the request by Dr. Alastair
MacDonald, one of the TAG advisors, for
placentas of tapir sp. for anatomical and
histological study. If anyone working
with tapirs Is fortunate enough to find a
fresh placenta then they should place it
whole (or in a piece 20 x 20 cm2) in 1096
formal saline such that there is enough
space for it to "swim" freely. Alastair can
be contacted to arrange transport to
Edinburgh by:
TeL + 44 131 650 6120
FaxI + 44 131 650 6576
Matt Hartley, formerly a vet at Port
Lympnc Wild Animal Park, gave a short
report regarding the breeding and
reproductive research which had been
undertaken with the Malayan tapirs there.
Goals for the forthcoming year include

the publication of the European studbook
for the Malayan tapir and a European
space survey for tapirs and hippos which
can then be used to formulate a European
regional collection plan.

Sidn S. Waters
EEP TAG Chair for Tapirs & Hippos
Bioparco S.pA.
Rome, Italy

EEP TAG Members and

Sian S. Waters (Chair, Rome), Peter
Studer and Beatrice Stock (Basel), John
Partridge (Bristol), Bengt Hoist
(Copenhagen), Pierre de Wit (Emmen),
Franck Healewijn (Lille), Helmut
Magdefrau (Nuremberg).

Dr. Andrew Greenwood (Int Zoo Vet
Group), Dr. Rebecca Lewison (IUCN
Hippo Specialist Group Chair), Dr
Alastair MacDonald (Edinburgh

North American Tapir TAG

There will be a Tapir TAG master
planning meeting at the AZA Regional
Conference in Toledo, Ohio, on May 1-2,
2000. The objective is to coordinate and
prioritize all breeding recommendations
and exhibit space for the four species in
AZA zoos. We will also develop in- situ
programs that the members can support
and get involved with.

Rick Barongi

Studbook news

Tapirus bairdii

Abound edition of the Central American
Tapir (Tapirus bairdii) International
Studbook was compiled by Joe Roman
through the Virginia Zoological Park in
Norfolk, Virginia, USA. A lot of work
went into the new update. The book
bears a 1998 date, but data is current

page 20 / Tapir ConseSrva Newsletter of the IUCNSSC Tapir Specalist Group Co-Edtor: Sheyl Todd, Box1432, Palsade, Colorado USA taplr@tpirback.con

through 30 June 1999. A questionnaire
was sent out in 1999 to facilities holding
Baird's tapirs. Responses to the survey
indicated a worldwide population of 80
(52.27.1) animals. There were no
reported births, deaths or transfers for
the 1998 calendar year." Please forward
any information to:

Joseph M. Roman
International Sudbook Keeper,
Baird's Tapir
Vuginia Zoological Park
Norfolk Virginia USA
Ph (757) 441-2499
Fax (757) 441-5408

Tapirus terrestris

Don Goff continues to work on the
regional studbook for the lowland tapir in
North America. If you have information,
please contact:

Don Goff
Beardsley Zoo
1875 Noble Avenue
Bridgeport CT 06610-1600
ax: (203) 394-6566


Tapir Specialist

1997-1999 Trimennm

Chair: Shaon Matla, Belize
Deputy Chair Sheryl Todd, USA

Silva Chalukian
Bynnon 2848, 1846 ose Marmol
Buenos Aires, Argentina

Sharon Matola, Chair, TSG
Director, Belize Zoo and
Tropical Education Center
P.O. Box 1787, Belize City, Belize
Ph 501-081-3004, Fax 501-081-3004

Patrfia Medici
IPI Ecological Research Institute
Patricia Medici
Rua S6rgio Bernardino, 1296, Ceatro
Avarm Sao Paulo
CEP: 18700-120, Brasil
FSbio Olmas
Largo do Paissadu 100 / 4C
01034-010, Sao Paulo, SP

Olga Luda Montenero
285.2 Corry Village
Gaiesville, Florida 32603 USA
Diego Lizceno
A. A. 53804
Bogota, Colombia

Dr. Graham Watkins
Interim Project Implementation Mgr.
Iwokrama International Centre for
Rain Forest Conservation and Dev.
P.O. Box 1074. Georgetown, Guyana

Lconel Marincres
Manager, Reserva Biologics El Chile
INADES, Apdo Postal 4160
Comayaguela, Honduras

Neil Franklin
Sumatran Tiger Project
Jerecm Holden and Debble Martyr
Flora and Fauna International
P.O. Box 42
Kantor Poe, Sungi POnuh Kerinci
Jambi 13007, Sumatra, Indonesia

Way Kambas NP, PO Box 190
Metro 34101, Lampung, Indonesia
Ph 62-725-26222, Fax 62-725-44234
Nico Van Srien, PhD
Julianweg 2, 3541 DM Door

Janml bin Abdul
Department of Wildlife and National
Bangunan Hup Heag Motor
45 Jalan Tun Abd. Razak
30100 Ipoh, Perak, Darul Ridzuan

Epigmenlo Cruz Aldn
Apdo. Postal No. 6, c.p. 29000
Tuxtla Gufiarez Chiapas, M6xico
Ignacdo March Mitsut
Boulevard Comitan No. 191
Col. Moctezuma
C.P. 29030
Chiapas, M6xico
Ph/Fax (961) 14531 39776
Eduardo 1. Naranjo
El Colkgio de la Frontera Sur
Ap. 63, San Cristobal de Las Casas
Chiapas 29290, M6xico

Tapir Carnsa n, Newsletter of the IUCWSSC Tapir Specialet Group CGoEdito: Sheryl Todd, Box 1432, Palisade, Colorado USA taplr@tapllbackcmc / page 21

TSG Member List continued

Alberto Para-Garcia
Servicio M6dico Voterinario
African Safari, Africmn-Puebla Zoo
11 Oriented 2407
CP 72007, Puebla, M6xico

Budahbong Kanchanasaka
Khlong Sang Wildlife Research Sta,
Wildlife Research Div., Royal Forest Dep.
Paholgothin Rd, Bangkok, Thailand
Antony J. Lynam, PhD
Wildlife Conservation Society, Thailand
Box 170, Laki, Bangkok, Thailand 10210
Dr. Chalihana Salrulee
Director, Technical Department
Dusit Zoo, Bangkok 10300 Thailand

United Stat
Rick Barongl
Zoological Consultant
9069 Great Heron Circle
Orlando, FL. 32836
Ph (work. Disney Office): 407-828-4538
Ph (home): 407-876-8521
Fax (home): 407-876-8523
RBarongi@AOLt om

Dr. Richard E. Bodmer
315 Grinter Hall, University of Florida
Gaineville. FL 32611 USA
Mike Dec
Curator of Mammals
Los Angeles Zoo, 5333 Zoo Drive
Los Angeles, CA 90027 USA
Craig C. Downer
President, Andean Tapir Fund
P.O. Box 456, Minden, NV 89423 USA
Kevin FFsher
Biotech Center/Foran Hall
Room 135, 59 Dudley Road
New Brunswick, NJ 08901 USA
Charlea Pocaer and Sonia Focrater
1105 Elli Hollow Road
Ithaca, NY 14850 USA
Donald L Jansacn, DVM
Director of Veterinary Medicine
San Diego Zoo, P.O. Box 120551
San Diego, CA 92112-0551 USA

Karl Kranz
Senior Vice President/Animal Affairs
Philadelphia Zoological Garden
3400 W. Girard Ave.
Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA
Morty Ortega, PhD
Assistant Professor
Dept. Natural Resources Mt. and Eng.
P.O. Box U-87, University of Connecticut
Storra, CT 06269-4087 USA
lortega@mint.cag.uconn. du
Alan Shoemaker
Curator of Mammals, Riverbanks Zoo
Columbia, SC 29202-1060 USA
Shc yl Todd, Deputy Chat TSO
President Tapir Preservation Fund
P.O. Box 1432, Palisade, CO 81526 USA
Ph (970) 464-0321, Fax (970) 464-0377

Denis Alexander Torres
Apdo. Postal 210, Merida 5101-A
Edo. Merida, Venezuela

page 22 / Tapir Conservan, Newsletter of the IUCSSC Tapir Specialist Group Co-Editor: Sheryl Todd, Box 1432, Pasade, Colorado USA

Full Text