Program schedule
 Shark speakers and experts

Title: Sharks in perspective : from fear to fascination : conference proceedings
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00095859/00001
 Material Information
Title: Sharks in perspective : from fear to fascination : conference proceedings
Physical Description: Archival
Language: English
Creator: Florida Sea Grant Program, University of Florida
Publisher: Florida Sea Grant Program, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Tampa, Fla.
Copyright Date: 2002
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00095859
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
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        Page ii
    Program schedule
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    Shark speakers and experts
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Full Text

H 11I H H I I'r


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the same objectives that was held May 21, 2002 at the National Press(

The public interest in sharks was heightened by tensivenews medi
series of shark bites, which included three fatalities. On-na6tioal n.ia
"Summer of the Shark." The prevailing public perception ti 2

By contrast, data compiled by the International Shark Attack File (ISA
numbers in the United States and Florida were almost identical to this
the international total was 11% lower than that of 2000. More i o
serious attacks, as measured by fatalities, was less than half year v
'decade. ..t.

During the first day of the conference, scientists and professionals' wo
summarize their findings and share their experiences, putting shark
two will be devoted to panel discussions that will focus on public oUit
information and educational needs not currently being address, and
educational strategies.

The conference should be informative, engaging and stimulatingTh
attendance and participation.

Mike Spranger, Conference Organizer oe Burgess Coi
Asst. Director, Florida Sea Grant or, Intematioh
Asst. Dean, Environmental & Natural Florida Museum of
Resource Programs s University of Filorit
University of Florida/IFAS :-::--

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.......Asst, Dirctor, Flrida Sea rant ":A::Dxco~itraif

In Perspective:
From Fear to Fascinalon

June 12 14, 2002
Hyatt Regency, Tampa City Center

ed day^_, June 1Z, 20662 ^ : -
2:00- Registration Hotel Lobby
5:00 P
7:00- Welcome Reception The Florida
9:00 Aquarium
7:15 Welcome Thom Stork, Director,
The Florida Aquarium
8:00 Sharks in Perspective Shark Exhibit
-- ,--e3.- '- --... --- ..
j u. e. 3 .4" _.. _, -,- _, .
7:30 A Registration Galleria A
8:45 Welcome/Conference Overview Mike Spranger, Buccaneer A-C
Florida Sea Grant

9:00 Shark Conservation

9:30 Shark Management
10:00 World Shark Attacks in Perspective

Merry Camhi, National
Audubon Society

Margo Schulze-Haugen, NMFS
George Burgess,
University of Florida

10:30 Break
*Press briefings with speakers of prior sessions will be held in YBOR Room*
11:00 Shark Attacks View from Florida Joe Wooden, Volusia County
Beach Patrol

11:30 Shark Attacks View from California

12:00 P Shark Attacks View from Hawaii

Galleria A

Buccaneer A-C

Alex Peabody, California State

Randy Honebrink, Hawaii
Division of Aquatic Resources

12:30 Lunch
*Press briefings with speakers of prior sessions will be held in YBOR Room*
2:00 Shark Attacks A Life Guard's View Chris Brewster, U.S. Life
Saving Association

Galleria A

Buccaneer A-C

Media Perspective

Kevin Lollar,
Ft. Myers News-Press

*Press briefings with speakers of prior sessions will be held in YBOR Room*
Shark Feeding State Perspective Roy Williams, Florida
Fish/Wildlife Commission

Recreational Fisheries
Commercial Fisheries

Galleria A

Buccaneer A-C

Rich Novak, Florida Sea Grant
Eric Sander, Florida Marine
Research Institute

Closing Comments/Summary
Adjourn Dinner on Your Own






7:30 A Registration Regency IV
8:30 Overview of Day's Activities Mike Spranger, Florida Sea Grant Regency V-VII
9:00 A Concurrent Panel Discussions


Regency V-VII
Enric Cortes, NMFS SE Fisheries Science Center, Panama City
Merry Camhi, National Audubon Society
Margo Schulze-Haugen, NMFS Highly Migratory Species Division
Colin Simpfendorfer, Mote Marine Laboratory
Sonja Fordham, The Ocean Conservancy
Frank Snelson, University of Central Florida
Jack Musick, Virginia Institute of Marine Sciences
Eric Sander, Florida Marine Research Institute
Rich Novak, Florida Sea Grant

Media Relations
Bob Hueter, Mote Marine Laboratory
Kevin Lollar, Ft. Myers News-Press
Bob Hite, NBC/Tampa, WFLA, Channel 8
George Burgess, University of Florida
10:15 Break
*Press briefings with speakers of prior sessions will be held in YBOR Room*
10:45 Concurrent Panel Discussions

Regency mI

Regency IV


Beach Safety

Regency V-VII
Sonja Fordham, The Ocean Conservancy
Jack Musick, Virginia Institute of Marine Sciences
Enric Cortes, NMFS SE Fisheries Science Center, Panama City
Colin Simpfendorfer, Mote Marine Laboratory
Frank Snelson, University of Central Florida
Merry Camhi, National Audubon Society
Margo Schulze-Haugen, NMFS Highly Migratory Species Division
Eric Sander, Florida Marine Research Institute
Rich Novak, Florida Sea Grant

Chris Brewster, US Lifesaving Association
Alex Peabody, California State Parks
Joe Wooden, Volusia County Beach Patrol
George Burgess, University of Florida
12:00 P Lunch
*Press briefings with speakers of prior sessions will be held in YBOR Room*
1:30 Concurrent Session Reports
2:30 Discussion Next Steps
3:30 Adjourn

Regency IV


B. Chris Brewster
U.S. Lifesaving Association
3850 Sequia Street
San Diego, CA 92109
Office Phone: (858) 581-1221
Email: bcb@compuserve.com

Chris Brewster serves as president for the Americas Region of the International Life Saving
Federation (www.ilsf.org). He also volunteers his time as liaison officer, national textbook
committee chair, and national certification committee chair for the United States Lifesaving
Association (www.usla.org). (USLA's national certification committee sets minimum
recommended standards for lifeguard training.) Brewster is one of 25 life members of USLA and
a life member of the California Surf Lifesaving Association. In 2001, he retired from his position
as lifeguard chief for city of San Diego, and, concurrently, harbormaster for Mission Bay after
22 years of service as a professional ocean lifeguard. Brewster is editor of The United States
Lifesaving Association Manual of Open Water Lifesaving (1995), Guidelines for Open Water
Lifeguard Training and Standards (1993), Guidelines for Training and Standards of Aquatic
Rescue Response Teams (1996), and a contributing author of Better Beaches Management of
Safe and Enjoyable Swimming Beaches (Griffiths 1999). He is the primary author of USLA's
position statement on shark bite prevention and response. He holds a B.S. in journalism from the
University of Colorado, writes extensively on lifeguard matters, and lectures regularly, both
domestically and internationally.

George H. Burgess
Director, Florida Program for Shark Research
Florida Museum of Natural History
University of Florida
PO Box 117800
Gainesville, FL 32611
Office Phone: (352) 392-2360
Fax: (352) 846-0287
Email: gburgess@flmnh.ufl.edu

George Burgess is coordinator of museum operations at the Florida Museum of Natural History,
University of Florida, and director of the Florida Program for Shark Research. He also serves as Director
of the International Shark Attack File, the long-standing (established 1958) comprehensive scientific
database that is recognized as the definitive source of information on shark attacks. Burgess, who has
studied sharks for more than 30 years, is active in the field of elasmobranch (sharks and their kin)
conservation and is a founding member and vice chair of the World Conservation Union (IUCN) Shark
Specialist Group, the world's leading shark conservation organization. Burgess has been engaged in the
management of U.S. shark fisheries over the last two decades as a member of the Gulf of Mexico
Fishery Management Council's Special Shark Scientific and Statistical Committee, and the National
Marine Fisheries Service's Sawfish Status Review Team; as a participant in the National Marine Fishery
Service's shark evaluation workshops; as an advisor to the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation

Shark Speakers & Experts Page 1 of 9

Commission; and as the leader of the Commercial Shark Fishery Observer Program. The latter is a
research program that has monitored the U.S. East Coast commercial longline shark fishery since federal
and state regulatory actions were enacted in the early 1990s, and provides baseline data used in fishery
management. He received his undergraduate education at the University of Rhode Island and earned his
masters degree from the University of Florida.

Merry Camhi
Acting Director, Living Oceans Program, National Audubon Society
President, American Elasmobranch Society
Deputy Chair, IUCN Shark Specialist Group
550 South Bay Avenue
Islip, NY 11751
Office Phone: (631) 581-2927
Fax: 631-582-5268
Email: mcamhi@audubon.org

As acting director of the Living Oceans Program, Camhi oversees the Audubon Society's work
on sustainable fishing, including large pelagic fish conservation, marine protected areas, seabird-
fishery interactions, and Pacific salmon. She specializes in domestic and international shark
conservation and management policy. Camhi is president of the American Elasmobranch Society
(2002-2003) and serves as deputy chair of the World Conservation Union's (IUCN) Shark
Specialist Group. She co-organized the International Pelagic Shark Workshop and is co-editing
the proceedings for publication. She is author of Audubon's state-by-state shark reports (Sharks
on the Line) and other marine fish conservation articles, and co-author of the IUCN's report,
Sharks and Their Relatives: Ecology and Conservation. Camhi earned her Ph.D. in ecology from
Rutgers University, with an emphasis in sea turtle research and conservation.

Enric Cortes
Southeast Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service
3500 Delwood Beach Road
Panama City, FL 32408
Office Phone: (580) 234-6541
Email: cortes@bio.fsu.edu

Enric Cortes has been a research fishery biologist with the National Marine Fisheries Service
Southeast Fisheries Science Center since 1998. He presently heads the Shark Population
Assessment Group at the Panama City laboratory and is responsible for the assessment of shark
stocks in U.S. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico waters. Cort6s has worked and published extensively on
feeding ecology, life history, and demography of shark populations. His present areas of interest and
expertise include population dynamics, fisheries, and stock assessment of shark resources.

Shark Speakers & Experts Page 2 of 9

Sonja Fordham
The Ocean Conservancy
1725 Desales Street N.W.
Suite 600
Washington, DC 20036
Office Phone: (202) 429-5609 ext. 273
Email: Sonja @oceanconservancy.org

Sonja Fordham has worked for The Ocean Conservancy (formerly known as the Center for
Marine Conservation) since 1991. As a fish conservation project manager, Fordham monitors
and publicizes key marine fish conservation issues and advocates for precautionary, science-
based policies before Atlantic regional fishery management bodies and the federal departments
of State and Commerce. She is especially active in shark conservation issues, both domestically
and internationally. Fordham currently serves on the executive committee of the World
Conservation Union (IUCN) Shark Specialist Group, the National Marine Fisheries Service
Highly Migratory Species advisory panel and elasmobranch advisory committees for the Mid-
Atlantic and New England Fishery Management Councils and the Atlantic States Marine
Fisheries Commission. Fordham served on the US delegation to the UN Food and Agriculture
Organization meeting where the International Plan of Action (IPOA) for Sharks was adopted.
She now works on initiatives to promote Shark IPOA implementation, including projects under
the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization and the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation.
Fordham is co-author of the Ocean Conservation/TRAFFIC International report, Managing
Shark Fisheries: Opportunities for International Conservation, and the IUCN paper, Sharks and
their Relatives: Ecology and Conservation. She is a member of the American Elasmobranch
Society and American Fisheries Society.

Bob Hite
P.O. Box 1410
Tampa, FL 33601
Office Phone: (813) 221-5788
Email: bhite@wfla.com

Bob Hite is among the senior news anchors of the Tampa Bay area. He has been with WFLA
Newschannel 8 since the summer of 1977. He now anchors the station's 5:30, 6 and 11 pm
newscasts. He served in the Marines from 1967-69, then worked in radio and industrial film
before joining WPVI-TV in Philadelphia as a broadcast journalist. Hite is an avid boater, a Coast
Guard licensed captain, a pilot, diver, horseman and marksman. He is a life member of the U.S.
Marine Corps Combat Correspondents Association, the Marine Industries Association and the
Broadcast Pilots Association. He has won several awards for his reporting and videography,
including seven Emmy awards, and the environmental reporter of the year award presented by
the Florida Coastal Management Conference.

Shark Speakers & Experts Page 3 of 9

Randy Honebrink
Division Of Aquatic Resources
1151 PunchBowl Street
Room 330
Honolulu, HI 96813
Office Phone: (808) 587-0111
Email: Randy _RHonebrink@ exec.state.hi. us

Randy Honebrink is the head of education programs for the Hawaii Division of Aquatic
Resources. As coordinator and spokesman for the state's Shark Task Force, he has been involved
in shark issues for the last 10 years. He is also an adjunct professor of marine biology for
Chaminade University in Honolulu.

Robert E. Hueter
Mote Marine Laboratory
1600 Ken Thompson Parkway
Sarasota, FL 34236
Office Phone: (941) 388-4441
FAX: (941) 388-4312
Email: rhueter@mote.org

Robert Hueter is director of the Center for Shark Research (CSR) at Mote Marine Laboratory.
Established by Congress in 1991 as a national research center, the CSR is the world's largest
scientific research program focusing on the biology and behavior of sharks. The CSR's ten
doctoral-level scientists conduct studies of shark anatomy, physiology, biomedical applications,
behavior, ecology, environmental biology, population biology, fisheries and conservation. Hueter
has been studying sharks for over 25 years, has published over 75 scientific articles and reports
on sharks, and has edited four volumes on shark biology. He has been on the Mote staff since
1988. His current research projects include studies of life history and ecology of sharks in the
Gulf of Mexico and Mexico's Sea of Cortez, shark senses and muscles, and shark fisheries
biology. In 2001, Hueter was awarded Mote's newly established Perry W. Gilbert Chair in Shark
Research, in honor of former Mote director and world-renowned shark researcher Perry Gilbert.
Hueter holds bachelor's and master's degrees from the University of Miami, and his Ph.D. from
the University of Florida. He is past president of the American Elasmobranch Society, an
international society dedicated to the scientific study of sharks. He serves on the Highly
Migratory Species advisory panel of the National Marine Fisheries Service, the Special Shark
Scientific and Statistical Committee of the Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council, and the
Shark Specialist Group of the World Conservation Union. Hueter has testified before Congress
on issues relating to shark fisheries management and conservation.

Shark Speakers & Experts Page 4 of 9

Kevin P. Lollar
Ft. Myers News-Press
PO Box 10
2442 Anderson Avenue
Ft. Myers, FL 33902
Office Phone: (941) 335-0389
Email: klollar@news-press.com

Kevin Lollar has been senior writer and environmental reporter for the Fort Myers News-Press
since 1990. He has also been a feature writer for the Marin County (California) Independent
Journal; science reporter, education reporter, sports writer, and copy editor for the Sioux Falls
(South Dakota) Argus Leader.; campus sports stringer for the Kansas City Star; and sports writer
and copy editor for the Lawrence (Kansas) Daily Journal-World. He holds a B.A. in English
from Tulane University and a M.A. in English from the University of Kansas. He also taught
English at the University of Kansas. He reports that he "developed a fascination for sharks in the
late early 1960s when my family lived on Siesta Key and my brother and I used to sneak onto the
grounds of Cape Haze Marine Laboratory (now Mote Marine Laboratory) every Sunday to watch
the sharks swim in the shark pen."

Rich Novak
Charlotte County
25550 Harborview Road, Unit 3
Port Charlotte, FL 33980
Office Phone: (941) 764-4340
Fax: 941-764-4343
Email: rlnovak@mail.ifas.ufl.edu

Rich Novak is marine extension agent for Florida Sea Grant and the University of Florida in Charlotte
County. He provide educational programs and assistance to residents of Charlotte County to increase
their understanding and enjoyment of the marine and estuarine resources the area has to offer. This
includes working with boaters, recreational and commercial fishermen, divers, conservation groups,
marine business owners and operators, county officials and other agencies. His programs concentrate on
fishery mortality reduction, recreational fisheries, and fishery habitat development. He specializes in
artificial reefs, marine and estuarine habitat enhancement, and coastal and marine recreation. Novak
holds a B.S. in parks and recreational administration from Western Illinois University, and an M.S. in
forest and range management from Washington State University.

Shark Speakers & Experts Page 5 of 9

Alex K. Peabody
Lifeguard Supervisor I
Santa Cruz District
665 14th Avenue
Santa Cruz, CA 95602
Office Phone: (831) 427-4870
Email: L29GUARD@aol.com

Alex Peabody has served as an ocean lifeguard for the State of California, Department of Parks
and Recreation, for over 23 years. He has visited and worked with lifeguard programs in New
Zealand, Australia, Hawaii, Costa Rica, and Mexico. Peabody currently serves as the lifeguard
supervisor for the aquatic programs of the Santa Cruz district, which encompass 24 miles of
coastline in Santa Cruz County. He supervises 45 seasonal and 3 permanent lifeguard staff
members, in addition to three junior lifeguard programs which train over 300 children each
summer. As a state park lifeguard, Peabodyis a fully trained peace officer. Additional special
skills and training include: Surf Watch rescue boat operation, IRB and PWC rescue operator,
member of the state park dive team and rescue response, cliff rescue, Swift Water Rescue
Technician II, Emergency Medical Technician, and instructor trainer for his departments
Emergency Medical Responder program.

Eric Sander
Florida Marine Research Institute
882 Valencia Road
South Daytona, FL 32119
Office Phone: (386) 788-0830
Email: marsea@mindspring.com

Eric Sander is a marine researcher for the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commision's
Florida Marine Research Institute. He serves as a field sampler for the Marine Recreational
Fisheries Statistics Survey, conducting survey intercepts of recreational anglers and identifying
catch species with collection of length and weight data. He also trains, verifies and proofs other
samplers in the region. Sander has extensive experience in the charter boat recreational fishery
and the commercial fish industry. In the 1980s, he began the first full-time year-round
commercial shark longline operation on Florida's east coast. Sander has also worked since the
early 1980s with researchers across the nation to provide fishery specimens and data collection
support. He has provided the fishing vessel platform for the Commercial Shark Fishery Observer
Program, and trains observers in shark identification.

Shark Speakers & Experts Page 6 of 9

Margo Schulze-Haugen
Highly Migratory Species Division, NOAA Fisheries
1315 East-West Highway
Silver Spring, MD 20910
Office Phone: (301)713-2347
Email: margo.schulze-haugen @noaa. gov

Margo Schulze-Haugen has been a fishery biologist with the Highly Migratory Species
Management Division of NOAA Fisheries (National Marine Fisheries Service) for the past 6
years. As lead staff person on shark management issues, Schulze-Haugen is responsible for
developing regulations governing commercial and recreational shark fisheries in the Atlantic
Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea. She participates in and reviews shark research and
stock assessments; interacts with fishermen, environmentalists, and interested constituents;
conducts public meetings; develops technical and policy papers; drafts regulations and
biological, social, and economic analyses; supports litigation; and participates in international
shark initiatives and develops the corresponding domestic action, such as the United States
National Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks. Schulze-Haugen holds
an M.S. in fishery biology from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst where she studied
predator-prey interactions in the Connecticut River estuary.

Colin Simpfendorfer
Mote Marine Laboratory
1600 Ken Thompson Parkway
Sarasota, FL 34236
Office Phone: (941) 388-4441
Email: colins@mote.org

Colin Simpfendorfer is a staff scientist at Mote Marine Laboratory. In 1993, he earned his Ph.D.
in zoology from James Cook University, Queensland, Australia, investigating the life history of
tropical sharks and the importance of nursery areas to shark populations. After completing his
Ph.D., he worked for the Fisheries Department of Western Australia, leading a research team
investigating the commercial shark fisheries of that state, including life history, populations
dynamics and fisheries biology. He moved to Mote in 1998 to continue his work on the
population biology of sharks. His current projects include research on the conservation biology
of sawfish, stock assessment of commercially important shark species in the Atlantic and Gulf of
Mexico, the impact of environmental factors on shark populations, and the development of an
ecological model for Charlotte Harbor. He has worked with sharks for 15 years and has authored
several scientific, technical and popular articles on sharks.

Shark Speakers & Experts Page 7 of 9

Franklin F. Snelson, Jr.
Department of Biology
University of Central Florida
Orlando, FL 32816
Phone: Office (407) 823-5394
E-mail: fnelson @pegasus. cc. ucf. edu

Franklin Snelson has been a professor of biological sciences at the University of Central
Florida since 1981. He specializes in ichthyology, his primary interests being the systematics,
ecology, and evolution of both freshwater and marine fishes with emphasis on the
southeastern United States. His current research projects include the reproductive biology and
ecology of rays; the habits and movements of juvenile sharks in nursery zones; and the
biodiversity of marine fishes in the Florida keys. He is widely published in scientific journals
and has co-edited the Ecology and Evolution of Livebearing Fishes. He earned his bachelor's
degree from North Carolina State University, and his doctoral degree in ichthyology from
Cornell University. He has also served as a curatorial assistant at the North Carolina State
Natural History Museum.

Mike Spranger
Assistant Director, Florida Sea Grant
University of Florida
PO Box 110405
Gainesville, FL 32611-0405
Office Phone: (352) 392-1837
Fax: (352) 392-5113
Email: msspranger@mail.ifas.ufl.edu

Mike Spranger is assistant director of Florida Sea Grant Extension and assistant dean for extension in
charge of environmental and natural resources programs at the University of Florida/IFAS. He has 25
years of professional experience in extension outreach programming and administration, teaching and
applied research at the local, state, regional and national levels. Prior to coming to Florida, he worked at
the University of Washington and University of Wisconsin. He has served in a number of leadership
roles nationally, including serving as chair of the National Assembly of Sea Grant Extension Program
Leaders and President of the National Marine Educators Association.

Shark Speakers & Experts Page 8 of 9

Joe Wooden
Deputy Beach Chief
Volusia County Beaches

I have worked for the Volusia County Beach Department for 29 years. I currently
oversees all aspects of beach operations that include law enforcement, emergency
medical services and aquatic safety-lifeguards for the estimated 10 millions visitors that
frequent our beaches each year. We operate the largest beach operation in the State of
Florida. I am the spokesperson for the beaches here so I get a lot of media coverage
relating to shark bites.

Roy Williams
Florida Fish and Wildlife Commission
620 South Meridian Street
Tallahassee, FL 32399-1600
Office Phone: (850) 487-0554
Email: roy.williams@fwc.state.fl.us

I am Assistant Director, Division of Marine Fisheries, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation
Commission. I have been employed with the Florida Marine Fisheries Commission, later to
become the Fish and Wildlife Commission, since 1987.

From 1968 to 1986 I was employed with the laboratory that is now known as the Florida Marine
Research Institute where I engaged in life history work on several finfish species but primarily
king mackerel. I was also supervisor the the vertebrate fish section at the laboratory when I left
at the end of 1986.

At the Fish and Wildlife Commission, in addition to serving as the assistant division director, I
also am the agency's representative on the Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council where I
am presently serving as Chairman. I am not a shark expert per se, and I don't think the agency
actually has a shark expert even at FMRI, but I am prepared to speak on the Commission's shark
feeding rule last year and if questions arise, on the rule that we did in 1992.

Jack Musick
Virginia Institute of Marine Sciences
PO Box 1346
Gloucester, VA 23062
Office Phone: (804) 684-7317
Email: jmusick@vims.edu

Jack Musick is a professor of fisheries and the head of the vertebrate ecology and systematics
program at Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary. Musick is a well-
known lecturer and researcher on marine fisheries, having presented more than 30 papers at
national and international scientific meetings. He has authored or co-authored three books, and
edited four more, and written dozens of articles for scientific journals. In 2001, he served on the
Virginia governor's task force on shark attacks, and presently serves on the National Marine
Fisheries Service recovery plan review panel for loggerhead sea turtles. In 2000 he received the
distinguished service award from the American Fisheries Society. He holds a B.A. from Rutgers;
an M.A. from Harvard; and a Ph.D. from Harvard.

Shark Feeding State Perspective

Roy Williams
Assistant Director, Division of Marine Fisheries
Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission


Florida prohibited the feeding of sharks and all other fishes by divers in November 2001.
This prohibition was originally requested by the public in September 1999 and was the
subject of numerous, well attended public hearings during the next two years. The
Commission found this to be a very difficult issue and saw logical arguments to both
allow and to prohibit feeding. However, the Commission ultimately concluded that
feeding marine life disrupted the natural behavior and feeding habits of fish and
conditioned them to associate food with humans. This is undesirable from both a
conservation and a public safety perspective. The Commission also prohibits feeding of
other species of wildlife such as alligators, bears, and sandhill cranes.

Sharks in Perspective: View from Florida

Joe M. Wooden
Deputy Beach Chief
Volusia County Beach Patrol, Daytona Beach, Florida


The state of Florida typically leads the world each year in the number of shark bites and
the coastline of East Central Florida is the location of most of those bites. Management of
an ocean beach that leads the world in shark bites each year can be very difficult. With 22
shark bites recorded last year in Volusia county alone, international media kept the shark
frenzy in high gear. During a 14-day period last August; Beach Patrol officers conducted
over 300 shark bite interviews.
The most common sharks that frequent the surf area and cause problems for humans are
the Black Tip and Spinner sharks. Most sightings determined the average length of the
sharks to be between 3 and 5 feet.
This talk will focus on steering media inquiries toward fact-based situations. Discussion
will include the annual cycle of media attention with sharks. This talk will also include
how to manage beach areas when shark sightings and or bites are high.


Sharks in Perspective: From Fear to Fascination

Eric Sander
Florida Marine Research Institute, South Daytona, FL

Abstract: Commercial Fisheries From a Commercial Fisherman's Experience

Sharks provide man with a wide array of useful products such as vitamin rich oil,
nutritious flesh, and a very tough leather. A resurgence of the U S commercial shark
fishery occurred in the mid 1980s and was due to increased demand for shark fins, the
introduction of shark fillets into seafood shops, and the encouragement of shark fishing
by some fishery service departments which thought that sharks were an underutilized

I began full time commercial shark fishing in 1984 with my brother on a 32' boat we
named Jawsome. We day-fished sharks close to Ponce Inlet with less than a mile of line
which we pulled in by hand. By the end of the 1984 we had sold 50,000 lbs of shark. By
1989 there were 18 boats working shark out of Ponce Inlet alone. Similar growth was
happening at nearly every inlet or port.

I bought and worked a larger vessel in 1989 and landed on average 92,000 lbs of shark
the next three years. The implementation of shark regulations in 1993 brought about a
derby style fishery that produced a real change in the attitudes of the fishermen. And,
while extended large coastal shark closure periods forced vessel owners and captains to
enter other fisheries until the next opening, I supplemented the reduced large coastal
shark catches by targeting the small coastal group of sharks which remained open. But by
1996 I had become tired of the constant grind of going to sea and retired from shark
fishing in 1998.

Shark Attacks -- A Lifeguard's View

Chris Brewster
U.S. Lifesaving Association, San Diego, CA


America's ocean lifeguards have two major goals prevention and rescue. Shark bite cases
create a unique challenge to these goals.

Shark bites are rare, especially when compared to the many other threats to the safety of
beachgoers. Protecting beachgoers from shark bites is very difficult, considering that sharks are a
natural phenomenon and shark bites are believed to be accidents on the part of the sharks
themselves (prey identification mistakes). The lifeguard who responds to a shark bite typically
has little if any personal protection and there are no reliable techniques for rescuing a person
from a shark.

The United States Lifesaving Association has developed a position statement entitled Shark Bite
Prevention and Response. With respect to prevention, it recommends that lifeguards be trained to
understand shark behavior and recognize sharks common to their area, warn beachgoers when
behavior appears threatening, warn beachgoers in case of a bite incident (encourage them to
leave the water), and clear the water in the case of an attack (meaning repeated biting behavior).

If a shark bite occurs, lifeguards are advised to mount a rescue effort using a rescue boat with
high gunwales. If a rescue boat is not available and if, as is most typically the case, the shark bite
appears to be a hit and run incident, and if the lifeguard considers it safe and within agency
guidelines to enter the water, it is recommended that lifeguards perform a rescue and treat the
wounds of the victim. In areas where shark bites are more common than others, specific policies
appropriate to local conditions are also recommended.

Shark Attack In Perspective

George H. Burgess
Director, Florida Program for Shark Research
Florida Museum of Natural History
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL

To many people the word "shark" evokes an image of a monstrous "Jaws"-inspired maneater
consuming a terrified human. Ever since humans ventured onto and into the sea there has been a
love-hate relationship with these enigmatic creatures, for respect as well as fear are emotions
inspired by the apex predators of the sea. Human preoccupation with sharks may stem from our
almost primal fascination with the unknown, especially with natural phenomena we cannot
master. Our interest in tornadoes, lightning, hurricanes, earthquakes and sharks is at least
partially fueled by our inability to accurately predict their behaviors and, more importantly,
control their activities.

Shark attacks are but a small chapter in the total story about sharks, but the public's seemingly
insatiable appetite for coverage has resulted in disproportionate attention on the subject in the
print and broadcast media. More recently, the conservation status and fishery management of
sharks increasingly and rightfully also have been the subject of media and public interest.
The summer of 2001 was dubbed "The Summer of the Shark" by one news magazine and shark
attack was intensely covered by the press until September 11.

The prevailing perception was that 2001 was a banner year for shark attacks. However,
International Shark Attack File data indicate that attack numbers for the United States were
almost identical to those of the previous year (which did not draw particularly high media
attention) and the international total was 11% lower than that of 2000. More importantly, the
number of serious attacks, as measured by fatality rate, was less than half that over the last

The number of shark attacks has been rising throughout the past century as a result of human
population growth and concurrent rises in aquatic recreation. Greater efficiency in ISAF
recording in recent years additionally has contributed to rises in recorded attack totals.
Increasingly shark attack has been inter-linked with fishery management and conservation
initiatives by some observers.

One erroneous notion that has appeared suggests that U.S. East Coast fishery regulations enacted
in 1993 have resulted in the blossoming of shark populations, leading to more attacks. Although
East Coast shark populations probably are in the early stages of recovery as a result of federal
and state management measures first enacted in 1993, it is biologically impossible for these
populations to have returned to their pre-fishing levels of the early 1980's in only eight years. At
current harvest rates, it will take decades to get to that point.

At this time, shark attack numbers are most greatly influenced by the quantity of humans
engaged in aquatic recreation in coastal waters. There is no indication that the rate of shark
attack is increasing.

Shark Therapy: A View from the Other Side of Jaws

Merry Camhi, Ph.D.
Acting Director, Living Oceans Program, Audubon Society, Islip, NY


Sharks suffer from an identity crisis: they are by far one of the most feared and maligned
creatures in the world, yet they are also among the most vulnerable. In fact, sharks have
more to fear from humans than we do from sharks. As many as 100 million sharks are
targeted or killed as bycatch in fishing operations each year. Once considered of low
economic value, sharks or more specifically their fins, which are used to make the Asian
delicacy shark fin soup are now among the world's most expensive fishery products. This
demand for fins has fueled global shark fisheries and led to the wasteful practice of finning,
or cutting off the fins and tossing the rest of the shark back in the water. It has also led to the
overfishing and the decline of sharks throughout the world, putting some populations at
serious risk. Most sharks grow slowly, take many years to reach sexual maturity (some as
many as 20 years), and then produce few young. These life history traits make many sharks
highly vulnerable to fishing pressure. Once depleted, it can take decades for shark
populations to recover. Fifteen years ago, sharks were barely on the radar screen of fishery
managers and traditional wildlife conservation organizations. Fortunately, attitudes are
changing and the vulnerability of shark populations is widely acknowledged. This talk will
explore the various threats to these fascinating ocean predators and current efforts to ensure
that sharks continue to roam the seas for millennia to come.

Shark Attacks View from Hawaii

Randy Honebrink
Division of Aquatic Resources, Honolulu, HI

Today's presentation will include:

Statistical information about the history of shark attacks in Hawaii.
Shark control programs and the formation of the Shark Task Force.
The Hawaiian cultural perspective and current attack response protocols.

A brief statement of the state's newly enacted shark feeding ban.

Media Perspective

Kevin P. Lollar
The News-Press, Fort Myers, Fla.


In many respects, the media demonize sharks, using sensational language and treating even
minor shark attacks like major tragedies. Concerning language: Television and newspaper
stories often use terms such as "beast," "monster," and "mindless killer" when talking about
sharks. Even the term "shark-infested waters" is sensational: Virtually all tropical and sub-
tropical waters are shark infested (i.e.: sharks live there), but if a boat sinks anywhere in salt
water, the reporter or headline writer will say it sank in shark-infested waters < makes for a
sexier story. As to how the media treat shark attacks: Any shark attack is big news, and the
media almost always make more of an attack than is necessary. Certainly, the media must
cover an attack as news, but they need to cover it in a balanced, logical way, informing
readers and viewers that shark attacks are extremely rare. The media should deal more with
shark research so the public can learn to be more fascinated than frightened by these
beautiful fish.

Sharks: Local Impacts

Rich Novak
Charlotte County, Port Charlotte, FL

Sharks have significant impact on recreational fishing and recreation in general. Not only are
sharks an issue with fishermen, but divers and swimmers also interact with sharks. In Charlotte
County for instance, there are two shark fishing tournaments that benefit local economics, at
least four tarpon fishing tournaments where sharks interact with tournament organizers and
fishermen, two dive shops that have suffered from the shark feeding ban, beaches that have
reduced use during certain times of the year due to the presence of sharks and wade fishermen
have suffered wounds from rays or been chased off the flats by sharks. These are only a few of
the local issues that can be attributed directly to sharks and rays. Probably the biggest factor
affecting recreational user however is misinformation or partial information regarding sharks in
local waters.

Sharks are big news locally. In May of this year, tarpon fishermen had a difficult time getting
tarpon to the boat for release or to a tournament weigh site for release because bull or
hammerhead sharks were killing the fish. Other tarpon fishermen couldn't use live bait because
sharks would beat the tarpon to the bait. There are other local instances where the waters at
beaches had to be cleared of surf fishermen and swimmers because large sharks were inside the

Wade fishermen are frequently "gotten" or "stung" by rays as they shuffle their feet along the
bottom in relatively shallow water of both Charlotte Harbor and the Gulf of Mexico. Another
threat to wade fishermen is the presence of sharks feeding on bait fish in these same shallow
waters. When mullet or other white bait fish is schooling, there is always a threat of a shark

On the other side of the coin, sharks have become a popular target for fishermen because of their
often large size, abundance and in some cases, table value. Two fishing tournaments in Charlotte
County target sharks and rays. As many as 400 anglers will enter a tournament and even though
there are rules limiting the minimum size/species shark that can be entered, fishermen kill a large
number of sharks and rays in a single evening.

Divers are another group of recreational users that are affected by sharks. Both divers and
fishermen frequent artificial reef sites in the Gulf because of limited hard bottom and structure.
By having both groups on the same site, a conflict sometimes occurs due to the use of chum by
fishermen to attract fish and sharks. There is also the issue of shark feeding by divers (recently
banned by the State) that brings divers and sharks together. Two local dive shops operators have
complained about the shark feeding ban creating an economic hardship on their business.

Most of the shark issues/concerns addressed in this presentation are local, but obviously have a
wide application. We all agree there is a universal need to manage and conserve the shark
population but what is the best way of accomplishing this goal? How do we weigh the various
aspects of recreational use relative to the shark and combine them with the multitude of other
variables to provide a plan that benefits all concerned, including the shark population?

Shark Attacks View from California

Alex K. Peabody
Lifeguard Supervisor I
Santa Cruz District, CA


The focus of California ocean lifeguards is water safety. With thousands of rescues each year,
the greatest danger in the water is not the predator of History Channel fame -- the Great White
Shark, it is the less known and understood rip current and death from drowning. As millions of
visitors stream to the beaches of California they shouldn't be thinking of the theme music from
JAWS, they should be concerned about where the nearest lifeguard tower is open.

However, the issue of dealing with shark sightings, reports, and even the rare shark attack victim
is a reality for lifeguard agencies.

Stinson Beach, part of the National Park System falls within the famed "Red Triangle", an area
well known for great white sharks. Stenson has had two shark attacks in the last four years. The
most recent was May 31, 2001.

Santa Cruz County has approximately 42 miles of coastline and straddles both a portion of the
Monterey Bay as well as the open ocean of its North Coast, including the Red Triangle. A
popular beach community, Santa Cruz that has had three documented shark attacks since 1961.
This compares to the 165 drownings that have occurred in this county between 1976 1999!

From a public safety standpoint, shark incidents cannot be ignored. In Santa Cruz and Stinson
Beach, it is common to receive reports from beach visitors such as, "I SAW A SHARK!"
Today's presentation will include recommendations as to how to most effectively deal with shark
sightings and incidents, including:

How to substantiate sightings
Posting warnings
Beach closures
Working with the media
Systematic evaluation and use of an operational plan
Providing emergency services for attack victims

Sharks in Perspective: From Fear to Fascination

Margo Schulze-Haugen
NOAA Fisheries Presentation

"Research, Regulations, and Relationships: The 3 R's of Shark Conservation and Management"


Sharks are a valuable part of marine ecosystems and NOAA Fisheries is committed to conserving
shark populations and the fisheries dependent on them. Sharks are vulnerable to overfishing
because they are long-lived, take many years to mature, and only have a few young at a time.
Because recovery from overfishing can take years or decades for many shark species, sharks need
protection. Domestic law and international agreements require NOAA Fisheries to protect and
manage marine species, including sharks. To provide protection and rebuild and maintain
sustainable shark fisheries, NOAA Fisheries is conducting research, implementing regulations
domestically in partnership with stakeholders, and pursuing international conservation with other
shark fishing nations.

NOAA Fisheries implemented management measures for sharks in the Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of
Mexico, and Caribbean Sea in 1993 and is currently developing similar management measures in
the Pacific Ocean. These management measures include harvest limits in commercial and
recreational fisheries, data collection programs, permitting and reporting requirements,
identification of essential fish habitat, bycatch reduction of sharks in all fisheries, and promoting
safety at sea for shark fishermen. In 2001, NOAA Fisheries implemented the Shark Finning
Prohibition Act, a national ban on the practice of removing the fin(s) from a shark and discarding
the remainder of the shark at sea, and released a National Plan of Action for the Conservation
and Management of Sharks. NOAA Fisheries is also encouraging other countries to develop
similar shark conservation and management measures and national plans of action for their shark

Research, Regulations, and Relationships:
The 3 R's of Shark Conservation and

Margo Schulze-Haugen
Highly Migratory Species Management

NOAA Fisheries:
Steward of Marine Resources

* Promotes sustainable fisheries
* Protects marine habitats
* Protects marine mammals and
sea turtles
* Works internationally to
promote global conservation of
marine resources AuLi

Sharks Are Valuable

Commercial fishermen landed 35
million pounds of sharks worth
$11 million in 2000

Recreational fishermen caught
* / 400,000 sharks in 2000

In 2000. the United States
exported 2.4 million Ib of shark
products worth $5 million

Sharks Need Conservation

* Biology
Late maturing,
few young, slow
growing, long lived


Highly migratory
- Many species migrate across
national boundaries
International agreements are
needed to conserve
- In addition to directed fisheries,
sharks are caught as bycatch in
longline, trawl, and net fisheries

Shark products

Sharks Belong to Everyone:
Non-Consumptive Uses

* Existence value
* Recreational catch &
release fishing
* Ecological value
* Shark watching
* Diving cages

NOAA Fisheries Shark Research

* Nursery/Pupping areas R
* Migration/Tagging -
* Biology age & growth,
reproduction, food habits "
* Bycatch reduction/Post-release
* Cooperative research with fishermen
* Joint studies with states and

NOAA Fisheries Shark Management

* Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and
Management Act
Rebuild overfished stocks and maintain healthy stocks
Protect habitat
Reduce bycatch and bycatch mortality
Promote safety at sea
Stakeholder Advisory Panels
Other laws
NEPA, ESA, Reg Flex Act, MMPA

National Shark Management

* NOAA Fisheries developed the
U.S. NPOA (released Feb 2001) M q -
Calls for data collection, regular
assessments, review of management
measures, mitigation measures if
necessary, fishing capacity limits,
outreach, reporting and monitoring
Developed with constituents NO
SThe United States recently enacted a national ban on finning
in December 2001

Domestic Shark Management:


- 1970s "only good shark is a dead shark"
recreational fisheries, little research
- 1980s commercial fishery for fins expands
research becomes higher priority begins to
show sharks have low reproductive capacity
- 1993 Shark Fishery Management Plan
3 management groups large coastal (overfished),
small coastal (fully fished), pelagic (unknown)
Ban on finrng, commercial quotas, recreational
bag limits, reporting requirements
- 1994, 1996, 1998 LCS stock assessments
Phoeo Counp At 5.Ian

Domestic Shark Management:


- 1999 Atlantic HMS FMP includes
Rebuilding program for Large Coastal Sharks
Commercial and recreational harvest limits
Ban on catches of 19 shark species completely
Ban on recreational catches of juvenile sharks
Essential fish habitat designations
- Since 1997, 6 lawsuits on shark management
- Large Coastal Sharks NEW assessment June 2002
- Small Coastal Sharks NEW Assessment now available
- Pelagic Sharks international assessment in 2004

Domestic Shark

Management: Pacific

* Status of most species is unknown
Blue shark population is healthy N
Common thresher and Pacific angel shark populations in recovery
* Pacific HMS FMP under development
Harvest guidelines for shortfin mako and common thresher sharks
Coast-wide protection for white, megamouth, and basking sharks
* Western Pacific Pelagic Fisheries FMP (HI, AS, GU)
includes blue, shortrn mako, and thresher sharks
* North Pacific (AK)
Sharks covered under Groundfish FMP (salmon, sleeper, and
dogfish sharks)

International Shark Management

* United States was a key player in developing the UN
FAO International Plan of Action for the
Conservation and Management of Sharks in 1999
IPOA calls for sustainable shark catches in all fisheries,
assessment of stock status, special attention to vulnerable
species, minimizing bycatch and waste
United States is 1 of 2 shark fishing nations to develop a
National Plan of Action and is assisting other countries
develop their plans of action
* Bilateral meetings with Japan, Spain, Taiwan, Canada,
China, Mexico, and European Union

NOAA Fisheries and Sharks:
Future Actions

* International:
Bilateral meetings to discuss cooperative science & mgmt
* National:
Update to the U.S. National Plan of Action for Sharks
* Atlantic:
New stock assessments for Atlantic sharks June 2002
Identification Guide Summer 2002
* Pacific:
HMS FMP coming on line

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:" g I
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Life History Table

Threats to shark populations
* Beach protection -
* Ecological shifts
* Habitat change
Loss of coastal nursery
* Climate change
Ozone depletion i
Global warming

But...FISHING is the #1 threat
to global shark populations

*Recreational fisheries
*Commercial fisheries
Directed fishing

Recreational Fishing

.C --J.- : j:


i' rt

Fins: From Shark to Soup

Demand &
high prices
paid for
shark fins
has led to
the cruel &
practice of


Reported World Elasnohranch Catch

1999= 822.189 nt

YEARS 3AC' IrCm 3Nj9'

How can sharks be in so much
trouble if global catches keep going
Artifact of better data reporting
Increase in fishing effort
Improvements in technology
Booms-and-busts masked as fishery
shifts from depleted waters to new areas

Eventually, no more booms...


Atlantic Large Coastal Sharks

* Atlantic Sharks Overfished
* Fishery mgt plan est. 1993 already OF
* 50-85% dechne in some spp. over past 25 yr
* >30 yrs to recover even tsning stopped today

Global Shark Status:
Not a pretty picture

* Many shark populations worldwide depleted
or overfished
* IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: 16 spp
* US Endangered Species Act Candidate
Species List: 6 spp
* American Fisheries Society's Fish Stocks at
Risk of Extinction: 11 stocks in US waters
* No species protected from international trade

The Good News

S-3-'s f Ora. c'n
ract' sc-eern j
..she. managers,
ccr:-e nation Its;,
aod :-e pcl c

I a
. ":

U.S. Shark Fishery Management

* Shark Finning Prohibition Act of 2000
6 countries now have finning bans
* Most sharks in US federal waters (3-200
riies) under mgt:
FMPs for sharks in Atlantic & Western Pacific
FMP in Pacific (off CA, OR, WA) in draft
* Many states have shark mgt measures for
fishing in state waters (w/in 3 miles)

National Shark Management

Only 20 of ~125 nations address sharks
4 with comprehensive plans for at least
some spp
11 with fishery r-arngere- measures
(quotas, closures, min. sizes,
gear restrictions)
13 have protected species
6 have banned finning

International Shark Management

UN International Plan of Action for Sharks
Convention on International Trade in
Endangered Species (CITES) Resolution
UN High Seas Fish Stocks Agreement
Regional fishery management bodies paying
Scientific community addressing conservation


h~merl99i Summer 2001 I


Dr. Robert Hueter
AM Director, Center for Shark Research
Mote Marine Laboratory
Sarasota, Florida

/ / The broadcast and print media
report on sharks because...

"Charismatic Mega-Vertebrates"

Still mysterious, much to learn

Among the last of the dangerous predators

Summer 2001 I

Summer 1991

Some benefits of sharks to people:
Top predators, some scavenging -- Ecological balance
Biological control of other species
Classic tool in vertebrate anatomy
Studies of advanced senses & reproduction
SAnti-cancer properties
Source of therapeutic materials
Commercial & recreational fisheries
Diving & ecotourism
Aquariums I

Why care about
After all...
Aren't sharks maneaters?
Aren't sharks increasing in number?
Aren't sharks of no benefit to people?


"Summer of the Shark" Chronology
1. P of July week: Jesie Arbogast attack, om bitten off. shark wostled out of water. 1rm
readolchod. boy isulvtu. daly national news upddeo.
2. No other national news, other than Gy Condit story.
3. In reporting Arbogad tory, naol and Intenational media begin covering typical'
mme harik incident In US.
A. Shark feeding dive controvaey In Flordo.
5. July 30: nrme publisheS mnme o the Shrk" cover story.
6. Eary August Beahamas alock. rmn loses log. Ithraons to sui. hies Johnnie Cochran.
7. MId-Augud News hellcopler looking for harks off beaches large schools o blaklp
sharks sighted off Florida G coast.
8. Suersn in Volusia Counly. Floida, hold suing contest among feedng blacklip sharks
leading to 7 surrs getting bitten in one week and eventually 21 surors getting bitten
along the same beach area In 2001.
9. Opinion colmn appears in Natond Review. picked up by Rush Umbough. claiming
todeal and sdat progras to rebuild shark ishils ae eslponiible for -o the shark
10. Labor Day weekend: Two uruuld fatailtls off Virginio and North Carolina. closr to
home of media headquaotes and Washngton politics.
11. Eary Soptombol: Summer winding down, shark aofty slowing down. sdoy running out
oldeo m.
12. Sephmboer 1I1 No on0 carabout lhark alltack anymore (tor now).

We still have a long way to go to overcome the
myths and stereotypes about sharks...

...and the print and broadcast media can help to
keep things in perspective.

Shark Bite Prevention and Response

B. Chris Brewster June 13, 2002 -
Tampa, Florida

Shark Attacks
A Lifeguard's View


Should this man ...

... challenge this beast ...



Shark Bite Prevention and Response

B. Chris Brewster June 13, 2002 -
Tampa, Florida

... to save this woman ...

- ,
.. C^z

... and if he does ...

'- -

... is he a hero ...

Shark Bite Prevention and Response

B. Chris Brewster June 13, 2002 -
Tampa, Florida

... or a fool?

Shark Attack!

* Man Recovering From Shark Attack
By ALEX VEIGA, Associated Press Writer, August 7, 2001
MIAMI (AP) The wife of a man who lost part of his leg in a shark
attack while visiting the Bahamas said her husbands screams for help
went unanswered as he swam to back to shore. "When you scream for
help and you're a lifeguard, you're supposed to get in there. You're
supposed to try to help." Ave Maria Thompson said through sobs.

* Are you?
* What techniques do you use?
* How do you protect yourself?


* Hysteria
* Finger-pointing
* Fear
* Tourism concerns
* Media feeding frenzy

Shark Bite Prevention and Response

B. Chris Brewster June 13, 2002 -
Tampa, Florida

United States Lifesaving Assn.

* America's nonprofit
association of
professional open
water rescuers
* Provides training
guidelines and
standards for open
water lifeguards

Year 2000 Statistics
68 Reporting Lifeguard Agencies
* 237,642 medical aid cases
* 70,771 rescues from drowning
* 132 deaths
-62 drownings in unguarded areas
-12 drownings in guarded areas
58 deaths from other causes
* 23 unprovoked shark bites (0 deaths)

Shark Bite Intervention

* No known techniques for intervention by one
swimmer assisting another
* 438 documented cases of attempted
intervention by a would-be rescuer
-14 (3.2%) resulted in rescuer injury
-2 (0.5%) involved a beach-based rescuer
-1 beach-based rescuer killed

Shark Bite Prevention and Response

B. Chris Brewster June 13, 2002 -
Tampa, Florida

USLA Position Statement
Shark Bite Prevention and Response
* Adopted in May 2002
" Provides prevention and intervention
strategies for lifeguards and lifeguard
* Recommends localized adaptation since:
Different places have different sharks (ex:
Florida v. California)
Different sharks exhibit different behavior

Prevention Steps

* Train lifeguards to recognize common
* If unusual shark behavior observed, warn
swimmers as appropriate
* In areas of frequent bites, consider signs
* If bite occurs, consider clearing water
* In cases of repeated bites or attacks, clear
the water

Response and Intervention

* Lifeguards have little
protection when
entering the water


Shark Bite Prevention and Response

B. Chris Brewster June 13, 2002 -
Tampa, Florida


* Shark bites are usually prey identification
* Shark bites are usually hit and run
* By the time a lifeguard gets to the victim,
shark will likely be gone
* But ... an injured lifeguard is of no help to a
shark bite victim
* So lifeguards should use caution and

When Possible Use a Boat

If No Rescue Boat Available

* If incident appears to be typical hit and run,
-lifeguard considers it safe, and;
-within agency guidelines, then;
-lifeguard should perform rescue and treat
* Agencies with high likelihood of incidents
should develop specific response

Shark Bite Prevention and Response

Who is More

* A man from Ipanema
on a day-off at the
beach saw a big fish.
* Not realizing it was a
shark, he jumped in
the water, killed the
shark with his fist, and
took it home for dinner.



--rtm s


B. Chris Brewster June 13, 2002 -
Tampa, Florida

Adjust Your Fears

* Sharks are rarely seen, much less often
bite, and even more rarely kill
" The Florida death toll from lightning is 78
times that of shark attack
* Drowning kills 4,000 Americans per year
* Sharks kill one or two a year

Safety Tips

" Swim near a lifeguard
* Respect the ocean
* Know your limits
* Check conditions
before entering the
* Don't fight the current

Shark Bite Prevention and Response

B. Chris Brewster June 13, 2002 -
Tampa, Florida

Photos provided by Alex Peabody, lifeguard, California State Parks.

Diagram to Accompany Presentation by Alex Peabody, California State Parks

Confirmed Sighting
V Employee or reliable witness
/ Secondary Witnesses
V Confirmed shark I.D.
/ Incident Documentation: photo

Determination of Threat
v Confirmed attack
/ Aggressive behavior observed
V Feeding/predation observed or
V Species Identification:
Predatory Threat / Non-Threat

Confirmed Threat
/ Posted closure of the impact
area ( approx. 1 mile from
last seen point) 1 week
v After 1 week w/o any
incidents then the
impact area is opened
and posted warnings
are maintained for
another week

V Posted warnings on beaches
outside the impact area

Initial Shark Report
Radio contact
Citizen wave down
Patrol observation

/ Document

Action Plan
V Legal closing of
beach area
" Posted warnings
/ News/media
V Contact user
groups through
surf, kayak, or
dive shops
V Increased shore
and boat patrol
of area

Unconfirmed Sighting
V Witness unsure / Unreliable
/ Third party Information
" Mistaken identification

/ Document incident and
continue to monitor reports
of further incidents.
v Consideration of increased
shore / boat patrol of area.
V Multiple Unconfirmed
Sightings may be considered
as a basis for a Confirmed
Sighting based on
information gathered


SHARK INCIDENT REPORT State of California The Resources Agency

NAME. (First, Middle, Last) Address:

I I Male E female
T NAME: (First. Middle. Lastl Address:
S I Male O Female
C Body Boarde Sealion OE Surface _
T Kayak Harbor Seal E Underwater O
Surfer Elephant Seal [] Inside surfline _
S Swimmer Dolphin DO Outside surfline [O
T Wader Fish O
Y Other: Other O
Estimated Length- Color of fin/s:
E Number of fins spotted Color ot body Fin tags. ] Yes O No
C |Descnbe-
R Distance between dorsal/tail fin Fin markings or scars O Yes O No
I Describe
P Photographs or video taken"' Yes O No Person to contact for copies (First. Middle. Last)-
O Contact phone number Address


Name of reporting employee: Signature / Date: Title:
Badge No:
Name of Supervisor: Signature / Date: Title:
Badge No:

SHARK INCIDENT REPORT State of California The Resources Agency


C Body Boarder E Sealion E Surface 0l
T Kayak E] Harbor Seal 0 Underwater O
I Surer l Elephant Seal D[ Inside surfline 0
I Swimmer El Dolphin O Outside surfline D[
T Wader O Fish O
Y Other. 01 Other [
NAME: (First, Middle, Last) Address:

I O0 Male l Female
T NAME: (First, Middle, Last) Address:
S O Male El Female



Shark Attacks: Facts and Fiction
George H. Burgess
International Shark Attack File

12 injured when giant creature rums
Russian vessel in he South Chin S!

un r. r- .i. l -t *5t

L as

IMM-i4-law1 iW shkr6

Skin diver shoots his chubby
mother-in-law with a spear gun!

IL 8aoW [ id," a prfitd"i 4 i*
ver Kairl (t., blew a hkr Ve,
III-r- 11a~ w With an U1n- t 1afn -d Sto V, yun in pai


r ol1'4 K ^r -? vr(^t'r e/?st mi ar ? r ..-" is. 4 tip > *: i-t ) [*
0f^? 4W dv ci i t 70 4M d is. hos-f ; m- f
4tftf,? -- Olt a s? I tr!" s ;i ,

rn.^^ ..b ...- . im n at l + P--b ... n .


R Ion U l. I ll Lh
754 48 23XIIl
323 149 '2(K3
293 76, 2()1
13., 59 23Kx)
120 57 2303
MI3 21 1992
93 24 24 0)
78 15 1972
65 35 1993
53 1 1968
37 I 1984

2 7 R1965
)TOIAL. 2110 69 2001

Map of the World's confirmed
Unprovoked Shark Attacks by
Region 1670-2001 (N = 2110)
S.ur3(: G 0rge Burge. Inermllnoml SharkD Attack i,.
FkI.nda Muum o Na.luraIhln sry a f,,K1h a ,.


Map of United States confirm
Unprovoked Shark Attacks b
1670-2001 (N = 854)

. --

Florlda ,

Map of Florida confirmed
Unprovoked Shark Attacks by
County 1882-2001 (N = 474)

.Sourc George Bu s. 3lital ionoi Shark Atlack Fir.
~ Fn.3a1M33samrf N,3raullr~r rrollr.. r b. .a..ara,.,,

1.3.3 ,9.3 33.

rTFi State At3aks. Ijahllaoh ata)
474 20 2M(11
I'm 21 l2
42 881
'8 3 1962
20 2)XII
I 16 1926

6 1 '3 ,

3 193t,

TOTAL 54 69 200
y State

Source: (oe Burgess. IntetrIO ] Shark Aack eI,

1oral "Ihtall Laal
Attcks hItal s Fa.ahl)

73 I 19
28 2 1952
21 19376
21 1
16 1 990
I5 1961
4 1947

9 2 '36
7 2 1911
6 0


474 9
4 4 19 2001


I lorida M-uum of Natural Hislon, hrrr a r ,nOm


Nil U


Lama iI1 ~ N

WE laww

Shark Attacks for World and USA 1960-2001

0 Wodd 0 USA (N=1509)


.60 -- --- -



Shark Attacks for Florida and Volusia County
I Florida U Volusia County (N=435)
40, I-



-. .... .. . ..

I. AM Attacks (n = 392 Years
0 Fatahties (n = 18)
r .......Population

Flordda AmualTaur~vsShak M acks 100 -2001
S raInte d Altacks ammto d Deatrs

S' '.'a -aa- "J

19901 11 1919 1 19 7 1888 1799 2am 20




H. i .


USA Beach Attendance, Surf Rescues, and
Shark Attacks 1994-2000
--Attendance --SharkAttacs Rescues
120- 60
100- -50

S40- 20
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000

Florida Beach Attendance, Surf Rescues, and
Shark Attacks 1994-2000
Attendance Rescues Shark Attacks
,14, 40

6- C
4- -_10 to
2 E

1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000

( _~_



California Beach Attendance, Surf Rescues,
and Shark Attacks 1990-2000
Attendance Rescues Shk Attacks
120- 5
1100- 4



Worldwide Shark Attack Fatality Rate
50 0

740 OO

LL 30

N =1844
o o Decade


Florida Shark Attacks by Month

Florida Shark Attacks by
Time of Day (1882-2001)


Florida Victim Activity 1900-1999



Attacking Species in California Waters

~r ~ ~~l ` '' lCDU-I

N = 112

Identified Attacking Species of Sharks in
Florida (97 of 484 cases)



Florida Drownings and Shark Attack
Fatalities 1992-2000

30 M Drownings ] Shark Fatalities


0, C- 2 -q LO CO r- CO 0) C0


California Drownings and Shark Attack
Fatalities 1990-1999
Drownings ] Shark Fatalities



6)0 ) 6)6)6) 6)6)

Year 2000 Beach Injuries and Fatalities

Estimated attendance 264.156,728
Lifeguard provision of medical care 236,642
Lifeguard rescues from drowning 70.771

Drowning (lifeguard areas) 12
Drowning (non-lifeguard areas) 62
Fatalities (causes other than drowning) 58
Total fatalities 132

Unprovoked shark attack 23
Fatalities 0

Sources" LUSIA (Iron 68 ocean hIjeauard (Igen e ,i llThn urtsdautnon,.
ISAF (vae heach areas) In 210(K) there asre 54 unprosvoedshark brtes.
tIluddin I jtrohtv L US coastal water

Reducing The Risks

* Minimize splashing while in water

* Avoid areas with effluents entering sea

* Don't go into water if bleeding

* Don't go where bait fishes are seen or
fishing is occurring



Reducing The Risks
* Avoid murky water situations
* Don't go in water from dusk to dawn
* Stay in groups don't go too far from shore
* Don't wear shiny jewelry
* Don't harass sharks!

Sharks In Perspective
Beach Management Florida

Volusia County entered the Beach Business in

?i^T". : .*-*&'sl

Today, Volusia County Manages the Largest Beach
in the State Of Florida... Protecting 40+ miles

Joe Wooden

*Volusia County Beach Patrol... 285 employees during our
peak season
*Estimated 10 million neoole a year visit the beaches

Joe Wooden

For Beach Personnel, spotting Sharks Along
the Coastline of Florida Is Very Common...

I: -/~c;"s;:
: ;li~t~:

The Beach is ALWAYS a Focus During Special
Events...They are generally a young crowd that enjoys

Volusia County Usually Leads the World Each
Year in The Number of Shark Bites...

The Problem Area: Ponce Inlet
Rich Food Source for Sharks
One of the top Surfing Destinations in the State

Joe Wooden

The Facts:
Most Bites Occur In a Small Area Around the Inlet
* Small Juvenile Sharks That Cause Minor Bites i.e.: Black
Tip and Spinner
0 Most Victims are Surfers

Almost always...
The Bite is Minor and The Victim Has Made it Back
to The Beach By the Time We Arrive.

Victim is Treated At the Scene and All
Information is Forwarded to International
Shark Attack Files...


Joe Wooden

Most Bites are on the Hand or Foot...

Local media gets involved when sightings and bites
begin to occur...Usually in the Early Spring

Joe Wooden


Ponce Inlet beach
is dosed after bites

Joe Wooden

The Media Frenzy... Once It Begins, Lookout!
In August 2001, Our Staff Did Over 300
Interviews in a 14 Day Period...

*: .iiw.a' -" '^* ^"'^,*,"^ ^..

Joe Wooden

Sensationalism Begins to Drive the Media...
The Facts Become Difficult to Communicate

f-7-. .,. ; --
a3Ffd S Ei


Our Role With the Media...
Deliver the Facts and Down Play the Hype...

Area/nor,,. .

Noon decision set
on swim, surf ban

--' -'-" .- -."- L..-- T--.

In 2001, Shark Bites In Volusia County Eventually
Hit 22 For the Year...

jgShark-bite tally cllmbsto 20

t- .::--, "_----- '-. -,- -
-- -t
ON Baldancig
"-. .'- -C:'^ ::. ,"", ''- budgetmay.

The Beach Patrol Closed Down The Beach Near the Inlet...
Daily Helicopter Flights Informed us Us About, Water Clarity,
Schooling Fish and Sharks Coming Into the Area...

The Beach Patrol Also...
Relocated Surfing Contest to Another Area Away
From The Inlet
We Put Out Signs on the Beach Warning Beach
Patrons of Dangerous Marine Life

Joe Wooden

Joe Wooden

~nrlez ~ei te onJr bites
pn Ile

Eventually, Most Media Will Balance Out The

Information... And Give a Fact Based Article





SFlorida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission
Division of Marine Fisheries

Sept 1999 FWC receives request to ban marine life feeding

Oct 1999, July 2000 Public workshops held

Sept 2000 Draft rule to ban shark feeding; not banned
FWC requests industry to develop feeding guidelines

May 2001 Industry presents feeding guidelines to FWC

Sept 2001 Staff revises guidelines,
presents to Commission

Nov 2001 Marine life feeding
banned in state waters


* 4 known feeding dive operators
2 in Florida Keys, 2 off SE Florida

* Natural reefs and wrecks used as feeding sites most
are popular dive spots

* Feeding Methods:
Hand feeding
Frozen or fresh bait in plastic crate or tube






Feeding marine life disrupts the natural behavior and feeding
habits of fish
* condition an animal's behavior to associate food with humans


* Distance of feeding sites from swimming beaches

* Diver safety during feeding dives

* Diver safety during non-feeding dives
public dive sites used as feeding sites




* Eight environmental organizations and safety groups
supported banning marine life feeding

* Cities Passing Resolutions to Support FWC Ban

* Deerfield Beach
* Hillsboro Beach
* Lighthouse Point

* Delray Beach
* Coconut Creek
* Fort Lauderdale

- Biscayne National Park prohibits feeding of marine life.

The Commission emphasized that their decision to ban
marine life feeding was not linked to the media publicity
about conflicts among sharks and beach goers.


Rule prohibits:

1) divers from engaging in fish feeding

2) persons operating for hire vessels from carrying
passengers to sites within state waters to engage in
or observe fish feeding

"Fish feeding" means the introduction of any food or other substance
into the water by a diver for the purpose of feeding or attracting
marine species


The FWC also prohibits the feeding of:

Alligators and crocodiles
Black bears
Sandhill cranes

* See 68A-4.001(3) F.A.C. and 372.667 F.S.


In Perspective:
From Fear to Fascination
Background Sheet

Shark Management
The Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act requires overfished shark
stocks to be rebuilt and requires healthy shark populations to be maintained.
Many shark stocks, particularly in the Atlantic, are overfished and must be rebuilt.
Nationally, the United States recently enacted a ban on shark finning that prohibits any person
under U.S. jurisdiction from engaging in shark finning and possessing shark fins harvested on
board a U.S. fishing vessel without the corresponding carcasses. Finning is defined as the
practice of removing the fin(s) from a shark and discarding the remainder of the shark at sea.
The United States is a conservation leader internationally and was a key player in developing the
Food and Agriculture Organization's International Plan of Action for the Conservation and
Management of Sharks. The United States is one of two nations (out of 87 shark fishing nations)
to develop a National Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks.
The United States has participated or plans on participating in bilateral meetings regarding shark
management with Japan, Spain, Taiwan, the European Union, Canada, China, and Mexico.

In the Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea:
All Federal fisheries for sharks, except dogfish, are managed under the Fishery
Management Plan for Atlantic tunas, swordfish, and sharks
Large Coastal Sharks (e.g., sandbar, blacktip, bull, tiger, hammerheads) are overfished
Small Coastal Sharks (e.g., Atlantic sharpnose, finetooth, bonnethead) are fully fished
Pelagic sharks (e.g., blue, shortfin mako, porbeagle, thresher) population status is
unknown (an international assessment is needed to determine)
Commercial fishermen are restricted by quotas, trip limits, and limited access permits
Recreational fishermen are restricted by bag limits and a minimum size
All fishermen are prohibited from keeping 19 species of sharks including white, whale,
and basking sharks
NOAA Fisheries has designated certain areas as essential fish habitat
NOAA Fisheries is conducting assessments for large and small coastal sharks in 2002

Shark Mangment Page of2 e a
Shark Management Page 1 of2 Florida

In the Pacific:

The status of most shark species in the Pacific Ocean is unknown. Recent assessments
found that the blue shark population is healthy and the common thresher and Pacific
angel shark populations are in recovery
There is a Pacific Highly Migratory Species Fishery Management Plan under
development (includes CA, OR, and WA). The draft plan proposes harvest guidelines for
mako and common thresher sharks and coastwide protection for white, megamouth, and
basking sharks
The Western Pacific Pelagic Fisheries Fishery Management Plan (includes HI, AS, GU)
covers sharks including blue, mako, and thresher sharks
In the North Pacific (includes AK), sharks are covered under the Groundfish Fishery
Management Plan. This includes salmon, sleeper, and dogfish sharks.
For Further Information Contact: (301) 713-2370



Shark Management Page 2 of 2

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