Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Stratigraphy and ages of southern...
 Tamiami formation
 Caloosahatchee formation
 The Caloosahatchee fauna at APAC...
 Bermont formation
 Ft. Thompson formation
 Coffee Mill Hammock formation
 Latirus (Latirus) nosali new...
 Latirus (Latirus) stephensae new...
 Latirus (Latirus) cariniferus...
 Subgenus Polygona Schumacher
 Latirus (Polygona) miamiensus...
 Latirus (Polygona) caloosahatchiensis...
 Latirus (Polygona) hypsipettus...
 Latirus (Polygona) jucundus...
 Latirus (Polygona) maxwelli...
 Literature cited
 Back Cover

Group Title: Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History
Title: Post-Miocene species of Latirus Montfort, 1810 (Mollusca Fasciolariidae) of southern Florida, with a review of regional marine biostratigraphy
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00095829/00001
 Material Information
Title: Post-Miocene species of Latirus Montfort, 1810 (Mollusca Fasciolariidae) of southern Florida, with a review of regional marine biostratigraphy
Series Title: Bulletin - Florida Museum of Natural History ; volume 35, number 3
Physical Description: p. 131-208 : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Lyons, William G
Florida Museum of Natural History
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1991
Copyright Date: 1991
Subject: Gastropoda, Fossil -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Paleontology -- Pliocene   ( lcsh )
Paleontology -- Quaternary   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 202-208).
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: Abstract also in Spanish.
General Note: "Publication date: February 15, 1991"--Verso cover.
Statement of Responsibility: William G. Lyons.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00095829
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 24564617
issn - 0071-6154 ;

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
    Table of Contents
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
    Stratigraphy and ages of southern Florida marine deposits
        Page 136
    Tamiami formation
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
    Caloosahatchee formation
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
    The Caloosahatchee fauna at APAC mine
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
    Bermont formation
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
    Ft. Thompson formation
        Page 159
        Page 160
    Coffee Mill Hammock formation
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
    Latirus (Latirus) nosali new species
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
    Latirus (Latirus) stephensae new species
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
    Latirus (Latirus) cariniferus (Lamarck)
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
    Subgenus Polygona Schumacher
        Page 175
    Latirus (Polygona) miamiensus Petuch
        Page 176
        Page 177
    Latirus (Polygona) caloosahatchiensis new name
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
    Latirus (Polygona) hypsipettus Dall
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
    Latirus (Polygona) jucundus McGinty
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
    Latirus (Polygona) maxwelli Pilsbry
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
    Literature cited
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
    Back Cover
        Page 210
Full Text

*i:U nu TIii

of the



William G. Lyons

Biological Sciences, Volume 35, Number 3, pp. 131-208 1991



BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, are published at irregular intervals. Volumes contain about 300
pages and are not necessarily completed in any one calendar year.

RHODA J. BRYANT, Managing Editor

Communications concerning purchase or exchange of the publications and all manuscripts should
be addressed to: Managing Editor, Bulletin; Florida Museum of Natural History; University of
Florida; Gainesville FL 32611-2035; U.S.A.

This public document was promulgated at an annual cost of $6136.00 OR
$6.136 per copy. It makes available to libraries, scholars, and all interested
persons the results of researches in the natural sciences, emphasizing the
circum-Caribbean region.

ISSN: 0071-6154


Publication date: February 15, 1991

Price: $6.25


William G. Lyons*


Pliocene and Pleistocene marine deposits of southern Florida include the Tamiami,
Caloosahatchee Bermont, Ft. Thompson, and Coffee Mill Hammock formations. Eight species
of Latirus from three of these deposits are described and illustrated. Latirus (Latirus) nosali new
species and L. (Polvgona) miamiensis Petuch, 1986, occur in the middle Pliocene Pinecrest facies
of the Tamiami Formation; L. (L.) stephensae new species, L. (P.) hypsipettus Dall, 1890
(synonym: L. tessellatus seminolensis M. Smith, 1936), and L. (P.) caloosahatchiensis new name
for L. tessellatus Dall, 1890, non R6cluz, 1844, nec Kobelt, 1874, occur in the late Pliocene
Caloosahatchee Formation; and L. (L.) cariniferus (Lamarck, 1816), L. (P.) maxwelli Pilsbry,
1939, and L. (P.) jucundus McGinty, 1940, occur in the early Pleistocene Bermont Formation. No
species of Latirus is known from the late Pleistocene Ft. Thompson or Coffee Mill Hammock
formations. The Florida fossils are compared with 9 late Miocene to Pleistocene species from the
Caribbean Basin and with 11 species in the Recent fauna of Florida and the Caribbean Sea. Of
the four Recent species of Latirus that occur in Florida, only one also occurs in Florida
Pleistocene deposits, but three, and possibly all four, are known as Pleistocene fossils in the
Caribbean Basin.


Los dep6sitos marines del Plioceno y Pleistocene del sur de Florida incluyen las
formaciones Tamiami, Caloosahatchee, Bermont, Ft. Thompson, y Coffee Mill Hammock. Ocho
species de Latirus de tres de estos dep6sitos son descritas e illustradas. Latirus (Latirus) nosali
especie nueva y L. (Polygona) miamiensis Petuch, 1986, se encuentran en los estratos Pinecrest
del Pleistocene medio de la Formaci6n Tamiami; L. (L.) stephensae especie nueva, L. (P.)

* Department of Natural Resources, Florida Marine Research Institute, 100 Eighth Avenue S.E., St. Petersburg, Florida 33701-

Lyons, W.G. 1991. Post-Miocene species of Latirus Montfort, 1810 (Mollusca: Fasciolariidae) of
southern Florida, with a review of regional marine biostratigraphy. Bull. Florida Mus. Nat. Hist.,
Biol. Sci. 35(3):131-208.


hypsipettus Dall, 1890 (synonym: L. tessellatus seminolensis M. Smith, 1936), y L. (P.)
caloosahatchiensis nombre nuevo para L. tessellatus Dall, 1890, non Rdcluz, 1844, nee Kobelt,
1874, se encuentran en el Plioceno tardio de la Formaci6n Caloosahatchee; y L. (L.) cariniferus
(Lamarck, 1816), L. (P.) maxwelli Pilsbry, 1939, y L. (P.) jucundus McGinty, 1940, se encuentran
en el Plioceno temprano de la Formaci6n Bermont. No especie de Latirus es conocida del
Pleistoceno tardio de las formaciones Ft. Thompson o Coffee Mill Hammock. Los f6siles de
Florida son comparados con 9 species del Mioceno tardio al Pleistoceno de la Regi6n del Caribe
y con 11 species en la fauna del Reciente de Florida y el Mar Caribe. De las cuatro species de
Latirus del Reciente que se encuentran en Florida, solo una se encuentra tambien en dep6sitos
del Pleistoceno de Florida, sin embargo tres, y posiblemente las cuatro todas, son conocidas
como f6siles del Pleistoceno en la Regi6n del Caribe.

Key words: Gastropoda, Fasciolariidae, Latirus, Pliocene, Pleistocene, Florida, Caribbean Basin.


Introduction....................................................................................... ............................................. 132
A know ledgem ents................................................. ................. ........... ........................ .. 134
Stratigraphy and Ages of Southern Florida Marine Deposits....................................................... 136
T am iam i Form ation.................................. ............................................ ......................... 137
Caloosahatchee Form ation.......................................................................................................... 145
The Caloosahatchee Fauna at APAC Mine............................ ................ .......... 151
Berm ont Form ation............................................................................ ................................... 155
Ft. Thom pson Form ation...................................................................... ........................ 159
Coffee Mill Hammock Formation...................................................... 161
Sum m ary.............................................................. .................................... ............ 161
M methods ........................................................................................................................ ................ .. 163
System atics ................................................................................................... .. ............................ .. 165
G enus Latirus M ontfort................................................................................ ........................ 165
Latirus (Latirus) nosali new species................................................. ....... 166
Latirus (Latirus) stephensae new species....................................................... 169
Latirus (Latirus) cariniferus (Lamarck)......................................................... 172
Subgenus Polygona Schumacher................................................. ..... 175
Latirus (Polygona) miamiensis Petuch............................................. ............................... 176
Latirus (Polygona) caloosahatchiensis new name....................................................... 178
Latirus (Polygona) hypsipettus Dall .............................................................. 182
Latirus (Polygona) jucundus M cGinty................................. .......................................... 186
Latirus (Polygona) m axwelli Pilsbry...................................... .......................................... 192
Discussion................................................. 196
Literature C ited............................................................................. ................ ............ 202


A century has passed since the publication of the first part of William
Healey Dall's monograph on the Tertiary mollusks of Florida (Dall 1890). The
scope of Dall's work, which he began in 1885, was greatly expanded by the
discovery during early 1886 of rich deposits of fossil mollusks in the banks of


the Caloosahatchee River (Heilprin 1886-1887; see Petit and Wilson 1987) and
by collections that Dall himself made soon thereafter along the Caloosahatchee
River and elsewhere in southwestern Florida. Unfortunately, as sometimes
happens after the publication of great works, investigations of the fossil
mollusks of southern Florida waned after Dall completed his study (Dall 1903).
A resurgence of interest occurred several decades later when excavations for
flood control, wetland drainage, and highway construction began to reveal an
abundance of strata and accompanying new taxa not known to Dall. Pertinent
papers on fossil mollusks of southern Florida published during the 1930s and
1940s include those by Mansfield (1931, 1932, 1939), Tucker and Wilson
(1932a, 1932b, 1933), Smith (1936), Pilsbry (1939), and McGinty (1940). These
revelations led to another major contribution: the review of Pliocene mollusks
of southern Florida by Olsson and Harbison (1953). However, excavations
that continued during the 1950s and 1960s revealed additional taxa, many
undescribed, that limited the usefulness of Olsson and Harbison's monograph.
Some of the subsequent contributions useful in identifying and understanding
the distributions of Florida fossil mollusks include those by DuBar (1958a,
1958b, 1962a, 1974), Olsson and Petit (1964), Olsson (1967), Perkins (1968),
Hoerle (1970), McGinty (1970), and numerous papers by E.H. Vokes,
principally on Muricidae and Turbinellidae, published since 1963 and still
forthcoming. Most recently, Petuch (1982a, 1982b, 1986a, 1988) has made
important contributions to the systematics and stratigraphy of Florida fossil
The recent discovery of a species of Latints in excavations at APAC Mine
near Sarasota, Florida, prompted this review of previously named taxa in
Latims Montfort, 1810, and Peristemia Morch, 1852. Members of the
gastropod family Fasciolariidae, including the subfamily Peristerniinae, are
prominent constituents of the post-Miocene fossil beds of southern Florida.
Names proposed for Florida fossil species of Latinms during the past century
include L. hypsipettus Dall, 1890, L. tessellatius Dall, 1890, L. tessellatius
seminolensis M. Smith, 1936, L. maxwelli Pilsbry, 1939, L. jucundus McGinty,
1940, and L. miamiensis Petuch, 1986. Two names originally erected for
Recent taxa, L. mcgintyi Pilsbry, 1939, and L. brevicaudatus (Reeve, 1847), have
also appeared on lists of Florida fossils. Another two species, "Peristemia"
filicata (Conrad, 1843) and "P." insula Olsson, 1922, have been reported as
Florida fossils (Mansfield 1930; Tucker and Wilson 1933; Campbell et al.
1975). Cossmann (1901) reported the first of these species as "Lathyms [=
Latints] filicatus," and Dall (1903) listed the species as Latints filicatus.
However, neither of the species belong to Peristemia or Latimrs, or even to the
family Fasciolariidae. Instead, those species are members of the family
Buccinidae and are not included in this report. Likewise, two Florida Pliocene
species of Dolicholatims Bellardi, 1884, a genus usually included in
Peristerniinae, were revealed during this study. Because radulae of species of


Dolicholatims resemble the radulae of species of Turbinellidae (fide Abbott
1958; Vokes 1977) more than they resemble the radulae of species of
Fasciolariidae, the species of Dolicholatirus are not treated here.
The results of this review indicate the presence of eight species of Latirus
in Pliocene and Pleistocene deposits of southern Florida, including two species
described as new and one for which a replacement name is proposed. No
species of Peristemia were found. The Florida fossil Latirus species are
compared with 9 species from late Miocene to Pleistocene deposits of the
Caribbean Basin and with 11 species that occur in the Recent fauna of the
Caribbean Region.
The Florida fossil species of Latirus can be associated with particular
depositional units, thereby rendering the species useful as biostratigraphic
index taxa. However, the ages, stratigraphic relationships, and formational
names of the Florida deposits in which the species of Latims occur have been
topics of considerable controversy. Consequently, it was necessary to review
the evidence related to age and stratigraphy of the deposits in order to
understand the ages and relationships of the species of Latints. The review, as
well as a revised chronological sequence for the deposits proposed as a result
of that review, is presented as a preface to the systematic work. Most southern
Florida localities mentioned in the review are depicted in Figure 1.


For providing access to types and other specimens in their charge, I thank Douglas S. Jones
and Roger W. Portell, Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville;
George M. Davis and Elana Benamy, Division of Mollusks, Academy of Natural Sciences of
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Thomas R. Waller and Warren Blow, Division of Invertebrate
Paleontology, National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C.; Silvard P. Kool, Museum
of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts; Edward J. Petuch,
Department of Geology, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton; Emily H. and Harold E.
Vokes, Department of Geology, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana; and R.J.
Moolenbeek, Instituut voor Taxonomische Zoblogie, Universiteit van Amsterdam, The
Netherlands. For donating or allowing me to examine specimens from their private collections, I
thank Yvonne Bequet, St. Petersburg; Evelyn Bradley, Sarasota; Meta Jones, Sarasota; and Susan
B. Stephens, Sanibel Island, Florida. I thank David G. Robinson, Department of Geology,
Tulane University, for information on Latimrs cariniferus from his unpublished studies of living
fauna of the Dominican Republic and of fossils from the Moin Formation of Costa Rica. I am
grateful to Robert C. Bullock, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Rhode Island,
Kingston, for providing a copy of his unpublished thesis on Recent Latirus and related genera of
the Caribbean Region and for discussions on the biology and systematics of Latirus. Warren D.
Allmon, Department of Geology, University of South Florida, Tampa, is thanked for stimulating
discussions on biostratigraphy. David Little, Florida Rock Industries, Inc., allowed access for
field collecting at Mule Pen Quarry. Richard E. Petit, North Myrtle Beach, South Carolina; R.
Tucker Abbott, American Malacologists, Inc., Melbourne, Florida; and Emily H. Vokes, Tulane
University, provided copies of important literature. James F. Quinn, Jr., Florida Marine
Research Institute (FMRI), provided literature and reviewed a draft of the manuscript; Thomas
H. Perkins and Judy Leiby (both FMRI) and three anonymous reviewers also improved the


I O -
JAs '.---, ,

4/ 0. r /. \ .
qs- .

Figure .--Florida localities from which post-Miocene specimens of Latirus were examined.


manuscript. Sally D. Kaicher of St. Petersburg provided literature and photographed most of the
specimens; Llyn French (FMRI) produced Fig. 1 and the overlays for the other figures; and
Jeanne Hoyt (FMRI) typed the manuscript.


As knowledge of the fossil mollusks of Florida has increased, so has
understanding of the stratigraphy of the deposits which contain them. The
aforementioned excavations have revealed richly fossiliferous deposits both
above and below the original Caloosahatchee beds, and several of these
deposits have received formational names. Although the stratigraphic code
requires lithologic differences for recognition of lithostratigraphic units, there
are few lithologic criteria that distinguish most of the named "formations" of
southern Florida. Instead, the units are identified by their contained faunas,
principally mollusks. The formational names are used here because of their
widespread use in the geological and paleontological literature and because
they serve, to a limited extent, to identify chronologically discrete
biostratigraphic zones. However, as will be shown, the use of lithostratigraphic
names has confused as much as clarified understanding of the molluscan
biostratigraphic sequence.
Estimates of the boundary ages of the post-Miocene formations of
southern Florida are still controversial. Until recently, use of Lyellian
percentages (i.e. the fraction of species in a fossil fauna that has survived to the
Recent) caused overestimates of their ages because the catastrophic
magnitude of molluscan extinctions in the western Atlantic during the Pliocene
and Pleistocene epochs had not been recognized (Akers 1972; Stanley 1986).
Conversely, underestimates of the age of the Plio-Pleistocene boundary and
misinterpretations of mammalian fossil evidence, principally ofEquus sp. from
the banks of the Caloosahatchee River (DuBar 1958a), prompted
underestimates of the ages of some of the strata (see Gibson 1983a: 356-357).
Approaches now used to discern the relationships and ages of marine
fossil beds include comparisons of faunal similarity; studies of the sequence of
planktonic microfossils and correlations with global climatic events; and
absolute dating methods. Studies of faunal similarity, although useful in
demonstrating the relationships between stratigraphically or geographically
disjunct fossil assemblages, reveal little about the ages of those assemblages.
Studies of planktonic microfossils (Akers 1972; Gibson 1983a, 1983b; Hazel
1983); helium/uranium (He/U) isotope dates of corals (Bender 1972, 1973);
thorium/uranium (Th230/U234) isotope dates of corals, limestones, and oolites
(Broecker and Thurber 1965; Osmond et al. 1965, 1970; Harmon et al. 1979);


amino acid enantiomeric ratios in bivalve shells (Mitterer 1974, 1975;
Wehmiller and Belknap 1978); strontium (Sr87/Sr86) isotope ratios in bivalves
(Webb et al. 1989); and magnetostratigraphy (Webb et al. 1989) have
prompted re-evaluation of the ages of many deposits. However, the accuracy
of results obtained using most of these techniques remains uncertain.
In upward progression, the post-Miocene stratigraphic sequence used
here consists of the Tamiami Formation (Mansfield 1939; = Buckingham
Formation of Mansfield 1939; = Pinecrest beds of Olsson 1964, Pinecrest "beds
or formation" of Olsson 1968); the Caloosahatchee Formation (Dall 1887); the
Bermont Formation (DuBar 1974; = "Unit A" of Olsson 1964, 1968; = "Glades
Unit" of McGinty 1970); the Ft. Thompson Formation (Sellards 1919); and the
Coffee Mill Hammock Formation (Sellards 1919). The principal controversies
regarding these units involve the stratigraphic relationships between the
Tamiami Formation, the Pinecrest beds, and the Buckingham Formation; the
chronologic and stratigraphic limits of the Caloosahatchee Formation, the
Bermont Formation, and the Ft. Thompson Formation; and the relationship
between the Ft. Thompson and the Coffee Mill Hammock formations.

Tamiami Formation

Considerable controversy exists regarding the relationships of the
Buckingham and Tamiami formations and the Pinecrest beds. The
Buckingham Formation and the Tamiami Formation were described
consecutively by Mansfield (1939: 8) as discrete formational units beneath the
Caloosahatchee Formation. Mansfield (1939) designated a quarry "half a mile
west of Orange River, Lee County" as the type locality of the Buckingham
Formation, and he identified other Buckingham strata along the
Caloosahatchee River. The Tamiami Formation was proposed by Mansfield
"for a limestone penetrated in digging shallow ditches to form the road bed of
the Tamiami Trail over a distance of about 34 miles in Collier and Monroe
Counties." Olsson (1964, 1968) implied that the type locality of the Tamiami
Formation was near the junction of the Tamiami Trail and Route 29 in Collier
County, but Mansfield did not designate a specific locality for the Tamiami
Formation. Olsson's claim seems to have been derived from Mansfield's
statement that "the character of the matrix and the included fossils were
described elsewhere" (i.e. in Mansfield 1932). Mansfield (1932: 43) described
fossils from five locations (1/1176-1/1180) "along the Tamiami Trail within a
northwest-southeast distance of about 34 miles, in Collier and Monroe
Counties." Actually, all five of Mansfield's stations were in Collier County and
extended from "9 miles west of Pinecrest" to "about 11 miles east by north of


Marco." His station 1/1180, "Tamiami Trail at Carnestown," at the junction of
the Tamiami Trail and Florida State Road 29, is the location cited by Olsson.
The type locality of the Pinecrest beds is in "sand, barren or highly
fossiliferous, encountered directly below a surface limestone [Tamiami
Formation?] in the general region of 40 Mile Bend [40 miles west of Miami] on
the Tamiami Trail and extending into Collier County" (Olsson 1964: 516).
Olsson (1964) originally considered the Pinecrest beds to be a lower member
of the Caloosahatchee Formation. Later, Olsson (1968) treated the Pinecrest
beds as a separate formation that he considered to be younger than the
Tamiami Formation but older than the Caloosahatchee Formation.
The typical Tamiami Formation is now considered by most workers to be
a stratum, principally of consolidated limestone, said to underlie the Pinecrest
beds. In that stratum, the aragonitic fossils have been dissolved, and the most
useful faunal indicators consist of calcitic remains, principally of pectens,
oysters, barnacles, and echinoids. In reference to his 1932 report, Mansfield
(1939) mentioned that the Tamiami fauna includes six genera of gastropods.
Mansfield (1932) listed Terebra dislocata (Say, 1822), Fasciolaria sp., Strombus
sp., Turnitella n. sp.? aff. T. perattenuata Heilprin, 1886, Calyptraea sp., and
Cincibuihun sp. from his Tamiami collections, but those names are too
ambiguous to be of value as index taxa. The only other gastropod that has
been mentioned as an indicator of the lithified Tamiami deposits is Ecphora
quadiicostata umbilicata "Wagner" (Hunter 1968; Brooks 1974), but that name
has also been rendered ambiguous due to the recent revisions by Wilson
(1987), Ward and Gilinsky (1988), and Petuch (1989). Consequently, Olsson
(1964, 1968), Brooks (1974), Vokes (1988), and others have emphasized the
calcitic bivalves, barnacles, and echinoids as typical Tamiami index taxa.
Adherents to this restricted definition of the Tamiami Formation are generally
those who combine the Buckingham and the Tamiami formations and
recognize the Pinecrest as a separate unit.
Petuch (1986a, 1988, 1989) has maintained that the Buckingham and
Pinecrest units constitute a single formation that, as Mansfield contended, is
older than the Tamiami Formation. Petuch (1986a) also pointed out that the
name "Pinecrest Formation" of Olsson (1964, 1968) is a stratigraphic junior
homonym of the Triassic Pinecrest Formation of Utah, and the earlier name
"Buckingham Formation" of Mansfield should be used for the Florida deposits.
Vokes (1988: 2) responded to Petuch's remarks with the observations that
Mansfield's Buckingham Formation is simply the non-indurated phase of the
typically indurated limestone of the Tamiami Formation, that both are faces
distinct from the Pinecrest beds facies, and that in any event Mansfield's name
is preoccupied by the Precambrian Buckingham Gneiss of Quebec and thus is
equally inappropriate for the Florida deposits.
Despite Vokes' assertion, Petuch's argument that the Florida Buckingham
Formation and Pinecrest beds are equivalent has merit. Mansfield (1939)


obviously believed that the Buckingham Formation was older than the
Tamiami Formation. He reported Tamiami limestone overlying Buckingham
strata at a site about 6 km from the type locality of the Buckingham Formation,
and he proposed three stratigraphic units along the Caloosahatchee River: "the
Buckingham limestone (upper Miocene), the Tamiami limestone (lower
Pliocene), and the Caloosahatchee marl (Pliocene)." Mansfield noted that
several characteristic species of the Buckingham Formation had been reported
from pit excavations west of Acline (Charlotte County) by Tucker and Wilson
(1932a), and he remarked on the similarity between the Buckingham fauna and
the fauna in sands from an excavation along the Tamiami Trail 42 miles west of
Miami (i.e. near Pinecrest). Mansfield (1931) had previously stated that the
limestone at his Tamiami Trail station 1/1179 was younger than the sands near
Pinecrest, which he associated with the Buckingham Formation. Mansfield
(1931) reported 55 species of mollusks from the latter locality, including 11
which he described as new; his new species included Tunitella pontoni and
Cypraea carolinensis flofidana.
Among the gastropods that Mansfield (1939) stated to be indicative of the
Buckingham Formation were "Tunitella cf. T. pontoni Mansfield [1931];
Cancellalia cf. C. tabulata Gardner and Aldrich [1919]; Cancellaria aff. C.
venusta Tuomey and Holmes [1856]; Dorsanum? cf. D.? plicatilum (Base
[1906]); and Cypraea carolinensis floridana Mansfield [1931]." Mansfield noted
that his specimen of "Cancellaria aff. C. venusta," an external mold, was larger
than typical C. venusta and in that feature resembled C. propevenusta
Mansfield, 1930, a species then known only from supposed upper Miocene
(actually middle Pliocene) deposits of north Florida and the Carolinas (see
Mansfield 1930: 47,48).
Several of Mansfield's Buckingham index species, including Tunitella
pontoni, Cancellaria propevenusta, Dorsanun plicatile, and Siphocypraea
flolidana, were also designated as characteristic species of the Pinecrest beds
by Olsson (1964, 1968). Olsson noted that Mansfield (1931) had described a
collection of fossils from near the type locality of the Pinecrest beds, and he
stated further that the Acline fauna described by Tucker and Wilson "belongs
to the same [i.e. Pinecrest] unit."
Despite Olsson's statement (1964: 515) that "the Buckingham marl is a
light or cream-colored faces of the Tamiami," it is difficult to avoid the
conclusion that both Mansfield and Olsson had the same fauna in mind when
they named the Buckingham and Pinecrest units. This conclusion is supported
by the facts that 1) the units share identical index taxa; 2) both authors
considered the Acline fauna as belonging to their units; and 3) the type
deposits of the Pinecrest beds on the Tamiami Trail seem to be the same sands
from which Mansfield originally described some of his Buckingham index
species, sands which Mansfield (1939) later associated with the Buckingham


Parker and Cooke (1944) included Mansfield's sands near Pinecrest and
some subsurface deposits near Miami within their concept of the Tamiami
Formation, and they considered the Buckingham limestone to be a facies of the
Tamiami limestone. They considered all of these strata to be of Pliocene age.
Schroeder (1954) also included the Buckingham limestone in the Tamiami
Formation, but he considered the units to be of late Miocene age. Parker
(1951) redefined the Tamiami Formation to include all "late Miocene" strata in
southern Florida, thereby including the Tamiami and Buckingham formations
and, according to Brooks (1968), even including the upper part of the
Hawthorn Formation, a stratum still acknowledged as Miocene (Scott 1988).
Drawing upon these expanded concepts of the Tamiami Formation,
Hunter (1968) defined three biostratigraphic range zones within the Tamiami,
naming each zone for a prominent and supposedly characteristic species of
Pecten (sensu lato), i.e. in downward sequence the "Pecten tamiamiensis
[Mansfield, 1932] zone," the "Pecten [= Chesapecten] jeffersonius [Say, 1824]
zone," and the "Pecten [= Chesapecten] santamaria middlesexensis [Mansfield,
1936] zone."
Hunter included Mansfield's Tamiami and Buckingham units, as well as
Olsson's Pinecrest beds, within her Pecten tamiamiensis concurrent range zone.
She named a hard, sandy limestone within the type area of Mansfield's
Tamiami Formation as the Ochopee Limestone Member, and she contended
that most species represented as molds of aragonitic fossils in the Ochopee
limestone are present as shells in "Mansfield's sand at Pinecrest." Hunter also
contended that the shell-bearing sands mentioned by Mansfield (1939) were
the same sands that Olsson (1964) designated as the Pinecrest beds. Thus,
Hunter considered the Pinecrest sands, the Buckingham limestone, and the
Ochopee limestone to be sand, soft limestone, and hard limestone facies of a
single depositional unit. Hunter listed 17 gastropods and 26 bivalves as
representative of the P. tamiamiensis zone; included among the gastropods
were Cancellaria tabulata, C. propevenusta, Dorsanum plicatile, Sconsia hodgei
(Conrad, 1841), "Cypraea carolinensis Conrad [1841] and subspecies" (i.e.
Siphocypraea floridana), and Ecphora quadricostata iumbilicata (Dall, 1898).
Hunter defined the Pecten jeffersonius zone from strata at Murdock
Station in Charlotte County, and she described both an upper and a lower unit
for her Murdock Station Member of the Tamiami Formation. The units were
distinguished principally by differences in their faunas of oysters, pectens, and
echinoderms, and by the gastropod Ecphora qutadiicostata (Say, 1824).
Chesapecten jeffersonius is common in lower Pliocene Yorktown deposits of
Virginia and North Carolina (Ward and Blackwelder 1975; Gibson 1987).
Hunter defined her Pecten santamaria middlesexensis biostratigraphic
zone based upon fauna in her Bayshore Clay Member of the Tamiami
Formation. Like the P. jeffersonius zone above it, the P. santamalia
middlesexensis zone was characterized by various pectens, oysters, and the


gastropod E. quadricostata. According to Gibson (1983b, 1987), Chesapecten
santamaria (Tucker, 1934) is characteristic of the middle to late Miocene St.
Marys Formation of Maryland, and Chesapecten middlesexensis occurs in the
younger "Virginia St. Marys" beds, which Gibson (1983b) considered to be the
late Miocene part of the Yorktown Formation. A transitional form of
Chesapecten middlesexensis C. jeffersonius also occurs in the uppermost part
of the "Virginia St. Marys" beds (Ward and Blackwelder 1975; Gibson 1983b).
Ward and Blackwelder (1980) gave the name Eastover Formation to the
"Virginia St. Marys" beds, which they assigned to the upper Miocene. Thus,
Hunter's Bayshore Clay Member seems to be of late Miocene age.
DuBar (1974) concurred with Brooks (1968) and Hunter (1968) in
considering the Buckingham Formation and the Pinecrest beds to be faces of
the Tamiami Formation. DuBar (1974: 211) recognized a "medial to late
Pliocene" upper Tamiami Formation, containing the Ochopee Limestone,
Pinecrest Sand, and Buckingham Limestone members, and a "medial Miocene
to medial Pliocene" lower Tamiami Formation, containing the Murdock
Station and Bayshore Clay members. DuBar listed 44 gastropod species,
virtually all of which actually occur in the Pinecrest sands, as characteristic
Tamiami macrofossils. DuBar's list includes Mansfield's Buckingham taxa,
most of the Acline species described by Tucker and Wilson (1932a, 1933), and
most of the species associated with the Pinecrest beds by Olsson and Petit
(1964), Olsson (1967, 1968), and Hunter (1968).
Finally, in a curious reversal of opinion, Brooks (1974) decided that the
Pinecrest beds were not contemporaneous with the Tamiami Formation but
were, instead, a faces of the lower unit of the Caloosahatchee Formation.
Olsson (1964) had originally proposed a Caloosahatchee-Pinecrest
equivalence, but he later (Olsson 1968) favored association of the Pinecrest
beds with the Tamiami Formation. No subsequent evidence has been
presented to support Brooks' (1974) opinion.
Blackwelder (1981a) used molluscan data to distinguish six
biostratigraphic interval-zones (M1 to M6 in downward sequence) for post-
Miocene deposits of the middle Atlantic Coastal Plain (Virginia to Georgia),
and he identified numerous taxa that he used to define the zones. Soon
thereafter, Petuch (1982b) described 11 biostratigraphic units (1 to 11 in
downward sequence) at APAC Mine in Sarasota. Petuch assigned Units 2-9 to
the Pliocene Pinecrest beds and Units 10 and 11 to the Tamiami Formation,
which he related to the Chesapeake Miocene. (Actually, Petuch was equivocal
regarding Unit 10; on pp. 12 and 19, he assigned that unit to the Miocene, but
on pp. 20 and 21 he assigned it to the Pinecrest beds.) The presence of species
common to both regions allows correlations of several of Petuch's lower units
with Blackwelder's interval-zones. For example, Stanley (1986) listed several
species of bivalves from APAC Mine (e.g. Chesapecten jeffersonius; Ostrea
compressirostra (Say, 1824)) that occur in Petuch's basal Unit 11. Blackwelder


(1981a) cited those species as indicators of interval-zone M6, which
corresponds to his Wiltonian Stage, the narrow and short-lived basal Pliocene
stage of southeastern North America. According to Blackwelder, only about
5% of the molluscan species in Wiltonian assemblages are extant.
Blackwelder (1981a) estimated the age of interval-zone M6 to be
approximately 4.8-4.7 million years (m.y.), which he considered equivalent to
the base of planktonic foraminiferal zone N19. Later, in collaboration with
others (Cronin et al. 1984), Blackwelder revised his estimate of the age of
interval-zone M6 to approximately 4.0-3.8 m.y., i.e. upper zone N19. The ages
of some of Blackwelder's younger interval zones M5-M1 were also revised by
Cronin et al. (1984) to bring them into compliance with evidence derived from
calcareous nannofossils, planktonic foraminiferans, ostracodes, and
paleomagnetism. Both Blackwelder's original estimates and his revised
estimates in Cronin et al. are presented here.
It must be noted here that Petuch (1989) redesignated Unit 11 as the
stratotype of his newly named Sarasota Member, which he defined as the
uppermost member of the Hawthorn Formation. Based on several index taxa,
Petuch declared the Sarasota Member to be late Tortonian-early Messinian
Miocene in age. However, it is not clear how Petuch's Sarasota Member
differs faunistically from Hunter's (1968) Murdock Station Member of the
Tamiami Formation, nor why, on the basis of the species Petuch (1982b) listed
in Unit 11, the member should not be assigned to the early Pliocene.
Blackwelder considered interval-zone M5, his Burwellian Stage, to be
contemporaneous with the upper Tamiami and the Jackson Bluff formations in
Florida, with the Raysor Formation in South Carolina, and with the Yorktown
Formation in North Carolina and Virginia. Approximately 5% of the
Burwellian mollusk species are extant (Blackwelder 1981a). Some of
Blackwelder's M5 index taxa (e.g. Panopea reflexa Say, 1824; Mercenaria
tridacnoides [Lamarck, 1818]; Sconsia hodgeii) occur at APAC Mine, and
Petuch identified P. reflexa and M. tridacnoides in his Unit 10. Petuch's narrow
Unit 9 was defined only by species that also occur in other units, and his Units
8 and 5 are simply shallow-water beds of Vennicularia recta Olsson and
Harbison, 1953, that bracket the deeper-water Units 7 and 6. Unit 7, his
thickest section, reportedly contains more than 250 species of caenogastropods,
including Sconsia hodgeii, and his Unit 6 contains Buccinofitsus sparrowi
(Emmons, 1858), a species typically associated with upper Yorktown deposits
in the Carolinas. Units 7 and 6 also contain Cancellaria tabulata, C.
propevenusta, Dorsanum plicatile, and Siphocypraea floridana, index taxa for
the Pinecrest faces of the Tamiami Formation. Thus, Petuch's Units 10-6 at
Sarasota correlate with the lower and upper Yorktown units of Virginia and
North Carolina. Blackwelder (1981a: 7-9, text-fig. 1) reviewed dating studies
whose results suggest that these strata were deposited between 4.6 and 3.0 m.y.
ago, but he depicted the Yorktown Formation as no younger than about 3.7


m.y., i.e. uppermost zone N19. Based on He/U dates of 3.9 and 3.5 m.y. for
two coral samples, Bender (1972, 1973) assigned an approximate age of 3.7
m.y. to the Pinecrest beds, but he did not specify the source of his corals. On
the basis of planktonic foraminiferal assemblages, Akers (1972) placed the
Yorktown and Jackson Bluff formations, as well as the Agueguexquite
Formation of eastern Mexico, in late zone N18 and zone N19, i.e. early and
middle Pliocene. However, Cronin et al. (1984) placed the age of the
Yorktown Formation at 4.0-2.8 m.y., with an upper limit near the middle of
zone N21. Most recently, Dowsett and Cronin (1990) used planktonic
foraminiferans, calcareous nannofossils, and marine ostracodes to estimate an
age of 3.5-3.0 m.y. (uppermost zone N19 and part of zone N20) for the Duplin
(i.e. upper Yorktown) and Raysor formations of North and South Carolina.
The lower and upper boundaries of the Pliocene Epoch are considered to
be approximately 5 m.y. and 1.8-1.6 m.y. ago, respectively (Haq et al. 1977).
Some workers designate Pliocene deposits as either early or late (lower or
upper), without a middle (e.g. Cronin et al. 1984). However, Blackwelder
(1981a) discerned three molluscan faunal stages (M6-M4: the Wiltonian, the
Burwellian, and the lower part of the Colerainian) in Pliocene strata of the
middle Atlantic Coastal Plain, and deposits that are contemporaneous with
each of those stages occur in southern Florida. Akers (1972) recognized two
complete planktonic foraminiferal zones (N20, N19) and parts of two others
(N18, N21) within the Pliocene Epoch, and Cronin et al. (1984) recognized
zones N19 and N21 as Pliocene. This and other evidence has prompted other
workers (e.g. Brooks 1974; Saunders et al. 1986; Vokes 1988) to distinguish
between early, middle, and late Pliocene tropical marine deposits in the New
World. Brooks (1974) declared that "the Tamiami Formation is Late Middle to
Late Pliocene in age," whereas the lower unit of the Caloosahatchee Formation
(and, by Brooks' equivalence, the Pinecrest beds) was "Late Pleistocene (sic)
and preglacial Pleistocene"; Brooks evidently meant late Pliocene, not late
Pleistocene. Vokes (1988) referred the Florida Pinecrest beds to the middle
Pliocene, which, considering the age of dated corals, seems to be the most
appropriate designation.
The Yorktown Formation of Virginia and North Carolina, the Raysor
Formation of South Carolina, the Jackson Bluff Formation of northwestern
Florida, and the Pinecrest sands of the Tamiami Formation of southern
Florida are now generally acknowledged to have contained contemporaneous
faunas that lived when sea level rose during a period of global warming that
followed the end of the Messinian Miocene approximately 5 m.y. ago (Akers
1972; Blackwelder 1981a; Stanley 1986; Petuch 1988). All of the early to
middle Pliocene formations of the southeastern United States, together with
the late Pliocene formations above them, have been placed in the
Caloosahatchian Province (Petuch 1982a). The Caloosahatchian Province
differs faunistically and geographically from the more southern Gatunian


Province, which contains, among others, the Gatun Formation of Panama and
Costa Rica, the Pliocene beds of the Dominican Republic, and the
Agueguexquite Formation of eastern Mexico. Petuch (1988) assigned
subprovincial status (Yorktownian, Buckinghamian, Jacksonbluffian,
Agueguexitean (sic), etc.) to the faunas at many of these locations. The faunal
assemblages that existed simultaneously at different locations in southeastern
North America were climatically and ecologically controlled, and the
differences among them were as different as those that occur at various
locations between Cape Hatteras and Key West today. Thus, Petuch's (1986a)
tropical-reef fauna at Miami seems to have occurred concurrently with the
tropical-estuarine to intermediate-depth shelf fauna of the Pinecrest beds at
Sarasota and with the shallow-water, warm-temperate upper Yorktown fauna
of southeastern Virginia and the Carolinas.
In the simplest scenario, the various faunas of the early to middle
Pliocene began with relatively few cool-water species and then became the
diverse, warm-water assemblages that flourished for almost 2 m.y. until the sea
again retreated. However, the actual sequence was not that simple. A slight
sea-level retreat about 4.2 m.y. ago was followed almost immediately by a
significant regression about 3.9-3.8 m.y. ago (Vail and Hardenbol 1979; Haq et
al. 1988) that, although less severe than those that followed, must have caused
considerable changes in local molluscan communities. After that brief
regression, sea level rose again to 30-35 m above its present height (Brooks
1973, 1974; Dowsett and Cronin 1990) before plummeting during a major
global cooling event 3 m.y. ago. The fluctuations between shallower and
deeper assemblages among fauna in the deposits at APAC Mine may reflect
these events.
In an alternative explanation, Cronin et al. (1984: 42-43) proposed that, in
the Atlantic Coastal Plain, cool climates (relative to today's) prevailed between
about 4.0 and 3.2 m.y. ago, followed by a short-duration warming event 3.2 to
2.8 m.y. ago, which terminated in a major regression 2.8-2.4 m.y. ago. Cronin
et al. acknowledged several sources of evidence that, in contradiction to their
explanation, signified the beginning of a major cooling event 3.0 m.y. ago.
However, they invoked the diversion of Gulf Stream water to the Atlantic
Coastal Plain at the closing of the Isthmus of Panama 3.1 m.y. ago to explain
this discrepancy. This explanation does not allow for the deposition of marine
beds along the Atlantic Coastal Plain (and southern Florida) during the early
Pliocene Epoch 5.0 m.y. to 4.0 m.y. ago.
More work is needed to delineate the relationships among the
Buckingham, Tamiami, and Pinecrest units. The relationships of Hunter's
lower units, the Murdock Station and Bayshore Clay members, and Petuch's
Sarasota Member to the Tamiami and Hawthorn formations are also unclear.
Because of these uncertainties, Vokes (1988) recommended that, until a
definitive study resolves the relationships among the various units, the name


"Pinecrest beds" be retained for the highly fossiliferous, unlithified sandy beds
underlying the Caloosahatchee Formation. Instead, I follow the more
conservative approach of Hunter (1968) and DuBar (1974) by using the name
"Tamiami Formation," but with the stipulation that species of Latints reported
from that formation were collected from the unlithified middle Pliocene
Pinecrest faces, which the most recent study has dated at 3.5-3.0 m.y. If
Hunter is correct in her contention that the species represented by molds in
the Ochopee limestone are the same species as those represented by intact
shells in the Pinecrest sands, then I concur with her interpretation that the
Pinecrest beds and the Buckingham limestone are, indeed, facies of the
uppermost beds of the Tamiami Formation.

Caloosahatchee Formation

Various interpretations of stratigraphy have produced different estimates
of the temporal extent of the Caloosahatchee Formation. According to
Richards (1969: 607): "The age of the Caloosahatchee Formation of Florida
remains in doubt...the lower part is definitely Pliocene, while the upper part
could be Pliocene or early Pleistocene. The same is true of the Waccamaw and
Croatan [i.e. Chowan River, Bear Bluff, James City, and restricted Waccamaw]
formations of the Carolinas." Summaries of earlier age estimates for the
Caloosahatchee Formation were presented by Puri (1968) and Puri and
Vanstrum (1969).
Dall (1887) used "Caloosahatchie marl" as a general term for the
fossiliferous beds exposed in the banks of the Caloosahatchee River. Matson
and Clapp (1909) first used the name Caloosahatchee Formation for those
deposits. Sellards (1919) restricted the name to the lower strata by describing
two overlying shell-bearing units as the Ft. Thompson Formation and the
Coffee Mill Hammock Formation. Olsson (1964: 519) fixed the type locality of
the Caloosahatchee Formation as "an outcrop seen on the south bank of the
river about a mile east of La Belle" (i.e. TU 536 of this report).
DuBar (1958a, 1958b) included three upwardly successive units, the Ft.
Denaud Member, the Bee Branch Member, and the Ayers Landing Member,
within his concept of the Caloosahatchee Formation and later (DuBar 1974:
Table 5) listed 75 species of "characteristic macrofossils of the type
Caloosahatchee Formation," including 66 species of mollusks. Among the
mollusks, DuBar listed 21 species in the Ft. Denaud Member, 20 species in the
Bee Branch Member, and 46 species in the Ayers Landing Member.
According to that list, the Ayers Landing Member contains such characteristic
Caloosahatchee gastropods as Siphocypraea problematic (Heilprin, 1886),
Liochlamys bulbosa (Heilprin, 1886), Typhis floridanus Dall, 1890, and


Hystrivasum horridum (Heilprin, 1886). However, Brooks (1968: 32)
recognized only the Ft. Denaud and Bee Branch units as members of the
Caloosahatchee Formation. Brooks contended that the Ayers Landing
Member was equivalent to DuBar's Okaloakoochee Member, the lower unit of
the later Pleistocene Ft. Thompson Formation. According to Brooks (1968:
18), the Ayers Landing Member "does not contain nearly all of the extinct
species attributed to it by DuBar [and] it is not a 'Caloosahatchee assemblage.'"
The only extinct species that Brooks (1968) mentioned from the Ayers Landing
unit was Pyrazisinus scalatus (Heilprin, 1887), a species that he and Hunter
(1968) associated with the Ft. Thompson Formation and that DuBar (1974)
listed as characteristic of the Bermont Formation. However, Waller (1969)
recognized the Ayers Landing Member as a unit containing Caloosahatchee-
age pectens, and he placed it below Olsson's (1964) Unit A, now known as the
Bermont Formation. Brooks (1974: 263) later seemed to reverse his earlier
opinion of the Ayers Landing Member by stating that "the biozones of several
species of the tropical Caloosahatchee assemblages extend into the upper two
units of the classical Ft. Thompson Formation [in which he included Unit A]."
Brooks (1974) finally despaired at sorting out the post-Tamiami
stratigraphy of southern Florida. Instead, he proposed that, except for the
uppermost Coffee Mill Hammock Formation, "the best purposes of
stratigraphy will be served by including these heterochronic and heterogeneous
marine and fresh water deposits of Plio-Pleistocene age into a single
formation" that he called the Caloosahatchee-Fort Thompson Formation. No
subsequent worker has supported that proposal.
Coral He/U dates place the age of the Caloosahatchee Formation
between 2.5 and 1.8 m.y. (Bender 1972, 1973). The oldest date (2.53 m.y.) is
for corals from North St. Petersburg, and the youngest dates (1.78-1.89 m.y.)
are for corals taken "from the top of the Caloosahatchee" along the
Caloosahatchee River (Bender 1973). Blackwelder (1981a) designated
interval-zone M4, the late Pliocene Gouldian Substage of his biostratigraphic
Colerainian Stage, for molluscan assemblages that occurred from 2.5 to 1.8
m.y. ago (Blackwelder 1981a; Cronin et al. 1984). The age of the Pliocene-
Pleistocene boundary is 1.8-1.6 m.y. (Haq et al. 1977). Because the youngest
dates for corals from the uppermost Caloosahatchee deposits coincide with the
Plio-Pleistocene boundary date (approximately 1.8 m.y.) used by Blackwelder
(1981a: 9), all taxa assigned to the Caloosahatchee Formation in this report are
considered to be of late Pliocene age and are considered to have occurred
within interval-zone M4.
The Caloosahatchee Formation has been reported to be
contemporaneous with the Chowan River and James City formations
(formerly, in part, the "upper Yorktown," Duplin, and Croatan formations) of
southeastern Virginia and North Carolina and with the Bear Bluff and
Waccamaw formations of North and South Carolina. According to


Blackwelder (1981a, 1981b), Bender (unpubl. data) obtained He/U dates of
2.4-1.9 m.y. (late Pliocene) for corals from the Chowan River Formation and
1.6-1.1 m.y. (early Pleistocene) for corals from the James City and Waccamaw
formations. Collection sites for the Chowan River corals were given by
Blackwelder (1981b: B10) and Hazel (1983: 97), but the sources of Bender's
James City and Waccamaw corals were not reported.
Blackwelder (1981a) included the Chowan River and Bear Bluff
formations in interval-zone M4. Correlation of the Chowan River Formation
with the Caloosahatchee Formation seems fixed by the He/U dates of the
Chowan River corals. Blackwelder estimated that Colerainian Stage molluscan
assemblages contain approximately 35-40% extant species. However, instead
of providing individual estimates for percentages of extant taxa in each of zones
M4 (late Pliocene) and M3 (early Pleistocene), Blackwelder hedged by
providing a collective estimate (35-40%) for both zones, because their faunas
were very similar and shared many index taxa.
Interval-zone M3, the Windyan Pleistocene Substage of the Colerainian
Stage, was estimated by Blackwelder to have occurred from 1.8 to 0.5 m.y.
ago; Cronin et al. (1984) revised the estimate to 1.7 to 0.73 m.y. ago.
Blackwelder used Bender's unpublished coral He/U dates of 1.6-1.1 m.y. to
include the James City and Waccamaw formations in interval-zone M3, and he
used Bender's (1973) He/U dates of 1.89-1.78 m.y. to also include the
Caloosahatchee Formation at its type area in zone M3. Thus, the
Caloosahatchee Formation of southern Florida has been considered to span
both the late Pliocene and the early Pleistocene (Blackwelder 1981a; Ward and
Blackwelder 1987). Hazel (1977, 1983) also depicted a lower (late Pliocene)
Caloosahatchee unit at St. Petersburg and an upper (early Pleistocene)
Caloosahatchee unit at the type locality, with an interval of about 0.4 m.y.
between the two units. However, Hazel in both instances placed the Plio-
Pleistocene boundary at 2.0 m.y.
Blackwelder's concept of interval-zones M4 and M3 seems to be derived, in
part, from his experience with the Chowan River and James City formations at
Lee Creek Mine, North Carolina. The manuscript of Ward and Blackwelder's
(1987) study of that fauna was submitted for publication in 1975, six years
before Blackwelder (1981a) defined his molluscan interval-zones. Ward and
Blackwelder reported 194 molluscan species, of which only 35% were
collectively reported to be extant, from four units (B-E in upward sequence) at
Lee Creek Mine. They assigned Unit B to the Chowan River Formation and
Units C-E to the James City Formation. Ward and Blackwelder compiled a
presence-absence table of species occurrences in each unit. I used data from
that table to generate Jaccard similarity coefficients with which to compare the
molluscan assemblages of the four units. Similarities among the units were
generally low (Table 1). As might be expected, those between contiguous units
were slightly higher than were those between noncontiguous units.


Table 1. Numbers of species and Jaccard similarity co-efficients among Ward and Blackwelder's
Units B, C, D, and E at Lee Creek Mine, North Carolina.

Number of Species 105 115 136 119


Jaccard Similarity

B 0.60 0.51 0.52
C 0.59 0.54
D 0.63

However, the coefficients do not support a contention of significant faunal
change between Unit B and the overlying units. Instead, they suggest a rather
diverse fauna in which further sampling of individual units would probably
produce additional species records that would strengthen the similarity
coefficients among all units.
Several of Ward and Blackwelder's records of gastropods support a
contention of late Pliocene age for Units C, D, and E at Lee Creek Mine.
Diodora nucula (Dall, 1892), Contraconus adversarius (Conrad, 1840),
Cymatosylinx hunata (Lea, 1843), and Pterorhytis conradi (Dall, 1890) represent
species--and in the last three instances, genera--that do not occur in Florida
deposits above the uppermost Caloosahatchee, which has been dated at 1.8
m.y. All of these taxa became extinct in Florida at the end of the Pliocene
Epoch (i.e. after Unit B by Ward and Blackwelder's classification). However,
Ward and Blackwelder reported C. lhnata and P. conradi in Unit D and D.
nucula and C. adversarius in Units D and E. Those records suggest either that
Units C-E are actually of late Pliocene age or that the taxa became extinct at
the end of the Pliocene in Florida but survived into the early Pleistocene in
North Carolina. The second option seems less likely. Instead, individual
species records, as well as the similarity coefficients, indicate that Units B-E at
Lee Creek Mine all represent Caloosahatchee-equivalent late Pliocene
Like the James City Formation, the Waccamaw Formation has been
reported to share many molluscan taxa with the Caloosahatchee Formation.
Support for a hypothesis that at least part of the Waccamaw Formation is of
late Pliocene age is found among its gastropod fauna, as reported by DuBar


(1962b) and Olsson and Petit (1964). Species that they associated with the
Waccamaw and that I consider to be not younger than late Pliocene age
include the following: Diodora caloosaensis (Dall, 1892); D. floridana
Gardner, 1948; D. nucula; Calliostoma willcoxianum Dall, 1892; Pterorhytis
conradi; P. fluviana Dall, 1903; Trossulasalpinx trossula (Conrad, 1832); Typhis
floridanus; Vokesinotus lepidotus (Dall, 1890); Heilpfinia caloosaensis
(Heilprin, 1886); Cancellaria venusta Tuomey and Holmes, 1856; Contraconus
adversafius; Crassispira pemigata (Dall, 1890); and Cymatosyrinx lunata.
Unfortunately, it is no longer certain that any of those species actually occur in
the Waccamaw Formation because the original Waccamaw beds of Dall
(1892), like the original Caloosahatchee beds, have been subdivided by
subsequent workers. DuBar (1969) recognized both late Pliocene and early
Pleistocene deposits within the Waccamaw Formation, and later (DuBar et al.
1974) renamed the lower (Pliocene) deposits as the Bear Bluff Formation, an
action validated by Blackwelder and Ward (1979). Blackwelder (1979)
redescribed the upper (Pleistocene) beds as the restricted Waccamaw
Formation, and he designated a formational lectostratotype on the Waccamaw
River near Tilly Lake, South Carolina. However, Blackwelder mentioned only
three mollusks, all bivalves, as being biostratigraphically distinctive within the
restricted formation.
Akers (1972) was unable to find useful foraminiferal index taxa in
sediments from the Caloosahatchee Formation and consequently could not
correlate the Caloosahatchee with other formations, but he did find index taxa
in the Waccamaw Formation. Species composition of the planktonic
foraminiferans prompted Akers to place the Waccamaw Formation in late
zone N21 and early zone N22, i.e. the early Pleistocene, but that placement
may not be correct for deposits containing the "classic" Waccamaw (now Bear
Bluff?) molluscan fauna. Akers obtained foraminiferans from three Waccamaw
sites, including two pits in South and North Carolina and a third site (TU 875)
at Walker's Bluff on the Cape Fear River near Elizabethtown, North Carolina.
Akers did not state whether his pit samples were collected in situ or from spoil,
but no significant index foraminiferans were found at either pit. The most
important of Akers' sites was at Walker's Bluff, where he collected
approximately 400 specimens in 15 species. Despite the fact that 13 of the 15
species at TU 875 are known to occur in deposits that date from Pliocene (or
earlier) to Holocene age, Akers relied upon a single, sinistrally coiled specimen
of Globorotalia cultrata menardii (Parker, Jones, and Brady, 1865) and two
specimens of G. tnincatulinoides (d'Orbigny, 1839) to place the Waccamaw
Formation in the early Pleistocene because those two species occur only above
the Plio-Pleistocene boundary.
Akers was hesitant about assigning the Waccamaw Formation to the early
Pleistocene. According to Akers (1972: 40), the Walker's Bluff material was "a
composite sample from an interval of ten feet. The association of [two species]


suggests that both a warm and a cool stage are represented in this interval."
Akers went on to note that "the beds at TU 875 are not necessarily the same
age as sediments at other localities which have been assigned to the
Waccamaw. It is possible, too, that the Caloosahatchee Formation is older
than this material."
Despite Akers' tentative conclusion regarding the Pleistocene age of the
Walker's Bluff deposits, Blackwelder (1979, 1981a) unequivocally accepted the
Walker's Bluff deposits and all other Waccamaw deposits as early Pleistocene.
However, although Cronin et al. (1984: 40) maintained the South Carolina
Waccamaw sites as early Pleistocene, they reclassified the Walker's Bluff
deposits and those at several other North Carolina Waccamaw sites as late
Pliocene. Thus, even deposits assigned to the recently restricted Waccamaw
Formation seem to contain both late Pliocene and early Pleistocene
In southern Florida, marine beds that were deposited during the early
Pleistocene Epoch constitute the Bermont Formation (see following text), a
unit that lacks all of the taxa designated herein as being of Caloosahatchee age.
Relatively few species of the Caloosahatchee fauna persisted into the Bermont
fauna. Instead, the Bermont fauna is characterized by several species that are
unique to those deposits, and those species are accompanied by many others
that first appeared in the Bermont and that survive today. Consequently, it is
difficult to accept the Bermont fauna as having been wholly contemporaneous
with the faunas of the James City and Waccamaw formations because, as
previously noted, many species, and even genera, shared by the James City,
Waccamaw, and Caloosahatchee faunas became regionally or absolutely
extinct at the ends of the periods when those deposits were formed. The
demise of those taxa in Florida, in the last great extinction of marine mollusks,
occurred at the Plio-Pleistocene boundary, i.e. at the end of the interglacial
stage that preceded the Nebraskan Glacial Stage. It is doubtful that the
thermophilic taxa that characterized the Caloosahatchee fauna could have
survived in the Carolinas an event that caused their extinction and replacement
in south Florida. It is far more likely that units bearing typical
Caloosahatchee-age molluscan taxa in the Waccamaw and James City
formations were formed concurrently with the Caloosahatchee Formation, i.e.
during the late Pliocene, and those units belong in interval-zone M4. Certainly,
there is no evidence that the Caloosahatchee taxa belonged to a fauna that
persisted until 0.7 or 0.5 m.y. ago, which Blackwelder (1981a) and Cronin et al.
(1984) defined as the younger boundary of interval-zone M3.


The Caloosahatchee Fauna at APAC Mine

The presence of a Caloosahatchee-age fauna at APAC Mine in Sarasota
County has been uncertain. Based on specimens of Conus waccamawensis B.
Smith, 1930, Petuch (1982b) proposed that his Unit 1 might belong to the
"Plio-Pleistocene" Caloosahatchee Formation. However, Stanley (1986)
relegated the entire bivalve fauna at APAC Mine to the Pinecrest beds, which
he assigned to the early Pliocene. A search for two Caloosahatchee-age
species of Latinms rare at APAC Mine revealed an extensive Caloosahatchee
fauna there.
Petuch's Unit 4, the "black layer" at APAC Mine, was formed during a
major sea-level regression near the boundary between the middle and the late
Pliocene and has an earliest age of approximately 2.5 m.y. (Jones 1990). Unit 4
contains bones of terrestrial vertebrates and shells of estuarine, marine-marsh
(Pyrazisinus spp., Cetithidea sp.), terrestrial (Euglandina sp., Polygyra sp.), and
freshwater mollusks. Freshwater gastropods (Planorbella conanti (Dall, 1890);
P. disstoni (Dall, 1890); Physa meigsii Dall, 1890) that Petuch reported from
Unit 4 have been considered characteristic of the Caloosahatchee Formation
(Pilsbry 1934; DuBar 1958a, 1974). However, prominent marine gastropods of
Unit 4 include Olivella tamiamiensis Mansfield, 1931, and Echlinofidgur helenae
(Olsson, 1967), both considered index taxa for the Tamiami Formation (Olsson
1964; DuBar 1974).
Above Unit 4, the APAC deposits progress through Unit 3, a bed of
marine (or estuarine?) mussels, Pema conradiana (d'Orbigny, 1852), and Unit
2, a marine shelf assemblage characterized by oysters, Hyotissa haitensis
(Sowerby, 1850). Although Units 3 and 2 contain some mollusks (e.g.
Hystrivasum locklini (Olsson and Harbison, 1953)) that still seem indicative of
the Tamiami fauna, those units also contain the first appearances of other
species (e.g. Diodora caloosaensis; D. carditella (Dall, 1892); Henlitoma
retiporosa (Dall, 1903); Lucapinella talanteia Olsson and Harbison, 1953;
Lithopoma precursor (Dall, 1892); Trivia flolidana Olsson and Harbison, 1953;
Dennomurex engonatus (Dall, 1892); Pisania mtaxwelli (Olsson and Harbison,
1953); Engina floridana Olsson and Harbison, 1953; Conus waccamawensis)
that bring a distinct "Caloosahatchee" aspect to the fauna. Unit 2 is usually
capped by a shelly limestone in which such gastropods as D. caloosaensis and
H. retiporosa are embedded.
Petuch described Unit 1, which he measured on the eastern side of APAC
Mine, as a 0.9-m thick zone of quartz sand with abundant shell fragments. In
addition to Conus waccamawensis, Petuch reported Macrocallista nimbosa
(Lightfoot, 1786), Chione cancellata (Linnaeus, 1767), and mytilids to be
common in Unit 1. The uppermost unit on the western side of APAC Mine is
as much as 2.5 m thick and is more complex. That unit consists of several


zones of molluscan beds in which M. nimbosa, C. cancellata, and many other
species of bivalves and gastropods occur. However, Conus waccanawensis and
mytilids are rare there, and the beds may not be equivalent to Petuch's Unit 1.
The uppermost molluscan zone of the unit on the western side of APAC
Mine is a bed of densely packed shells, most prominently of Macrocallista
nimbosa, Dinocardium robustum (Lightfoot, 1786), Raeta plicatella (Lamarck,
1818), and Melongena subcoronata Heilprin, 1886. Approximately 0.7-1.0 m
from the top of that bed is a discontinuous layer of consolidated clumps of
sabellariid polychaete tubes, within which boring bivalves, Petricola
pholadifonnis Lamarck, 1818, are abundant. The sabellariid layer overlies
another shell bed (-0.4 m thick) in which the species composition resembles
that of the uppermost zone except that shells of Mulinia sapotilla Dall, 1898,
are abundant. Shells of Carditamera arata (Conrad, 1832) become common at
the base of the zone, and large specimens of Melongena subcoronata and
Anomalocardia caloosana (Dall, 1900), the latter paired and in life position,
are abundant there. That zone is underlain by a thin (-3-10 cm) black layer of
wood and other plant material in which occur shells of Planorbella disstoni, a
freshwater gastropod. The organic layer is sometimes accompanied by (or
replaced by) a thin (-15 cm), discontinuous layer of hard, compacted quartz
sand that usually is devoid of shells but rarely is packed with crushed shell
fragments. Beneath the organic layer is another zone (-0.5 m thick) of
densely packed shells. That zone (the Carditamera zone) is characterized
principally by Carditamera arata, Chione cancellata, and Argopecten
anteamplicostatus (Mansfield, 1936) but also contains shells of many other
marine mollusks. The base of the Carditamera zone is a thin bed of oysters,
Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin, 1791). Paired valves of Pinna sp. cf. P.
caloosaensis Dall, 1898, in life orientation often extend downward through the
base of the zone. Beneath the oysters, a zone of quartz sand (-1.2 m thick)
contains scattered but frequently paired shells of Dinocardium robustimt, Raeta
plicatella, Tagelus divisus (Spengler, 1794), T. plebeius (Lightfoot, 1786), Ensis
sp. cf. E. minor Dall, 1900, Macrocallista nimbosa, and Mercenaria
campechiensis. Cywropleura costata (Linnaeus, 1758) and Mercenaiia
campechiensis, both in paired, up-right position, and Melongena subcoronata
characterize the base of the sand-shell zone. Other gastropods within the
sand-shell zone include Epitonium mpicolum (Kurtz, 1860), Neverita sp., Ficus
sp., Busycotypus flotidanus (Olsson and Harbison, 1953), Fasciolaria apicina
Dall, 1890, Pleuroploca gigantea (Kiener, 1840), Siphocypraea problematic, and
Pleioptygma lineolata (Heilprin, 1886), although all of these are much less
common than M. subcoronata.
All of the above zones (collectively the uppermost APAC unit) lie
unconformably on a thin layer (- 10-15 cm thick) of black wood that is arrayed
horizontally atop two zones of black and brown quartz sands. Together, these
sand zones are approximately 1 m thick. The black zone of muddy sand is not


always evident but, when present, it overlies the more prevalent, sandier brown
zone. Both zones seem devoid of marine or freshwater macrofossils and, in
fact, both may have terrestrial origins. This is particularly evident of the brown
zone, in which roots and tree trunks in up-right position are common. The
brown zone lies unconformably upon the indurated top of Unit 2.
The molluscan fauna of the uppermost APAC unit is most diverse in the
Carditamera zone. Within that zone, many of the bivalve shells are articulated,
indicating little disturbance after death. Gastropods dispersed among the
bivalves include Turbo rhectogrammicus Dall, 1892, Cerithioclava caloosaensis
(Dall, 1887), Siphocypraea problematic, Typhis floridanus, Pyrmella planulata
(Dall, 1890), Triplofitsus scalarinus (Heilprin, 1886), Hystrivasum horridum,
and Contraconus tryoni (Heilprin, 1886). These gastropods are index taxa for
the Caloosahatchee Formation (Olsson 1964, 1968; Vokes 1966a; Gertman
1969; DuBar 1974; Petuch 1982b). Species with distinctive features in the
Carditamera zone include a large (to 29 mm) slender form of Typhisfloridanus,
a small (50-65 mm) form of Siphocypraea problematic typical of the beds
along the Caloosahatchee River, and an afrondose, shallow-water form of
Chicoreus floridanus that differs markedly from the frondose forms of lower
Other Caloosahatchee index gastropods that have been collected rarely
from mixed spoil, principally of the uppermost unit, but that have not been
obtained in situ at APAC Mine include Diodora carolinensis (Conrad, 1875),
Calliostoma euconulum Olsson and Harbison, 1953, and Trigonostoma
sericeum petranum Olsson and Harbison, 1953. Haustellun ntbidumn (Baker,
1897), a late Pliocene to Recent species common in most Caloosahatchee
deposits, has also been collected rarely in that spoil by Mrs. Evelyn Bradley.
Most gastropods that occur in the uppermost APAC unit are restricted to
that unit or are much more common there than in underlying Units 2 and 3;
very few of them occur elsewhere in the pit. All of those species also occur in
the Caloosahatchee beds at North St. Petersburg and at the DeSoto Shell Pit
south of Arcadia, and most of them also occur in the Caloosahatchee beds at
the Cochran Shell Pit near La Belle. Significantly, no index taxa of the
Tamiami or Bermont formations have been found in the uppermost APAC
The biochronologic affiliations of species in the higher beds of the
uppermost APAC unit are uncertain because the Caloosahatchee index taxa
thin out rapidly above the Carditamera zone. However, Trigonostoma cf. T.
tenentm (Philippi, 1848) and at least two species of Tivia (one large, one or
more small) that are common in the Carditamera zone also occur with Mulinia
sapotilla in the zone above the organic layer, and Fasciolaria apicina occurs
upward to at least the sabellariid layer. Virtually all of the other mollusks that
occur in the higher beds are ubiquitous species that occur not only in the
Caloosahatchee Formation but also in the early Pleistocene Bermont


Formation, in the late Pleistocene Ft. Thompson Formation, and in the Recent
The evidently terrigenous sands that separate Unit 2 from the uppermost
unit represent a significant hiatus in the marine depositional sequence at
APAC Mine. The uppermost unit probably began as an estuary of fluctuating
salinity, as indicated by species of Tagelus, Crassostrea, Cyitopleura, and
Melongena. The Carditamera zone, densely packed with shells of Carditamera
arata and Chione cancellata, indicates a shallow, warm-water, high-salinity
estuary, and the occurrence of Argopecten anteamplicostatus suggests that sea
grasses were present. That assemblage was succeeded first by a freshwater
assemblage containing Planorbella disstoni and then by a high-salinity estuary
and a coastal marine system.
The uppermost APAC unit may reflect several stages of fluctuating sea
level. Certainly, the organic layer with freshwater gastropods suggests one
such event. In fact, sharp contacts occur between the lowest sand-shell zone
and the Carditamera zone, between the Carditamera zone and the organic
layer, and between the organic layer and the Mulinia shell bed. However, the
small-scale dynamics of coastal environments can strongly influence the local
composition of molluscan assemblages. Even in the absence of significant sea-
level fluctuations, marine waters can be constricted from coastal estuaries by
relatively transient features such as shifting barrier islands. When such events
occur, they can cause faunal fluctuations such as those evident in the
uppermost APAC unit.
The presence of Cyntopleura costata in life orientation at the base and the
bed of Crassostrea virginica at the top of the lowest zone of the uppermost
APAC unit might indicate concurrence with the Ft. Denaud Member of the
Caloosahatchee Formation. That member is characterized by Cyrtopleura
costata at its base and by Crassostrea virginica at its top (DuBar 1958a, 1958b,
1974; Brooks 1968). However, that similarity might be coincidental; beds of C.
costata and C. virginica sometimes occur in close proximity in Florida estuaries
today, and succession of one by the other might have occurred frequently in
response to environmental fluctuations during the past 2 m.y.
Other molluscan associations in the uppermost APAC unit are not
particularly similar to any of the associations described by DuBar (1958a,
1962a) or by Brooks (1968) for deposits in the Ft. Denaud, Bee Branch, or
Ayers Landing members or the Shell Creek units of the Caloosahatchee
Formation. The inordinate abundances of species of Trivia and Trigonostoma
in and above the Carditamera zone are remarkable--I know of no shallow-
water assemblage, fossil or Recent, in which species of these genera are so
common. Furthermore, many index gastropods (e.g. Diodora floridana;
Calliostoma jujiuconulhtm Olsson and Harbison, 1953; C. pennagnuim Dall,
1892; C. sincenmn Olsson and Harbison, 1953; Strombius leidyi Heilprin, 1886;
Fasciolaria mnonocingulata Dall, 1890; Liochlamys bulbosa; Turbinella


scolymoides Dall, 1890; Conus spuroides Olsson and Harbison, 1953;
Crassispira pemigata (Dall, 1890); Syntomodlillia scissurata (Dall, 1890)) that
typify Caloosahatchee faunas at La Belle, North St. Petersburg, and other sites
have not been found at Sarasota. Consequently, it is not yet possible to relate
the uppermost APAC unit directly to any of the named Caloosahatchee

Bermont Formation

Restriction of the Caloosahatchee Formation to the late Pliocene leaves a
formational gap in the sequence of Florida marine units because, according to
Blackwelder's (1981a) supposed correlations, there is now no Florida unit to
correspond to the early Pleistocene portion of interval-zone M3. That "missing
unit" is contained in deposits of the Bermont Formation, a unit whose age has
been underestimated by several recent workers.
The existence of a distinctive biostratigraphic unit between the
Caloosahatchee and Ft. Thompson biostratigraphic units was well known
during the 1960s. Vokes (1963) informally referred to that unit as the "Glades
formation," and Olsson (1964) referred to it as Unit A. Those names were
used frequently in the many discussions of Florida stratigraphy published
during the next decade. Waller (1969), commenting on the relative ages of his
pecten samples, observed that Olsson's Unit A is younger than DuBar's Ayers
Landing Member of the Caloosahatchee Marl, and that DuBar's (1962a) Unit
F on Shell Creek is Olsson's Unit A.
Despite Brooks' (1974: 263) admonition against "introducing another
formational name based solely upon paleontological grounds, e.g. the Unit A
of Olsson (1968)," Dubar (1974) named the Bermont Formation for the
uppermost fossiliferous marine sands exposed along Shell Creek (i.e. Unit F of
DuBar 1962a) in the Bermont Quadrangle of Charlotte County. The
molluscan fauna of the type locality was described by DuBar (1962a). DuBar
(1974) reported Bermont strata from Charlotte County northward to Levy
County, eastward through southern DeSoto and Highlands counties, through
the Lake Okeechobee region into Martin and Palm Beach counties, and along
the Caloosahatchee River in Hendry and Glades counties. DuBar
differentiated Bermont strata from Caloosahatchee strata "primarily in the
absence from the former of most of the typical Caloosahatchee species, and in
the occurrence in the Bermont Formation of a few species rare or absent in
Caloosahatchee strata" (DuBar 1974: 221). Gastropods that DuBar listed as
restricted to the Bermont Formation are Fasciolafia okeechobensis Tucker
and Wilson, 1932, Fusinus watermani (M. Smith, 1936), Melongena bispinosa
Philippi, 1844, Strombus mayacensis Tucker and Wilson, 1933, and Vasum


flolidanum McGinty, 1940. None of those species was reported by DuBar
(1962a) from the type locality of the Bermont Formation, but Vasum
floridanum is now known from the uppermost marine deposits at Shell Creek
(E.H. Vokes pers. comm.). Instead, all of the index taxa cited by DuBar (1974)
were from other supposed Bermont sites, including Ortona Lock (McGinty
1970), Belle Glade Rock Pit (Hoerle 1970; McGinty 1970; Brooks 1974), and
other excavations along the margin of Lake Okeechobee that DuBar
uncertainly noted as "an apparent facies of the Bermont Formation." Hoerle
(1970) listed more than 430 species of mollusks, of which about 15% were
extinct, from Belle Glade Rock Pit, but all were collected from excavated spoil.
Consequently, it is not known how many of Hoerle's species may have
occurred only in overlying deposits of the Ft. Thompson and Coffee Mill
Hammock formations.
McGinty (1970) included all of DuBar's Bermont-restricted taxa in his list
of index fossils for what was then called the "Glades Unit." Additionally,
McGinty included Haustellum anniae (M. Smith, 1940), Murexiella graceae
(McGinty, 1940), Monostiolum thomasi Olsson, 1967, Latins julcundius
McGinty, 1940, and L. maxwelli Pilsbry, 1939, as indicators of the "Glades
Unit." Of this total of 10 gastropod species, all except M. graceae were
reported to occur at Ortona Lock and all except H. anniae, L. maxwelli, and V.
floridanum were reported from Belle Glade. McGinty (1970) believed that the
common presence of Venniculatia recta in spoil at Belle Glade Rock Pit
indicated that excavations there had reached the lowest level of the Glades
Unit and had touched the top of the Caloosahatchee Formation, despite
Olsson's (1964: 521) statement that the Vennicularia erecta (sic) zone at
Ortona Lock "lies a foot or two above the base of [Unit A]." Olsson's (1964)
list of characteristic mollusks of Unit A is very similar to that later used by
DuBar (1974) for the Bermont Formation. Vokes (1966b) also declared
Turbinella hoerlei Vokes, 1966, to be restricted to Unit A, and Petuch (1988)
added his Lindoliva species complex to the list of Bermont index taxa.
Vokes (1963) and Hoerle (1970) considered the deposits at Belle Glade
Rock Pit to be early Pleistocene in age, and Skinner (1972) tentatively
suggested that they should be considered Plio-Pleistocene. On the basis of the
non-marine mollusks, Taylor (1966) considered Unit A to be late Pliocene or
early Pleistocene. Waller (1969) concluded from evolutionary evidence of the
Argopecten gibbus stock that Unit A was "early Pleistocene or possibly late
Pliocene-early Pleistocene in age." Waller noted that shells from Unit A "are
beyond the range of existing methods of radiometric dating." He cited
evidence of samples from Belle Glade Rock Pit that, "based on the Th230/U234
ratios, are greater than 250,000 years in age, and, based on the U234/U238
ratios, are greater than 750,000 years" (W.S. Broecker, unpubl. data, in Waller
1969: 92). Nevertheless, DuBar (1974) placed the Bermont Formation in the
"medial" Pleistocene Yarmouth Interglacial Stage.


Perhaps influenced by DuBar's assessment of the Bermont Formation as
middle Pleistocene, as well as by his own belief in the early Pleistocene age of
the upper Caloosahatchee deposits, Blackwelder (1981a) designated a very
young age for Bermont deposits. Blackwelder associated the Bermont
Formation with Unit III of Mitterer's (1974, 1975) and Wehmiller and
Belknap's (1978) studies of amino acid isoleucinee) kinetics in the bivalve
Mercenaria, and he stated that Wehmiller and Belknap's data indicated an age
of 0.4-0.5 m.y. for Unit III. That age for Bermont deposits is suspect for several
Estimates of age derived from kinetic models of isoleucine enantiomeric
ratios in mollusks are controversial, and several problems are evident in the
studies cited here. Mitterer (1974, 1975) analyzed samples of Mercenalia from
seven units (I to VII in upward sequence) from northern, central, and southern
Florida. The specimens were supplied to him by H.K. Brooks and others. Unit
VII was designated as Holocene, with Mercenaria shells dated by radiocarbon
(C14) at 1.2-4.5 thousand years. Unit VI was designated as a Pleistocene
stratum in central and northern Florida, from which Mercenaria shells had
been dated by C14 at 34 thousand years. Mitterer identified Unit V as the
Coffee Mill Hammock Formation, which is generally acknowledged to be time-
equivalent to the Miami and Key Largo Limestone formations of southern
Florida and a unit at Cape Canaveral whose ages have been dated by
Th230/U234 at -0.13-0.14 m.y. and -0.11 m.y., respectively (Osmond et al.
1965, 1970; Broecker and Thurber 1965; Harmon et al. 1979). Based on those
known ages, Mitterer applied a linear kinetics model to calculate the ages of
the underlying units, which he identified as two units of the Ft. Thompson
Formation (Units IV, III) and two units of the Caloosahatchee Formation
(Units II, I). In concurrence with then-popular opinions (e.g. DuBar 1958a,
1958b) regarding the ages of mammalian fossils, Mitterer considered the upper
unit of the Caloosahatchee Formation (his Unit II) to be mid-Pleistocene, with
an age he calculated to be 324,000 years. Mitterer reached that conclusion
despite Broecker's U23/U238 evidence (in Waller 1969) of an age greater than
750,000 years for Bermont mollusks at Belle Glade Rock Pit and despite
Brooks' (1974: 264) statement that "both units of the classical Caloosahatchee
are too old to date by [Th230/U234 ratios], i.e., over 400,000 years old."
Mitterer calculated ages for his younger units as follows: Unit III--236,000
years; Unit IV--180,000 years; Unit V--134,000 years.
Wehmiller and Belknap (1978) considered Mitterer's linear model to be
inappropriate, and they recalculated Mitterer's data using a nonlinear model.
Their recalculated ages for the units are as follows: Unit II--800,000 200,000
years; Unit III--475,000 175,000 years; Unit IV--250,000 50,000 years.
According to Wehmiller and Belknap (1978: 339), "The time equivalence
of Unit V throughout the Florida peninsula appears to be both a working
assumption and a stated conclusion of Mitterer's work." Mitterer did not


disclose how he identified or correlated unit samples from northern, central,
and southern Florida sites (or even the locations of those sites), so his
assumptions of equivalence cannot be tested. Furthermore, Mitterer seems to
have reported on different units in his two papers. In 1974, he reported
samples from Units IV to VII of northern and central Florida and from Units I
to V and VII (but not VI) of southern Florida. However, in 1975, he reported
samples from Units II to V of northern Florida and from Units III to V (but
not II) of central and southern Florida. No explanation was provided for that
inconsistency, which probably contributed to Wehmiller and Belknap's (1978:
344) confusing conclusion: "The 'medial Pleistocene' Bermont Formation of
DuBar (1974) which overlies the Caloosahatchee Formation in northern [?]
Florida is a possible equivalent of the 800,000 200,000-year (nonlinear model
age) Unit II in northern [?] Florida."
Because Mitterer obtained his samples from Brooks, it might be assumed
that he used Brooks' system to identify the sequence of units from which the
samples were obtained, but that may not be true. Brooks (1968, 1974)
identified six upwardly sequential Plio-Pleistocene marine depositional units,
beginning with the basal unit of the Caloosahatchee Formation. Units I and II
are the Ft. Denaud and Bee Branch members of the Caloosahatchee
Formation. Units III, IV, and V were stated by Brooks to belong to the Ft.
Thompson Formation, but at least Unit III, and perhaps Unit IV, is now
believed to represent the Bermont Formation. Brooks' Unit V is the true Ft.
Thompson Formation, which Brooks (1974) estimated to be "probably 220,000
or more years old," and his Unit VI is the Coffee Mill Hammock Formation,
which he and others have considered to be contemporaneous with the Miami
Limestone. A seventh marine unit, which Brooks (1968) mentioned but did
not number, is the mid-Wisconsin Princess Anne Formation. Mitterer likewise
recognized seven (Pliocene and) Pleistocene to Holocene units in Florida, but
he designated Unit V, not Unit VI, as the Coffee Mill Hammock unit.
Consequently, he considered Unit V to be contemporaneous with the Miami
Limestone. In fact, Mitterer reported no Unit VI samples from southern
Florida, so he may not have sampled the Coffee Mill Hammock unit at all.
Wehmiller and Belknap (1978) strongly questioned Mitterer's correlation of
Unit V between northern and southern Florida. Because of the uncertainty
regarding the origins and correlations of Mitterer's units and because of the
apparent contradictions with other dating techniques (e.g. Bender 1972, 1973;
Hulbert and Morgan 1989; Webb et al. 1989), it seems best to give little
credence to the results of these studies, especially those relating to estimates of
the ages of the Bermont and Caloosahatchee formations.
The most recent evidence of age for the Bermont Formation is provided
by Hulbert and Morgan (1989) and Webb et al. (1989), who described several
beds of vertebrate fossils at the Leisey Shell Pit in southwestern Hillsborough
County, Florida. According to Hulbert and Morgan, two of the richest beds


are separated by a marine depositional unit of the Bermont Formation, as
indicated by the presence of Fasciolaria okeechobensis and Strombus
mayacensis. The terrestrial mammalian fauna of the layer overlying the
Bermont deposits indicates a late early Irvingtonian age of about 1.5 to 1.0
m.y., and the underlying layer, also early Irvingtonian, indicates an age of less
than 1.7 m.y. Thus, the Bermont index gastropods are bracketed by terrestrial
vertebrate fossils of ages less than 1.7 m.y. and greater than 1.0 m.y.
Webb et al. (1989) combined magnetostratigraphy, strontium isotope
(Sr87/Sr86 of bivalves, Chione cancellata) chronology, and mammalian
biochronology to derive ages of 1.8 and 1.6 m.y. for the two richest vertebrate
fossil beds. The older bed is underlain by marine deposits of the Bermont
Formation and is overlain by an indurated stratum of calcareous marl. The
younger bed is overlain and underlain by marine deposits of the Bermont
Formation. Strontium isotope analyses for the marine deposits range from 1.8
to 1.1 m.y. Magnetostratigraphy indicates that the entire Bermont portion of
the section is reversed and presumably accumulated in the post-Olduvai part of
the Matuyama Magnetochron (i.e. 1.66 m.y. or younger).
The dates of Bermont deposits from Leisey Shell Pit correlate well with
the 1.6-1.1 m.y. age estimate for the early Pleistocene portion of Blackwelder's
interval-zone M3. Consequently, it seems likely that the Bermont Formation,
not the uppermost unit of the Caloosahatchee Formation, was
contemporaneous with the early Pleistocene portion of the Waccamaw
Formation of the Carolinas. Compositions of their planktonic foraminiferal
assemblages also place the Moin Formation of Costa Rica and the Bowden
Formation of Jamaica in late zone N21 and zone N22, the early Pleistocene
(Akers 1972; Lamb and Beard 1972).
Petuch (1988) stated that the Bermont Formation consists of two
members, i.e. beds deposited during the Aftonian and Yarmouth Interglacial
Stages and separated by the Kansan Glacial Stage. The possibility of more
than one member needs to be confirmed, and the relationship of the Ortona
Lock and Belle Glade faunas to the fauna at the type locality at Shell Creek
needs to be assessed to better understand the extent of the Bermont

Ft. Thompson Formation

Sellards (1919) assigned the name Ft. Thompson Formation to beds of
fresh-water, brackish-water, and marine marls and limestones along the
Caloosahatchee River. The type locality is at Ft. Thompson, about 1.5 miles
upstream (eastward) from La Belle in Hendry County (DuBar 1974). Nearly
all molluscan species in the Ft. Thompson Formation are extant. However, the


deposits do contain a few extinct marine gastropods, including Pyrazisinus
scalatus (fide Brooks 1968; Hunter 1968) and Tunitella subannulata Heilprin,
1886 (fide DuBar 1974).
The Myrtlean Substage (interval-zone M2) of Blackwelder's Pleistocene
Longian Stage was designated for the Canepatch Formation of South Carolina,
which contains about 94-96% extant species (Blackwelder 1981a). Szabo
(1985) obtained a uranium-series date of 460,000 100,000 years from corals
of the Canepatch Formation. The Canepatch Formation has been correlated
with the Bermont Formation on the basis of the contained mollusks (Oaks and
DuBar 1974; Blackwelder 1981a; Ward and Blackwelder 1987), but that
correlation should be re-examined. The Ft. Thompson Formation (exclusive of
the Coffee Mill Hammock unit) seems to be the only Florida marine
depositional unit now available for correlation with the Canepatch Formation.
In addition to Wehmiller and Belknap's (1978) age estimate for Unit III
(475,000 175,000 years), Blackwelder (1981a) cited a significant warming
interval in the subantarctic (Kennett 1969) and North Pacific (Kent et al. 1971)
and evidence of sea-level transgressions 0.5 to 0.4 m.y. ago as indications of the
age of interval-zone M2. However, Wehmiller and Belknap's age estimate for
Unit IV (250,000 50,000 years) is very similar to Brooks' (1974) estimated
age for the Ft. Thompson Formation (220,000 or more years). Webb et al.
(1989) reported Sr87/Sr86 isotope dates of 0.95 to 0.55 m.y. for Ft. Thompson
marine deposits that overlie the Bermont deposits at Leisey Shell Pit. An
anomalous date of 1.6 m.y. for one sample in that study was reanalyzed after
publication and found to be erroneous (D.S. Jones, pers. comm.). All of these
ages (0.22 to 0.95 m.y.) seem reasonable for the Ft. Thompson Formation,
given the several transgressive and regressive events reported to have occurred
during the creation of that unit (Brooks 1968, 1974; Perkins 1977).
DuBar's (1974) naming of the Bermont Formation and Brooks' (1968,
1974) reinstatement of Sellard's (1919) Coffee Mill Hammock unit to full
formational status reduced the stratigraphic extent of the Ft. Thompson
Formation. DuBar (1958b, 1974) recognized two members in the Ft.
Thompson, the upper Coffee Mill Hammock Member and the lower
Okaloakoochee Member. As shown in a comparison of stratigraphic
classifications (Perkins 1977: fig. 4), other authors (Parker and Cooke 1944;
Brooks 1968; Conklin 1968) have recognized two discrete members in the Ft.
Thompson Formation exclusive of the Coffee Mill Hammock unit. Those two
units were numbered 4 and 5 in each of the three studies. At this time, it is not
at all clear whether the underlying Unit 3 (shown to correlate with the Ayers
Landing Member of the Caloosahatchee Formation) includes the Bermont
fauna, or whether that fauna occurs in Unit 4. If Unit 4 is the Bermont
Formation and if the Coffee Mill Hammock unit has separate formational
status, then DuBar's Okaloakoochee Member would be the only remaining
major unit in the Ft. Thompson Formation, and the names would be


synonymous. Further clarification is needed to define the age and stratigraphic
extent of the Ft. Thompson Formation.

Coffee Mill Hammock Formation

Sellards (1919) assigned the name Coffee Mill Hammock Marl to
exposures along the Caloosahatchee River near Ortona Lock. Brooks (1968,
1974) has argued to maintain the Coffee Mill Hammock Marl as a formational
unit separate from the underlying Ft. Thompson Formation, whereas Cooke
and Mossom (1929), DuBar (1958a, 1958b, 1974), and others have combined
the two as a single formation. On the basis of their faunas, there seems little
reason to separate the two units. However, the age of the Coffee Mill
Hammock unit has been ascertained with some confidence (0.13 to 0.11 m.y.),
whereas the ages of all older Pleiostocene marine deposits of southern Florida
are less certain. Consequently, it seems prudent to retain the Coffee Mill
Hammock unit as a separate formation until its relationship with the Ft.
Thompson Formation is better understood.
The uppermost of Blackwelder's interval-zones, the Yongesian Substage
of his Longian Stage, has been assigned to late Pleistocene deposits of the
Carolinas, Virginia, and Maryland, and contains no extinct species. Interval-
zone M1 reportedly includes the Socastee Formation, the Pamlico Formation
(in part), the Norfolk Formation, the Sandbridge Formation, the Princess
Anne Formation, the Silver Bluff Formation, and the Anastasia Formation.
The age of interval-zone M1, derived from several studies (Blackwelder 1981a:
30), has been estimated to range from 0.220 to 0.062 m.y. Ward and
Blackwelder (1987) considered the Ft. Thompson Formation of Florida
(including the Coffee Mill Hammock Member) to be contemporaneous with
the Socastee Formation. However, as previously discussed, probably only the
Coffee Mill Hammock Formation and the younger Princess Anne Formation
are contained in zone M1.


The ages and stratigraphic relationships of the Plio-Pleistocene marine
deposits of south Florida are still poorly understood, as are the correlations of
those units with other deposits. Some confusion has arisen because workers
have used lithostratigraphic names for biostratigraphic units, a necessary error
given the lack of a suitable biostratigraphic nomenclature. Most papers cited
in this review were concerned principally with molluscan assemblages, not with


geological formations, but the mollusks were reported in lithostratigraphic
context. When molluscan assemblages are correlated within that context, the
results can be misleading, especially if a formation contains more than one
depositional unit and a single age determination has been applied to the entire
Exposures along the Caloosahatchee River and elsewhere in southern
Florida range in age from middle Pliocene to late Pleistocene, and five
formational names have been applied to the various units. Despite the fact
that groups of index taxa define distinctive molluscan assemblages for several
of the "formations," there is little agreement on the stratigraphic boundaries
and ages of any of the units. Brooks (1974) suggested that deposits previously
assigned to the Caloosahatchee (and Bermont) and Ft. Thompson formations
should simply be combined as a single formation created by an unknown
number of glacial and interglacial events. That suggestion is not
biostratigraphically useful because important evidence of climatic fluctuation,
evolutionary change, and extinction is contained within the various
Another source of confusion involves the fact that virtually no formational
age determination based on coral He/U dates, index foraminiferans, or
ostracodes has been accompanied by information on the species composition
of molluscan assemblages in the strata from which the samples were obtained.
As an example, Akers (1972) used planktonic foraminiferans and Blackwelder
(1981a) used unpublished data from Bender's coral dating to assign an early
Pleistocene age for the Waccamaw Formation. Because of the marked
similarity between the classic Waccamaw and Caloosahatchee molluscan
faunas, some authors have cited those assignments as support for an early
Pleistocene age for some or all of the Caloosahatchee mollusks. It is now
contended that both late Pliocene and early Pleistocene strata occur in the
Waccamaw Formation (Cronin et al. 1984), but it is no longer evident whether
the Waccamaw mollusks that correlate with the Caloosahatchee fauna occur in
the late Pliocene strata, the early Pleistocene strata, or both.
If lithostratigraphic nomenclature is not appropriate for the identification
and correlation of these biological assemblages, then a system of age-related
molluscan biostratigraphy is needed to identify the units. Blackwelder's
(1981a) attempt to construct such a system for the middle Atlantic Coastal
Plain is a step in that direction, but his system seems flawed by incorrect
correlations, at least in the upper half of the sequence. The best evidence now
available for Florida indicates that the classic Caloosahatchee fauna became
extinct at the end of the Pliocene Epoch and was replaced by the Bermont
fauna in the early Pleistocene. The Bermont fauna lacks many genera (e.g.
Pterorhytis, Contraconus, Cymatosylinx) that became regionally extinct at the
end of the Caloosahatchee era. The fact that those genera occurred in the
faunas of the now-restricted Waccamaw and James City formations casts


further doubt on the supposed early Pleistocene ages of those formations. If
those formations are partially of Pliocene age, Blackwelder's interval-zones
M3, M2, and M1 must be recalibrated.
The molluscan faunas of the Florida units are much more diverse than
are those of corresponding units in the middle Atlantic Coastal Plain, but the
actual stratigraphic situations of many Florida taxa are still based principally
upon conjecture. Only DuBar (1958a, 1962a) has thoroughly documented
southern Florida marine assemblages in situ. Much has been made of the low
topography and paucity of stratigraphic exposures in southern Florida, and of
the consequent necessity to collect from excavation spoil. However, those
excuses may disguise the fact that it is far easier to collect from spoil than from
in situ deposits. For example, the APAC Mine, a dry excavation, has been
accessible for in situ study for more than 20 years, but relatively little
comprehensive effort has been made to document the species compositions of
the various units. Petuch's (1982b) biostratigraphic outline of APAC Mine
only begins to reveal the information that could be forthcoming from more
intensive study.
As dry-excavation sites occasionally become available, every opportunity
should be used to document faunal assemblages in situ. The results of such
studies, when correlated with global climatic events, will reveal information
necessary to better understand the evolution of the marine mollusks of
southern Florida.
Until a suitable biostratigraphic lexicon becomes available for the Florida
marine deposits, it will be necessary to relate the molluscan assemblages by
their less precise stratigraphic formational names, as I do here. Species of
Latints treated in this report are from the Pinecrest beds faces of the Tamiami
Formation (middle Pliocene; estimated age 3.5-3.0 m.y.); the Caloosahatchee
Formation (restricted; late Pliocene; age 2.5-1.8 m.y); and the Ortona Lock
and Belle Glade facies of the Bermont Formation (revised; early Pleistocene;
< 1.7> 1.0 m.y.). The Bermont Formation may actually consist of two members
and, if so, the age of the upper member may be considerably younger. No
species of Latints is known from early Pliocene (Wiltonian Stage equivalent) or
late Pleistocene (Ft. Thompson and Coffee Mill Hammock) deposits of


Many of the specimens of Latirus that were examined for this study were collected by the
author. Other specimens were loaned or donated by amateur collectors, and additional records
were obtained from specimens in the paleontological collections of the Florida Museum of
Natural Iistory, the Department of Geology of Tulane University, and the Academy of Natural
Sciences of Philadelphia.


Nearly all of the specimens of Latirus were collected from spoil of pit or canal excavations,
so their biostratigraphic affinities could not be precisely ascertained. However, the acknowledged
biostratigraphic affinities of other index taxa that accompanied the specimens of Latirus allow
considerable confidence in the affinities assigned to the latter specimens. Locations of most
collecting sites are shown in Figure 1. Locality data and stratigraphic information for south
Florida sites that produced most of the specimens are as follows:
APAC Mine -- Excavation spoil at pit 3.2 km east of Sarasota, 0.3 km west of Interstate
Highway 1-75 (Sec. 12, T36S, R18E, Bee Ridge Quadrangle), Sarasota County; Latitude 27021'N,
Longitude 8227'W. Principally middle Pliocene Tamiami Formation, with scattered lenses of
late Pliocene Caloosahatchee Formation. Other names: Newbern Road Pit; Warren Bros. Pit;
MacAsphalt Pit.
Belle Glade Rock Pit -- Excavation spoil approximately 1.6 km south of Belle Glade, just
south of State Road 80 (W1/2 NE1/4 Sec. 7, T44S, R37E, Belle Glade Quadrangle), Palm Beach
County; Latitude 2639'30"N, Longitude 80040'40"W. Early Pleistocene Bermont Formation.
Cochran Shell Pit -- Excavation spoil approximately 6.5 km southwest of La Belle, 0.2 km
north of State Road 80 (NE1/4 Sec. 23, T43S, R28E, Sears Quadrangle), Hendry County;
Latitude 26043'45"N, Longitude 81029'15"W. Principally late Pliocene Caloosahatchee Formation.
DeSoto Shell Pit -- Excavation spoil 16 km south of Arcadia, on east side of Hog Bay
Road (SW1/4 SW1/4 Sec. 28, T39S, R25E, Arcadia SE Quadrangle), DeSoto County; Latitude
27003'00"N, Longitude 81049'30"W. Late Pliocene Caloosahatchee Formation, overlain by early
Pleistocene Bermont Formation.
Miami Canal -- Excavation spoil 24.4 km west of U.S. Highway 27, 3.6 to 9.1 km north of
pumping station, east side of Miami Canal (Sec. 2, 11, 14, and 24, T47S, R35E, Everglades 2 NE
Quadrangle), Palm Beach County. Late Pliocene Caloosahatchee Formation overlain sometimes
by early Pleistocene Bermont Formation.
Mule Pen Quarry -- Excavation spoil 6.2 km east of Interstate Highway 1-75, north side of
County Road 846, Naples Park (SE1/4 Sec. 24, T48S, R26E, Corkscrew SW Quadrangle), Collier
County; Latitude 2616'48"N, Longitude 81040'42"W. Middle Pliocene Tamiami Formation
overlain by late Pliocene Caloosahatchee Formation. Other name: Florida Rock Industries, Inc.,
Naples Quarry.
North New River Canal -- Excavation spoil on west side of canal along east side of U.S.
Highway 27, 32.3 km southeast of South Bay, Palm Beach County; Latitude 26023'28"N,
Longitude 8034'29"W. Early Pleistocene Bermont Formation.
North St. Petersburg -- Excavation spoil at southeast corner of 9th Street and 70th Avenue
North, St. Petersburg (NW1/4 Sec. 31, T30S, R17E, St. Petersburg Quadrangle), Pinellas County;
Latitude 27050'19"N, Longitude 82037'56"W. Late Pliocene Caloosahatchee Formation.
Ortona Lock -- Excavation spoil 2.4 km north-northeast of Goodno, along south bank of
Caloosahatchee River (Sec. 26 and 27, T42S, R30E, Goodno Quadrangle), Glades County;
Latitude 2647'20"N, Longitude 81018'20"W. Early Pleistocene Bermont Formation.
South Bay (2) -- Excavation spoil at pit 1.2 km north of South Bay, approximately 0.4 km
east of U.S. Highway 27 (Sec. 2, T43S, R36E, Belle Glade Quadrangle), Palm Beach County;
Latitude 26041'00"N, Longitude 80043'35"W. Early Pleistocene Bermont Formation.
South Bay (3) -- Excavation spoil at pit 2.4 km northeast of South Bay, on south side of
waterworks (Sec. 2, T43S, R36E, Belle Glade Quadrangle), Palm Beach County, Latitude
2641'00"N, Longitude 80042'02"W. Early Pleistocene Bermont Formation.
Prefixes of catalogue numbers for specimens that were examined from or deposited in
various institutional collections are as follows: Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia
(ANSP); Marine Invertebrate Collection, Florida Marine Research Institute (FSBC F and FSBC
I); Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University (MCZ); Florida Museum of Natural
History, University of Florida (UF); United States National Museum of Natural History,
Smithsonian Institution (USNM); and Zodlogisch Museum, Universiteit van Amsterdam (ZMA).
Specimens in the collection at Tulane University are identified by the prefix TU and appropriate
field station numbers (e.g. TU 536).
Specimens were examined using a Zeiss model IV-B binocular dissecting microscope and
were measured to the nearest 0.1 mm using vernier calipers. Shell length, measured from the
apex to the anterior tip of the siphonal canal, is reported for all specimens; only the range of
lengths (minimum-maximum) is reported for lots containing more than two specimens. Greatest


width is also reported for the largest specimen of each species and for all holotypes and
lectotypes. Unless otherwise stated, reported measurements are for intact specimens.


Family Fasciolariidae Gray, 1853
Subfamily Peristerniinae Tryon, 1881
Genus Latinrs Montfort, 1810
Subgenus Latints Montfort, 1810

Type species.--Latints aurantiacus Montfort, 1810 (= Murex gibblushs
Gmelin, 1791), by monotypy.

Diagnosis.--Shells moderately large (to >70 mm), solid, fusiform,
narrowly to widely umbilicate, with rapidly expanding whorls, well-developed
axial ribs or folds, moderate to strong spiral cords and finer threads, short
siphonal canal, and prominent columellar plicae; sutural ramps without thin
axial lamellae; parietal tooth, if present, formed by continuation into aperture
of spiral cord from body whorl.

Remarks.--Bullock (1974) called attention to the fact that the shell of the
Indo-Pacific species Latints gibbulus (Gmelin, 1791), the type species of
Latints, has features that suggest affinity with species now classified in
Leucozonia Gray, 1847, rather than with other species now classified in Latints.
The radulae of species of Latints have a small node or cusp on the medial end
of the lateral tooth, but that node is greatly reduced or absent in species of
Letucozonia (Bullock 1974). The radula of L. gibbulus has not been described.
If L. gibbhulus proves to be allied with species now placed in Leucozonia,
Leucozonia will become a junior synonym of Latin s and many species now
classified in Latinis must adopt another generic designation, probably Polygona
Schumacher, 1817.
The species of Latinis examined during this study can be separated
morphologically into two groups. The first group contains species with large,
heavy, relatively broad shells that lack axial lamellae on their sutural ramps.
The shells may have a tooth-like swelling on the parietal shield, formed
externally by continuation into the aperture of a spiral cord of the body whorl.
This group, containing the Recent species Latints carinifens (Lamarck, 1816)
of the western Atlantic and L. annatus (A. Adams, 1855) of the eastern
Atlantic, as well as the fossil species L. taunts Olsson, 1922, and two new
species described herein, is usually classified in Latinis s.s. If the generic names
Latints and Polygona prove inappropriate for this group, the name


Hemipolygona Rovereto, 1899, is available. Hemipolygona was proposed as a
replacement name for Chascax Watson, 1873 (type species Chascax maderensis
Watson, 1873 [= Latinms annatus A. Adams, 1855] by monotypy; non Chascax
Ritgen, 1828 [Reptilia]).
A second group within Latirus contains species with small to large shells
that have distinct axial lamellae on their sutural ramps. This group contains
species with or without a prominent tooth near the anal sinus. Unlike the
parietal swelling of the previous group, this tooth is the terminus of a ridge that
originates within the aperture and emerges to form the anal sinus. The
emergent ridge, although always present, may be weak or strong and, if weak,
will not form a prominent tooth. Presence or absence of the tooth seems to be
a species-level character. All species with axial lamellae, with or without the
tooth at the anal sinus, are classified in the subgenus Polygona and are treated
following those classified in Latims s.s.
Other genera of Peristerniinae that might be confused with Latims
include Peristemia and Leucozonia. As noted by Tryon (1881) and Bullock
(1974), no fully satisfactory suite of characters has been identified that will
allow confident assignments of all of the species among these genera. The
character most useful in distinguishing the genera seems to be the radula
(Tryon 1881; Cernohorsky 1972; Bullock 1974), but radulae are not available
for the identification of fossils. Most shells assigned to Peristernia are relatively
small, lack an umbilicus, have a recurved siphonal canal, and have 2-3
columellar plicae that are less developed than are the 3-6 columellar plicae of
Latims. No Recent species of Peristemia occur in the New World (except,
perhaps, in the Galapagos Islands, fide Shasky 1988), and the few New World
fossil records of the genus are demonstrably incorrect. At least five Recent
species of Leucozonia occur in the New World, and Weisbord (1962) reported
fossil specimens from northern Venezuela. Shells of some Leucozonia species
lack the pronounced spiral cords of species of Latints, and all Leucozonia have
a more open siphonal canal that merges imperceptibly with the anterior
portion of the aperture. Moreover, shells of Leucozonia often have a single
tooth or tubercle on the outer lip at the terminus of a spiral cord situated
between the body whorl and the siphonal canal.
Three species of Latints s.s., including two described here, are recorded
as post-Miocene fossils of south Florida.

Latints (Latints) nosali, new species
(Figs. 2-11)

Description.--Shell solid, broadly fusiform, umbilicate, to approximately
65 mm long, 31.5 mm wide, with about 11 whorls. Protoconchs of all


specimens eroded or absent; eroded remnants small, of no more than 2 whorls.
Teleoconch whorls 8-9, with nearly straight sides, slightly constricted at sutures.
Whorls of spire with 10-12 low, broad, slightly rounded axial ribs crossed by 2-3
spiral cords, cords separated by 1-2 spiral threads; swollen spiral band
separating axial ribs from posterior suture of each whorl. Body whorl with 14-
16 axial ribs crossed by 7 spiral cords, cords separated by 1-3 spiral threads;
swollen spiral band at posterior suture overlain by 4-5 faint spiral threads.
Siphonal canal short, broad, anteriorly truncate, with 4 oblique cords on
dorsum, bordered ventrally along inner edge by thin, elevated lip; umbilicus
deep, moderately to very wide. Aperture subovate, slightly constricted at anal
sinus; outer lip crenulated by terminations of external spiral band and cords,
with 8-9 strong lirae within; inner lip thin, elevated; columella straight, smooth,
with 4 plicae emerging antero-obliquely from interior, posterior 2 plicae

Type material.--Holotype 57.0 mm long, 26.7 mm wide; APAC Mine,
Sarasota County; UF 31500.--3 paratypes, 38.3-57.0 mm; APAC Mine; UF
9697.--1 paratype, 42.3 mm; APAC Mine; ANSP 75403.--1 paratype, 50.1 mm
(spire broken); APAC Mine; USNM 451145.--2 paratypes, 42.9, 47.1 mm;
APAC Mine; FSBC F 37461.--9 paratypes, 30.8-56.6 mm; APAC Mine; FSBC
F 37460.--5 paratypes, 32.3-63.1 mm; APAC Mine; FSBC F 39512.

Type locality.--APAC Mine, Sarasota County, Florida.

Other material.--2 specimens, 34.1, 36.0 mm; APAC Mine; collection of
Mrs. Meta Jones.--2 specimens, 43.0, 60.6 mm; APAC Mine; collection of Mrs.
Yvonne Bequet.

Distribution.--Middle Pliocene; Tamiami Formation; known only from
the type locality.

Remarks.--Latins nosali is the first species of Latinrs s.s. that is known
from middle Pliocene deposits of Florida. Although most specimens have been
collected from spoil, several of the specimens were collected in situ from
Petuch's (1982b) Unit 7, indicating the material to be from the Pinecrest beds
of the Tamiami Formation.
The 14-16 axial ribs on the body whorl of L. nosali are smaller, more
closely spaced, and more numerous than are the 8-9 more prominent ribs of
the late Pliocene species L. stephensae (described hereafter) and the
Pleistocene to Recent species L. caiinifents (Lamarck). The swollen band near
the posterior suture of L. nosali is absent in L. stephensae and L. carinifents,
which have, instead, relatively flat sutural ramps (Bullock 1974) overlain by
faint spiral threads. The 7 spiral cords on the body whorl and the absence of a






Figures 2-11.-Latimrs nosali new species. Figs. 2, 3.-HOLOTYPE (UF 31500). Figs. 4, 5.-
PARATYPE (USNM 451145). Figs. 6, 7.- PARATYPE (FSBC F 37460). Figs. 8, 9.-
PARATYPE (ANSP 75403). Figs. 10, 11.- PARATYPE (FSBC F 37460). All from APAC Mine.
Figs. 2-11 x 1.


I -


p" .

~c S


parietal tooth distinguish L. nosali from the large Pleistocene species L.
(Polygona) maxwelli Pilsbry, which has 9-10 spiral cords and a prominent
parietal tooth.
The projected maximum length of 65 mm is an approximation
extrapolated from the largest specimen (FSBC F 39512), which has a broken
spire tip. The width of the umbilicus is more pronounced in some specimens
than in others. The umbilicus of each of the larger (> 50 mm) specimens is very
wide, but the umbilicus of the 32.1 mm specimen is relatively wider than are
those of other specimens 36.0-47.1 mm in length.

Etymology.--The species is named for Adam Nosal, who has facilitated
access to the APAC Mine for countless fossil collectors.

Latints (Latints) stephensae, new species
(Figs. 12-19)

Latirus (Polygona) brevicaudatus: Olsson and Harbison 1953: 20. (Non Turbinella brevicaudata
Reeve, 1847 [= Latirns (Polygona) angulatus (Roding, 1798) fide Bullock 1974]).

Description.--Shell moderately solid, fusiform, umbilicate, to 72.8 mm
long, 31.5 mm wide, with about 11 whorls. Protoconchs of all specimens
eroded, that of best-preserved specimen with 1-3/4 whorls, evidently smooth.
Teleoconch whorls about 9. Whorls of spire with 9-10 low, rounded axial ribs
crossed by 2 strong, carina-like cords, ribs bounded anteriorly and posteriorly
by single weaker cords, with a fifth cord on sutural ramp; 3-4 threads in spaces
between cords. Body whorl shouldered, with 8-9 broad, weak to moderately
developed axial ribs crossed by 6 spiral cords, each separated by 4-6 spiral
threads; sutural ramp with 2 spiral cords interspaced with 4-8 spiral threads.
Siphonal canal short, relatively narrow, anteriorly truncate, with 3 oblique
cords on dorsum, bordered ventrally along inner edge by thin, elevated lip;
umbilicus deep, narrow to wide. Aperture subovate, slightly constricted at anal
sinus; outer lip crenulated by terminations of external spiral cords, with 7-10
weak lirae within; inner lip thin, scarcely distinguished from body whorl;
columella straight, smooth, with 4 plicae emerging antero-obliquely from
interior, posterior 2 plicae largest.

Type material.--Holotype 72.8 mm long, 31.5 mm wide; south of State
Road 78 along north bank of Caloosahatchee River (SE 1/4 Sec. 11, SW 1/4
Sec. 12, T43S, R28E, Sears Quadrangle), Hendry County; UF 24664.--1
paratype, 55.8 mm; Cochran Shell Pit, Hendry County; USNM 451146.--4
paratypes, 34.0-60.8 mm; Cochran Shell Pit; FSBC F 37463.--1 paratype, 47.8


mm; Cochran Shell Pit; ANSP 75404.--1 paratype, 30.0 mm; DeSoto Shell Pit,
DeSoto County; FSBC F 37465.--2 paratypes, 59.5, 68.6 mm; Mule Pen Quarry,
Collier County; UF 24658.--4 paratypes, 23.5-66.5 mm; Mule Pen Quarry; UF
24660.--1 paratype, 51.1 mm; Mule Pen Quarry; UF 14641.--4 paratypes, 47.4-
56.5 mm; Mule Pen Quarry; TU 1175.--4 paratypes, 38.0-60.5 mm; Mule Pen
Quarry; FSBC F 37466.--1 paratype, 45.8 mm; Mule Pen Quarry; FSBC F
37467.--1 paratype, 49.3 mm; 25.9 km WNW of Terrytown, Broward County;
ANSP 55440.--2 paratypes, 40.0, 40.1 mm; spoil on east bank of Miami Canal,
Palm Beach County; FSBC F 37468.--1 paratype, 35.7 mm (spire broken);
Miami Canal, 3 km north of pumping station at Broward County line, Palm
Beach County; TU 541.--1 paratype, 51.0 mm; North St. Petersburg, Pinellas
County; FSBC F 37469.--1 paratype, 29.6 mm; North St. Petersburg; ANSP

Type locality.--North bank of Caloosahatchee River, Hendry County,
Florida (see Type material).

Other material.--1 specimen, 28.1 mm (tip of spire and anterior canal
missing); State Road 84 (Alligator Alley), 20.7 km east of State Road 29 (T49S,
R32E), Collier County; TU 796.--3 specimens, 31.5-36.4 mm (last with
protoconch missing); State Road 84, 21.5 km east of State Road 29 (T49S,
R32E), Collier County; TU 797.--2 specimens, both large but badly broken;
State Road 84, 34.8 km east of State Road 29, Collier County; TU 933.

Distribution.--Late Pliocene; Caloosahatchee Formation; Hendry,
DeSoto, Collier, Broward, Palm Beach, and Pinellas counties, Florida.

Remarks.--The holotype of Latints stephensae (Figs. 12, 13), which is the
largest specimen examined, has a relatively shorter siphonal canal than do all
smaller specimens. The umbilicus of L. stephensae is narrow on all but two of
the specimens examined, being wide only on the holotype (Fig. 12) and on one
paratype from North St. Petersburg (Fig. 16; FSBC F 37469).
Latints stephensae, a species of the Caloosahatchee Formation, is the late
Pliocene representative of a lineage that includes Latints taunts Olsson, 1922,
of the Gatun Formation of Panama, L. nosali of the middle Pliocene Tamiami
Formation, and L. carinifents of the Pleistocene and Recent fauna. Latinrs
taunts (Figs. 20, 21) has a more widely angled spire and stronger and more
numerous axial ribs on the body whorl (11 versus 8-9) than does L. stephensae.
Axial ribs and spiral cords of juvenile specimens ofL. stephensae are very
similar to those of L. nosali, but juveniles of L. stephensae lack the swollen
subsutural band of L. nosali. Large specimens of L. stephensae are
considerably more slender, have fewer axial ribs (8-9 versus 14-16), and have
stronger spiral cords on the body whorl than do specimens ofL. nosali. Latints


~; ;;;

- a



Figures 12-21.--Figs. 12-19.- Latinrs stephensae new species. Figs. 12, 13.- HOLOTYPE, north
bank of Caloosahatchee River (UF 24664). Figs. 14, 15.- PARATYPE, Mule Pen Quarry (FSBC
F 37466). Fig. 16.- PARATYPE, North St. Petersburg (FSBC F 37469). Fig. 17.- PARATYPE,
Miami Canal (FSBC F 37468). Figs. 18, 19.- PARATYPE, Cochran Shell Pit (USNM 451146).
Figs. 20, 21.- Latirus taurus Olsson, HOLOTYPE, Toro Cays, Panama (PRI 21010). Figs. 12-21 x





a -

F i

t P-



stephensae has six cords on the body whorl and three on the anterior canal,
whereas L. nosali has seven and four, respectively.
Shells of L. stephensae are relatively more slender than are those of L.
carinifems. Latints stephensae resembles L. carinifents principally in that rib
counts on whorls of the spire overlap (9-10 for the former, 8-9 for the latter);
both species have 8-9 ribs on the body whorl and two strong spiral cords that
cross the axial ribs, producing a tabulate appearance on whorls of the spire of
each species. However, L. stephensae has six cords on the body whorl,
including three contiguous cords at the base, whereas L. carinifenrs has five
cords, including two contiguous at the base. In addition, one or both of the
cords on the sutural ramp of L. stephensae are more prominent than are the
one or two stronger threads that are sometimes present on the sutural ramp of
L. cainifents.
The species reported from North St. Petersburg by Olsson and Harbison
(1953) as Latints (Polygona) brevicaudatus (Reeve) is L. stephensae, as
revealed by examination of their voucher specimen (ANSP 18030).
The specimens reported as L. stephensae from spoil along Alligator Alley
(TU 796, TU 797, TU 933) are all juveniles or are badly broken, and those
identifications are tentative. Most of the species that accompany them in the
collections indicate affinity with the Pinecrest beds of the Tamiami Formation,
and no other unequivocal indicator species of the Caloosahatchee Formation
were found in those collections. If these specimens are actually of L.
stephensae, it seems likely that scattered lenses of Caloosahatchee deposits may
have overlain the Tamiami material along Alligator Alley.

Etymology.-- The species is named for Susan B. Stephens, Sanibel Island,
Florida, a devoted collector of south Florida fossil mollusks, in recognition of
the many specimens she provided for this study.

Latints (Latints) carinifents (Lamarck, 1816)
(Figs. 22-31)

Fusus cariniferus Lamarck, 1816: pl. 423, fig. 3.
Turbinella carinifera: Reeve 1847: pl. 3, fig. 14.
Latinis distinctus A. Adams, 1855: 314.
Plicatella trochlearis Kobelt, 1874: pl. 19, figs. 1, 2.
Latirus trochlearis: Pilsbry 1939: 85, 86, pl. 5, fig. 7.
Latirus mcgintyi Pilsbry, 1939: 84, 85, pl. 5, fig. 8; Hoerle 1970: 64 [list].
Latirus (Latirus) cariniferus: Bullock 1974: 71-74, figs. 2-6, 9, 11, 18, 22; Abbott 1974: 226, 227, pl.
11, fig. 2489.
Latirus cariniferus: Petuch 1982c: 775, 777; Vokes and Vokes 1983: 56, pl. 16, fig. 14.
Latirus cariniferns mcgintyi: Vokes and Vokes 1983: 56, pl. 16, fig. 15.


Description.--Shell solid, broadly fusiform, umbilicate, to 73.0 mm long,
36.8 mm wide (Bullock 1974), with about 11 whorls. Protoconch with 1-1/2
whorls. Teleoconch of 8-9 whorls. Whorls of spire with 8-9 moderate to
strong axial ribs crossed by 2-3 spiral cords; if 3 cords present, cord nearest
anterior suture weaker than others; 5-6 spiral threads usually present between
cords. Body whorl with 8-9 axial ribs crossed by 5 strong cords, each separated
by as many as 7 faint spiral threads; anteriormost 2 cords at base contiguous;
sutural ramp with as many as 16 faint spiral threads, of which 1 or 2 sometimes
stronger than others. Siphonal canal short, broad, anteriorly truncate, with 3
oblique cords on dorsum, bordered ventrally along inner edge by thin, elevated
lip; umbilicus usually deep, narrow to very wide. Aperture subovate, somewhat
compressed along outer edge, slightly constricted at anal sinus; outer lip
crenulated by terminations of external spiral cords, with about 7 weak lirae
within; inner lip thin, elevated; columella straight, smooth, with 4 plicae
emerging antero-obliquely from interior, posterior 2 plicae largest.

Material examined.--3 specimens, 42.0-48.4 mm; South Bay (2), Palm
Beach County; UF 19566.--1 specimen, 52.3 mm; South Bay (3); UF 14654.

Distribution.--Early Pleistocene; Bermont Formation; Palm Beach
County, Florida. Recent: Florida and the Caribbean Sea to the northern coast
of South America (Bullock 1974).

Remarks.--Bullock (1974) did not mention Hoerle's (1970) record of
Latints mcgintyi (= L. carinifents) in the "Glades Unit" (= Bermont
Formation) at Belle Glade, and he seemed to be unaware of any fossil record
for the species. Although I did not see Hoerle's material, the specimens from
Bermont deposits at South Bay, only 5 km from Belle Glade, seem to confirm
her record. Except for maximum dimensions, the description presented here is
based entirely on the South Bay fossils (Figs. 22-27), whose features agree with
those Bullock (1974) described for Recent specimens.
Latints carinifents is preceded in the fossil record by L. stephensae of the
late Pliocene Caloosahatchee Formation, by L. nosali of the middle Pliocene
Tamiami Formation, and by L. taurns of the late Miocene to early Pliocene
Gatun Formation of Panama. Characters that distinguish L. carinfenis from
those species are discussed in previous species accounts. Whether all of the
forms now assigned to L. carinifntis by Bullock (1974) actually represent a
single species is uncertain. The typical, strongly carinate, usually unicolored
form of L. carinifents described by Lamarck occurs in Cuba (Bullock 1974: figs.
5, 11, 18, 22) and is common in Hispaniola (Figs. 28, 29) and in the Pleistocene
Moin Formation of Costa Rica (David G. Robinson, pers. comm.) but is not
known in fossil or Recent assemblages of Florida. As noted by Bullock (1974),
shells of typical L. carinifents resemble those of L. annatus, a species of the




f-,.i -..

29 31

Figures 22-31.--Latirus carinifens (Lamarck). Figs. 22- 27.- South Bay (Pleistocene) (UF 19566).
Figs. 28, 29.- typical carinate form, Port au Prince, Haiti (Recent) (FSBC I 37458). Figs. 30, 31. -
"mcgintyi" form, Looe Key Reef, Florida (Recent) (FSBC 137457). Figs. 22-31 x 1.




eastern Atlantic Ocean, but shells of L. annatus have only three strong carina-
like cords on the body whorl. The stockier, less carinate, and usually bicolored
form of L. carinifents (Figs. 30, 31), named L. distinctus A. Adams, 1855, and
L. mncgintyi Pilsbry, 1939, occurs in Recent assemblages of Florida, the Gulf of
Mexico, and the western Caribbean Sea. Vokes and Vokes (1983) reported
both L. carinifents and L. calinifenis mcgintyi from the Yucatan Peninsula.
Additional study may reveal these forms to be separate at the species level.
Until then, it is sufficient to note that the Florida Pleistocene fossils most
resemble the distinctus form.
Bullock (1974) stated that L. carinifents lives in depths "from shallow
water to over 100 fathoms [= 183 m]"; however, most living specimens in
Florida are collected from depths less than 40 m.

Subgenus Polygona Schumacher, 1817

Type species.--Polygona filSifonnis Schumacher, 1817 (= Miurex
infitndibulunm Gmelin, 1791), by monotypy.

Diagnosis.--Shells small to large, moderately broad to slender, often with
pronounced brown spiral cords, with thin axial lamellae on sutural ramp;
siphonal canal short or long, with obsolete to well-developed umbilicus;
parietal tooth, if present, formed by ridge emerging from within aperture.

Remarks.--Most classifications of the Peristerniinae have either ignored
Polygona (e.g. Tryon 1881) or considered it a junior synonym of Latints (e.g.
Melvill 1891; Thiele 1929; Wenz 1943). Nevertheless, Woodring (1928) and
Bullock (1974) argued to maintain Polygona as a subgenus of Latints.
According to Bullock (1974), species classified in Polygona differ from those in
Latimts s.s. by having smaller, relatively more slender shells with well-
developed siphonal canals and, usually, with pronounced brown rather than
white spiral cords. However, as acknowledged by Bullock (1974), the
subgeneric distinction may be principally for convenience of classification.
Specimens of Latints infundibuliun, the type species of Polygona, attain lengths
>70 mm, as do those of the fossil species L. maxwelli from Florida. Characters
that do distinguish many species of Polygona from those classified in Latinrs
s.s. include the axial lamellae on the sutural ramps and, when present, the
tooth at the terminus of the ridge that emerges from within the aperture to
form the anal sinus (see Remarks for Latints s.s.).
Five species in the subgenus Polygona are recorded as post-Miocene
fossils of southern Florida. Three of the species have a strong parietal tooth at
the anal sinus and two of the species lack such a tooth. The group includes no
previously undescribed species, but the name of one of them is a junior
homonym, for which a replacement name is proposed.


Latints (Polygona) miamiensis Petuch, 1986
(Figs. 32-35)

Latirus miamiensis Petuch, 1986a: 406, pl. 3, figs. 1, 2; 1988: pl. 16, figs. 3, 4.

Description.--Shell slender, fusiform, to approximately 43 mm long, 16
mm wide, with about 9 whorls. Protoconch unknown. Teleoconch whorls
about 7, slightly rounded at sides, constricted at sutures. Whorls of spire with
9-10 low, rounded axial ribs crossed by 5 strong spiral cords; cords usually
smooth between, but sometimes with single faint cord or thread; sutural ramp
slightly inflated, overlain by 2-4 spiral cords and thin, axial lamellae. Body
whorl with about 10 low, relatively long axial ribs crossed by 10 spiral cords,
occasionally with single threads between cords; sutural ramp overlain by 2
somewhat weaker, undulating cords and numerous thin, axial lamellae that
may continue between ribs of body whorl. Siphonal canal slender, elongate;
dorsum with 7 strong, oblique spiral cords; thin, elevated inner lip attached
ventrally along entire length of canal; umbilicus very small, shallow, chink-like.
Aperture subovate; outer lip rounded, with 7 very thin lirae within; low swelling
but no tooth on parietal shield near anal sinus; columella straight, with 3 weak
plicae emerging antero-obliquely from interior.

Type material.--Holotype 35 mm long, 16 mm wide (spire and siphonal
canal broken); MCZ 29226.

Type locality.--Excavation near SW 146th Avenue and Bird Road, Miami,
Dade County, Florida; by original designation (Petuch 1986a).

Other material.--1 specimen, 41.0 mm (apex broken); Mule Pen Quarry,
Collier County; FSBC F 37482.

Distribution.--Middle Pliocene; Tamiami Formation; Dade and Collier
counties, Florida.

Remarks.--The material of Latinis miamiensis examined during this study
includes only the damaged holotype and one additional damaged specimen.
Nevertheless, the two specimens are sufficiently intact to confirm that L.
miamiensis is distinct from other slender species of Latimns (Polygona) treated
Latints miamiensis is a member of a group that, in the Caribbean Region,
extends from the Miocene to the Recent fauna. Other species in this complex
include Latints elongatus Gabb, 1873, from the early to middle Miocene Baitoa
Formation of the Dominican Republic and L. tessellatus Dall, 1890 (non
R6cluz, 1844; nec Kobelt, 1874), from the Caloosahatchee Formation. In the









Figures 32-43.--Figs. 32-35.- Latirus miamiensis Petuch. Figs. 32, 33.- HOLOTYPE, Bird Road,
Miami (MCZ 29226). Figs. 34, 35.- Mule Pen Quarry (FSBC F 37482). Figs. 36-41.- Latirus
virginensis Abbott (Recent). Figs. 36, 37.- HOLOTYPE, St. Thomas, Virgin Islands (ANSP
196459). Figs. 38, 39.- PARATYPE, St. Thomas (ANSP 34968). Fig. 40.- PARATYPE, St.
Thomas (ANSP 34975). Fig. 41.. PARATYPE, West Indies (ANSP 34969). Figs. 42, 43.- Latirus
eppi Melvill and Schepman, Curagao (Recent) (ZMA). Figs. 32-43 x 1.3.

N~ ~




Recent fauna, the group is represented by L. virginensis Abbott, 1958 (=
Latints karinae Usticke, 1967, fide Faber 1988) (Figs. 36-41) and L. eppi Melvill
and Schepman in Melvill, 1891 (Figs. 42, 43) of the Caribbean Region and by
L. hemphilli Hertlein and Strong, 1951, and L. mediamelicanus Hertlein and
Strong, 1951, of the tropical Eastern Pacific Region.
Petuch (1986a) stated that L. miamiensis most resembles L. angustatus
Gabb, 1873, from the late Miocene to early Pliocene Gurabo Formation
(actually early to middle Miocene Baitoa Formation) of the Dominican
Republic. However, Pilsbry (1922) noted the resemblance of the holotype of
L. angustatus (ANSP 2950) to the holotype of L. elongatus (ANSP 2955), also
described by Gabb from the Dominican Republic. I examined both specimens.
The type of L. angustatus is a small shell (27.0 mm) with breaks on the tip of
the spire, outer lip, and siphonal canal. The type of L. elongatus is a relatively
large fragment (49.5 mm) that consists of the body whorl and siphonal canal
plus two whorls of the spire; most of the spire is missing. Because the number
and shape of the ribs and spiral sculpture on the posteriormost remaining
whorl ofL. elongatus much resemble those same features on the body whorl of
L. angustatus, I concur with Pilsbry that the type of L. angustatus is a juvenile
shell of L. elongatus. Together, the two shells indicate a large species, perhaps
to 70 mm long, with more slender whorls and a relatively longer siphonal canal
than that of L. miamiensis.

Latints (Polygona) caloosahatchiensis, new name
(Figs. 44-55)

Latirus tessellatus Dall, 1890: 108, pl. 10, fig. 8a; Tucker and Wilson 1932b: 356 [list]; M. Smith
1936: 22; Olsson and Harbison 1953: 215; Petuch 1982c: 777. (Non Turbinella tessellata
R6cluz, 1844a, 1844b [= Latinrs tessellatus (R6cluz) fide Tapparone-Canefri 1879]; nec
Plicatella polygona var. tessellata Kobelt, 1874 [= Latirus polygons (Gmelin, 1791) fide
Melvill 1891]).

Description.--Shell slender, fusiform, to 47 mm long, 15.2 mm wide, with
about 11 whorls. Protoconch of 2 smooth whorls, with 0-6 indistinct axial
riblets on anteriormost 1/2 whorl. Teleoconch whorls about 9, with slightly
convex, moderately shouldered sides, slightly to moderately constricted at
sutures. Whorls of spire with 8-9 low but well-developed axial ribs crossed by 4
weak, subequal spiral cords, with 3 weak spiral threads between cords; sutural
ramp inflated, overlain by about 7 undulating spiral threads crossed by thin,
irregularly spaced, axial lamellae. Body whorl with 9 relatively slender axial
ribs crossed by 9 large spiral cords, with single small cords or threads between
posterior 5 large cords; sutural ramp with 7 undulating spiral threads. Siphonal
canal elongate, slender; dorsum with about 7 strong, oblique spiral cords,
usually with single threads in spaces between; lip attached along ventral inner
edge of canal, hardly developed; umbilicus rudimentary, slit-like. Aperture


ovo-elongate; outer lip well-rounded, with 8-10 thin, faint lirae within; distinct
but weak ridge emerging from interior onto parietal shield, forming
constriction at anal sinus; columella straight, smooth, with 3 weak plicae
emerging from interior, anteriormost plication smallest.

Type material.--Holotype 35.3 mm long, 12.2 mm wide, with broken spire;
USNM 97496.

Type locality.--Caloosahatchee River, Florida; by original designation
(Dall 1890).

Other material.--2 specimens, 28.5, 29.5 mm; north side of
Caloosahatchee River, 8.9 km west of Ortona Lock (NW 1/4 Sec. 35, T42S,
R29E), Glades County; TU 768.--8 specimens, 19.0-29.0 mm; south bank of
Caloosahatchee River, 1.6 km east of La Belle (Sec. 3 and 4, T43S, R29E),
Hendry County; TU 536.--1 specimen, 25.5 mm; La Belle, Hendry County;
ANSP 55091.--1 specimen, 19.8 mm; north bank of Caloosahatchee River, 3
km west of La Belle (SE 1/4 Sec. 12, T43S, R28E), Hendry County; TU 529.--2
specimens, 25.5, 29.0 mm; 3 km west of La Belle on Caloosahatchee River,
Hendry County; UF 2882.--82 specimens, 13.5-40.3 mm; Cochran Shell Pit, 6.5
km west of La Belle, Hendry County; FSBC F 37474.--3 specimens, 24.2-38.6
mm; Cochran Shell Pit; FSBC F 37475.--2 specimens, 28.7, 28.8 mm; Cochran
Shell Pit; UF 14175.--1 specimen, 24.8 mm; Cochran Shell Pit; UF 23551.--15
specimens, 20.7-40.2 mm; Cochran Shell Pit; UF 24663.--2 specimens, 37.3,
27.9 mm (broken); Cochran Shell Pit; UF 25090.--1 specimen, 30.4 mm;
Cochran Shell Pit; UF 25091.--1 specimen, 30.5 mm (spire broken); Hendry
County Rock Pit, 0.8 km north of State Road 80, 4.8 km west of La Belle (SE
1/4 Sec. 14, T43S, R28E), Hendry County; TU 726.--1 specimen, 33.0 mm;
north bank of Caloosahatchee River south of State Road 78 (Sec. 11S to Sec.
12SW, T43S, R28E), Hendry County; ANSP 61345.--1 specimen, 32.4 mm;
north bank of Caloosahatchee River, 3.2 km east of Ft. Denaud (SW 1/4 Sec.
11, T43S, R28E), Hendry County; TU 203.--1 specimen, 28.9 mm;
Caloosahatchee marls, Caloosahatchee River; USNM 97496.--2 specimens,
27.7, 36.9 mm; spoil along Okeechobee Waterway, Clewiston, Hendry County;
UF 23195.--1 specimen, 39.3 mm; Clewiston; UF 25902.--1 specimen, 26.4 mm;
Miami Canal, 6.4 km north of pumping station at Broward County line, Palm
Beach County; TU 579.--1 specimen, 22.2 mm; Harney Pond Canal, Glades
County; ANSP 70638.--3 specimens, 35.5-37.0 mm; Mule Pen Quarry, Collier
County; UF 24659.--7 specimens, 23.1-38.8 mm; DeSoto Shell Pit, DeSoto
County; FSBC F 37476.--1 specimen, 32.3 mm; APAC Mine, Sarasota County;
collection of Mrs. Meta Jones.--1 specimen, 47.1 mm; APAC Mine; collection
of Mrs. Yvonne Bequet.









Figures 44-55.-Latints caloosahatchiensis new name. Figs. 44, 45.- HOLOTYPE, L. tessellatus
Dall, Caloosahatchee River (USNM 97496). Figs. 46-49.- rugose form, Cochran Shell Pit (FSBC
F 37474). Figs. 50-53.- smoother form, Cochran Shell Pit (FSBC F 37474). Fig. 54.- APAC Mine
(Meta Jones collection). Fig. 55.- DeSoto Shell Pit (FSBC F 37476). Figs. 44-55 x 1.3.






Distribution.--Late Pliocene; Caloosahatchee Formation; Hendry,
Glades, DeSoto, Palm Beach, Collier, and Sarasota counties, Florida.

Remarks.--Latints caloosahatchiensis is proposed as a replacement name
for Latinis tessellatus Dall, 1890, which is preoccupied by L. tessellatus (R6cluz,
1844) and by L. tessellatus (Kobelt, 1874). The name appeared in several
important revisions published prior to Dall's work (e.g. Kobelt 1874, 1876;
Tapparone-Canefri 1879; Tryon 1881; Paetel 1887).
The collection of types at the National Museum of Natural History
contains two lots, each numbered USNM 97496 and each containing a single
specimen of L. tessellatus Dall. The 35.3-mm specimen with the broken spire
is the specimen that Dall figured and was the only specimen known to him
when he described the species. That specimen (Figs. 44, 45) is the holotype.
The second specimen is 28.9 mm long, has about 9 whorls including a
protoconch broken only at the tip, and has an intact siphonal canal and outer
lip. A note on the label states that the specimen is a later addition to lot
USNM 97496. That specimen has no status as a type.
Shells of Latimrs caloosahatchiensis vary from a relatively rugose form
with pronounced axial ribs, constricted sutures, and prominent spiral cords
(Figs. 46-49) to a smoother form with lower ribs, less compressed sutures, and
subdued spiral cords (Figs. 50-53). A continuum exists between the rugose and
smooth forms, and the rugose form is more common among specimens I
Latirts caloosahatchiensis occurs in most well-known exposures of the
Caloosahatchee Formation and seems to be a useful index species for that
formation. However, nearly all specimens have been obtained from spoil of
excavations that may also have included older or younger deposits. The two
specimens of L. caloosahatchiensis from the APAC Mine at Sarasota were
probably excavated from the Caloosahatchee material that overlies the
Tamiami Pinecrest beds in some areas of the pit.
Latints caloosahatchiensis somewhat resembles L. miamiensis, which
occurs in the Tamiami Formation. However, shells of L. miamiensis have
relatively broader whorls, rounder apertures, and more rugose spiral cords
than do shells of L. caloosahatchiensis. Both species occur in spoil at Mule
Pen Quarry, where excavations sometimes intrude through the Caloosahatchee
strata into beds of Tamiami age.
Latinms (Polygona) fisifonris Gabb, 1873 (non Polygona fiusifonnis
Schumacher, 1817), from the late Miocene to early Pliocene Cercado and
Gurabo formations of the Dominican Republic, is superficially similar to L.
caloosahatchiensis. However, the holotype of L.fitsifonnis Gabb (ANSP 2949)
is a small shell (31.5 mm) that has relatively broader whorls and a wider
aperture than those of L. caloosahatchiensis.


Latints caloosahatchiensis is probably ancestral to the Recent Latints
virginensis. However, shells of L. virginensis (Figs. 36-41) are relatively wider
and have relatively shorter spires than do shells of L. caloosahatchiensis. The
only other Recent Caribbean species of Latints that is at all similar to L.
caloosahatchiensis is L. eppi from Curacao, but the squat, relatively smooth
shells of that species (Figs. 42, 43) easily distinguish it from the other two

Etymology.--Named for the Caloosahatchee River, whose banks yielded
the first specimens of this species. A century ago, the spelling of the name of
the river ended in -ie, and both Heilprin (1886-1887) and Dall (1890) used that
spelling; in present usage, the name ends in -ee.

Latints (Polygona) hypsipettus Dall, 1890
(Figs. 56-65)

Latirus hypsipettus Dall, 1890: 108, pl. 10, fig. 5; Petuch 1988: pl. 18, figs. 11, 12.
Latirus hypsipethus (sic): Tucker and Wilson 1932b: 356 [list].
Latirus tessellatus seminolensis M. Smith, 1936: 22, pl. 9, fig. 2.
Latirus (Polygona) hypsipettis: Olsson and Harbison 1953: 20, 214.
Latirus (Polygona) seminolensis: Olsson and Harbison 1953: 20, 214, 215.

Description.--Shell slender, fusiform, to approximately 35 mm long, 13
mm wide, with about 9-1/2 whorls. Protoconch whorls 1-3/4, with 1-6 axial
riblets on last 1/2 whorl. Teleoconch whorls about 8, rounded at sides,
moderately to strongly constricted at sutures. Whorls of spire with 6-7 swollen,
rounded axial ribs crossed by 3-4 spiral cords, central 2 cords strongest,
anterior cord sometimes absent; single spiral threads between cords; sutural
ramp overlain by 2-4 weak cords crossed by thin axial lamellae. Body whorl
with 7-9 swollen axial ribs extending nearly to suture, crossed by 6-7 strong
spiral cords with single spiral threads between; wide band with 0-4 weak cords
or threads between anteriormost 2 strong cords; sutural ramp narrow, with 2-4
weak spiral cords or threads and numerous thin axial lamellae. Siphonal canal
short, tapered, anteriorly truncate; dorsum with 5-6 oblique, strong to weak
cords, 1-5 threads between cords; lip thin, usually appressed to inner edge of
canal ventrally, seldom distinctly elevated; umbilicus shallow, chink-like.
Aperture subovate, constricted posteriorly; outer lip broadly rounded, with 6-7
thin lirae within; lirae weak to obsolete on some shells; low interior ridge
emerging onto parietal shield, sometimes terminating in blunt tooth near anal
sinus; inner lip seldom separated from body whorl; columella straight, with 3
weak plicae emerging antero-obliquely from interior.

Type material.--Latints hypsipettus: Lectotype (here designated) 25.4 mm
long, 10.1 mm wide, with 9 whorls including intact protoconch; USNM 97497.


Latims tessellatus seminolensis: Holotype 29.8 mm long, 11.3 mm wide, with
7-1/2 whorls (protoconch missing); UF 8360.

Type locality.--Latints hypsipettus: Caloosahatchee River, Florida; by
original designation (Dall 1890). Latints tessellatus seminolensis: spoil along
Okeechobee Waterway, Clewiston, Florida; by original designation (M. Smith

Other material.--18 specimens, 15.5-28.3 mm; south bank of
Caloosahatchee River, 1.6 km east of La Belle (Sec. 3 and 4, T43S, R29E),
Hendry County; TU 536.--3 specimens, 15.7-29.3 mm; north bank of
Caloosahatchee River, 3 km west of La Belle (SE 1/4 Sec. 12, T43S, R28E),
Hendry County; TU 529.--2 specimens, 22.0, 26.8 mm; 3 km west of La Belle
on Caloosahatchee River, Hendry County; UF 2881.--44 specimens, 11.5-34.9
mm; Cochran Shell Pit; Hendry County; FSBC F 37470.--2 specimens, 25.7,
26.6 mm; Cochran Shell Pit; FSBC F 37462.--3 specimens, 20.2-26.8 mm;
Cochran Shell Pit; UF 24662.--3 specimens, 16.8-27.4 mm; Cochran Shell Pit;
UF 14167.--2 specimens, 20.3, 23.6 mm; Cochran Shell Pit; UF 14187.--3
specimens, 17.9-28.0 mm; Cochran Shell Pit; UF 25092.--1 specimen, 23.9 mm;
Hendry County Rock Pit, 0.8 km north of State Road 80, 4.8 km west of La
Belle (SE 1/4 Sec. 14, T43S, R28E); TU 726.--1 specimen, 31.0 mm; Three-
Way Rock Pit, La Belle, Hendry County; UF 15095.--4 specimens, 20.0-22.0
mm; Sears/Alva/La Belle Quadrangles, Caloosahatchee River; UF 9515.--1
specimen, 32.6 mm; north bank of Caloosahatchee River, 3.2 km east of Ft.
Denaud (SW 1/4 Sec. 11, T43S, R28E), Hendry County; TU 203.--1 specimen,
25.3 mm; Ft. Denaud Rock Pit, Hendry County; UF 15670.--4 specimens, 23.7-
27.8 mm; Clewiston, Hendry County; UF 25889.--4 specimens, 20.6-24.8 mm;
north side of Caloosahatchee River, 0 to 0.8 km west of center of Lake
Hicpochee (now drained) (T42S, R32E), Glades County; TU 975.--8
specimens, 18.1-25.7 mm; Harney Pond Canal at State Road 78, northwest side
of Lake Okeechobee (NW 1/4 Sec. 18, T40S, R33E), Glades County; TU 519.-
-2 specimens, 16.1, 18.6 mm; Harney Pond Canal, Glades County; ANSP
70934.--1 specimen, 14.8 mm; Harney Pond Canal; ANSP 70636.--1 specimen,
24.4 mm; DeSoto Shell Pit, DeSoto County; FSBC F 37464.--1 specimen, 31.6
mm; spoil on east bank of Miami Canal, Palm Beach County; FSBC F 37472.--
2 specimens, 23.0 (spire broken), 29.3 mm; Mule Pen Quarry, Collier County;
TU 1177.--4 specimens, 20.9-28.0 mm; Mule Pen Quarry; FSBC F 37471.--1
specimen, 33.3 mm; Mule Pen Quarry; FSBC F 37473.--1 specimen, 33.2 mm;
APAC Mine, Sarasota County; collection of Mrs. Yvonne Bequet--2
specimens, 25.0, 27.5 mm; North St. Petersburg, Pinellas County; ANSP
18106.--1 specimen, 25.2 mm; North St. Petersburg(?); ANSP 18083.


f Ir

56 58 60

59 61

62 64

63 65 66 68

Figures 56-68.--Figs. 56-65.- Latirus hypsipettus Dall. Figs. 56, 57.- LECTOTYPE,
Caloosahatchee River (USNM 97497). Figs. 58, 59.- HOLOTYPE, Latirus tessellatus seminolensis
M. Smith, Clewiston (UF 8360). Figs. 60-62.- Cochran Shell Pit (FSBC F 37470). Fig. 63.-
DeSoto Shell Pit (FSBC F 37464). Fig. 64.. Miami Canal (FSBC F 37472). Fig. 65.- Mule Pen
Quarry (FSBC F 37473). Figs. 66-68.- Latirus infundibulum (Gmelin) (Recent). Fig. 66.- Bani,
Dominican Republic (FSBC I 37451). Figs. 67, 68.- Tobago (FSBC I 37452). Figs. 56-65 x 1.3;
Figs. 66-68 x 1.


Distribution.--Late Pliocene; Caloosahatchee Formation; Pinellas,
Sarasota, DeSoto, Hendry, Glades, Palm Beach, and Collier counties, Florida.

Remarks.--The type lot of Latinis hypsipettus (USNM 97497) contains
four specimens, of which the 25.4-mm specimen figured by Dall is designated
the lectotype (Figs. 56, 57). Of the three remaining specimens (now
paralectotypes), one 12.4 mm long is a juvenile L. hypsipettus, one 6.2 mm long
is a juvenile L. caloosahatchiensis, and one 5.1 mm long is a juvenile buccinid.
Latimns hypsipettus Dall and Latints tessellatus seminolensis Smith
unquestionably constitute a single species, for which Dall's name has priority.
Latins hypsipettus has seldom been mentioned since Dall's (1890) original
description, perhaps because the damaged siphonal canal of Dall's illustrated
specimen made the species difficult to recognize. Smith (1936) did not
mention L. hypsipettus when he described L. tessellatus seminolensis, even
though Dall (1890) described L. hypsipettus and L. tessellatus on the same page
and illustrated them on the same plate. Specimens of L. hypsipettus in the
collection of the Florida Museum of Natural History were labeled as L.
seminolensis, L. tessellatus, or Latints cf. brevicaudatus (= Latinus (Polygona)
angulatus (Roding, 1798) fide Bullock 1974).
Although they illustrated neither shell, Olsson and Harbison (1953)
reported single specimens of both Latints Ihpsipettus and L. seminolensis from
Pliocene deposits of North St. Petersburg. They correctly declared that L.
seminolensis was a species distinct from L. tessellatus (= L.
caloosahatchiensis), as indicated by the shorter siphonal canal of the former,
but they also described a very short siphonal canal on the specimen they called
L. hypsipettus. The paleontological collection at the Academy of Natural
Sciences of Philadelphia includes one lot identified as L. seminolensis (ANSP
18106); the lot consists of two vials, each containing one specimen. One vial,
originally from the Charles Locklin collection, bears the label "Latimts
tessellatus seminolensis Maxwell Smith. Pliocene. North St. Petersburg." The
other vial is unlabeled, but a label in the box states "Figured, Olsson and
Harbison," although Olsson and Harbison did not figure any species of Latinms.
The two specimens are probably the specimens that Olsson and Harbison
reported as L. tessellatus seminolensis and L. hypsipettus. Another lot from the
Locklin collection (ANSP 18083), correctly identified as L. hypsipettus, is
labeled "North St. Petersburg; provided as voucher specimen for Olsson and
Harbison." However, Locklin's label on the vial states "Caloosa. Ft.
Thompson," indicating that the specimen probably came from the banks of the
Caloosahatchee River near Ft. Thompson in Hendry County, rather than from
St. Petersburg. Olsson and Harbison (1953: 20) also listed L. brevicaudatus
among the Pliocene fauna of North St. Petersburg, but their voucher specimen
of that species (ANSP 18030) proved to be Latints stephensae (see account of
that species).


Latinis hypsipettus and L. caloosahatchiensis frequently occur together in
deposits of the Caloosahatchee Formation. As Olsson and Harbison (1953)
observed, the relatively shorter siphonal canal distinguishes Latins hypsipettus
from L. caloosahatchiensis. The aperture of L. caloosahatchiensis is
proportionally more elongate than is that of L. hypsipettus. Finally, the
strength of the ribs and the spiral cords and the degree of constriction of the
sutures of L. caloosahatchiensis are generally much more subdued than are
those of L. hypsipettus; however, these characters are variable.
Latints hypsipettus is the late Pliocene representative of a lineage that
extends in North America from the Eocene to the Recent fauna. The holotype
(ANSP 9199) of Latints sexcostatus Johnson, 1899, from the Eocene Lower
Claiborne Group (Landrum Member of the Cook Mountain Formation) of
Texas, is a virtual copy in miniature of the specimen of L. hypsipettus illustrated
in Fig. 63 (see Johnson 1899: pl. 1, fig. 9; Palmer 1937: pl. 54, fig. 7). Both
specimens have identical numbers of whorls, but the length of the holotype of
L. sexcostatus is only 14.0 mm, whereas the length of the illustrated specimen
of L. hypsipettus is 24.2 mm. The lineage produced another species, Latints
jitcundus, that occurs in the early Pleistocene Bermont Formation and still
another species, L. angulatus, that occurs in the Recent fauna of Florida and
the Caribbean Region.
Some specimens of Latinis hypsipettus are sufficiently well preserved to
demonstrate color pattern. The pattern of dark spiral cords contrasted against
a lighter background strongly resembles the pattern found on specimens of
Latints infiindibulum (Figs. 66-68) and, sometimes, on Latints angulatus (Figs.
69-71) and L. jucundus. Both L. infitndibulhtm and L. angulatus now live along
the southeastern coast of Florida (Bullock 1974). However, L. infitndibuluim
has a larger, thicker shell with a relatively taller spire and a much longer
siphonal canal than does L. hypsipettus. Shells of L. angulatus are relatively
wider and heavier than those of L. hypsipettus. Finally, both Recent species
attain lengths in excess of 70 mm (Bullock 1974), whereas the largest specimen
ofL. hypsipettus attained a length of only 34.9 mm.

Latints (Polygona) jucundus McGinty, 1940
(Figs. 69-86)

Latirusjucundus McGinty, 1940: 83, pl. 10, fig. 3; 1970: 54, 56; Hoerle 1970: 64 [list]; Petuch 1988,
pl. 24, fig. 7.

Description.--Shell solid, fusiform, to 44.2 mm long, 17.0 mm wide, with
10-1/4 whorls. Protoconch flat at tip, of 2 swollen whorls, with about 6 axial
riblets on anterior 1/4 whorl. Teleoconch of about 8-1/4 rounded whorls,


slightly to strongly constricted at sutures. Whorls of spire with 6-8 swollen,
rounded axial ribs crossed by 4 spiral cords, central 2 cords strongest, 1-3 faint
spiral threads between cords; sutural ramp inflated, with 3-5 undulating spiral
threads of varying strength and thin axial lamellae. Body whorl with 6-9 broad,
swollen axial ribs crossed by 6-9 strong spiral cords, usually with weaker cord
and 2 threads in spaces between; sutural ramp with 4-5 strong spiral threads,
reticulated by thin axial lamellae. Siphonal canal relatively short, tapered,
anteriorly truncate; dorsum with 4-10 oblique cords diminishing in strength
anteriorly, with single spiral threads between all but anteriormost 3 cords;
thick, elevated lip attached to inner edge of canal ventrally; umbilicus narrow,
shallow to deep, usually chink-like. Aperture subovate, constricted at anal
sinus; outer lip arcuate, crenulated by terminations of spiral cords, with 6-11
thin lirae within; distinct ridge emerging onto parietal shield, forming blunt
tooth at anal sinus; inner lip thick, distinctly separated from body whorl;
columella straight, with 4 plicae emerging from within, anteriormost plication

Type material.--Holotype, 43.3 mm long, 18.6 mm wide, with 6-1/2
whorls (protoconch missing); UF 23196.

Type locality.--Belle Glade, Palm Beach County, Florida; by original
designation (McGinty 1940).

Other material.--1 specimen, 44.2 mm; Ferrell-Mattson Shell Pit, 3.5 km
southwest of U.S. Highway 441 on north side of State Road 78, Okeechobee
County; FSBC F 37481.--4 specimens, 15.7-27.6 mm; Belle Glade Rock Pit,
Palm Beach County; UF 26113.--2 specimens, 17.8, 33.7 mm; Belle Glade Rock
Pit; UF 6616.--1 specimen, 39.9 mm; Belle Glade Rock Pit; UF 6588.--1
specimen, 21.3 mm; Belle Glade Rock Pit; UF 26294.--1 specimen, 31.0 mm;
Belle Glade; UF 19466.--1 specimen, 38.0 mm (spire broken); pit at
intersection of U.S. Highway 441 and State Road 717, 1.6 km east of Pahokee,
Palm Beach County; TU 1023.--10 specimens, 21.5-39.7 mm; South Bay (2),
Palm Beach County; UF 19567.--9 specimens, 23.2-34.4 mm; South Bay (3),
Palm Beach County; TU 978 (8), UF 32437 (1).--1 specimen, 27.8 mm; North
New River Canal, 1.6 km south of South Bay, Palm Beach County; TU 580.--1
specimen, 32.4 mm (spire broken); North New River Canal, 2.5 km south of
South Bay, Palm Beach County; TU 751.--4 specimens, 24.2-34.1 mm; pit 3.5
km east of U.S. Highway 27, 24 km south of South Bay, Palm Beach County;
TU 727 (3), UF 32438 (1).--1 specimen, 32.5 mm; North New River Canal, 8.5
km north of pumping station at Broward County line on U.S. Highway 27,
Palm Beach County; TU 746, UF 32439.--3 specimens, 21.0-43.5 mm; spoil
along North New River Canal, Palm Beach County; FSBC F 37480.--5
specimens, 25.6-32.5 mm; spoil along North New River Canal; ANSP 53896.--5


specimens, 30.4-43.9 mm; spoil along North New River Canal; E.J. Petuch
collection.--1 specimen, 32.3 mm; Miami Canal, 6.4 km north of pumping
station at Broward County line, Palm Beach County; TU 579.--2 specimens,
15.8, 26.8 mm (both broken); Canal L-38W, 1.3 km south of Terrytown,
Broward County; TU 973.--4 specimens, 34.5-38.4 mm; 3 km west of Ortona
Lock (NE 1/4 Sec. 29, T42S, R30E, Goodno Quadrangle), Glades County; UF
27646.--1 specimen, 42.5 mm; Cochran Shell Pit, Hendry County; UF 24661.

Distribution.--Early Pleistocene; Bermont Formation; Okeechobee, Palm
Beach, Broward, Glades, and Hendry counties, Florida.

Remarks.--Considerable morphological variation exists among the shells
here assigned to Latinrs jucundus. The fossils range from elongate, slender
forms (Figs. 72-78) to relatively broad, solid shells as exemplified by the
holotype of L. jucundus (Figs. 79, 80) and a specimen from Belle Glade Rock
Pit (Figs. 81, 82). The numbers of axial ribs and spiral cords also vary
considerably. One especially short, broad specimen (Fig. 85) represents a
suspected abnormality whose dimensions even exceed the considerable
variability otherwise found among the specimens. Because I find no consistent
character that indicates more than one taxon, I conclude that the specimens
represent a single species.
Latints jucundus is closely related to Latints angulatus (Roding, 1798), a
Recent Florida and Caribbean species to which considerable morphological
variation has also been ascribed. Bullock (1974) reviewed the Recent species
of Latinis in the Caribbean Region and concluded that L. angulatus, L.
brevicaudatus (Reeve, 1847), L. spadiceus (Reeve, 1847), and L. cymatius
Schwengel, 1940, constitute a single variable species. According to Bullock, "A
study of many hundreds of West Indian specimens has resulted in the
conclusion that this relatively common species [L. angulatus] exhibits more
intraspecific variation than any other Latints I have observed." Bullock
mentioned several geographically related forms (e.g. "a typical form [of L.
angulatus] occurring in the southern Caribbean" and "the Virgin Island form of
brevicaudatuss'"), but he noted that typical L. angulatus also occurs in the
Virgin Islands and that L. cymatius from Florida "is closer to typical angulatus
than many of the other variations." Bullock also mentioned that "the figured
type of brevicaudatus seemed to have much in common with a few Indo-Pacific
specimens labelled Latinrs lyratus Rye."
The matter of extraordinary intraspecific variability in Latinis angulatus
remains open to question. The specimens available for Bullock's study were
collected from many locations but usually consisted of very few individuals per
location (R.C. Bullock, pers. comm.). Similar but taxonomically distinct
species are sometimes difficult to discern in such collections. However, large
collections (>10 specimens/site) of live-taken L. angulatus made at night by



70 72V

t, -a-" '-*^
..^ ^.^ ,r ^
71 i73

75 77
74 76 78

Figures 69-78.--Figs. 69-71.- Latirus angulatus (Riding), Cat Cay, Bahamas (Recent) (FSBC I
37455). Figs. 72-78.- Latinrsjucundus McGinty. Figs. 72, 73.- Ferrell-Mattson Shell Pit (FSBC F
37481). Figs. 74, 75.- Cochran Shell Pit (UF 24661). Figs. 76, 77.. North New River Canal (FSBC
F 37480). Fig. 78.- Belle Glade Rock Pit (UF 6616). Figs. 69-78 x 1.3.


i -




- --t




Figures 79-88.--Figs. 79-86.- Latirus jucundus McGinty. Figs. 79, 80.- HOLOTYPE, Belle Glade
(UF 23196). Figs. 81, 82.- Belle Glade Rock Pit (UF 6588). Fig. 83.- South Bay, TU 978 (UF
32437). Fig. 84.- North New River Canal (Petuch collection). Fig. 85.- 24 km south of South Bay,
TU 727 (UF 32438). Fig. 86.- North New River Canal, TU 746 (UF 32439). Figs. 87, 88.- Latirus
irazu Olsson, HOLOTYPE, Limon, Costa Rica (PRI 21018). Figs. 79-88 x 1.3.




divers off Florida, the Bahama Islands, the Turks and Caicos Islands, and the
Bay of Honduras during recent years demonstrate relatively minimal variation
among specimens at single sites but great variation between populations at
different sites. The magnitudes of difference between some of the sampled
populations are sufficient to suggest that several species may be included in an
"L. angulatus group." Latints mailini Snyder, 1988, from the Bay of Honduras,
is an example of a species that was unrecognized until recently because its
morphological features were considered to occur within the range of variation
ascribed to L. angulatus. Careful study of large suites of specimens may reveal
other species within this "variable" group.
Despite several similarities between specimens of Latints jucundus and L.
angulatus, I maintain the taxa as separate species for the following reasons.
Sutures of the spire are relatively less constricted and the siphonal canal is
relatively shorter on specimens of L. jucundus than on L. angulatus. The
central two cords are noticeably stronger than the other two cords on whorls of
the spire of L. jucundus, whereas the four cords are nearly equal in size on L.
angulatus. Some specimens of L. angulatus exceed 70 mm in length (Bullock
1974), whereas the largest specimen of L. jucuindus that I examined barely
exceeds 44 mm, although Petuch (1988) reported a length of 47 mm for the
specimen he illustrated. I have not seen the elongate, slender form of L.
jucundus among specimens of L. angulatus. Finally, as indicated above, I
consider the matter of variability in L. angulatus to be unresolved. To add L.
jucundus to the list of synonyms of L. angulattus would only add to the
variability already ascribed to that species.
Some characters of the 45.5-mm-long holotype of Latints irazu Olsson,
1922, described from the "Gatun Stage" (actually Moin Formation; early
Pleistocene) at Puerto Lim6n, Costa Rica, approach the range of variation
described for L. jucundus. However, the holotype of L. irazu (Figs. 87, 88) is a
thinner shell with more constricted sutures, a relatively larger aperture, a more
slender, straighter siphonal canal, and more pronounced axial lamellae than
occur on specimens of L. jucundius. The holotype of L. irazu more resembles
some specimens of L. angulatus (compare Figs. 69 and 87), but it differs from
that species by having a thinner shell with a relatively larger aperture and finer
spiral sculpture. Although the resemblance between shells of L. irazu and L.
angulatus is strong, I retain L. irazu as a separate species until more specimens
can be obtained for study and until variation in L. angulatus is better
Latints jucundus is the early Pleistocene representative of a group that
contains, in addition to L. angulatus, the late Pliocene L. hypsipettus and the
Eocene L. sexcostatus. Like L. hypsipettus, some specimens of L. jucundts are
well enough preserved to have retained a faint pattern of orange-brown spiral
cords contrasted against a lighter background, a pattern similar to those of L.
angulatius and L. hypsipettus. Compared to L. hypsipettus, specimens of L.


jucundus are larger (44-mm versus 35-mm maximum length, both shells with
approximately 8 teleoconch whorls); whorls of the spire are wider; apertures of
juveniles are longer; and spiral sculpture is much coarser. Characters of L.
sexcostatus were discussed in Remarks for L. hypsipettus.
Nearly all of the specimens of L. jucundus reported here are from strata
of acknowledged Pleistocene age. Latints jucundus occurs with L. carinifens at
Belle Glade (Hoerle 1970) and South Bay, and it occurs with L. nmaxwelli along
North New River Canal. McGinty (1970) reported that L. jucundus occurs
with L. nmaxwelli at Ortona Lock, a contention supported by the specimens in
lot UF 27646. However, most specimens from Ortona Lock that I found
classified as L. jucundus in museum collections proved to be juveniles of L.
maxwelli. The single collection of L. jucundus from Miami Canal, where it was
found in a lot also containing a specimen of L. caloosahatchiensis, suggests that
the typically Caloosahatchee-age deposits there are sometimes overlain by
lenses of Bermont material. A similar exception involves the specimen (UF
24661) from Cochran Shell Pit, where most shells are of late Pliocene age.

Latinus (Polygona) maxwelli Pilsbry, 1939
(Figs. 89-97)

Latirus maxwelli Pilsbry, 1939: 86, pl. 5, fig. 9.

Description.--Shell solid, fusiform, umbilicate, to greater than 70 mm
long, 30 mm wide. Protoconch unknown. Teleoconch of about 8 rounded
whorls, constricted at sutures. Whorls of spire with 9 broad, well-rounded axial
ribs crossed by 6-7 spiral cords, with 1-3 spiral threads between cords; sutural
ramp slightly inflated, with 3-4 weak spiral cords. Body whorl with 9 swollen
axial ribs most developed at shoulder, diminishing rapidly posteriorly; ribs
crossed by 9-10 spiral cords, with 1-3 well-developed spiral threads between
cords; sutural ramp inflated, with 1-2 low spiral cords and 3-4 strong spiral
threads. Siphonal canal short, broad, anteriorly truncate; dorsum with 4-5
strong, oblique cords, single weak cords between strong cords, and single spiral
threads between weak and strong cords; lip thin, elevated, attached ventrally
along inner edge; umbilicus deep, varying from narrow to very wide. Aperture
elliptical, constricted posteriorly by strong blunt tooth on parietal shield at anal
sinus; outer lip crenulated by terminations of spiral cords, with 10-12 thin lirae
within; inner lip thin, slightly elevated; columella straight, smooth, with 4-6
plicae emerging antero-obliquely from interior, 4 anterior plicae largest,

Type material.--Holotype 64.4 mm long, 27.3 mm wide; ANSP 13534.


Type locality.--Ortona Lock, Glades County, Florida; by original
designation (Pilsbry 1939). Ortona Lock is in Glades County, not in DeSoto
County as reported by Pilsbry.

Other material.--6 specimens, 47.0-66.7 mm; Ortona Lock, Glades
County; UF 8700.--1 specimen, 51.8 mm (spire broken); Ortona Lock; UF
8695.--3 specimens, 54.0-65.6 mm; Ortona Lock; TU 79.--28 specimens, 21.1-
54.9 mm; north side of Caloosahatchee River, 3.2 km west of Ortona Lock (NE
1/4 Sec. 29, T42S, R30E), Glades County; TU 759 (27), UF 32441 (1).--33
specimens, 26.4 mm (both ends broken)-64.6 mm (spire broken); same
location; TU 803.--2 specimens, 49.5 mm (broken), 52.4 mm; south side of
Caloosahatchee River, 6.9 km west of Ortona Lock (SE 1/4 Sec. 25, T42S,
R29E), Glades County; TU 802.--26 specimens, 42.7-65.7 mm; north side of
Caloosahatchee River, 8.1 km west of Ortona Lock (NW 1/4 Sec. 36, T42S,
R29E), Glades County; TU 767 (23), UF 32440 (3).--5 specimens, 54.1-67.7
mm (all broken); north side of Caloosahatchee River, 8.9 km west of Ortona
Lock (NW 1/4 Sec. 35, T42S, R29E), Glades County; TU 768.--1 specimen,
46.8 mm; DeSoto Shell Pit, DeSoto County; FSBC F 37477.--2 specimens, 45.5,
51.2 mm; Griffin Brothers Shell Pit, 12.8 km west of U.S. Highway 27 at
Broward County line, Palm Beach County; FSBC F 37479.--1 specimen, 59.6
mm; spoil along North New River Canal, Palm Beach County; FSBC F 37478.-
-3 specimens, 37.8-61.4 mm; Jacaranda West subdivision, Venice, Sarasota
County; FSBC F 39528.--4 specimens, 56.4-69.9 mm (all with broken tips of
spires); "Florida"; ANSP 58898, 58899, 62563, 62564.

Distribution.--Early Pleistocene; Bermont Formation; Sarasota, Glades,
DeSoto, and Palm Beach counties, Florida.

Remarks.--The majority of specimens with specific locality data were
collected from spoil along the Caloosahatchee River at or near Ortona Lock,
the type locality. Some of those collections from spoil contain species from
both the Caloosahatchee and Bermont formations, but, as noted by McGinty
(1970), Latints maxwelli is an index species for the early Pleistocene Bermont
Formation. Latirms maxwelli is scarce at the DeSoto Shell Pit, as are
Haustellum anniae and Vasum floridanum, two other species that McGinty
(1970) identified as Bermont indicators. Other Bermont index taxa collected
with L. maxwelli at the Jacaranda West subdivision near Venice include
Haustellun anniae, Melongena bispinosa, Fusinus watennani, and Turbinella
The umbilicus of Latims maxwelli is usually wide but varies even among
specimens of similar size. The maximum length of >70 mm for the species is
an approximation projected from the largest specimen (ANSP 58898), which
has a broken spire.








Figures 89-97.--Latirus ma.welli Pilsbry. Figs. 89, 90.-HOLOTYPE, Ortona Lock (ANSP 13534).
Figs. 91-93.- Ortona Lock (UF 8700). Figs. 94-96.- 8.1 km west of Ortona Lock, TU 767 (UF
32440). Fig. 97.- 3.2 km west of Ortona Lock, TU 759 (UF 32441). Figs. 89-97 x 1.


C" ~r~



Pilsbry (1939:86) stated that L. maxwelli "is most nearly related to the
living Latirus trochlearis and L. mcgintyi [both = L. cariniferus, fide Bullock
1974:71], but differs conspicuously by the profuse development of spiral
sculpture and the weaker axial folds." The spiral sculpture of 9-10 cords on the
body whorl indeed separates L. maxwelli from L. carinifents (5 cords), L.
stephensae (6 cords), and L. nosali (7 cords). Other features that distinguish L.
maxwelli from those species include the strong parietal tooth, the thin axial
lamellae on the sutural ramp, and the number of columellar plicae. Large
specimens of the three species of Latints s.s. may occasionally have a swelling
near the posterior sinus; however, none has a distinct tooth there, and all have
only four columellar plicae. In contrast, of the three largest specimens of L.
maxwelli, two have a single small plication posterior to the first four plicae and
one has two such additional plicae; smaller specimens have the usual
complement of four plicae.
Latints maxwelli most resembles Latints gurabensis Maury, 1917 (= L.
brevicaudatus santodomingensis Pilsbry, 1922) from the late Miocene to early
Pliocene Gurabo Formation of the Dominican Republic, but the spiral cords of
L. maxwelli are much more prominent than are those of L. gurabensis. The
type specimen ofL. brevicaudatus santodomingensis could not be located at the
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia during May 1989, but according
to Pilsbry (1922), the 57-mm-long type specimen differs from the Recent L.
brevicaudatus (= L. angulatus) by having smaller, more numerous spiral cords.
Bullock (1974) concurred with Pilsbry that Latinis "angulatus"
santodomingensis is the closest relative of L. angulatus. He noted that L.
angulatus santodomingensis also has a shorter, wider siphonal canal than L.
angtlatus and a sharp, rather than squarish, angulation of the axial ribs. The
sharply angled ribs are evident on the body whorl and final whorl of the spire
in Pilsbry's (1922: pl. 25, fig. 4) illustration, but the siphonal canal of the
figured specimen seems no shorter or wider than that of the type of L.
brevicaudatus figured by Bullock (1974: 75, fig. 23) or than those of most
species of Latints s.s. Actually, Pilsbry's illustration of L. brevicaudatus
santodomingensis is virtually identical to the original illustration of Latints
gurabensis Maury (1917: pl. 13, fig. 4), except that the anterior portion of the
siphonal canal of Pilsbry's specimen is broken off. The two taxa are almost
certainly conspecific. In the relatively rough texture of the spiral sculpture, L.
maxwelli resembles L. anapetes Woodring, 1964, a more slender species from
the late Miocene to early Pliocene Gatun Formation of Panama. If the implied
relationships among these three species are factual, then additional specimens
of this lineage remain to be discovered in middle and late Pliocene deposits of
Florida and the Caribbean Basin.



No species of Latirus is known to occur in the more temperate post-
Miocene molluscan assemblages of northern Florida, South Carolina, North
Carolina, and Virginia, nor is any species known to occur in the estuarine (and
relatively more temperate?) faunas of the later Pleistocene Ft. Thompson and
Coffee Mill Hammock formations of southern Florida. The absence of Latims
species in those deposits is not unexpected. In the Recent fauna of Florida,
species of Latinus are most common in depths greater than 5-10 m, even at the
more tropical southeastern coast and Florida Keys. Latints carinifenus ranges
northward off both Florida coasts, but usually as an element of the submerged
tropical fauna in depths of 20-40 m. In the Caribbean Sea, where several
species occur in shallow water, living Latinrs are usually found in association
with seaward coral reefs or on banks washed by clean oceanic waters. These
observations indicate that species of Latirus are tropical organisms that have
little tolerance for low temperatures or for the fluctuating environmental
conditions of estuaries. Conditions similar to those in which Latinms live today
probably prevailed in the middle Pliocene to early Pleistocene faunas where
the Florida fossils occur.
Eight species of Latinis are now known from Pliocene and early
Pleistocene deposits of Florida. Perhaps because of confusion as to their
identities and because of their relative scarcity, species of Latinrs have been
conspicuously absent from most lists of typical taxa of the various stratigraphic
units (e.g. Mansfield 1939; Dubar 1958a, 1962, 1974; Olsson 1964), except for
that of McGinty (1970), who included L. maxwelli and L. jucundus as
indicators of the Glades Unit (= Bermont Formation). However, because the
species are now better known and because none of them seems to occur in
more than one of the three principal stratigraphic units, all of the taxa should
be useful index species for their respective units.
Two species, Latinms nosali and L. miamiensis, occur only in middle
Pliocene Pinecrest beds of the Tamiami Formation. Latins nosali is known
only from the APAC Mine at Sarasota, where it is uncommon, and L.
miamiensis has been collected only from the now inactive excavation site at
Bird Road in Dade County and from Mule Pen Quarry in Collier County.
Fewer species are known from Tamiami deposits than from the younger
Caloosahatchee and Bermont formations. However, excavations into
unlithified strata of middle Pliocene age are relatively uncommon in Florida,
and additional species of Latints may be revealed as more of those sites are
The late Pliocene Caloosahatchee beds contain three species: Latints
stephensae, L. caloosahatchiensis, and L. hypsipettus. The three species occur
together at several locations (e.g. Cochran Shell Pit, DeSoto Shell Pit, Mule


Pen Quarry, and Miami Canal), and all have also been collected northward
into Sarasota County (L. hypsipettus and L. caloosahatchiensis, APAC Mine)
and Pinellas County (L. hypsipettus and L. stephensae, North St. Petersburg).
The early Pleistocene Bermont Formation also contains three species:
Latints nmaxwelli from Ortona Lock, the DeSoto Shell Pit, and Sarasota and
Palm Beach counties; L. carinifents from Belle Glade and South Bay; and L.
jucundus from various locations in Palm Beach, Broward, Okeechobee,
Glades, and Hendry counties. The stratigraphic situation of L. maxwelli is
uncertain. The species was described from specimens collected from
excavation spoil, presumably of Bermont age, at Ortona Lock. Although
McGinty (1970) considered the Ortona Lock fauna to be contemporary with
that of the "Glades Unit" at Belle Glade, the two faunas are somewhat
dissimilar. Latints ma.welli is considerably more common in Glades County
than elsewhere, whereas L. jucundus is most common in Palm Beach County
and L. carinifenis, as a fossil, is known only from that county. Petuch (1988:
118) contends that the Bermont Formation spans two interglacial stages, the
Aftonian and the Yarmouth, which were separated by the Kansan Glacial
Stage. Although it is possible that each assemblage represents the fauna of a
different interglacial stage, it is more likely that the Ortona Lock and "Glades"
assemblages simply represent different facies of a single contemporaneous
Twelve specific or subspecific names have been proposed for Miocene to
Pleistocene fossil Latinrs from the Caribbean Basin. These taxa seem to
constitute nine valid species of Latirus and one muricid, as follows: Latints
elongatus Gabb (= L. angustatus Gabb), from strata of unknown age but
presumed to be the early to middle Miocene (fide Saunders et al. 1986) Baitoa
Formation of the Dominican Republic; L. fiisifonnis Gabb and L. gurabensis
Maury (= L. brevicaudatus santodomingensis Pilsbry), from the late Miocene
to early Pliocene (fide Vokes 1979, Saunders et al. 1986) Cercado and Gurabo
formations of the Dominican Republic; L. anapetes Woodring, from the
Chagres Sandstone of the late Miocene to early Pliocene Gatun Formation of
Panama and probably from Miocene deposits at the Paraguana Peninsula,
Venezuela (Jung 1965); L. taunts Olsson, from the late Miocene to early
Pliocene Lim6nes Formation at Toro Cays, northwestern Panama (see
Vermeij and Collins 1988 for estimated age of that formation); L. nematus
Woodring, 1928, from the early Pleistocene Bowden Formation of Jamaica; L.
infiindibulum polius Woodring, 1928, from Bowden and probably from the
early Pleistocene Moin Formation at Lim6n, Costa Rica (Woodring 1928: 254);
and L. infundibulunm infilndibulum (Gmelin) (see comments in Woodring
1928) and L. irazu Olsson, both from the Moin Formation at Lim6n.
Latinis (Polygona) recticanalis Weisbord, 1962, was described from the
Pleistocene Mare and Playa Grande formations of northern Venezuela. The
description was based upon two small (15, 17 mm) shells that, in Weisbord's


illustrations (1962: pl. 30, figs. 17, 18), more resemble a muricid than a
fasciolariid. Weisbord's statement "Columella with five plaits diminishing in
strength anteriorly" would seem to support his placement of the species in
Latints. However, the shells have very coarse sculpture compared to other
species of Latims; the body whorl bears 7 wide, swollen axial ribs crossed by
about 11 strong spiral cords, of which the 2 cords nearest the shoulder are
remarkably developed. Petuch (1987) reassigned L. recticanalis to Panamurex
Woodring, 1959 (Muricidae) and reported the species to be living in the Gulf
of Venezuela.
Perrilliat Montoya (1963: pl. 5, figs. 13, 14) illustrated a specimen of an
additional species of Latins from the Pliocene Agueguexquite Formation at
Coatzacoalcos, Mexico, near the southwestern coast of the Gulf of Mexico.
The two photographic illustrations are back and side views of a 35-mm-long
broadly fusiform shell with wide, swollen axial ribs crossed by 7 or 8 equal-
sized spiral cords and about 6 additional cords on the anterior canal. The
outer lip is broken back to reveal at least 3 strong plicae on the columella.
Perrilliat Montoya evidently meant the figures to represent the turrid species
she reported as Fusitulricula panola Woodring, 1928, but she confused her
figures 11-14, both in the text and in the plate legend, ascribing figs. 11 and 14
to F. panola and figs. 12 and 13 to Crassispira pemigata (Dall, 1890), another
species of Turridae. Additional specimens of this unnamed Latins have been
found in the collections at Tulane University. Because the species is not
closely related to any of those discussed here, it will be treated elsewhere.
The status of several other of the Neogene Caribbean taxa is uncertain.
Pilsbry (1922) proposed that L. angustatus was merely a juvenile of L.
elongatus, and my inspection of the type specimens supports that proposal (see
Remarks for L. miamiensis), but both type specimens are damaged.
Comparison of undamaged specimens may reveal them to be separate species.
Petuch (1981) reported Recent specimens, collected from 60-100 m
depths off Venezuela, that he identified as Latints anapetes, a species otherwise
known only from late Miocene to early Pliocene deposits. Although similar in
some respects to L. anapetes, the axial ribs of Petuch's illustrated specimen
(1981: figs. 49, 50) are so strongly developed posteriorly that they virtually
obscure the sutural ramp, whereas the ribs of L. anapetes slope gently from the
exposed sutural ramp to the periphery of each whorl. Although this difference
may seem minor, it creates a markedly different appearance between the fossil
and Recent shells. Consequently, I suspect that Petuch's specimens represent
an undescribed Recent species descended from the Mio-Pliocene L. anapetes.
Bullock (1974) described Latinis (Polygona) bemadensis, a Recent species
from Barbados that he distinguished from L. infiindibulunm. Bullock's
illustration (1974: fig. 13) of the holotype of L. bemadensis is virtually identical
to the illustration of the holotype of Latims (Polygona) infitndibulum polilus
Woodring (1928: pl. 15, figs. 4, 5), and I consider them to represent a single


species, for which Woodring's name has priority. Consequently, L. polius is
considered a species distinct from L. infitndibuhlm, with which it seems to have
occurred sympatrically in the Pleistocene beds of Costa Rica (fide Woodring
1928). According to Vokes (1938), Rutsch (1942), and Jung (1969), a form of
Latims in the late Miocene Springvale Formation of Trinidad is intermediate
between L. infundibuhun and L. polius. That ancestral form may have
produced both of the later species, perhaps during the Pliocene.
Most of the Neogene species of Latirus from the Caribbean Basin belong
to the subgenus Polygona. The oldest species, L. elongatus and perhaps L.
fiisifonnis from the Miocene and early Pliocene of the Dominican Republic,
belong to the lineage that later produced the middle Pliocene L. miamiensis
and late Pliocene L. caloosahatchiensis of Florida and L. virginensis of the
Recent Caribbean fauna. Another Mio-Pliocene group, known from the
Dominican Republic, Panama, and Venezuela, contains L. gurabensis and L.
anapetes, and one of those species may be ancestral to L. maxwelli of the early
Pleistocene of Florida. The only Caribbean fossil species related to the L.
sexcostatus-L. hypsipettus-L. jucundtus-L. angulatus (Eocene to Recent) lineage
of the southeastern United States is L. irazu from the early Pleistocene of
Costa Rica; as noted earlier, L. irazu might be conspecific with L. angulatus.
The early Pleistocene to Recent species L. polius, L. infitndibulum, and L.
nematus are not known from fossil strata in southern Florida.
There are few Caribbean fossil species of Latinus s.s. Latinrs taunts, from
late Miocene and early Pliocene deposits of Panama, belongs to the lineage
that subsequently produced the late Pliocene L. stephensae of Florida and the
Pleistocene and Recent L. carinifenrs of Florida and the Caribbean Sea.
Eleven species of Latirus are now recognized in the Recent fauna of the
Caribbean Region (exclusive of Brazil). Latirus cariniferus, L. angulatus, and L.
infitndibuhnm occur in southeastern Florida and throughout the Caribbean Sea;
L. nematus occurs in southeastern Florida and the northern Caribbean Sea; L.
virginensis occurs in the Bahama Islands and throughout the Antilles; L.
macnmurrayi Clench and Aguayo, 1941, and L. varai Bullock, 1970, are known
only from deep waters (183-348 m) off Cuba; Latints cf. anapetes of Petuch
(1981) is known only from 60-100 m depths off Venezuela; L. polius occurs
from Barbados to Brazil (Petuch 1979); L. eppi is known only from the
southern Netherlands Antilles; and L. martini is known only from Honduras in
the western Caribbean Sea. The species reported as Latinrs hartvigii
(Shuttleworth, 1856) from the Greater Antilles and the Virgin Islands by
Abbott (1974) is actually a species of Fusinus Rafinesque, 1815. Other
Caribbean species previously classified in Latints by Melvill (1891, 1911) (i.e.
Latirus cayohuesonicus Sowerby, 1878; L. fitnebris Preston, 1907; L. emesti
Melvill, 1910) are now classified in Teralatins Coomans, 1965 (Jong and
Coomans 1988), a genus related to Dolicholatins Bellardi. These genera do
not belong in the Peristerniinae.


Of the four species of Latints that occur in the Recent fauna of Florida, L.
carinifents, L. infiindibuhun, and L. nematus are also known as Pleistocene
fossils at various Caribbean locations, and L. angulatus will also be known as a
Pleistocene Caribbean fossil if it and L. irazu prove to be conspecific. Of those
same four species, only L. carinifens is known from Pleistocene deposits of
south Florida, although L. angulatus seems to be represented there by the
similar L. jucundus. This suggests either that L. infutndibulum and L. nematus
arrived in Florida relatively recently, or that those species may eventually be
found in south Florida Pleistocene deposits. Latins polius, the only other
Recent species of the Caribbean fauna that is also known as a fossil, occurs in
Pleistocene deposits of Jamaica and Costa Rica but is known living only from
the southeastern Caribbean Sea to northeastern South America.
Among the Recent species that lack fossil records, Latints virginensis
ranges northward as far as the Bahama Islands and is very similar to the
Florida late Pliocene L. caloosahatchiensis. However, the lineage that
produced those species has existed in the Caribbean Basin for a very long time,
as is evidenced by the Florida middle Pliocene L. miamiensis and the several
Mio-Pliocene species from the Dominican Republic. Latints virginensis may
have evolved directly from L. caloosahatchiensis, or, alternatively, each could
represent a separate divergence from L. miamiensis or from the earlier
Dominican Republic species.
Of the remaining four Recent species in the Caribbean fauna, two (L.
eppi and L. martini) have very restricted distributions in shallow waters of the
southern and western regions of the Caribbean Sea, respectively, and the other
two (L. macmurrayi and L. varai) are known only from relatively great depths
off Cuba. Nothing is known of the ancestry of those species.
Petuch (1982c) described a biogeographic phenomenon that he called
"paraprovincialism," wherein an abrupt shift in species composition results in
mutually exclusive distributions for each member of a closely related molluscan
species-pair (sibling species). To qualify as paraprovincial, each member of a
Recent allopatric species-pair must be descended from similarly allopatric
Pliocene species-pairs. Petuch listed 17 Recent species-pairs from the
northern (n) and southern (s) Caribbean Region to support his hypothesis,
including three in Fasciolariidae: Latints cainifents (n) and L. benmadensis (s);
Dolicholatints cayohuesonicus (n) and D. emesti (s); and Leucozonia ocellata
(Gmelin, 1791) (n) and Leucozonia lineata Usticke, 1969 (s). Petuch related
his Recent Latinrs species-pair to L. tessellatus and L. anapetes, respectively,
that had lived in the northern Caloosahatchian and southern Gatunian
Neither the interspecific relationships nor the distributions of Petuch's
fasciolariid examples support paraprovincialism. Latinis carinifents occurs
throughout the Caribbean Basin (Bullock 1974), not just in the northern part,
and its ancestry includes the late Pliocene L. stephensae of the Caloosahatchee


Formation, the middle Pliocene L. nosali of the Tamiami Formation, and the
Mio-Pliocene L. taunts of the Gatun Formation of Panama. Latints
bemadensis (= L. polius) occurs from the Lesser Antilles to Brazil in the
Recent fauna (Petuch 1979) but has a fossil record in Costa Rica and Jamaica.
The relationship of L. polius to L. caiinifents is so remote that the species are
classified in different subgenera. Instead, L. polius is closely related to L.
infiindibulum, which, like L. carinifents, occurs in both the northern and
southern Caribbean Sea. Latins tessellatus Dall (= L. caloosahatchiensis)
and L. anapetes are not closely related to each other or to L. carinifents or L.
polius. The species in Petuch's Dolicholatins example (actually Teralatints)
also lack paraprovinical distributions: T. cayohuesonicus occurs from Florida
to Panama and Suriname, and T. emesti occurs from the southern Caribbean
Sea northward to Isla Mujeres, Mexico (Coomans 1965). Finally, Faber (1988)
concluded that Leucozonia lineata Usticke, named by Usticke (1969) as a
variety of L. ocellata (and thus unavailable: International Code of Zoological
Nomenclature, third edition, 1985, Article 16), is not separable from L.
At least six Recent species of Latimrs have been reported to occur in
Brazil (Bullock 1974; Petuch 1979, 1986b; Rios 1985). Latins oguin Petuch
1979, described from the Abrolhos Archipelago, and L. venneiji Petuch 1986,
described from Fernando de Noronha, are known only from their type
localities. Rios (1985) reported L. carinifents, L. angulatus, L. ogum, L.
virginensis, and L. infundibuhun from Brazil. His comments (1985: 107)
indicate that he considered L. bemadensis to be a color form of L.
infitndibulun. It is uncertain which form Rios was reporting, but L.
bemadensis has been previously reported from Brazil (Petuch 1979). Bullock
(1974: 76) noted that Brazilian specimens of L. angulatus have "very heavy
spiral sculpture and a relatively small aperture"; his illustration (1974: fig. 20)
depicts those differences and also seems to indicate more numerous spiral
cords. Rios' illustrated specimen of L. angulatus (1985: pl. 36, fig. 468) seems
to be a juvenile of the form illustrated by Bullock. Brazilian specimens that
Rios illustrated as L. cariniferus and L. infitndibuhum do not much resemble
those species and, in fact, cannot be related to any Caribbean species, fossil or
Recent. His illustration of L. virginensis is of a relatively shorter, broader shell
than the typical Caribbean form, so its identity is also uncertain. Together,
these differences indicate a high degree of endemism among Brazilian species
of Latims, an expectable condition considering the relatively restricted
distributions of the fossil and Recent species from Florida and the Caribbean



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Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs