Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Results and discussion
 Calycogonium DC.
 Charianthus D. Don
 Clidemia D. Don
 Conostegia D. Don
 Pachyanthus A. Rich
 Tertazygia Rich
 Tococa Aublet
 Leandra Raddi
 Miconia Ruíz Lopez and Pavón
 Key to terminal-flowered genera...
 Nomenclatural changes
 Literature cited
 Back Cover

Group Title: Bulletin of the Florida State Museum
Title: Taxonomic studies in the Miconieae (Melastomataceae)
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00095825/00001
 Material Information
Title: Taxonomic studies in the Miconieae (Melastomataceae) IV. generic realinments among terminal-flowered taxa
Series Title: Bulletin - Florida State Museum ; volume 36, number 2
Physical Description: p. 25-84 : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Judd, Walter S
Skean, J. D
Florida Museum of Natural History
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainsville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1991
Copyright Date: 1991
Subject: Melastomataceae -- Classification   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 62-63).
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: Abstract in English and Spanish.
Statement of Responsibility: Walter S. Judd and James D. Skean, Jr.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00095825
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 24483584
issn - 0071-6154 ;

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Table of Contents
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Results and discussion
        Page 35
    Calycogonium DC.
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Charianthus D. Don
        Page 38
    Clidemia D. Don
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Conostegia D. Don
        Page 43
    Pachyanthus A. Rich
        Page 44
    Tertazygia Rich
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
    Tococa Aublet
        Page 48
    Leandra Raddi
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    Miconia Ruíz Lopez and Pavón
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
    Key to terminal-flowered genera of Miconieae
        Page 59
    Nomenclatural changes
        Page 60
        Page 61
    Literature cited
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
    Back Cover
        Page 86
Full Text



Walter S. Judd and James D. Skean, Jr.

Biological Sciences, Volume 36, Number 2, pp. 25-84 1991




BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, are published at irregular intervals. Volumes contain about 300
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This public document was promulgated at an annual cost of $3446.80 OR
$3.448 per copy. It makes available to libraries, scholars, and all interested
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ISSN: 0071-6154


Publication date: July 19, 1991

Price: $3.50


Walter S. Judd1 and James D. Skean, Jr.2


Rapid diversification and high levels of homoplasy have combined in Miconia and relatives
to make generic delimitation extremely difficult. Historically, the morphologically divergent
members of particular clades have been recognized as segregate genera, leaving a diverse and
paraphyletic remnant within Miconia. Here the monophyly and cladistic relationships of the
commonly recognized terminal-flowered genera of Miconieae are investigated, and a provisional
generic classification is constructed. Recognized genera include: Anaectocalyx, Calycogonium
(including Mommsenia, and a few species of Clidemia and Ossaea), Clidemia (including
Heterotrichum, Miconia sect. Octomeris p.p., Myrmidone, and a few species of Tococa), Conostegia,
Leandra (including Platycentnrm, Pleiochiton, and several species of Ossaea and Clidenia),
Pachyanthus (including Miconia lundelliana), Tetrazygia (including Tetrazygiopsis and several
species of Miconia), Tococa (including Microphysca), and Miconia (including Charianthus, Ossaea
sect. Octopleura, Icaria, and a few species of Clidemia). It is hypothesized that all of the above,
except Miconia, represent monophyletic groups. Most species of Miconia likely are members of a
single clade, but a few primitive members of this genus may belong to isolated clades, or clades
whose derived species are placed in other genera, making Miconia paraphyletic. It may
eventually be possible to realign and/or segregate some of these basal lineages within Miconia.
However, at this time high homoplasy levels and lack of clear morphological gaps between basal
members of the various lineages combine to make phylogenetic decisions very difficult. Although
not fully phylogenetic, the proposed generic classification is considered an improvement of the
present system, basically that of Cogniaux, in that the artificial and polyphyletic genera Clidemia
sensu lato, Calycogonium sensu lato, Ossaea, and Charianthus are abandoned. The traditional
maintenance of these genera has resulted from selected weighting of variable features such as
petal shape, apex, and color, along with the confusion of terminal with axillary inflorescences.
Nomenclatural changes have been avoided with the exception of Calycogonium apleurum, C.
lomensis, C. reticulatum, C. tetragonolobum, Clidemia angustilamina, Leandra alloeotricha, L.
glomerata, L. hirsuta, L. inaequidens, L. krugiana, L. krugii, L. lima, L. limoides, L. pratensis,
Miconia coccinea, M. corymbosa, M. leblondii, M. purpureus, M. fadyenii, M. neomicrantha, and
Pachyanthus lundellianus.


Una diversificaci6n ripida y altos niveles de homoplastia se han combinado en Miconia y
sus relatives para hacer extremadamente dificiles las delimitaciones genericas. Hist6ricamente,

1Dr. Judd is an Associate Professor in the Department of Botany, 220 Bartram Hall, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL
2Dr. Skean is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Biology, Albion College, Albion, MI 49224.

Judd, W. S., and J. D. Skean, Jr. 1991. Taxonomic Studies in the Miconieae (Melastomataceae).
IV. Generic Realignments Among Terminal-flowered Taxa. Bull. Florida Mus. Nat. Hist., Biol.
Sci. 36(2):25-84.


los miembros de clades particulares morfol6gicamente divergentes han sido reconocidos como
g6neros segregados, dejando un remanente divers y parafil6tico dentro de Miconia. En este
trabajo se investigan la monofilia y relaciones cladisticas de los g6neros de Miconieae con
inflorecencia terminal comunmente reconocidos, y se construye una clasificaci6n gendrica
provisional. Los generous reconocidos incluyen: Anaectocalyx, Calycogonium (incluyendo
Mommsenia, y algunas species de Clidemia y Ossaea), Clidemia (incluyendo Heterotrichum,
Miconia sect. Octomeris p.p., Myrmidone, y algunas species de Tococa), Conostegia, Leandra
(incluyendo Platycentrum, Pleiochiton, y varias species de Ossaea y Clidemia), Pachyanthus
(incluyendo Miconia lundelliana), Tetrazygia (incluyendo Tetrazygiopsis y varias species de
Miconia), Tococa (incluyendo Microphysca), y Miconia (incluyendo Charianthus, Ossaea sect.
Octopleura, Icaria, y algunas especias de Clidemia). Se hipotetiza que todos los g6neros
mencionados, except Miconia, representan grupos monofil6ticos. La mayoria de las species de
Miconia son posiblemente miembros de un mismo clade, pero unos pocos miembros primitives
de este g6nero pueden pertenecer a clades aislados, o a clades cuyas species derivadas son
colocadas en otros g6neros, haciendo de Miconia un grupo parafil6tico. Eventualmente seria
possible re-alinear y/o segregar algunos de estos linajes basales dentro de Miconia. Sin embargo,
al present, los altos niveles de homoplistia asi como la falta de diferencias morfol6gicas claras
entire miembros basales de los various linajes se combinan para hacer muy dificiles las decisions
filogendtica, la clasificaci6n gendrica propuesta es considerada un mejoramiento del sistema
actual, bAsicamente el de Cogniaux, en que los generous artificiales y polifil6ticos Clidemia sensu
lato, Calycogonium sensu lato, Ossaea, y Charianthus son abandonados. El mantenimiento
traditional de estos g6neros ha resultado del sopesamiento selective de caracteristicas variables
como la forma, apex y color del p6talo, junto a la confusion sobre inflorecencias terminales con
axilares. Los cambios de nomenclatura han sido evitados con la excepci6n de Calycogonium
apleunmm, C. lomensis, C. reticulatum, C. tetragonolobum, Clidemia angustilamina, Leandra
alloeotricha, L. glomerata, L. hirsuta, L. inaequidens, L. krugiana, L. krugii, L. lima, L. limoides, L.
pratensis, Miconia coccinea, M. corymbosa, M. leblondii, M. purpureus, M. fadyenii, M.
neomicrantha, y Pachyanthus lundellianus.


In tro d uctio n .............................................................................................................................................. 27
A know ledgem ents............................................................................................ ............................... 28
Methods, Characters, Outgroup Considerations, and Polarities.................................................. 28
R results and D discussion ................................. ................................................................................... 35
A naectocaly T riana..................................................................................................................... 35
C alycogoni D C ................................................................................... .............................. 36
Charianthtus D. Don...... ..................................... 38
C lidem ia D D on .................................................................................. ................................. 39
C onostegia D D on ....................................................................................................................... 43
O ssaea D C ................................................................................ ... ........................................... 44
Pachyanthus A R ich ................................................... ....................................................... 44
Tetrazygia R ich....................................................................................... ......................... 45
Tococa A ublet ....................................................................................... .. ............................ 48
L eandra R addi................................................................................................ ....................... 49
M iconia Ruiz Lopez and Pav6n............................ ................................ ........................... 54
Sum m ary.............................................................................. ............................. ........ 58
Key to Terminal-flowered genera of Miconieae................................................. 59
N om enclatural C changes ................................................................................... .............................. 60
Literature Cited .... ...................... ..................................................... 62
Appendix................................................. ................................................. 64
Figures....................................... .................................................................................... . ........... 73
T ab le ................................................................................................................................................. ........ 83

Judd & Skean: Taxonomic Studies in the Mioconieae


The Miconieae are a diverse group here considered to represent 20
neotropical genera, including ca 1800 species, of which ca 1000 are members of
Miconia Ruiz Lopez and Pav6n. The genera within the Miconieae are poorly
characterized (Gleason 1932), are often difficult to discern, and are defined
quite arbitrarily (Cogniaux 1891; Macbride 1941; Gleason 1958; Wurdack 1962,
1972; Judd 1986a, 1989). Intermediate species or species-groups are frequent,
and many characters show reversals or parallelisms (Macbride 1941; Wurdack
1972, 1980; Judd 1986a, 1989). Most botanists working on this group have
agreed with Cogniaux (1891) who stated that within the Miconieae "the
delimitation of genera is rather arbitrary; one could easily distinguish more of
them; at the same time one could justify the union of many of those which are
generally recognized today" (p. 4, translated from the French). Macbride
(1941: 250) echoed this view, stating that there is often nothing to be
contributed by generic realignments within the tribe "because the lines of
demarcation are arbitrary." The confusion regarding generic limits is easily
seen in the complex keys to the genera of Miconieae in various tropical floras,
e.g., Le6n and Alain (1957), Standley and Williams (1963), and Wurdack (1973,
1980). This confusion has hindered both practical identification of these plants
and an understanding of their evolutionary relationships.
The arbitrariness of some of the presently recognized genera of
Miconieae is obvious (see Judd 1986a, 1986b, 1989) and it is not clear that the
present system is often convenient, as claimed by Macbride (1941). Thus, a
preliminary study of generic relationships within this complex group was
conducted. The cladistic relationships among the axillary-flowered taxa were
outlined in Judd (1989), where nine genera were recognized: Henriettea DC.
(incl. Henriettella Naudin and Llewelynia Pittier), Huilaea Wurd., Killipia
Gleason, Kirkbridea Wurd., Loreya DC. (incl. Bellucia Raf. and Myriaspora
DC.), Maieta Aublet, Mecranium Hook. f. (incl. Ekmaniocharis Urban),
Pentossaea Judd, and Sagraea DC. (incl. Necramium Britton). Chalybea
Naudin is also axillary flowered, and is closely related to Huilaea (see
discussion under Pachyanthus). The results of an investigation of cladistic
relationships among the terminal-flowered taxa are presented below.
Although preliminary, these results are considered to be an improvement of
the present largely artificial generic circumscriptions, and it is hoped that the
paper will generate further interest in the evolutionary relationships of these



This research was supported by NSF Grant BSR-8406760. We thank the curators of A,
DUKE, F, GH, JBSD, NY, MO, and US, from which specimens have been borrowed for this
study, Susanne S. Renner and John J. Wurdack for helpful suggestions concerning the
manuscript. Thanks are due to Kent Perkins for assistance in processing specimen loans. We
also thank the Hewlett-Mellon Fund for Faculty Development of Albion College for supporting
the SEM work and Ruth E. Schmitter for technical assistance.


The cladistic analyses presented by Judd (1989) suggest that the
terminal-flowered genera of Miconieae are either basal in the tribe (with the
above listed axillary-flowered genera forming a monophyletic group) or form a
monophyletic group along with Killipia, Maieta, Mecranium, Pentossaea, and
Sagraea, with Huilaea being cladistically basal. The first hypothesis supports
the use of the Merianieae as a generalized outgroup as was done in the
analyses in Judd (1989), while the second possibility supports the use of
Huilaea as an outgroup. The use of either outgroup (following the approach of
Cantino 1982) would suggest that an ancestral species should possess cymose
inflorescences of moderate-sized, pedicellate, + 5-merous flowers (borne on
leafy shoots), having a nonribbed and nonconstricted hypanthium, short and
persistent external calyx teeth, + short internal calyx lobes not forming a stout
conical cap, glabrous petals with blunt apices, stamens twice the number of
petals with ovoid/elongated and at least slightly curved anthers that open by
one minute apical pore, glabrous styles, and baccate fruits (the last a
synapomorphy of the tribe Miconieae) with nonappendaged seeds. It is likely
that the anthers would be unappendaged or nearly so, because Huilaea
essentially lacks anther appendages, and the appendages common in the
Merianieae, which typically form a sharp projection at the anther-filament
junction, are likely not homologous with those of the Miconieae, which are
different in form and involve various dorsal and/or basal thickenings of the
connective. Ancestral vegetative characters include opposite leaves that lack
formicaria and lack numerous fine tertiary veins.
Species possessing the above suite of characters are found only in
certain groups within Miconia. It is thus possible that sister-taxa to the various
segregate genera, e.g., Tococa Aublet, Leandra Raddi, Clidemia D. Don,
Pachyanthus A. Rich., Tetrazygia Rich. ex DC., etc., may occur among the
primitive species of Miconia. (It is noteworthy that no synapomorphy could be
found that unites all species of Miconia, which does not also characterize at
least some associated genera. In contrast, the species of the variously

Judd & Skean: Taxonomic Studies in the Mioconieae

recognized segregate genera contain from few to numerous apomorphic
features, making it unlikely that any of these genera contain species that are
basal members of clades leading to other genera.) Miconia species possessing
the ancestral suite of characters listed above are concentrated in sections
Octomeris Triana, Laceraria Naudin, and Jucunda (Cham.) Naudin, and
include M. schlimii Triana, M. nitidissima Cogn., M. reducens Triana, M.
mexicana (Humb. and Bonpl.) Naudin, and M. humilis Cogn. Thus, an
element within Miconia is considered to represent the primitive complex within
terminal-flowered Miconieae, and is occasionally employed in the
determination of character polarity, in addition to Huilaea and the Merianieae.
Sixty-seven characters were investigated and assigned plesiomorphic (or
ancestral) and apomorphic (or derived) states. Characters were polarized
using both the Merianieae and Huilaea as outgroups (see Judd 1989, and
discussion above). Certain species of Miconia, i.e., those possessing the
ancestral suite of characters listed above, were also used as a functional
outgroup in assessing polarity of some characters. Character states uniformly
found (or most commonly represented) in the outgroups were considered
plesiomorphic (Stevens 1980; Wiley 1981; Maddison et al. 1984; Frolich 1987).
Apomorphic characters are listed below.
1. Plants herbaceous; plesiomorphic condition: plants woody (shrubs,
trees, lianas). This character is an autapomorphy of Catocoryne Hook. f., a
distinctive genus of uncertain taxonomic placement.
2. Plants epiphytic (with coriaceous leaves); plesiomorphic condition:
plants terrestrial (with leaves membraneous to coriaceous). The liana habit of
some species also is considered to be derived.
3. Shoots indeterminate and inflorescences in leaf axils; plesiomorphic
condition: shoots determinate and inflorescences terminal.
4. Shoots usually producing only a single node bearing leaves prior to
initiation of terminal cyme; plesiomorphic condition: shoots producing several
nodes bearing leaves prior to conversion of apical meristem into an
inflorescence. Most taxa showing this condition develop pseudolateral
inflorescences; however, some obviously terminal-flowered groups, e.g.,
Calycogonium DC., also have this feature.
5. Elongate multicellular hairs absent; plesiomorphic condition: elongate
multicellular hairs present. There is some doubt concerning the polarity of this
feature because these hairs are lacking in most of the likely cladistically basal
species of Miconia (as determined above). However, the presence of a densely
strigose indumentum is uncommon in the outgroups and may be apomorphic.
6. Multicellular hairs stellate (with short to elongate arms) on the lower
leaf surface and stem, or hairs clearly derived from the stellate condition, i.e.,
peltate scales; plesiomorphic condition: multicellular hairs various, but not as
above. There is some doubt concerning this polarity decision, because stellate
hairs occur in some cladistically basal Miconia species, e.g., M. schlimii.


7. Plants densely covered with stiff, elongate, multicellular hairs, i.e.,
densely strigose; plesiomorphic condition: plants lacking elongate multicellular
hairs or only sparsely strigose. Continuous variation in the density of such
hairs in some groups makes this feature difficult to apply.
8. Stellate hairs on abaxial leaf surface with elongate, crisped arms, the
indumentum thus appearing cob-webby; plesiomorphic condition: indumentum
not stellate, or if so, then hairs not as above.
9. Elongate multicellular hairs of stems and leaves with a minutely to
strikingly roughened surface (due to projections of individual cells);
plesiomorphic condition: elongate multicellular hairs smooth.
10. Peltate scales; plesiomorphic condition: indumentum various but not
of peltate scales. Such scales likely evolved through modifications of stellate
11. Indumentum composed of only minute glandular hairs; plesiomorphic
condition: indumentum variable, but not as above.
12. Leaves clearly anisophyllous; plesiomorphic condition: leaves
isophyllous or nearly so.
13. Leaves with pouchlike formicaria at base of blade; plesiomorphic
condition: leaves lacking formicaria.
14. Leaves with bilobed formicaria at base of petiole; plesiomorphic
condition: leaves lacking formicaria.
15. Leaves with conspicuous mite-domatia at junctions of the midvein
with the two largest secondary veins, which are formed by a dense tuft of
elongate, often connate, multicellular hairs; plesiomorphic condition: mite-
domatia lacking or not formed as above.
16. Leaves small, narrowly elliptic to linear, strongly coriaceous, and
revolute; plesiomorphic condition: leaves various but without the above
combination of characters.
17. Leaves densely white to ferrugineous, stellate-pubescent on abaxial
surface; plesiomorphic condition: leaves glabrous to densely pubescent, but not
as above.
18. Inflorescences pseudolateral; plesiomorphic condition: inflorescences
clearly terminal.
19. Inflorescences borne on shoots on which the leaves have already
fallen; plesiomorphic condition: inflorescences produced on leafy shoots.
20. Inflorescences reduced to 1 (or very few) flowers; plesiomorphic
condition: inflorescences several to many-flowered. Polarity is questionable
due to variation in outgroups, but several-flowered cymes are considered
ancestral because such inflorescences occur in basal species of Miconia.
21. Inflorescences with flattened axes; plesiomorphic condition:
inflorescences with terete to ridged axes.
22. Inflorescences spicate; plesiomorphic condition: inflorescences not

Judd & Skean: Taxonomic Studies in the Mioconieae

23. Inflorescences fasciculate or capitate; plesiomorphic condition:
inflorescences cymose.
24. Inflorescences with unilateral cymose branches; plesiomorphic
condition: lateral inflorescence branches not unilateral cymes.
25. Inflorescence bracts expanded and persistent; plesiomorphic
condition: inflorescence bracts inconspicuous and often deciduous. Large,
but deciduous, bracts are also considered derived.
26. Flowers sessile; plesiomorphic condition: flowers pedicellate.
27. Flowers 4-merous; plesiomorphic condition: flowers 5-merous (or not
as above).
28. Flower parts greater than five; plesiomorphic condition: flowers 5-
merous (or not as above).
29. Hypanthium strongly ribbed; plesiomorphic condition: hypanthium
30. Hypanthium/calyx clearly constricted above the ovary; plesiomorphic
condition: hypanthium not constricted.
31. Hypanthium quadrangular; plesiomorphic condition: hypanthium
32. Hypanthium winged; plesiomorphic condition: hypanthium not
winged. Other aspects of hypanthium shape (and length) have not been
included in this analysis, although they are quite variable within several genera
and may prove useful in discerning species relationships (especially in Miconia
and Tetrazygia).
33. Hypanthium covered with stout, very thick-based, elongate,
multicellular hairs (and such hairs often on leaves, infloresence axes, and stems
as well); plesiomorphic condition: hypanthium lacking elongate hairs, or, if
present, then not as above.
34. Open calyx dehiscent as a unit by a circumscissile slit; plesiomorphic
condition: calyx dehiscent by some other means.
35. External calyx lobes conspicuous and well developed; plesiomorphic
condition: external calyx lobes inconspicuous. Variation in this feature is
essentially continuous and, thus, is difficult to delimit into nonarbitrary states
(see Almeida and Bisby 1984). Hence value of character is quite limited.
36. External calyx lobes absent; plesiomorphic condition: external calyx
lobes present.
37. External calyx lobes flattened parallel to the floral radii;
plesiomorphic condition: external calyx lobes terete (or not as above).
38. External calyx lobes flattened perpendicular to the floral radii;
plesiomorphic condition: external calyx lobes terete (or not as above).
39. Internal calyx lobes very elongate and deciduous; plesiomorphic
condition: internal calyx lobes short and persistent.
40. Internal calyx lobes connate into a stout, conical, circumscissily
dehiscing cap; plesiomorphic condition: internal calyx lobes free. Several
species of Tetrazygia, Miconia, and Tococa have internal calyx lobes fused into


a minute, membranous, dome-shaped cap which ruptures irregularly; this
condition is difficult to observe in dried material and may be more widespread
in the tribe than is realized; it is not considered to be homologous with the
stout, conical cap present in the flowers of Conostegia D. Don.
41. Petals narrowly ovate to triangular and acute to acuminate at apex;
plesiomorphic condition: petals ovate to obovate with blunt apices. There is
some doubt concerning polarity here, because a few outgroup taxa have slightly
acuminate petals, in any case, it is likely that narrowly triangular petals with
acute apices are apomorphic. The basal species within Miconia have petals
with blunt apices.
42. Petals red, showy, erect, and connivent; plesiomorphic condition:
petals various, but without the above character combination.
43. Petals pubescent; plesiomorphic condition: petals glabrous.
44. Petals with a dorso-apical hair (or cluster of hairs); plesiomorphic
condition: petals lacking dorso-apical hair.
45. Androecium actinomorphic, i.e., stamens arranged in a circle around
the gynoecium; plesiomorphic condition: androecium zygomorphic, i.e.,
stamens deflexed to one side of flower. Androecium reduced in staminate
flowers (in dioecious species); see Howard (1989).
46. Anthers numerous, i.e., more than twice the number of petals;
plesiomorphic condition: stamens twice the number of petals. This feature
may be correlated with an increased number of carpels (see Conostegia).
Anther numbers equalling the number of petals are also considered
47. Anther sacs basally bifurcate, i.e., sagittate; plesiomorphic condition:
anther sacs not bifurcate.
48. Anthers short, straight; plesiomorphic condition: anthers elongate,
49. Anthers obovate; plesiomorphic condition: anthers ovate or narrowly
50. Anthers oblong; plesiomorphic condition: anthers ovate or narrowly
51. Anthers opening by longitudinal slits; plesiomorphic condition:
anthers with a small apical pore.
52. Anthers opening by an expanded apical pore, often with a protruding
septum; plesiomorphic condition: anthers opening by a small apical pore. (The
condition of the anthers opening by two small pores may also be derived.)
53. Anther with variously developed basal appendage composed of sterile
portion of anther sacs and connective tissue; plesiomorphic condition: anthers
not appendaged, without sterilization of a portion of anther sacs. Anther
appendages likely function as landing platforms for floral visitors in species
with zygomorphic flowers (S. Renner, pers. comm.). Anther appendages occur
in diverse groups of melastomes and probably evolved several times.

Judd & Skean: Taxonomic Studies in the Mioconieae

54. Anther with conspicuous dorso-basal appendage or tooth derived
from connective; plesiomorphic condition: anther not appendaged.
55. Anther with a prominent dorsally thickened connective;
plesiomorphic condition: anther connective not prominently thickened. More
or less continuous variation within some groups, e.g., Leandra, make
application of this character very difficult.
56. Anther bearing gland-headed or globular hairs on connective;
plesiomorphic condition: anther glabrous. The filament may be pubescent as
well (also considered to be apomorphic).
57. Anthers white; plesiomorphic condition: anthers non-white, especially
yellow, pink, or purple. Problems in the scoring of this character occur due to
the difficulty of assessing color of living plants in herbarium material.
58. Style strongly curved distally with minute, non-expanded stigma;
plesiomorphic condition: style straight to slightly curved and stigma slightly to
clearly expanded.
59. Style with multicellular, gland-headed hairs or stellate-branched hairs;
plesiomorphic condition: style glabrous. Some taxa have a conspicuous apical
fringe of hairs (around the base of style); this is considered to be a separate
condition, is likely apomorphic, and occurs sporadically in the tribe.
60. Ovary strongly four-lobed (with the lobes separated by longitudinal
grooves); plesiomorphic condition: ovary terete. (The number of ovary
locules is quite variable in the tribe, even varying within a species or closely
related group of species, and frequently differs from number of petals and
calyx lobes. Locule number was not used in generic delimitation, but a survey
of its variation would be of interest.)
61. Fruit a berry; plesiomorphic condition: fruit a capsule. This likely is a
synapomorphy of the species of the Miconieae (see Cogniaux 1891), although
berries are also present in the Blakeeae, Dissochaeteae, and Melastomeae.
Capsular fruited taxa have a superior ovary, while in baccate taxa the ovary is
usually at least partly inferior.
62. Fruit robust; plesiomorphic condition: fruits small to moderate-
sized. Continuously varying characters such as this are difficult to delimit into
nonarbitrary states (see Almeida and Bisby 1984). This character is somewhat
arbitrarily applied as an autapomorphy of Pachyanthus, where it is correlated
with the presence of a persistent, coriaceous hypanthium/calyx.
63. Seeds with appendage composed of enlarged cells; plesiomorphic
condition: seeds not appendaged. This character (and no. 64) were observed
under the light/dissecting microscope; in addition, several seeds were prepared
for scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation (see Figs. 8-10). In
preparation for examination by SEM, seeds were removed from dried
herbarium material, attached to stubs with quick-mounts, plated with gold in a
Ladd 8-30800 ion coater for two minutes at 20mA, and examined and
photographed using a JEOL JSM-T200 scanning electron microscope.


Ladd 8-30800 ion coater for two minutes at 20mA, and examined and
photographed using a JEOL JSM-T200 scanning electron microscope.
64. Seed moderately to strongly papillose; plesiomorphic condition: testa
smooth or only slightly roughened/papillose. This feature is difficult to apply
due to continuous variation within the tribe; state delimitations are arbitrary
(Almeida and Bisby 1984). Testa surface was examined at both the light
microscope and SEM levels.
65. Wood with oblong intervascular and vessel-ray pits, and two to three
seriate rays; plesiomorphic condition: wood with polygonal to round
intervascular pits, uniseriate and multiseriate rays (Welle and Koek-Noorman
1981). Unfortunately, variation within this character (and the following) is
difficult to evaluate because very few species within each genus have been
surveyed for anatomical variation.
66. Wood with abundant (mainly apotracheal) parenchyma in tangential
bands, two to six cells wide; plesiomorphic condition: wood with bands of
pseudoparenchyma consisting of fibers and parenchyma strands, or fibers only
(Welle and Koek-Noorman 1981).
67. Chromosome number of n = 25 or 30; plesiomorphic condition: n =
17 or multiples thereof (Solt and Wurdack 1980). A few species of Clidemia
also show n=23; this unusual condition is likely also derived. Polyploidy is
frequent in the tribe.
The present taxonomic study is based on a survey of ca 1350 herbarium
specimens representing ca 560 species (see Appendix), and supplemented,
where possible, by the addition of information from published taxonomic
studies. Several species were also studied during the course of field work in
the Greater Antilles and southern Florida.
The present knowledge of synapomorphic patterns within this large
tribe is considered sufficient to make a preliminary attempt at circumscription
of monophyletic genera. However, the cladistic relationships of these genera
appear to be obscured by extensive homoplasy, and generic delimitation is
difficult due to the lack of clear morphological gaps between basal members of
the various recognizable lineages. The large size of the tribe also creates
practical difficulties (and the numerous South American species are especially
in need of further study). In addition, some quantitative characters present
difficulties in state-delimitation. Thus, a detailed cladistic analysis of terminal-
flowered Miconieae has not been attempted. Instead, each of the tribe's
commonly recognized genera is discussed below, with special attention paid to
the question of whether or not the genus can be hypothesized to be
monophyletic. Catocoryne Hook. f., a very poorly known, monotypic, South
American genus of creeping, slender-stemmed herbs with minute leaves (2-5
mm long and wide), terminal, solitary, 5-merous flowers, and berry fruits
(Cogniaux 1891; Macbride 1941; Wurdack 1970), is not included in this study.
Its taxonomic placement is problematic. The relationships of each genus to
various groups within Miconia are also considered. It is hoped that the present

Judd & Skean: Taxonomic Studies in the Mioconieae


Although not fully phylogenetic, the tentative generic classification
proposed below is considered to be an improvement over those presently in
use because polyphyletic genera such as Clidemia sensu lato, Ossaea DC., and
Charianthus D. Don are abandoned, and the paraphyly of Miconia is at least
reduced by suggesting that several of its species be transferred to various
segregate genera. Table 1 presents the apomorphic characters possessed by
each of the recognized genera. Species examined as representatives of each
recognized genus are listed in the Appendix, as are generic descriptions (for
those groups whose circumscription has been significantly altered as a result of
this investigation).
A brief discussion of the circumscription and phylogenetic relationships of
included species for each terminal-flowered genus of Miconieae is presented
below. Genera are listed in alphabetical order, except for the large and
complex groups, Leandra and Miconia, which are discussed last.

Anaectocalyx Triana

This obscure South American genus of three species (Wurdack 1973, fig.
55) is likely monophyletic. Important synapomorphies include: 6-merous
flowers with a calyx composed of prominent, individually caducous, narrowly
triangular or oblong lobes, which are five to 15 mm long; a lack of external
calyx lobes; anthers with thecae and part of the connective bilobed and
prolonged ventrally below the insertion of the filament; inflorescences of six to
eight conspicuously bracted flowers clustered in a head or paniculate cyme;
and a densely strigose indumentum of multicellular elongate hairs (on stems,
leaves, and hypanthia). This genus is clearly placed in the Miconieae by its
baccate fruits, but its exact position is uncertain. Its anthers have been
compared to those of Maieta (Wurdack 1973); however, their resemblance is
only superficial. The two genera differ in many other features, and Maieta
possesses axillary inflorescences, indicating its relationship with genera such as
Sagraea, Mecranium, and Pentossaea (see Judd 1989). Because the group is
phenetically distinctive and monophyletic, and is not clearly linked to species in
other recognized genera, its generic status is considered justified.


Calycogonium DC.

This distinctive, and likely monophyletic, genus of ca 30 species (Moscoso
1943; Le6n and Alain 1957; Proctor in Adams 1972) is limited to the Greater
Antilles and may be circumscribed by its 4-merous flowers and architectural
growth pattern, in which shoots produce only a single node (or sometimes two)
before forming a terminal inflorescence (Fig. 1C; Fawcett and Rendle 1926,
fig. 138). Few-flowered cymes occur in most species. In addition, the group
may be united by the presence of stellate hairs, although the polarity of this
feature is unclear.
The species of this group may be members of three clades. The largest
contains those species with leaves in which conspicuous domatia are located
in the axil of the midvein and the two largest secondary veins--a probable
synapomorphy (Fig 1 A,B). The domatia are formed by a dense tuft of
elongate multicellular hairs, and are likely inhabited by mites. Cladistically
basal species in this clade probably include C. domatiatum Urban and E.
Ekman, C. turbinatum Urban and E. Ekman, and C. impressum Urban and E.
Ekman. More specialized species in the group possess the additional
synapomorphies of reduced stellate hairs and domatia in which the hairs tend
to be connate, forming a brownish conical structure (Fig. 1 A). Species
showing these features include: C. glabratum (Sw.) DC., C. rhamnoideum
Naudin, C. microphyllum C. Wright in Sauvalle, C. rhomboideurm Urban and E.
Ekman, C. ekmanii Urban, and C. torbecianum Urban and E. Ekman. Within
this complex a shift from terete (plesiomorphic) to four-angled (apomorphic)
hypanthia occurs, with C. lindenianum Naudin and C. grisebachii Triana
showing this synapomorphy. The latter species possesses the distinctive
apomorphies of abaxially densely stellate-pubescent leaves and the loss of
mite-domatia. Some members of this domatia-containing clade have scattered
multicellular strigose hairs on their leaves (and sometimes also hypanthia, e.g.,
C. domatiatum); this condition is possibly plesiomorphic. The external calyx
lobes of members of this group are terete or flattened perpendicular
(occasionally parallel) to the floral radii; elongate external calyx lobes (an
apomorphy) have evolved in some species. The inflorescence sometimes is
reduced to a solitary flower. Petal shape and apex are quite diverse, varying
from rounded to acute/acuminate, and anthers lack any appendages or unusual
development of connective tissue.
A second Calycogonium clade can be defined on the basis of hypanthia
and ovaries with four conspicuous lobes separated by longitudinal grooves, and
external calyx lobes that are flattened parallel to the floral radii (Fig 1 G,H).
Hypothesized basal members of this clade, traditionally placed in Clidemia,
have thin, delicate inflorescence axes, e.g., C. tetragonoloba Cogn., C.
pterosepala (Urban) Alain, and C. wrightii Griseb. These species have
conspicuous stellate hairs and petals with blunt apices. The remaining

Judd & Skean: Taxonomic Studies in the Mioconieae

members of this clade show very reduced inflorescences in which the flower
clusters are sessile or nearly so (a potential synapomorphy). Most members of
the group have consistently terminal inflorescences, e.g., Calycogonium
calycopteris (Rich.) Urban, C. hispidulum Cogn., and C. heterophyllum Naudin,
but a few have both terminal and axillary inflorescences, e.g., Ossaea lomensis
Urban and Ossaea reticulata (Cogn.) E. Ekman ex Urban. Petal apex varies
from blunt to acute in the sessile-inflorescenced species. A few species,
such as Calycogonium hispidulum and Clidemia tetragonoloba, possess elongate
multicellular hairs, although these are not conspicuous. The anthers may be
unappendaged or possess a slight to moderate dorso-basal thickening on the
connective; see especially Clidemia tetragonoloba.
A third small group may be defined by the presence of distinctive small,
coriaceous, + revolute leaves that are densely ferrugineous and stellate-
pubescent on the abaxial surface. In Calycogonium rosmarinifolium Griseb.
the hairs are stellate, while in Mommsenia apleura Urban and E. Ekman
(Urban 1926) the hairs are peltate scales (possibly evolved from fusion of
radiate arms of a stellate ancestral condition).
All of the above groups were treated by Cogniaux (1891) within
Calycogonium sect. Calycogonium, which is likely monophyletic (as outlined
above). However, the affinities of Cogniaux's (1891) remaining sections of this
genus actually lie elsewhere. The species of section Calycogoniopsis Cogn.
probably are related to a group of Caribbean species of Ossaea (see discussion
under Ossaea and Leandra; Le6n and Alain 1957; and Judd 1986a) as
evidenced by their lack of stellate hairs, hypanthia with dense, stout, elongate,
multicellular hairs, acute petals, and lack of either conspicuous mite-domatia
or four-lobed ovaries. (Some of these species possess solitary flowers or few-
flowered inflorescences.) Section Knigiophytum Cogn., i.e., C. krugii Cogn., has
a very similar indumentum and solitary flowers, and probably is related to
these terminal-flowered West Indian species of Ossaea with hypanthia and
fruits (and often the leaves as well) possessing strikingly thickened, strigose
multicellular hairs. Cladistically, these species of Ossaea are placed within
Leandra. Calycogonium squamulosum Cogn., placed in section Calycogonium
by Cogniaux (1891), is actually a species of Henriettea, being linked by the
following synapomorphies: plants with Rauh's architectural model (i.e.,
inflorescences axillary), presence of megastyloids in leaf and stem tissues, and
petals with an external tooth (see Judd 1986b, 1989). Finally, section
Pseudocalycogonium Cogn. (Cogniaux 1891), i.e., C. obliquum (Griseb.) Cogn.,
is actually a species of Miconia as was noted by Alain (Le6n and Alain 1957),
and it is a synonym of M. obtusa (Griseb.) Triana (see discussion under
The affinities of Calycogonium are obscure. It is possibly related to
Miconia, and is separable by the combination of 4-merous flowers, either
solitary or few-flowered cymes, often well developed (or at least conspicuous)
external calyx lobes, distinctive architecture, and anthers opening by a small


apical pore, usually without any elaboration of the connective tissue (see also
Judd 1986a). Its seeds are smooth (see Fig. 8 A).

Charianthus D. Don

This Antillean genus of five species (Howard 1989), as circumscribed by
Cogniaux (1891), is composed of two very different sections. Section
Charianthus has ovate anthers that open by two long slits, 4-loculate ovaries,
scattered druse crystals, multicellular peltate scales (having cells in a radiate
pattern), strigose hairs (in a few species, e.g., C.purpureus D. Don), and a calyx
not or only slightly constricted in fruit. In contrast, section Eccharianthus
Cogn. has oblong anthers opening by a single apical pore and with an
appendaged base (due to development of connective), 2-locular ovaries, dense
druse crystals, globular-branched multicellular hairs (which may be elongated
in mite-domatia), no strigose hairs, and a calyx clearly constricted in fruit. The
two sections traditionally are united on the basis of their flowers with showy
erect, usually reddish, and connivent petals (Fawcett and Rendle 1926, fig.
135)--clear adaptations for bird pollination (Renner 1989). The flowers are
usually disposed in broadly spreading, flat-topped cymes.
The genus is surely polyphyletic, being derived from two different species-
groups within Miconia. The species of section Charianthus likely are linked to
some species of Miconia section Chaenanthera Naudin (or section
Chaenopleura (DC.) Triana) on the basis of anther dehiscence by two
longitudinal slits (a synapomorphy). Clearly, a species like Miconia
melanotricha (Triana) Gleason, which has similar inflorescences, and bright
red petals with exposed stamens, yet 5-merous flowers with 3-locular ovaries, is
a member of the lineage within Miconia that gave rise to Charianthus sect.
Charianthus. This species was placed by Gleason (1958) in section
Chaenopleura (a group with obovate anthers); however, it may be better placed
in section Chaenanthera, as indicated by its ovate/oblong anthers. (Anthers
that open by elongate slits probably have evolved more than once within
Miconia; see discussion under this genus.) Thus, stamens opening by elongate
slits likely evolved first, followed by red and connivent petals, and finally 4-
merous flowers with 4-locular ovaries.
Section Eccharianthus probably evolved from a species-group within
Miconia section Miconia, since C. fadyenii (Hook.) Griseb. possesses oblong
anthers, each opening by a terminal pore and having a slight basal appendage
derived from connective tissue and sterile bases of the anther sacs (a
synapomorphy of many advanced Miconia species, see discussion).
The recognition of Charianthus at the generic level, thus, cannot be
maintained, and these species must be transferred to Miconia (see
Nomenclatural Changes). The similarities of the two sections of this genus are

Judd & Skean: Taxonomic Studies in the Mioconieae

very likely parallel developments in response to selection for bird pollination.
Similar shifts are seen in other tropical montane genera, e.g., Psychotria L. vs.
Cephaelis Sw. or Vaccinium L. vs. Agapetes D. Don ex G. Don. Not only is the
group polyphyletic, but its recognition makes even the advanced clade(s) within
Miconia paraphyletic.

Clidemia D. Don

Clidemia sect. Clidemia (see Cogniaux 1891), along with Clidemia section
Capitellaria (Naudin) Cogn., Heterotrichum DC., and some species of Miconia
section Octomeris Hook. f., are hypothesized to form a single clade with
Miconia section Octomeris p.p., being basal and Clidemia section Clidemia
most divergent. This group of ca 100 species is distributed throughout the
neotropics. Possible synapomorphies of the clade include the presence of a
dense indumentum of multicellular elongate and strigose hairs and flowers
with a numerical plan greater than five (Fig 2 C,F). Both characters show
some reversals (Fig. 2 B). Miconia tuberculata (Naudin) Triana (=
Heterotrichum rostratum (Naudin) Gleason), a member of Miconia section
Octomeris, may be representative of the primitive members of this clade, and is
phenetically quite similar to other species of Miconia, such as M. schlimii and
M. meridensis Triana (both also of section Octomeris) and M. hexamera Wurd.
(of section Amblyarrhena). Most members of Clidemia (as delimited here)
have the additional synapomorphies of elongate external calyx lobes (Fig. 2
A,D-F) and rounded seeds with slightly to conspicuously papillate testae (Fig. 8
C and D). Species showing this level of advancement include Miconia
macrodon (Naudin) Wurd. (= Heterotrichum macrodon (Naudin) Planch. ex
Hook. f.), Miconia laevipilis (Wurd.) Wurd. (= H. racemosum Wurd.),
Clidemia scopulina (Brandegee) L. O. Williams (= H. scopulinum Brandegee),
C.petiolaris (Schlecht. and Cham.) Schlecht. ex Triana (= C. deppeana Steud.),
and C. fidva Gleason. These species all possess an indumentum of strigose
hairs intermixed with minute glandular hairs. A phenetically similar species-
group has strigose hairs intermixed with conspicuous stellate hairs (see
Wurdack 1986, fig. 25), and it is possible that a stellate indumentum evolved at
this level in the phylogeny of the genus; these species include: Clidemia octona
(Bonpl.) L. O. Williams (= Heterotrichum ocotonum (Bonpl.) DC.),
Heterotrichum angustifolium DC. (Fig. 2 E,F), H. cymosum Urban, H.
umbellatum (Mill.) Urban (Figs. 2 C,D, 8 C; Fawcett and Rendle 1926, fig.
139), H. porphyrotrichum Markgraf (= Miconia porphyrotricha (Markgraf)
Wurd.), and H. glandulosum Cogn. (= M. araguensis Wurd.). These stellate-
haired species may form either a paraphyletic or monophyletic group; many
have ovaries with numerous locules. Note that generic placement of these
species is quite variable, with taxa being variously placed in Miconia, Clidemia,


or Heterotrichum by taxonomists (compare Standley and Williams 1963,
Wurdack 1972, and Proctor in Adams 1972). The remaining species within the
Clidemia clade show a more consistent placement in the genus and are united
by the additional apomorphy of clearly pseudolateral inflorescences, i.e., the
terminal inflorescence is quickly deflexed to a seemingly lateral position by the
development of an axillary branch, with the shoot forming a sympodium (Fig. 2
A; Judd 1986a). These derived members of Clidemia may also be united by a
reversal to mainly five- (or four-) merous flowers. Most species showing these
characters have been placed in Clidemia section Clidemia--a large probably
paraphyletic complex as currently circumscribed; the following are
representative: Clidemia erythropogon DC., C. urceolata DC., C. capitellata
(Bonpl.) D. Don, C. dentata D. Don, C. pilosa D. Don, C. laevifolia Gleason,
C. pustulata DC., C. bullosa DC., C. biserrata DC., C. allardii Wurd., C. hirta
(L.) D. Don (Figs. 2 A,B, 8 D; Fawcett and Rendle 1926, fig. 140; Wurdack
1980, fig. 29), C. strigillosa (Sw.) DC., and C. ciliata D. Don. It is of interest
that several species among Clidemia section Clidemia and the phenetically
similar species of Miconia or Heterotrichum show the apomorphy of a
chromosome number of 2n =30, e.g., C. erythropogon, C. bullata, and H.
umbellatum, or 2n=25, e.g., C. strigillosa, C. urceolata (Solt and Wurdack
1980). The significance of this chromosomal variation is unclear because
counts are known from very few species.
Two small myrmecophilous clades likely are related to this advanced
complex characterized by pseudolateral inflorescences (see Gleason 1931).
The first includes Clidemia killipii Gleason and Tococa spadiciflora Triana,
which are united by their unusual corrugated formicaria (with enlarged
stomata) that are positioned at the base of the leaf blade, and glandular-
pubescent styles. In addition this group has spicate cymose inflorescences.
The anthers of these species lack the dorso-basal appendage characteristic of
Tococa, and usually have slender, curved anthers, unlike the stout,
straight anthers of Tococa. The long terete external calyx lobes of these
species are also very comparable to those of Clidemia. The second
myrmecophilous group includes Clidemia taurina Gleason, C. collina Gleason,
C. setosa (Triana) Gleason (see Standley and Williams 1963, fig. 65), C.
heptamera Wurd., Tococa carolensis Gleason, and Mynnidone macrosperma
(C. Martius) C. Martius (among others). These species are linked by the
probable synapomorphies of pouchlike formicaria at the base of the leaf blade
and reduced stellate hairs. Additionally, Mynnidone macrospemna (see
Martius 1829; Cogniaux 1891; Wurdack 1973, fig. 51) may be weakly linked
with Tococa carolensis by its 6-merous flowers (but differing in ovary locule
number) with smooth, conspicuous petals. This may suggest that Mynnidone is
a specialized clade within Tococa, in agreement with Wurdack's statement
(1973: 559) that it is "probablemente solamente un segregado acad6mico de
Tococa." However, both T. carolensis and M. macrospemna more likely are
linked cladistically to myrmecophilous species of Clidemia because their anther

Judd & Skean: Taxonomic Studies in the Mioconieae

connective lacks a dorso-basal tooth and their inflorescences are strongly
pseudolateral. Of course, such examples of confusion between species of
Clidemia and Tococa arise because very similar formicaria likely have evolved
in both (as well as in several other genera--see discussion under Tococa; Judd
1989). A few other members of Clidemia show formicaria, but of very different
morphology and position, e.g., bilobed ant-domatia at the petiole base occur in
C. allardii, C. ciliata, C. crenulata Gleason, and C. neblinae Wurd.
The species of Clidemia section Capitellaria, e.g., C. involucrata DC. and
C. capitata Benth., likely belong among the derived members of the genus due
to their pseudolateral inflorescences. This monophyletic group may be
distinguished by its capitulate inflorescences, lack of stellate hairs (having small
glandular hairs instead--perhaps a reversal), and seeds with smooth "faces"
with the papillae in lines along seed-angles.
Clidemia illustrates a common taxonomic pattern within the Miconieae.
The basal members of this clade are phenetically very similar to some elements
within Miconia (especially those species with ovoid anthers opening by a
small terminal pore and lacking appendages and/or glands), but these species
are connected to morphologically very distinctive species through a whole
series of intermediates. The distinctive features of Clidemia accumulate
gradually within the clade. Thus, a continuum of variation occurs among
species with obviously terminal to pseudolateral cymes, nonpapillose to
papillose seeds, short to elongate external calyx lobes, etc., with species of
Miconia section Octomeris p.p. being basal, species variously treated as
Heterotrichum or Clidemia being intermediate, and species of Clidemia
sections Clidemia and Capitellaria being derived. Traditional evolutionary
taxonomic classifications of this complex have tended to recognize the
phenetically derived taxa as members of a distinct genus--Clidemia, while
placing primitive species in Miconia on the basis of symplesiomorphic features.
Intermediate taxa often have been tossed back and forth between Miconia and
segregate genera such as Heterotrichum and Clidemia, depending upon the
characters being stressed by the taxonomist working with the group. This
pattern can be seen in Wurdack's (1972) placement of the South American
species of Heterotrichum in Miconia, while Standley and Williams (1963) placed
the Central American species of Heterotrichum in Clidemia! Wurdack (1972)
stated that he had no opinion as to the best generic placement of the West
Indian species of Heterotrichum, and these species are often retained in this
genus (see Proctor in Adams 1972; Moscoso 1943; Le6n and Alain 1957),
despite nomenclatural difficulties (see Wurdack 1972). Thus the same--or very
similar--species variously have been placed in three genera. Various
taxonomists, e.g., Thorne (1976), Mayr (1969), McVaugh (1943), have
proposed rules that may be invoked in delimiting a segregate genus. Yet, these
often lead to members of a single clade being placed in different genera, as can
be seen in the taxonomic history of this group. Thus, we have chosen (here
and throughout) to follow cladistic principles (see Hennig 1966; Wiley 1981;


Bremer and Wanntorp 1978) and to place basal members of the hypothesized
Clidemia-clade with more specialized members of the same clade on the basis
of synapomorphic features.
Clidemia (as circumscribed above) is considered recognizable at the
generic level, although some problems remain in the placement of phenetically
similar species of Miconia. The recognition of Clidemia may make Miconia
paraphyletic. This situation should be rectified by a detailed cladistic analysis
of the latter genus--with the eventual removal from Miconia of those species
found to be basal members of various related genera. At this point a small
number of species of Miconia cannot be joined with this genus on the basis of
synapomorphies, and are kept within the genus purely for convienence. The
placement of such species within a metaphyletic (or even paraphyletic) Miconia
is considered preferable to lumping Clidemia (and other segregate genera) into
Miconia, with the resultant loss of taxonomic information. Clidemia, as here
delimited (see Appendix), includes several species of Miconia section
Octomeris, those species often (or always) treated as Heterotrichum, a few
species of Tococa, and Clidemia sections Clidemia and Capitellaria, and
probably Mynnidone Mart.
As discussed by Judd (1986a, 1989), the axillary flowered members of
Clidemia are not closely related to those with terminal (or pseudoterminal)
cymes, and should be treated in Sagraea and Maieta (Judd 1989). However,
there are several terminal-flowered species usually placed in Clidemia that are
considered to be unrelated to the major complex of this genus discussed above
because they possess distinctive synapomorphies of other clades within the
tribe, and lack those of Clidemia, sensu strict. Several Antillean species of
Clidemia show strongly 4-lobed hypanthia and ovaries with flattened external
calyx lobes, and have the distinctive growth architecture of Calycogoniun.
These species are placed in Calycogonium, and are discussed under that genus
(see also Appendix). Members of the Clidemia gracilis Pittier complex (Judd
1986a) clearly represent an advanced clade within Ossaea section Octopleura
(Griseb.) Cogn., a group derived from (and here placed in) Miconia section
Miconia (see Appendix). These species are discussed under Ossaea and
Miconia. A few species, e.g., Clidemia japurensis DC. and C. alternifolia
Wurd., have narrowly ovate/triangular petals, and are treated here as members
of Leandra section Chaetodon (Triana) Cogn. They are discussed under
Leandra (see also Appendix).
Macbride (1941: 479) remarked that "Clidemia remains .. a concept
rather arbitrarily retained" in the generic classification of the Miconieae, a
viewpoint commonly expressed in the literature dealing with this group. The
results of the present study (and Judd 1986a, 1989) lend strong support to this
view. The genus, as traditionally circumscribed, represents an artificial
assemblage, without phylogenetic (or even phenetic) reality, and probably
contains at least six distinct and unrelated clades, as outlined above.

Judd & Skean: Taxonomic Studies in the Mioconieae

Conostegia D. Don

This genus represents a well marked monophyletic group of ca 45 species
(Wurdack 1973, 1980; Howard 1989) that range from Mexico to northern
South America and the West Indies. The genus is recognizable by its lack of
external calyx lobes and inner calyx lobes fused into a stout, conical calyptra
(Fig. 1 D-F; Fawcett and Rendle 1926, fig. 134; Gleason 1958, fig. 89; Wurdack
1973, fig. 49; Wurdack 1980, fig. 16). The nonappendaged anthers
characteristic of the genus are ovoid, tapered to the apex, and open by a small
apical pore. These anther characters lead to the conclusion that this genus did
not evolve from within Miconia, since members of this genus show various
modifications of either pore or connective structure. It is of interest that the
flowers of most species of Conostegia have distinct pedicels, whereas members
of the Miconieae typically have sessile flowers. This feature may indicate
that the genus diverged early in the cladistic history of the tribe, retaining this
plesiomorphic feature.
The possible isolated position of this genus is reinforced by an analysis of
its wood anatomy, although the number of-species sampled is small (see Welle
and Koek-Noorman 1981). The wood has abundant (mainly apotracheal)
parenchyma in tangential bands, 2 to 6 cells wide. These features are
considered by Welle and Koek-Noorman (1981) and Vliet et al. (1981) to be
apomorphies linking the genus to Blakeeae, Tibouchina Aublet, several
Merianieae, Tococa, and Tessmannianthus Markgraf, and separating it from
most Miconieae (see Welle and Koek-Noorman 1981: 376). The rays are
heterogeneous, exclusively uniseriate, and sometimes composed of some
weakly procumbent cells. Most Miconieae have rays mainly composed of
square and upright cells, and have bands of pseudoparenchyma consisting of
fibers and parenchyma strands, or fibers only (Welle and Koek-Noorman
1981). Druse crystals (plus some rhombic crystals) are characteristic.
Conostegia setosa Triana is noteworthy in having ant-domatia at the base
of its lamina (as in Tococa).
In summary, Conostegia likely is monophyletic and cladistically isolated
within the tribe. The group should be maintained at the generic level. It is
quite variable as to numbers of floral parts and indumentum. The seed coat is
smooth to slightly papillose (Fig. 8 E); petals are blunt.

Ossaea DC.

The genus Ossaea is an arbitrary grouping of some of those species of
Miconieae with narrowly triangular to ovate petals with acute apices. When


taxonomic groupings are based on potential synapomorphies (or even made
phenetically--on the basis of several characteristics), it is evident that petal
apex, although of some taxonomic utility, is quite variable within several
genera, especially Sagraea, Mecranium, Calycogonium, Leandra, and Miconia.
Wurdack (1962) stated that "the genus is an artificial assemblage of various
species groups." Judd (1986a, 1989) demonstrated that the terminal and
axillary-flowered members usually assigned to this genus actually are not
closely related. The axillary-flowered members of Ossaea were placed by Judd
(1989) in either Sagraea (including the type of the genus Ossaea), Mecranium,
or Pentossaea. The species of Ossaea with terminal (or terminal and axillary)
cymes are discussed in the present paper. These species do not show a suite of
apomorphic traits that can be used to delimit them from other genera within
the Miconieae; instead, these species are variously considered members of (1)
Calycogonium, (2) Leandra section Niangae (DC.) Cogn., (3) Leandra section
Chaetodon, and (4) Miconia, as indicated by the particular apomorphies of
each. The reasons for the various placements are given in the discussion under
these genera. The use of the name Ossaea should be abandoned; the type
species of the genus is actually a species of Sagraea (see Judd 1989), and the
group, in its normal circumscription, probably contains at least seven distinct
and unrelated clades.

Pachyanthus A. Rich.

Pachyanthus probably is monophyletic because species placed in this
group show the synapomorphies of moderate-sized to large, 6-merous
(secondarily 5-merous) flowers, + robust fruits with persistent, coriaceous,
cylindric-campanulate hypanthia (often tearing into sepal-like segments), and
inflorescences with only one to seven (rarely to ca 13) flowers and flattened
axes (Fig. 3 A,B,F). The ca 20 species (Le6n and Alain 1957) of this genus
have an indumentum of stellate hairs, although these hairs are sometimes
reduced. The wood anatomy of the genus may also be distinctive. Welle and
Koek-Noorman (1981: 374) suggest that "the combination of oblong
intervascular and vessel-ray pits, the predominantly non-septate fibers with pits
on radial and tangential walls and the 2-3-seriate rays tempt us to compare
Pachyanthus with Microlicieae and some Tibouchineae." This view is shared
by Vliet et al. (1981). However, their conclusion must be viewed with caution,
since only P. cubensis A. Rich. was sampled.
The stamens of Pachyanthus are ovoid, taper to a small apical pore,
and are usually unappendaged (Fig. 3 A), suggesting a divergence basal to the
point at which at least most species of Miconia originated. Miconia lundelliana
L.O. Williams (Fig. 3 B) possesses the synapomorphies of the group (see
Standley and Williams 1963), and should be transferred to Pachyanthus as

Judd & Skean: Taxonomic Studies in the Mioconieae

suggested by Wurdack (1988). The remaining ca 20 species of the genus (Le6n
and Alain 1957) are limited to Cuba and Hispaniola.
A species of this genus has been recorded from Colombia (Cogniaux
1891), i.e., P. corymbiferus (Naudin) Cogn. The placement of this species,
which was first considered in the monotypic genus Chalybea Naudin (Naudin
1851), is certainly incorrect. Like other species of Pachyanthus, this taxon has
robust, 6-merous flowers with coriaceous hypanthium/ calyx, slightly
flattened inflorescence axes, and a similar stellate-dendritic indumentum.
However, it is very distinctive due to its many-flowered, axillary inflorescences
and bipored anthers with a minute dorso-basal appendage. Wurdack (1988)
suggested a relationship with Huilaea, a placement that is supported strongly
by the fact that Chalybea has the apomorphic feature of axillary inflorescences
(see Judd 1989). Chalybea and Huilaea likely are united by the synapomorphy
of long-pedunculate inflorescences and 6-merous flowers. However, Chalybea
differs from Huilaea in having a larger number of flowers per inflorescence
and often fewer-loculed ovaries (see Wurdack 1988). Chalybea and Huilaea
may eventually prove to be congeneric, but these genera are best kept separate
until they have been studied more thoroughly (see comments in Wurdack
Pachyanthus, excluding Chalybea, is best maintained at the generic level.
The genus is variable in indumentum and petal shape. The external calyx lobes
may be very short to elongate. The seed coat is smooth to minutely roughened
(by bulging cells); druses are characteristic.

Tetrazygia Rich. (including Tetrazygiopsis Borhidi)

Tetrazygia (including Tetrazygiopsis) is an Antillean group of ca 25 species
(Howard 1989), one of which reaches south Florida, i.e., T. bicolor (Mill.)
Cogn. (Fig. 4 D,E). The genus is traditionally based upon a single character--
the presence in the fruits of a strongly constricted hypanthium (Fawcett and
Rendle 1926, fig. 137). The limits of this genus have been especially
troublesome. Borhidi (1977) transferred those species with
elongate/conspicuous external calyx lobes to the genus Tetrazygiopsis, and also
transferred two species of Miconia into Tetrazygia, i.e., T. urceolata (Urban)
Borhidi and T. delicatula (A. Rich.) Borhidi. (For convienence in the following
discussion, the species transferred to Tetrazygiopsis are here retained in
Tetrazygia.) Cogniaux (1891) divided the complex differently, considering the
4-merous species in section Tetrazygia and the 5-merous species in section
Miconiastrum Cogn. Tetrazygia urbaniana (Cogn.) Croizat ex Mosc. and the
closely related and likely conspecific T. tuerckheimii (Cogn.) E. Ekman ex
Urban, have occasionally been treated in Pachyanthus (Cogniaux 1912);
Borhidi (1977) placed these species in Tetrazygiopsis section Pachyanthopsis


Borhidi, differentiating them from section Tetrazygiopsis on the basis of their
coriaceous leaves, 5-merous flowers, and 5-loculate ovaries (vs.
membranaceous to chartaceous leaves, 4-merous flowers, and 3- [4-] loculate
Under the current circumscriptions, both Tetrazygia and Tetrazygiopsis are
probably not monophyletic, and they certainly are delimited only with difficulty,
because a few species of Tetrazygia/Tetrazygiopsis have only slightly constricted
hypanthia, e.g., Tetrazygia crotonifolia (Desr.) DC., T. urbaniana, and T.
tuerckheimii, while several phenetically similar species of Miconia have a slight
to moderate development of calyx/hypanthium constriction, e.g., M.
androsaemifolia Griseb., M. obtusa, and M. ancistrophora (C. Wright in
Sauvalle) Triana. In addition, several more specialized species of Miconia, i.e.,
those showing various anther specializations, also develop constricted
hypanthia, e.g., M. staminea (Desr.) DC., M. amplexans (Criiger) Cogn., M.
aureoides Cogn., M. boissieriana Cogn., M. semilata (DC.) Naudin, M.
dodecandra (Desr.) Cogn., M. mirabilis (Aublet) L. O. Williams. The above
listed species are distributed mainly in sections Jucuntda, Tamonea Cogn.,
Octomeris, and Adenodesma Naudin. Although lacking a constricted calyx,
some species of section Laceraria, e.g., M. mexicana and M. humilis, are also
phenetically similar to Tetrazygia (see below). Thus, the presence or absence
of a constricted calyx/hypanthium cannot be used consistently to delimit the
genus Tetrazygia, and no additional characters could be discovered in this
investigation that support the present generic circumscription. The genus, as
presently defined, can only be maintained through selective character
weighting--the presence of strongly constricted calyces/hypanthia are stressed
in some species, while this feature is ignored in those species possessing
Miconia-like anthers (see discussion of Miconia below)--and a placement of
intermediate species in the larger generic entity, i.e., Miconia.
The present cladistically oriented investigation, quite surprisingly, gives
some support for the maintainence of Tetrazygia, although not as presently
circumscribed. The species of Tetrazygia (as here delimited) possess distinctive
glabrous styles that are strongly curved at the apex and have a minute stigma,
and have ovoid, unappendaged (or rarely only minutely appendaged)
anthers that taper toward a small apical pore (Figs. 3 C,E; 4 D). The latter
character may indicate that these species diverged early in the evolutionary
history of the tribe, i.e., the species of Tetrazygia are likely not related to the
majority ofMiconia species, which have more specialized anthers. The former
character may be a synapomorphy linking all species of Tetrazygia and several
species of Miconia (mainly in sections Octomeris and Laceraria). All species
have blunt petals and smooth seeds--both plesiomorphic conditions. Many
species of Miconia that have this distinctive stigma/style form also often have
somewhat constricted calyces. Thus, Tetrazygia is maintained here, on a
provisional basis, awaiting a more thorough study of the complex of related

Judd & Skean: Taxonomic Studies in the Mioconieae

species of Miconia. It is likely that the genus will eventually be recognized in a
broader sense, including several species now placed in Miconia.
Basal members of Tetrazygia may include M. androsaemifolia and M.
pachyphylla Cogn. (placed by Cogniaux 1891, in section Amblyarrhena Naudin),
M. humilis and M. mexicana (placed by Cogniaux 1891, in section Laceraria),
M. zemurrayana Standley, and a distinctive group of West Indian species, such
as M. obtusa, M. ancistrophora, M. baracoensis Urban, M. cerasiflora Urban,
and M. thomasiana DC. (placed by Cogniaux 1891, in section Octomeris). The
last group is likely monophyletic--all these species show the synapomorphies of
lax cymose inflorescences borne on shoots on which the leaves have already
fallen. They also all have ovate, blunt-tipped leaves. Tetrazygia delicatula
exhibits these apomorphies, is phenetically very similar to this species-group,
and was placed with these species by Cogniaux (1891); its placement in
Tetrazygia by Borhidi (1977) surely results in a polyphyletic Tetrazygia (as
circumscribed by Borhidi). These basal members of the Tetrazygia clade show
only the apomorphies of a strongly apically curved style with a minute stigma.
Many of these species, however, show a slight tendency to have a constricted
More advanced members of the Tetrazygia group may be united by the
apomorphy of a strongly constricted hypanthium (Figs. 3 C,E; 4 C-E), which
possibly has been reversed in a few species, e.g., T. urbaniana (Fig. 4 B).
Within this group the 5-merous species with short (or absent) external calyx
lobes may be basal; these species include: T. area R. Howard and Briggs, T.
bicolor (Fig. 4 D,E), and T. pallens (Sprengel) Cogn. (Fig. 4 C). The latter two
are obviously closely related and show the synapomorphy of an indumentum of
peltate scales. Stellate hairs occur in T. area, as well as many other species of
the genus. A fairly large group of species have the additional synapomorphy of
long external calyx lobes, and this group was segregated by Borhidi (1977) as
the genus Tetrazygiopsis (Fig. 3 C-E; 4 A,B). All these species except for T.
urbaniana and T. tuerckheimii also have 4-merous flowers and this character
(although showing homoplasy) may be an additional apomorphy of this group.
Species in this complex include (among others): T. longicollis Urban and Cogn.
(Fig. 3 C-E), T. hispida (Sw.) Cogn., T. laxiflora Naudin, T. elaeagnoides (Sw.)
DC., T. albicans (D. Don ex Naudin) Triana, T. brachycentra (Griseb.) C.
Wright, T. urbanii Cogn., T. cordata Alain, and probably T. biflora (Cogn.)
Urban. A few species, i.e., T. crotonifolia, T. urbaniana, T. tuerckheimii, have a
distinctive appearance due to their reduced, lax inflorescences and distinctive
indumentum of stellate hairs with elongate, crisped arms, giving the abaxial
leaf surface a ferrugineous, cob-webby appearance. These species lack a
strong hypanthium/calyx constriction, and may be 4-merous (T. crotonifolia) or
5-merous (T. urbaniana and T. tuerckheimii). They often show the
development of only a single pair of leaves per shoot before the production of
the terminal cyme, and may be related to the above listed species since they,
too, have elongate external calyx lobes. However, it is possible to hypothesize


that these three species were derived from ancestors similar to T. delicatula, a
link based on their lax inflorescences. This hypothesis requires an independent
derivation of elongate external calyx lobes, but this feature is possibly under
simple genetic control because long external calyx lobes have evolved many
times in the tribe. A few 4-merous species have inconspicuous external calyx
lobes; this group includes: T. angustifolia (Sw.) DC., T. urceolata, and T.
discolor (L.) DC. Tetrazygia angustifolia is distinctive in having only slight
curvature of its style, but possesses the characteristic minute stigma. The
affinity of these species is poorly understood; they may be derived from the
Tetrazygiopsis group through a loss of elongate external calyx lobes. It is
noteworthy that Tetrazygia elaeagnoides may have short to elongate external
calyx lobes.
The genus Tetrazygiopsis is not recognized here because segregating these
species from Tetrazygia would make the latter paraphyletic (if the 4-merous
species of Tetrazygia, sensu strict, are derived from the 5-merous species of
Tetrazygia) or polyphyletic (if the 4-merous species of Tetrazygia, sensu strict,
are derived from Tetrazygiopsis, a 4-merous group, with a loss of elongate
external calyx lobes). Borhidi's division of Tetrazygiopsis also does not reflect
phylogenetic relationships, because T. crotonifolia (with 4-merous flowers) is
placed in section Tetrazygiopsis, while the related T. tuerckheimii and T.
urbaniana (with 5-merous flowers) are placed in section Pachyanthopsis. It
seems unwise to base named taxonomic groups within Tetrazygia on either
number of floral parts or length of external calyx lobes because both characters
are homoplasious.

Tococa Aublet

Tococa, a genus of ca 50 species (Wurdack 1980), is probably
monophyletic, and may be recognized on the basis of stout, straight anthers
with a single small pore (apical to slightly adaxially inclined) and connective
that lacks appendages except for a minute dorso-basal tooth (Fig. 1 J). Most
species have three ovary locules, but some have only two or as many as four
(rarely five). Some, probably primitive, species, e.g., T. subciliata (DC.)
Triana, and a group of species with nearly sessile leaves (T. nitens (Benth.)
Triana, T. bolivarensis Gleason, T. obovata Gleason, T. ciliata Triana), lack
formicaria, but most species have a conspicuous, pouchlike formicaria at the
petiole apex or embedded in the blade base (Fig. 1 I; Gleason 1958, fig. 90;
Wurdack 1973, fig. 15; 1980, fig. 28). In combination, these serve as distinctive
synapomorphies of the members of this genus.
Microphysca Naudin (represented by M. quadrialata Naudin), a group
characterized by winged hypanthia and/or external calyx lobes (Naudin 1851;
Cogniaux 1891), is considered to be embedded within the cladistic structure of

Judd & Skean: Taxonomic Studies in the Mioconieae

Tococa and cannot be maintained at the generic level (Macbride 1941;
Wurdack 1969), because certain species of Tococa, e.g., T. undabunda J. F.
Macbr., T. gonoptera Gleason, and T. stephanotricha Naudin, also have winged
hypanthia. The relationships of Tococa rotundifolia (Triana) Wurd., a species
previously considered in Microphysca (Cogniaux 1891; Wurdack 1969) are
problematic. It possesses slightly winged external calyx lobes but the
hypanthium is globose. This species may be related to several sessile-leaved
and non-formicarial species of Tococa as suggested by Wurdack (1969).
The species of Tococa possessing wings on their hypanthia and/or calyces
often have been recognized as a distinct group, i.e., section Pterophorae
Naudin; see Naudin (1851), Triana (1871), and Cogniaux (1891).
Clidemia contains a few species with pouchlike formicaria very similar to
those of Tococa and these two groups often have been confused. These
species may be differentiated by their anthers that lack a minute dorso-basal
tooth; they also differ from most species of Tococa in having pseudolateral
inflorescences (as is characteristic of advanced members of Clidemia). It is
likely that ant-domatia have evolved several times within the Miconieae (Judd
1989). Among axillary flowered Miconieae, such formicaria occur in Maieta
(including Clidemia sect. Calophysoides, see Judd. 1986a, 1989), Sagraea (if
"Ossaea" bullata actually belongs in this group, see Whiffin 1972), and
Henriettea (Gleason 1931). Within terminal-flowered Miconieae (including
those with pseudolateral inflorescences), similar formicaria evolved in Tococa
(most species, including Microphysca), Clidemia (few species, probably
including Mynnidone), and Conostegia (few species). Other kinds of ant-
domatia, e.g., swollen branchlet internodes (few species of Miconia) or swelling
at petiole base--branchlet intersection (several species of Sagraea and
Clidemia), also have evolved within the tribe. Repeated evolution of
formicaria is not unlikely considering the probable adaptive significance of
these structures (Neto and Asakawa 1987; Benson 1985) and the frequently
dense stem trichomes occurring on these plants (Davidson et al. 1989).
The wood anatomy of Tococa is fairly distinctive and similar to that of
Conostegia (Welle and Koek-Noorman 1981; Vliet et al. 1981).

Leandra Raddi

Leandra is a diverse, Latin American genus of some 200 species with
several described sections (see Cogniaux 1891; Wurdack 1962, fig. 6; 1980, fig.
62). It traditionally is characterized by its acute/acuminate petals, terminal
inflorescences, and often strigose indumentum (Fig. 5 B). The genus is
especially variable in seed shape and testa ornamentation (Fig. 9 A-E), and its
circumscription and delimitation from Miconia and Ossaea have been
considered problematical. Macbride (1941) claimed that "Leandra is scarsely a


natural concept," while Wurdack (1962: 206) stated that the species of Ossaea
"should probably be inserted at various places in Leandra." Macbride also
linked these genera, and remarked (1941: 332) that the inflorescence of
Leandra was "really terminal but some species suggest Ossaea." Gleason
(1932) also considered Leandra closely related to Miconia. Wurdack (1962:
171) wrote that "Leandra differs from Miconia technically only in the acute
petals" but added that "many species have a distinct facies unlike that of
Miconia." Wurdack (1962, 1973) noted that Platycentnim Klotzsch and
Pleiochiton Naudin ex A. Gray, two small generic segregates, are difficult to
distinguish from Leandra. Platycentrum was separated from Leandra only by
its conspicuously ascending dorsal appendage on the anther connective.
However, several species of Leandra have dorsally appendaged anthers. At
first Wurdack (1973) recognized Platycentnum, but stated that the inclusion of
the genus in Leandra could probably be justified. The discovery of L.
coadunata Wurd., which effectively bridged the phenetic gap between these
two genera, led him (Wurdack 1984) to transfer Platycentnim clidemioides
Naudin to Leandra. Pleiochiton, a small group of frequently epiphytic shrubs
with short-petiolate, thick leaves, was considered by Wurdack (1962) to be
"scarcely distinguishable from Leandra."
Not surprisingly, this preliminary survey of Leandra suggests that the
group, in its present circumscription, is a paraphyletic complex. The traditional
treatment of this genus is basically horizontal (see Mayr 1969) with the derived
members of several lineages, i.e., Platycentrum, Pleiochiton, Ossaea p.p. (i.e.,
Ossaea II, see Judd 1986a), arbitrarily considered as genera. However, with an
expanded circumscription, Leandra may be monophyletic. It may be separable
from Miconia (see below) and should be provisionally maintained at the
generic level. The synapomorphy of petals strongly acute to acuminate (and
forming a sharply conical configuration in bud) unites these species, although it
has been lost in a few specialized members of section Chaetodon. The sister
group relationships of Leandra are likely within the basal complex of Miconia,
or less likely, within Miconia section Miconia, e.g., see M. anisotricha Triana,
which has acuminate petals and elongate multicellular hairs. The second
hypothesis requires the loss of the anther appendages typical of Miconia (see
below) and is considered less likely. The monophyly of Leandra requires the
inclusion of a distinctive group of West Indian Ossaea species (i.e., Ossaea II,
Judd 1986a), a few species of Clidemia (C. japurensis DC. and relatives),
Pleiochiton, and Platycentnrm.
The cladistically basal members of Leandra may include species such as
L. melanodesma (Naudin) Cogn. (Gleason 1958, fig. 88), L. laxa Cogn., L.
subseriata (Naudin) Cogn., L. costaricensis Cogn., and L. grayana Cogn.
Several of these species have fairly broad, but still acute/acuminate petals.
These species have short external calyx lobes, unappendaged anthers, sparse to
moderate indumentum of elongate hairs and stellate hairs, and + smooth
seeds. A species-group likely originating from within this complex (and

Judd & Skean: Taxonomic Studies in the Mioconieae

phenetically intergrading with it) is characterized by a reduction in the density
of elongate multicellular hairs (in some species these hairs being limited to
vein-axil domatia or entirely lacking), a usual lack of stellately branched hairs,
and anthers with a slightly dorsal thickened anther connective, and usually
narrowly triangular and acute petals. Their seeds are non-papillose.
Representative species include: L. debilis (Naudin) Cogn., L. riedeliana Cogn.,
L. quinquedentata Cogn., L. conmoides (Schlecht. and Cham.) Cogn., L.
acutifolia Cogn., L. sulfurea (Naudin) Cogn., and L. cordigera (Triana) Cogn.
Most of these species have been considered members of Leandra section
Oxymeris (DC.) Cogn., although there is no sharp phenetic boundary between
these species and those of other sections (Wurdack 1962).
The remaining species of Leandra may be united by the apomorphy of a
densely strigose indumentum; this hypothesis has to be very tentative because
the character is of uncertain polarity and shows homoplasy. These densely
strigose species possibly belong to three monophyletic subgroups. The first
contains species with the presumed synapomorphy of rounded and
conspicuously papillose seeds with a small hilum scar (Fig. 9 B) and with
terminal inflorescences that usually show unilateral cymose branches (see
Weberling 1988). The species of this complex also lack stellate hairs.
Representatives of this distinctive clade, traditionally treated as Leandra
section Secundiflorae (DC.) Cogn. (see Cogniaux 1891; Wurdack 1962, 1973,
1980), include: L. grandifolia Cogn., L. granatensis Gleason, L. francavillana
Cogn., L. mexicana (Naudin) Cogn., L. secunda (D. Don) Cogn., L. longicoma
Cogn., and L. dichotoma (D. Don) Cogn.
The second clade is delimited by angular seeds with an appendage
composed of usually large, thin-walled cells (Fig. 9 C). This appendage may be
involved in secondary ant-dispersal of the seeds after passage through primary
bird dispersers (D. Levey, pers. comm.). Basal members of this group include
L. nanayensis Wurd. and L. nifescens (DC.) Cogn. (as well as other members
of the likely paraphyletic Leandra section Tschudya (DC.) Cogn.). As pointed
out by Wurdack (1984), Leandra (formerly Platycentrum) clidemoides has
appendaged seeds, and the placement of this species in Leandra seems correct.
The more advanced members of this group are united by the additional
apomorphies of pseudolateral inflorescences and roughened, + slightly
papillose seeds, and include: L. lasiopetala Cogn., L. aristigera (Naudin) Cogn.,
L. chaetodon (DC.) Cogn., Clidemia utleyana Almeda, C. altemifolia Wurd., C.
japurensis, C. naevula (Naudin) Triana, Ossaea boliviensis (Cogn.) Gleason, O.
cucullata Gleason, and 0. araneifera Markgraf. These species tend to lack
stellate hairs, and a few also show a reversal to only sparsely distributed
elongate hairs, e.g., C. altemifolia; to a smooth testa, e.g., 0. araneifera; or to
unappendaged seeds, e.g., C. utleyana and C. japurensis. The petals of
Clidemia alternifolia and C. japurensis are narrowly triangular but rounded
at the extreme apex (with either a conspicuous or inconspicuous apical
projection, respectively) and are very similar to petals of 0. araneifera, 0.


cucullata, L. chaetodon, L. aristigera, etc. The petals of C. utleyana are quite
blunt at the apex. Only in this species-group, which is well embedded within
the clade comprising Leandra, has the petal apex reversed to the + blunt,
seemingly plesiomorphic state. The group is surprisingly uniform, in spite of its
containing representatives placed in three genera. The Leandra species placed
here are typically referred to section Chaetodon (Cogniaux 1891; Wurdack
1980). The placement of the members of this clade in three genera in
traditional classifications has resulted from an over emphasis on the shape of
the petal apex and a confusion of pseudolateral and axillary inflorescences (see
The third major clade within those species with + densely strigose
indumentum may be delimited by the apomorphy of long and conspicuous
external calyx lobes (although this feature also occurs in some of the above
listed species). Their seeds are + non-papillose, although individual testa cells
may be bulging (Fig. 9 D). This group, the largest in the genus, may be
composed of a basal paraphyletic complex, along with three more specialized
clades. Some generalized species in the group include: L. echinata Cogn., L.
atropurpurea Cogn., L. cardiophyllum Cogn., L. adenothrix Cogn., L. ionopogon
(C. Martius) Cogn., L. rhodopogon (DC.) Cogn., L. australis (Cham.) Cogn.,
and L. nianga (DC.) Cogn. (species usually placed in section Niangae;
Cogniaux 1891). Many of these species have a slight dorsal anther appendage
(developed from connective tissue). The elongate multicellular hairs may be
smooth to minutely roughened (due to projections of individual cells).
Conspicuously roughened hairs (Fig. 5 C) occur in several species, e.g., L.
carassana Cogn., L. dispar (Gardn.) Cogn., and L. dasytricha (A. Gray) Cogn.,
which are traditionally placed in section Carassanae (Triana) Cogn. These
species may be cladistically related to a specialized species-group possessing
anthers with an elongated dorso-basal connective, inflorescences with
condensed axes (and thus clustered flowers) and usually at least slightly
roughened elongated multicellular hairs, i.e., section Leandraria DC., e.g., L.
crenata Cogn., L. cancellata Cogn., L. lindeniana (Naudin) Cogn., L. area
(Cham.) Cogn., L.polystachya Cogn., L. erostrata (DC.) Cogn., L.purpurascens
(DC.) Cogn., and L. lacunosa Cogn. More specialized members of section
Leandraria show the additional apomorphies of large bracts associated with
capitula and a loss of roughened surface of strigose hairs, e.g., L. hirta Raddi,
L. umbellata DC., L. bergiana Cogn., L. melastomoides Raddi, L. involucrata
DC., L. fragilis Cogn., L. parvifolia Cogn., L. amplexicaulis DC., L. salicina
(DC.) Cogn., L. scabra DC., and L. sericea DC.
A second group likely showing a sister group relationship to an element
within the basal complex of species with elongate external calyx lobes is
represented by an assemblage of West Indian species of Ossaea (Ossaea II in
Judd 1986a; Fig. 6) and Calycogonium knrgii Cogn. (C. section Kmrgiophytum;
see Cogniaux 1891; Judd 1986a; and Appendix). These species are united by
their hypanthia with stout, thick-based, elongate multicellular hairs, and petals

Judd & Skean: Taxonomic Studies in the Mioconieae

usually with a stout apical hair. This group also usually lacks stellate hairs, and
most species show a reduction in the number of flowers per inflorescence (Fig.
6). Their seeds are non-papillose (Fig. 9 E). Basal members of this West
Indian group may include: Ossaea granulata Urban, 0. muricata (Griseb.) C.
Wright in Sauvalle, 0. asperifolia (Naudin) Triana (Fig. 6 A; Fawcett and
Rendle 1926, fig. 143), 0. ottoschmidtii Urban, 0. limoides Urban, 0. lima
(Desr.) Triana (Fig. 6 E), and 0. turquinensis Urban. Floral number varies in
the group, with both four- and 5-merous species. Species-groups likely derived
from taxa within this complex include: Ossaea shaferi Britton and P. Wilson, O.
capitata Urban, and 0. krugiana Cogn., which have the additional apomorphy
of flowers clustered into heads; Calycogonium krugii, which has solitary 6-
merous flowers with blunt petals; and a group of species with one- to three-
flowered inflorescences with long peduncles, usually unappendaged anthers,
and petals lacking apical stout hairs (Fig. 6 B-D). The latter complex includes:
Ossaea pauciflora (Naudin) Urban, O. hypoglauca (C. Wright in Sauvalle) M.
G6mez, 0. involucrata (Griseb.) C. Wright in Sauvalle, 0. microphylla (Sw.)
Triana, 0. elliptica Alain, 0. pulvenlenta Urban, 0. vemicosa (Griseb.) M.
G6mez, 0. hirsuta (Sw.) Triana (Fig. 6 B-D), and probably 0. inequidens
Urban and E. Ekman. These species usually have stellate hairs and 4-merous
flowers. Several have a dense covering of stout, elongate multicellular hairs
only on the hypanthia (with such hairs lacking or only sparsely distributed on
twigs, leaves, etc.). Several of these species were placed by Cogniaux (1891) in
Calycogonium. Ossaea glomerata (Naudin) Triana and 0. lanata (Naudin) C.
Wright in Sauvalle are also stellate pubescent and may be related to the above
taxa; these species are unusual due to the development of both terminal and
axillary inflorescences.
The third clade within the complex of Leandra with elongate external
calyx lobes traditionally is segregated as Pleiochiton Naudin ex A. Gray (see
Wurdack 1962). These species are only sparsely strigose, usually epiphytic or
epilithic climbers with short-petioled, usually coriaceous leaves. The
recognition of this genus clearly makes Leandra paraphyletic, and its close
association with Leandra has been suggested by Wurdack (1962).
Leandra shows great evolutionary depth, and is polythetic, since no single
apomorphy is present in all species. Despite this diversity, the group may be
monophyletic, with the basal synapomorphy of acute or acuminate petals.
Additional studies are necessary to clarify its relationship to Miconia; however,
it seems best to maintain these species at the generic level. No suite of
apomorphies could be found to link these species with those of other genera
recognized within the tribe. However, some species of Leandra section
Chaetodon are phenetically convergent with members of Ossaea section
Octopleura in having acute petals, pseudolateral inflorescences, and
anisophyllous leaves, while other species of Leandra have an indumentum
similar to some species of Clidemia. Within the genus, sections Oxymeris,
Niangae, and Carassanae are relatively generalized and intergrading, while


sections Leandraria, Tschudya/Chaetodon, and the West Indian Ossaea group
are probably monophyletic, derived, and more clearly delimited.

Miconia Ruiz Lopez and Pav6n

As discussed above, an element within Miconia probably represents the
basal complex within the tribe. Macbride (1941) pointed this out, and stated
that if a particular species does not fit into any of the related, segregate genera
it should be placed in Miconia. This diverse genus of ca 1000 species
(Wurdack 1980), distributed throughout the neotropics, can be characterized in
general by its terminal several-flowered, cymose inflorescences, usually obtuse
or rounded petals, usually small calyx lobes not forming a stout, conical cap
and with short, inconspicuous external teeth, and nonformicarial leaves (Fig. 7;
Fawcett and Rendle 1926, fig. 136). These features are all symplesiomorphies,
and therefore the group has been the repository for phenetically primitive (and
cladistically basal) species of several clades whose derived members are
generically segregated, as has been discussed above. The genus shows great
diversity in trichome (see Wurdack 1986), anther (see Cogniaux 1891), and
seed (Figs. 9 F and 10) morphology. The sections traditionally recognized have
been characterized by differences in various characters of the stamens such as
anther shape, method of dehiscence, pore morphology, shape of the filaments,
shape and structure of the anther connective, along with shape of the
hypanthium/calyx (Fig. 5; Cogniaux 1891; Triana 1871; Gleason 1932, 1940;
Macbride 1941; Wurdack 1973, 1980). This pattern of variation has led to
instability in generic circumscription, and diverse viewpoints regarding the
naturalness of the group. Gleason (1940: 351) wrote that "the range of
structure in the stamens, the calyx, and the inflorescence strongly suggests that
the genus, as now accepted, is a heterogeneous assemblage greatly in need of
segregation," and added (Gleason 1958: 279) that the characters distinguishing
several of the segregate genera "are far weaker than those which separate
certain sections within the genus." However, Macbride (1941) remarked that it
is not at all clear that segregation would serve the purpose of showing the
probable evolution and present relationships of these species, and Wurdack
(1962, 1973, 1980) said that the sections are not well characterized, and thus,
no clear internal discontinuities exist that could serve to delimit units to be
Additional study of the numerous species of Miconia, especially those of
South America, is needed before details of phylogenetic relationships within
the group can be clarified, and sectional limits redefined. However, it seems
reasonably clear that ca. 95% of the species of the genus form a monophyletic
group, and cannot be cladistically basal members of various traditionally
recognized segregate genera. This conclusion follows from a survey of anther

Judd & Skean: Taxonomic Studies in the Mioconieae

specializations within the genus. Most species of Miconia have at least one of
the following derived conditions: expanded connective with glandular hairs,
conspicuous dorso-basal appendage with or without gland-headed hairs, a
distinctive sterile basal portion of the anther derived from basal portion of
anther sacs and connective tissue, dehiscence by a slightly to greatly enlarged
terminal pore or by elongated slits, and oblong to obovate anthers (Fig. 5).
Within the species with various anther specializations, those with large, +
curved, ovate anthers opening by a small terminal pore and having a connective
that is at least slightly enlarged (and often bearing glandular hairs) are
considered cladistically basal. These species are mainly found in sections
Jutcunda, Tamonea, Octomeris, and Adenodesma (Cogniaux 1891). More
derived species are placed in sections Miconia, Glossocentrum (Crueg.) Triana,
Chaenanthera Chaenopleura, Cremanium (D. Don) Naudin, and
Amblyarrhena Naudin.
As discussed above, anther specializations have played a large part in
traditional sectional delimitations (see Cogniaux 1891; Macbride 1941). Yet,
lines of sectional demarcation often appear arbitrary, and intermediate species
exist (Wurdack 1980; pers. observ.). For example, a group of species with
elongate hypanthia and floral buds that dehisce by a circumscissile slit may
form a monophyletic group. Representative species with these features
include: M. pubipetala Miq., M. tnmcata Triana, M. gratissima Benth., M.
holosericea (L.) DC., M.fissa Gleason, M. involucrata Donn. Sm., M. stamina
(Desr.) DC., M. tomentosa (Rich.) D. Don ex DC., M. ampla Triana, M.
amplexans (Criger) Cogn., and probably M. plukenetii Naudin. These species
were scattered across sections Jucunda, Tamonea, and Adenodesma by
Cogniaux (1891). Species with anthers dehiscing by longitudinal slits (placed
by Cogniaux 1891, either in section Chaenopleura or section Chaenanthera,
depending on anther shape) or expanded apical pores (placed in section
Cremanium) probably have evolved more than once. For example, within
section Chaenopleura, Antillean species such as M. foveolata Cogn., M. rigida
(Sw.) Triana, M. subcompressa Urban, M. ferrginea (Desr.) DC., M.
domingensis Cogn., M. quadrangularis (Sw.) Naudin, M. sintenisii Cogn., M.
stenobotrys (Rich.) Naudin, M. kntgii Cogn., and M. favosa (Desr.) Naudin are
probably not closely related to South American species such as M. chionophila
Naudin, M. bullata (Turcz.) Triana, M. latifolia (D. Don) Naudin, M.
integrifolia Cogn., M. cernua Naudin, M. campii Wurd., and M. hymenanthera
Triana, because of differences in anther and stigma form. Members of the
latter group have anthers with bilobed basal appendages and open by elongate
slit-like (rimose) to a gaping apical pore (with protruding septum). These
latter species are phenetically similar to members of section Cremanium, and
may be related to this group (see comments in Gleason 1958). These few
examples illustrate the point that sectional boundaries are often vague; their
clarification is beyond the scope of this paper. Fortunately, since these species
represent various clades within the presumed monophyletic element within


Miconia, it is not necessary to determine their exact cladistic relationships in
order to consider the delimitation of Miconia from related genera.
Icaria J. F. Macbr. is clearly correctly included by Wurdack (1972) in
Miconia (within section Chaenopleura, as delimited by Cogniaux 1891) because
the anthers of fictilis J. F. Macbr. are specialized and open by longitudinal
slits. The presence of filaments that are basally broadened is merely an
autapomorphy (at best, since such filaments also occur in other species of
Miconia); see discussion in Wurdack (1972).
Several species lack any of the derived anther features listed above and
are placed in Miconia purely for convenience. Such species have
unappendaged ovoid anthers opening by a small apical pore, and include
species such as M. nitidissima, M. reducens, M. schlimii, and the various species
probably related to Tetrazygia, e.g., M. mexicana, M. humilis, and M.
baracoensis Urban. Detailed cladistic study of the species of Miconia may lead
to the segregation of these primitive elements (either as members of currently
recognized genera, or as newly recognized genera). At this time the species
relationships within Miconia are still too poorly known to attempt such
segregation. Thus, a metaphyletic (likely paraphyletic) Miconia is maintained.
The West Indian species of Miconia section Chaenopleura form a
specialized monophyletic group, which can be defined on the basis of its
obovate, white anthers opening by two longitudinal slits, and arranged in an
actinomorphic fashion (Fig. 7 A,B; Judd and Beaman 1988). Their seeds have
a smooth testa (Fig. 10 B). Representatives of this clade include: M. krugii, M.
zanonii W. Judd, Skean, and R. Beaman, M. coniophora Urban and E. Ekman,
M. stenobotrys, M. barked Urban and E. Ekman, M. calycina Cogn., M.
septentrionalis W. Judd and R. Beaman, M. jimenezii W. Judd and R. Beaman,
M. subcompressa, M. hypiodes Urban and E. Ekman, M. ferruginea, M.
rigidissima Urban and E. Ekman, M. macayana W. Judd and Skean, M.
desportesii Urban, M. favosa, M. sintenisii, M. foveolata Cogn., M. rigida, M.
quadrangularis, M. samanensis Urban, M. luteola Cogn., M. nifa (Griseb.)
Triana, and M. selleana Urban and E. Ekman.
Several species groups usually placed elsewhere need to be transferred
into Miconia because they possess apomorphies linking them with
hypothesized clades in the monophyletic element of the genus. The species
currently placed in Charianthus are actually cladistic relatives of some species
within sections Miconia and Chaenanthera (as is discussed above). The species
of Ossaea section Octopleura (Griseb.) Cogn. and some species of Clidemia (C.
gracilis Pittier and relatives) are also related to a species-group within section
Miconia as is discussed below.
Several species of Miconia section Miconia, e.g., M. carassana Cogn. and
M. diaphanea Gleason, have fairly narrow petals with nearly acute apices
(although still rounded at the extreme tip). These species also have anthers
with a dorso-basal appendage (sometimes bearing gland-headed hairs, see M.
carassana). Miconia carassana also has conspicuously ribbed hypanthia. The

Judd & Skean: Taxonomic Studies in the Mioconieae

presence of ribbed hypanthia and dorso-basal anther appendages bearing
gland-headed hairs are also diagnostic characters of Ossaea section Octopleura,
a group of Ossaea species with terminal inflorescences, and some species of
Clidemia (C. densiflora (Standley) Gleason). These two apomorphies are
hypothesized to link these phenetically similar species-groups within Miconia
and Ossaea. Some terminal-flowered species of Clidemia also possess anthers
with a dorso-basal anther connective and fruits with conspicuous ribs, and are
tentatively included in this group. Taking M. carassana as a provisional out-
group, the relationships of these species of Ossaea and Clidemia were
investigated and are briefly outlined here.
The presence of pseudolateral inflorescences and petals with acute
apices can be taken as synapomorphies of the group. The various species of
Ossaea section Octopleura likely comprise a paraphyletic and cladistically basal
assemblage; representative species include: 0. brenesii Standley, O.
macrophylla Cogn., 0. spicata Gleason, 0. bracteata Triana, 0. boekei Wurd.,
0. sparrei Wurd., 0. quinquenervia (Mill.) Cogn., 0. laxivenula Wurd.
(Wurdack 1980, fig. 38), 0. sessilifolia (Triana) Wurd., and 0. micrantha (Sw.)
Cogn. The related species of Clidemia form a monophyletic group (nested
within Ossaea sect. Octopleura) and recognizable on the basis of a reversal to
blunt petals (although a few species have narrow petals that are rounded only
at the extreme apex, e.g., C. densiflora). Clidemia densiflora may be a
cladistically basal species within this blunt-petaled clade. More specialized
species are characterized by clearly anisophyllous leaves. Species with only this
additional apomorphy include: C. purpurea D. Don, C. radicans Cogn., C.
biolleyana Cogn., and C. reitzlana Gleason. The remaining terminal-flowered
Clidemia species (considered here) possess the additional synapomorphy of an
indumentum of only minute glandular hairs. Among members of this
presumably derived clade, C. gracilis is likely basal; the remaining species
included in this survey show the apomorphic loss of thickened
hypanthium/fruit ribs, i.e., C. ombrophila Gleason, C. semijuga (Gleason)
Wurd., and C. pittieri Gleason (Gleason 1958, fig. 83). These derived species of
Clidemia are phenetically very divergent from typical members of Ossaea
section Octopleura, however, they are connected via a whole series of
intermediate species, clearly demonstrating that they are members of the same
clade. It is recommended that these species of Ossaea and Clidemia (and
relatives) be transferred to Miconia, following more detailed revisionary studies
of this complex. The inclusion of the species of Ossaea section Octopleura
(along with related Clidemia spp.) and Charianthus within Miconia really only
slightly expands the range of variation within the genus since it already includes
species with bright red flowers and others with acute petals.



The basic taxonomic pattern visible within this diverse group may have
resulted from rapid diversification from a basal complex. Various successful
(i.e., species rich) and phenetically divergent lineages are recognizable within
the terminal-flowered members of the tribe, such as Conostegia, Tococa,
Clidemia, Leandra, and Miconia. Other recognizable lineages are quite small,
e.g., Anaectocalyx, Calycogonium, or Pachyanthus. However, the cladistically
basal members of these genera, regardless of group size, are very often difficult
to distinguish from certain species of Miconia, a genus that likely contains
species that are members of small, phenetically generalized clades, basal
members of lineages whose derived species are placed in segregate genera, as
well as species showing numerous distinctive apomorphies. As is typical in
such situations, the traditional classifications of Miconieae have resulted in a
large, more or less phenetically central, paraphyletic, and polymorphic Miconia
"surrounded" by a series of smaller, monophyletic (or polyphyletic), fairly
uniform (or extremely heterogeneous), segregate genera, which are more or
less arbitrarily delimited. The level of homoplasy within the tribe is very high,
as is easily seen in Table 1. Numerous apomorphic features have evolved in
more than one recognized clade.
Although high levels of homoplasy, and the lack of discrete morphological
gaps (a hypothesized result of gradual accumulation of apomorphies within
various clades coupled with the lack of extinction) have made generic
delimitation difficult in the Miconieae, a preliminary analysis of the pattern of
synapomorphies has clarified generic limits within the tribe. Twenty genera
are provisionally recognized, some of which have circumscriptions somewhat
altered when compared to traditional classifications. These genera include the
terminal-flowered Anaectocalyx, Calycogonium, Clidemia, Conostegia, Leandra,
Miconia, Pachyanthus, Tetrazygia, and Tococa; and the axillary-flowered
Chalybea, Henriettea, Huilaea, Killipia, Kirkbridea, Loreya, Maieta, Mecranium,
Pentossaea, and Sagraea. The placement of the isolated genus, Catocoryne, has
not been addressed. The evolutionary relationships of the axillary-flowered
genera are treated in Judd (1989).
A provisional dichotomous key to terminal-flowered Miconieae is
provided below, not only as an aid in identification, but also as a summary of
morphological features characterizing each genus (as delimited herein).
Alternatively, Table 1 can be used as a polyclave for identification of terminal-
flowered Miconieae. In addition, terminal-flowered genera whose
circumscription has been substantially altered as a result of this study are
described in the Appendix. A key to axillary-flowered genera is presented in
Judd (1989).

Judd & Skean: Taxonomic Studies in the Mioconieae


1. Plants creeping, slender-stemmed herbs with leaves 2-5 mm long and wide............... Catocoiyne.
1. Plants shrubs to trees, or rarely lianas, usually erect with leaves much larger........................ 2.
2. Internal calyx lobes fused into a stout conical cap which ruptures circumscissily at anthesis;
flowers pedicellate; external calyx lobes lacking................................................................Conostegia.
2. Internal calyx lobes free, or if fused than forming a minute, membraneous, dome-shaped cap
that ruptures irregularly; flowers sessile to pedicellate; external calyx lobes lacking or present...
....................... ................................................................................................................................................3 .
3. Anther sacs basally bifurcate; internal calyx lobes very elongate and individually caducous;
external calyx lobes lacking............................................................................................Anaectocalyv.
3. Anther sacs various, but not basally bifurcate; internal calyx lobes shorter and/or persistent, if
deciduous than falling as a unit through the development of a circumscissile slit; external calyx
lobes usually present (and minute to elongate)............................................. ............................4.
4. Leaves with pouch-like formicaria at base of blade...................................... ......................... 5.
4. Leaves lacking formicaria, or if present than with bilobed formicaria at extreme base of
p e tio le ............................................. ............. ........................................ .................................................6 .
5. Inflorescences obviously terminal, or if pseudolateral then hypanthium/calyx usually
winged; anthers with small dorso-basal tooth, stout, straight; external calyx lobes usually short
and inconspicuous, if elongate than clearly tapering from base to apex............................ Tococa.
5. Inflorescences pseudolateral and hypanthium not winged; anthers usually lacking dorso-basal
tooth, often elongate-slender, curved and tapering toward apex; external calyx lobes usually
elongate and terete. .............................................................Clidenia myrmecophilouss species).
6. Style glabrous, slender, with minute, non-expanded stigma, usually strongly curved distally;
twigs usually not conspicuously strigose; hypanthium usually constricted...................... Terrazygia.
6. Style glabrous or pubescent, slender to stout, with very slightly to greatly expanded stigma,
usually straight to slightly curved; twig indumentum variable; hypanthium constricted or not.......7.
7. Shoots usually producing only a single node bearing leaves prior to initiation of clearly
terminal inflorescence; external calyx lobes very often flattened either parallel or perpendicular
to floral radii; flowers 4-merous, pedicellate to sessile; hypanthium cylindrical, quadrangular, or
clearly 4-lobed; leaves often with conspicuous hair-tuft mite-domatia at junction of midvein with
two major secondary veins; hypanthium never densely strigose.................................. Calycogonium.
7. Shoots usually producing several nodes bearing leaves before initiation of clearly terminal
inflorescence, or if only one node bearing leaves is produced than inflorescence pseudolateral or
flowers greater than 4-merous; external calyx lobes usually terete; flowers 4- to 9-merous,
sessile; hypanthium usually cylindrical; leaves usually lacking hair-tuft domatia in axils of
midvein and two major secondary veins; hypanthium indumentum variable.....................................8.
8. Elongate multicellular hairs lacking; inflorescence usually reduced to one (or very few)
flowers, with flattened axes; flowers 5- or 6-merous; fruits cylindrical to globose, + robust (6-17
mm long), with persistent, coriaceous hypanthium/calyx; inflorescences always terminal............
.............. .................................................................. .............................................................P achyanthus.
8. Plants without the above combination of characters; elongate multicellular hairs present or
absent; inflorescence reduced or not, usually with terete axes; flowers 4- to 9-merous; fruits
globose, usually small to moderate-sized (3-12 mm long), with persistent or deciduous,
membranaceous to chartaceous hypanthium/ calyx; inflorescences terminal to pseudo-lateral....
....................... . ............................................................................................................................................9 .
9. Anthers ovate, stout, straight to slightly curved, opening by minute terminal pore, and lacking
appendages (or hairs) except for small dorso-basal tooth; external calyx lobes short; petals blunt;
leaves usually sessile; inflorescences terminal; seeds smooth..............................................
.................................................................................................... Tococa (non-m yrm ecophilous species) 3.
9. Anthers various, but not as above; external calyx lobes short to elongate; petals blunt or acute;
leaves sessile to petiolate; inflorescences terminal or pseudolateral; seeds smooth to papillose.......
.......................................................................................................................................................................10 .


10. Plants lacking the above combination of characters; petals blunt to acute/acuminate, glabrous
to pubescent or with apical hair(s); external calyx lobes short to elongate; anthers as indicated in
couplet 11; seeds smooth to papillose, occasionally appendaged; twigs conspicuously strigose to
glab ro us...................................................................................................... ............... ............................11.
11. Petals almost always acute to acuminate at apex (and corolla in a sharply conical
configuration in bud); hypanthium never conspicuously ribbed; external calyx lobes short to
elongate; plants commonly conspicuously strigose-pubescent, never densely stellate on abaxial
leaf surface; anthers usually yellow, short- to elongate-ovoid, and tapering to minute apical pore,
lacking appendages or sometimes with short to elongate dorso-basal tooth, connective variously
developed, sometimes thickened/elevated............................... ...... Leandra .
11. Petals usually blunt at apex (and corolla forming a hemispherical configuration in bud),
or if acute then anthers with a glandular-pubescent, dorso-apical tooth and conspicuously ribbed
hypanthium; hypanthium ribbed or not; external calyx lobes usually short and inconspicuous;
plants only occasionally densely strigose-pubescent, sometimes densely stellate-pubescent on
abaxial leaf surface; anthers yellow, white, purple, or pink, short- to elongate-ovate, elliptic,
oblong, or obovate, usually with connective variously developed, sometimes prolonged or
appendaged at base (often covered with glandular hairs), or with variously developed basal
appendage composed of sterile portion of anther sacs and connective tissue, opening by minute
apical pore, expanded apical pore (as wide as anther locules or much wider, often with protruding
septum), or longitudinal slits...................................................................................................M iconia.


We have not attempted to make the numerous nomenclatural
combinations implied by this study. Such action would be premature, and
should be left to future monographers who have comprehensive understanding
of species boundaries in these genera. Below we have made twenty-one
nomenclatural changes that are extremely clear and useful to us in current
projects. These involve transferring appropriate Hispaniolan, Jamaican and
Puerto Rican species to Calycogoniun, Clidemia, Leandra, or Miconia,
transferring Charianthus species to Miconia, and transferring Miconia
lhmdelliana to the genus Pachyanthus.

Calycogonium apleurum (Urban and E. Ekman) W. Judd and Skean, comb.
nov., Mommsenia apleura Urban and E. Ekman, Ark. Bot. 20A (5):
31. 1926.
Calycogonium lomensis (Urban) W. Judd and Skean, comb. nov., Ossaea
lomensis Urban, Fedde Repert. 13: 467. 1915.
Calycogonium reticulatum (Cogn.) W. Judd and Skean, comb. nov., Henriettella
reticulata Cogn. in Urban, Symb. Antill. 7: 315. 1912. Often treated as
Ossaea reticulata (Cogn.) E. Ekman ex Urban, Ark. Bot. 23A (11): 27.
Calycogonium tetragonolobum (Cogn.) W. Judd and Skean, comb. nov.,
Clidemia tetragonoloba Cogn. in Urban, Symb. Antill. 7: 315. 1912.

3 Some species of these groups/genera are distinguished from Miconia only with difficulty.

Judd & Skean: Taxonomic Studies in the Mioconieae

Clidemia angustilamina W. Judd and Skean, nom. nov., for Heterotrichum
angustifolium DC., Prodr. 3: 173. 1828.
Leandra alloeotricha (Urban) W. Judd and Skean, comb. nov., Ossaea
alloeotricha Urban, Ark. Bot. 22A (17): 64. 1929.
Leandra glomerata (Naudin) W. Judd and Skean, comb. nov., Sagraea
glomerata Naudin, Ann. Sci. Nat. S6r. 3, 18: 96. 1852. Often treated as
Ossaea glomerata (Naudin) Triana, Trans. Linn. Soc. 28: 146. 1871.
Ossaea lanceolata Urban and E. Ekman, of Hispaniola, is closely
related (and may be conspecific).
Leandra hirsuta (Sw.) W. Judd and Skean, comb. nov., Melastoma hirsuta Sw.,
Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. 72. 1788. Often treated as Ossaea hirsuta (Sw.)
Triana, Trans. Linn. Soc. Bot. 28: 146. 1871.
Leandra inaequidens (Urban and E. Ekman) W. Judd and Skean, comb. nov.,
Ossaea inaequidens Urban and E. Ekman, Ark. Bot. 22A (17): 63.
Leandra krugiana (Cogn.) W. Judd and Skean, comb. nov., Ossaea krugiana
Cogn. in A. DC., Monogr. Phan. 7: 1048. 1891.
Leandra knigii (Cogn.) W. Judd and Skean, comb. nov., Calycogonium knrgii
Cogn., Jahrb. Bot. Gart. Berlin 4: 279. 1886.
Leandra lima (Desr.) W. Judd and Skean, comb. nov., Melastoma lima Desr. in
Lam. and Poiret, Encycl. 4: 47. 1797. Often treated as Ossaea lima
(Desr.) Triana, Trans. Linn. Soc. 28: 147. 1871.
Leandra limoides (Urban) W. Judd and Skean, comb. nov., Ossaea limoides
Urban, Ark. Bot. 21A (5): 50. 1927.
Leandra pratensis (Macfad.) W. Judd and Skean, comb. nov., Ossaea pratensis
Macfad., Fl. Jam. 2: 48. 1850. Often referred to as Ossaea
microphylla (Sw.) Triana, Trans. Linn. Soc. 28: 146. 1871, based on
Melastoma microphyllum Sw., Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. 72. 1788.
Miconia coccinea (Rich.) W. Judd and Skean, comb. nov., Melastoma coccinea
Rich., Actes Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris 1: 109. 1792. Typically treated as
Charianthus alpinus (Sw.) R. Howard, J. Arnold Arbor. 53: 401. 1972,
based on Melastoma alpina Sw., Prodr. 71. 1788.
Miconia corymbosa (Rich.) W. Judd and Skean, comb. nov., Melastoma
corymbosa Rich., Actes Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris 1: 109. 1792. Previously
considered as Charianthus corymbosus (Rich.) Cogn. in A. DC.,
Monogr. Phan. 7: 714. 1891.
Miconia fadyenii (Hook.) W. Judd and Skean, comb. nov., Tetrazygia fadyenii
Hook., Hooker's J. Bot. Kew Gard. Misc. 1: 379, t. 12. 1849. Usually
treated as Charianthusfadyenii (Hook.) Griseb., Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 264.
Miconia leblondii W. Judd and Skean, nom. nov. for Melastoma nodosa Desr.
in Lam. and Poiret, Encycl. 4: 55. 1797. Usually treated as
Charianthus nodosus (Desr.) Triana, Trans. Linn. Soc. 28: 99. 1871.


Miconia purpurea (D. Don) W. Judd and Skean, comb. nov., Charianthus
purpureus D. Don, Mem. Wern. Nat. Hist. Soc. 4: 329. 1823, nom.
nov. for Melastoma coccinea M. Vahl, Eclog. Amer. 1: 48. 1797, a
later homonym of M. coccinea Rich., 1792.
Miconia neomicrantha W. Judd and Skean, nom. nov. for Melastoma micrantha
Sw., Prodr. 71. 1788. Usually treated as Ossaea micrantha (Sw.)
Macfad., Fl. Jam. 2: 49. 1850.
Pachyanthus lundellianus (L. O. Williams) W. Judd and Skean, comb. nov.,
Miconia lundelliana L. O. Williams, Fieldiana, Bot. 29: 573, t. 17.
1963. Williams (1963) noted that this is an "unusual species allied to
West Indian plants most often referred to the genus Pachyanthus."


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Generic descriptions and species examined.

ANAECTOCALI : Circumscription not altered as a result of this study; see Wurdack (1973) for

Species examined: Anaectocalyx bracteosa (Naudin) Triana

CALYCOGONIUM: Evergreen shrubs with determinate shoots; twigs terete to angled, nodose, with a
ridge encircling each node, usually producing a single leafy node (or sometimes two nodes)
before forming a terminal inflorescence; druse crystals present. Indumentum of conspicuous to
very reduced stellate hairs, sometimes intermixed with minute, multicellular, glandular hairs, or
slender, elongate-strigose, multicellular hairs with or without glandular apices, occasionally
densely covered with ferrugineous peltate scales, occurring on stems, leaves, inflorescence axes,
and hypanthia. Leaves opposite, decussate, petiolate, coriaceous to chartaceous, flat to strongly
abaxially curved; margin serrate to entire, plane to strongly revolute, the teeth (if present)
sometimes ending in an elongate multicellular hair; venation acrodromous, suprabasal, with a
prominent midvein, usually 1 or 2 pairs of secondary veins (although these occasionally
inconspicuous), and numerous percurrent tertiary veins perpendicular to midvein; often with
conspicuous mite-domatia formed by a dense tuft of elongate multicellular hairs in the axil of the
midvein and 2 larger secondary veins, the hairs sometimes connate, forming a brownish conical
structure. Inflorescences terminal (or rarely terminal and axillary) cymes, often reduced to a
capitate cluster or only 1-3 flowers. Flowers perfect, 4-merous, pedicellate to sessile.
Hypanthium cylindric, 4-angled, or markedly 4-lobed, sometimes constricted above ovary, the
indumentum various, but never densely covered with stout, elongate-strigose, multicellular hairs.
External calyx lobes 4, inconspicuous to more commonly elongate, flattened either perpendicular
or parallel to the floral radii, rarely terete; internal calyx lobes 4, distinct, not calyptrate,
broadly triangular. Petals 4, ovate to obovate, with acuminate, acute, to blunt apex, glabrous.
Stamens 8, isomorphic, glabrous, geniculate, inserted at apex of hypanthium and deflexed to
one side of flower; anthers ovate, straight to curved, dehiscing by a small apical pore, the
connective usually non-appendaged, rarely with a slight to moderate, dorso-basal thickening.
Ovary inferior, 4- or 2-locular, with axile placentation, the ovules numerous; style cylindrical,
curved to straight, glabrous; stigma capitate, papillose. Fruit a berry. Seeds small, rounded to
angular-obovate, the testa smooth.

Species examined:

Calycogonimn apiculatum Urban & E.
Calycogonium apleunmn (Urban & E.
Ekman) W. Judd & Skean
Calycogonium calycopteris (Rich.) Urban
Calycogonium domatiatum Urban & E.
Calycogonium ekmanii Urban
Calycogonhiu glabratum (Sw.) DC.
Calycogonium grisebachii Triana
Calycogonium heterophyllum Naudin
Calycogonium hispidulum Cogn.
Calycogoniumn impressum Urban & E.
Calycogonium lomensis (Urban) W. Judd &

Calycogonium reticulatmn (Cogn.) W. Judd
& Skean
Calycogonium rhamnoidetum Naudin
Calycogonium rhomboideum Urban & E.
Calycogonium rosmarinifolium Griseb.
Calycogonium tetragonolobum (Cogn.) W.
Judd & Skean
Calycogonium torbecianum Urban & E.
Calycogonium turbinatum Urban & E.
Clidemia pterosepala (Urban) Alain
Clidemia wrightii Griseb.


CLIDEMIA: Evergreen shrubs with determinate shoots; twigs terete, nodose, with a ridge
encircling each node, producing one to several leafy nodes before forming a terminal
inflorescence; druse crystals present. Indumentum of slender, elongate-strigose, multicellular
hairs with or without glandular apices (and such hairs usually densely distributed), along with
multicellular, minute glandular hairs or stellate hairs, occurring on stems, leaves, inflorescence
axes, and hypanthia. Leaves opposite, decussate, sometimes clearly anisophyllous, petiolate,
coriaceous, flat; margin entire to irregularly serrate, plane, the teeth (if present) ending in
an elongate, multicellular hair; venation acrodromous, basal to suprabasal, with a prominent
midvein, usually 1 to 4 pairs of secondary veins (although some of these occasionally
inconspicuous), and numerous percurrent tertiary veins perpendicular to midvein; sometimes
with formicaria, these pouch-like, smooth or corrugated, and positioned at base of lamina, or
bilobed and positioned at base of petiole; mite-domatia usually lacking. Inflorescences terminal
cymes, sometimes reduced and capitate, spicate, or even one-flowered, obviously terminating
branch to pseudolateral, i.e., soon deflexed to a seemingly lateral position by development of an
axillary shoot with the branch forming a sympodium (with usually only 1 leafy node per shoot);
inflorescence branches terete; bracts occasionally expanded and persistent. Flowers perfect, 4-
to 7-merous, sessile. Hypanthium cylindric, unlobed, only rarely constricted above ovary,
with multicellular, elongate-strigose hairs, and minute glandular or stellate hairs. External calyx
lobes 4 to 7, usually conspicuously elongated, terete; internal calyx lobes 4 to 7, distinct, not
calyptrate, broadly triangular to nearly obsolete. Petals 4 to 7, ovate to obovate, with blunt apex,
glabrous (or rarely with few glandular hairs along margin). Stamens 8 to 14, isomorphic,
glabrous, geniculate, inserted at apex of hypanthium and deflexed to one side of flower; anther
ovate, straight to curved, dehiscing by small apical pore, the connective non-appendaged. Ovary
superior to inferior, 3-12-locular, with axile placentation, the ovules numerous; style cylindrical,
curved, glabrous to glandular-pubescent; stigma capitate, papillose. Fruit a berry, sometimes
robust. Seeds small, rounded to angular-obovoid, the testa usually moderately to strongly
papillose, occasionally papillae only in lines along seed-angles, rarely smooth.

Species examined:

Clidemia allardii Wurd.
Clidemia angustilamina W. Judd & Skean
Clidemia biserrata DC.
Clidemia bullosa DC.
Clidemia capitata Benth.
Clidemia capitellata (Bonpl.) D. Don
Clidemia ciliata D. Don
Clidemia collina Gleason
Clidemia crenulata Gleason
Clidemia dentata D. Don
Clidemia erythropogon DC.
Clidemia fulva Gleason
Clidemia heptamera Wurd.
Clidemia hirta D. Don
Clidemia involucrata DC.
Clidemia killipii Gleason
Clidemia laevifolia Gleason
Clidemia matudae L. O. Williams
Clidemia neblinae Wurd.
Clidemia octona (Bonpl.) L. O. Williams

Clidemia petiolaris (Schecht. & Cham.)
Schlecht. ex Triana
Clidemia pilosa D. Don
Clidemia pustulata DC.
Clidemia scopulina (Brandegee) L. O.
Clidemia setosa (Triana) Gleason
Clidemia strigillosa (Sw.) DC.
Clidemia taurina Gleason
Clidemia umbellata (Mill.) L. O. Williams
(=Heterotrichum umbellatum (Mill.)
Clidemia urceolata DC.
Miconia araguensis Wurd. (=Heterotrichum
glandulosum Cogn.)
Miconia laevipilis Wurd. (=Heterotrichum
racemosum Wurd.)
Miconia macrodon (Naudin) Wurd.
(=Heterotrichum macrodon
(Naudin) Planch. ex Hook. f.)


Miconiaporphyrotricha (Markgraf) Wurd.
(=Heterotrichum porphyrotrichum
Miconia tuberculata (Naudin) Triana
(=Heterotrichum rostratum (Naudin)

Myrmidone macrosperma (C. Martius) C.
Martius; probably congeneric with
Clidemia (see text)
Tococa carolensis Gleason, closely related
to Myrmidone macrosperma (see
Tococa spadiciflora Triana

CONOSTEGIA: Circumscription not altered as a result of this study; see descriptions in Wurdack
(1973, 1980), Howard (1989).

Species examined:

Conostegia arborea (Schlecht.) Steud.
Conostegia attenuata Triana
Conostegia balbisiana Ser. ex DC.
Conostegia brenesii Standley
Conostegia chiriquensis Gleason
Conostegia formosa Macfad.
Conostegia hirtella Cogn.
Conostegia icosandra (Sw.) Urban
Conostegia lindenii Cogn.
Conostegia macrantha Berg ex Triana
Conostegia micrantha Standley

Conostegia montana (Sw.) DC.
Conostegia oerstediana Berg ex Triana
Conostegiapittieri Cogn.
Conostegia polyandra Benth.
Conostegiaprocera (Sw.) DC.
Conostegia pyxidata Proctor
Conostegia rhodopetala Donn.-Sm.
Conostegia setosa Triana
Conostegia speciosa Naudin
Conostegia subcrustulata (Berul.) Triana
Conostegia superba Naudin
Conostegia volcanalis Standley & Steyerm.
Conostegia xalapensis (Bonpl.) DC.

LEANDRA: Evergreen shrubs, sometimes epiphytic, rarely lianas, with determinate shoots; twigs
terete, nodose, with a ridge encircling each node, producing a single to several leafy nodes before
forming a terminal inflorescence; druse crystals present. Indumentum of slender to extremely
thick, smooth to minutely roughened, often thick-based, elongate-strigose, multicellular hairs
with or without glandular apices, these hairs often densely distributed, occasionally limited to
vein-axil mite-domatia or entirely lacking, along with multicellular, stellate or minute glandular
hairs, occurring on stems, leaves, inflorescence axes, and hypanthia. Leaves opposite to alternate
(due to loss of one leaf of the nodal pair), sometimes strongly anisophyllous, decussate, petiolate
to nearly sessile, coriaceous to chartaceous, flat; margin entire to irregularly serrate, plane to
revolute, the teeth (if present) ending in an elongate multicellular hair; venation acrodromous,
basal to suprabasal, with a prominent nidvein, usually 1 to 3 pairs of secondary veins (although
some of these occasionally inconspicuous), and numerous percurrent tertiary veins
perpendicular to midvein; rarely with mite-domatia formed by dense tuft of elongate multicellular
hairs in vein axils. Inflorescence terminal (or very rarely terminal and axillary) cymes, sometimes
capitate, spicate, or even reduced to a single flower, obviously terminating branch to
pseudolateral, i.e., soon deflexed to a seemingly lateral position by development of an axillary
shoot, with the branch forming a sympodium (with usually one leafy node produced per shoot);
inflorescence axes terete, rarely flattened; inflorescence bracts sometimes expanded, persistent to
deciduous. Flowers perfect, 4-6-merous, sessile. Hypanthium cylindric, neither strongly
lobed nor constricted above ovary, the indumentum various, but often densely strigose. External
calyx lobes 4 to 6, short to more commonly elongate, terete, rarely flattened; internal calyx
lobes 4 to 6, distinct, not calyptrate, broadly triangular. Petals 4 to 6, narrowly triangular to ovate
(less commonly to obovate), with acuminate to acute (or rarely blunt) apex, glabrous or with a
single or dorsal cluster of elongate-strigose, multicellular hairs at to near apex. Stamens 8 to 12,
isomorphic, glabrous or rarely glandular pubescent (on filament), geniculate, inserted at apex
of hypanthium and deflexed to one side of flower; anthers ovate, straight to curved, dehiscing by
small apical pore, the connective not to clearly thickened, non-appendaged or with a short to
elongate dorso-basal appendage. Ovary nearly superior to inferior, 2-6-locular, with axile
placentation, the ovules numerous; style cylindrical, straight to gradually curved, rarely strongly
curved distally, usually glabrous (to glandular-pubescent); stigma capitate, papillose. Fruit a
berry. Seeds small, rounded to angular-obovoid, the testa smooth to conspicuously papillate,


sometimes appendaged (due to development of projection composed of large, thin-walled cells at
seed's wider end).

Species examined:

Clidemia altemifolia Wurd.
Clidemia japurensis DC.
Clidemia naevula (Naudin) Triana
Clidemia utleyana Almeda
Leandra acutifolia (Naudin) Cogn.
Leandra adenothrix Cogn.
Leandra alleotricha (Urban) W. Judd &
Leandra amplexicaulis DC.
Leandra aristigera (Naudin) Cogn.
Leandra atropurpurea Cogn.
Leandra aurea (Cham.) Cogn.
Leandra australis (Cham.) Cogn.
Leandra bergiana Cogn.
Leandra cancellata Cogn.
Leandra carassana Cogn.
Leandra cardiophylla Cogn.
Leandra chaetodon (DC.) Cogn.
Leandra clidemioides (Naudin) Wurd.
Leandra cordigera (Triana) Cogn.
Leandra cornoides (Schlecht. & Cham.)
Leandra costaricensis Cogn.
Leandra crenata Cogn.
Leandra dasytricha (A. Gray) Cogn.
Leandra debilis (Naudin) Cogn.
Leandra dichotoma (D. Don) Cogn.
Leandra dispar (Gardn.) Cogn.
Leandra echinata Cogn.
Leandra eggersiana Cogn. (=Ossaea
asperifolia (Naudin) Triana)
Leandra erostrata (DC.) Cogn.
Leandra fragilis Cogn.
Leandra franca\illana Cogn.
Leandra glomerata (Naudin) W. Judd &
Leandra grandifolia Cogn.
Leandra grayana Cogn.
Leandra hirsuta (Sw.) W. Judd & Skean
Leandra hirta Raddi
Leandra inaequidens (Urban & E. Ekman)
W. Judd & Skean
Leandra invohlcrata DC.
Leandra ionopogon (C. Martius) Cogn.
Leandra krugiana (Cogn.) W. Judd &
Leandra krugii (Cogn.) W. Judd & Skean
Leandra lacunosa Cogn.
Leandra laevigata (Triana) Cogn.
Leandra lasiopetala Cogn.
Leandra laxa Cogn.
Leandra lima (Desr.) W. Judd & Skean
Leandra limoides (Urban) W. Judd &

Leandra lindeniana (Naudin) Cogn.
Leandra longicoma Cogn.
Leandra melanodesma (Naudin) Cogn.
Leandra melastomoides Raddi
Leandra mexicana (Naudin) Cogn.
Leandra multiplinervis (Naudin) Cogn.
Leandra nanayensis Wurd.
Leandra nervosa (Naudin) Cogn.
Leandra nianga (DC.) Cogn.
Leandra parvifolia Cogn.
Leandra polystachya Cogn.
Leandra pratensis (Macfad.) W. Judd &
Skean (=Ossaea microphylla (Sw.)
Leandrapulvendenta (DC.) Cogn.
Leandra purpurascens (DC.) Cogn.
Leandra quinquedentata Cogn.
Leandra rhodopogon (DC.) Cogn.
Leandra riedeliana Cogn.
Leandra rufescens (DC.) Cogn.
Leandra salicina (DC.) Cogn.
Leandra scabra DC.
Leandra secunda (D. Don) Cogn.
Leandra sericea DC.
Leandra subseriata (Naudin) Cogn.
Leandra subulata Gleason
Leandra sulfurea (Naudin) Cogn.
Leandra umbellata DC.
Leandra violascens Pilger (= Ossaea
boliviensis (Cogn.) Gleason)
Ossaea araneifera Markgraf
Ossaea capitata Urban
Ossaea cucullata Gleason
Ossaea elliptica Alain
Ossaea granulata Urban
Ossaea hypoglauca (C. Wright ex Griseb.)
Ossaea involucrata (Griseb.) C. Wright in
Ossaea lanata (Naudin) C. Wright in
Ossaea muricata (Griseb.) C. Wright in
Ossaea ottoschmidtii Urban
Ossaeapauciflora (Naudin) Urban
Ossaea pulverulenta Urban
Ossaea shaferi Britton & P. Wilson
Ossaea turquinensis Urban
Ossaea verrucosa (Griseb.) Maza
Pleiochiton ebracteatum Triana; the genus
Pleiochiton is likely congeneric with


MICONIA: Evergreen shrubs to small trees with determinate shoots; twigs terete to angled,
nodose, usually with a ridge to conspicuous flange encircling each node, producing a single to
several leafy nodes before forming a terminal inflorescence; druse crystals present. Indumentum
extremely diverse, of multicellular, dendritic hairs, stellate hairs, peltate scales, slender, elongate-
strigose hairs with or without glandular apices, and/or minute globular hairs, on stems, leaves,
inflorescence axes, and hypanthia (see Wurdack, 1986); such hairs densely to sparsely distributed.
Leaves opposite, rarely whorled, sometimes clearly anisophyllous, decussate, petiolate to sessile,
coriaceous to membranaceous, flat to strongly abaxially curved; margin entire to strongly and
irregularly serrate, plane to revolute, the teeth (if present) sometimes ending in an elongate
multicellular hair; venation acrodromous, basal to suprabasal, with a prominent midvein, usually
1 to 3 pairs of secondary veins (although some of these often inconspicuous), and numerous
percurrent tertiary veins perpendicular to midvein; rarely with hair-tuft or pouch-like mite-
domatia in vein axils. Inflorescences terminal cymes, very diverse in form, sometimes capitate,
spicate, or reduced to few flowers, obviously terminating branch to pseudolateral, i.e., soon
deflexed to a seemingly lateral position by development of an axillary shoot, with the branch
forming a sympodium (with usually 1 leafy node per shoot); inflorescence axes terete to rarely
flattened; inflorescence bracts sometimes expanded. Flowers perfect or imperfect (and plants
then dioecious), 4 or 5- (to 9)-merous, + sessile (to rarely shortly pedicellate). Hypanthium
cylindric to cylindric-campanulate, rarely strongly lobed, occasionally constricted above ovary,
sometimes with thickened longitudinal ribs, rarely winged, occasionally caducous by means of a
circumcissile slit, the indumentum various. External calyx lobes 4 or 5 (to 9), usually short and
inconspicuous, terete to flattened; internal calyx lobes 4 or 5 (to 9), distinct, and broadly
triangular to oblong, sometimes very reduced, or connate into a dome-shaped, irregularly
rupturing, membranaceous cap. Petals 4 or 5 (to 9), obovate to ovate or narrowly triangular, with
blunt to acuminate or acute apex, sometimes connivent, usually glabrous, but occasionally
pubescent stellatee or glandular) or with a dorso-apical elongate-strigose hair. Stamens 4 to 10
(to rarely numerous), anisomorphic to isomorphic, glabrous to glandular-pubescent (on filament
and/or anther-connective), geniculate, inserted on apex of hypanthium and radiating around
flower actinomorphicc) or deflexed to one side (zygomorphic); anther ovate to obovate, straight
to strongly curved, dehiscing by a minute apical pore, expanded apical pore (as wide as anther
locules or much wider, often with protruding septum), or longitudinal slits, the connective
variously developed, non-appendaged to sometimes prolonged or appendaged at base, or with
variously developed basal appendage composed of sterile portion of anther sacs and connective
tissue. Ovary nearly superior to inferior, 2-7-loculate, with axile placentation, the ovules few to
numerous; style cylindrical, straight to curved, glabrous to variously pubescent; stigma capitate,
sometimes greatly enlarged, papillose. Fruit a berry, occasionally robust. Seeds small to large,
rounded to angular-obovoid, the testa smooth to conspicuously papillate, rarely appendaged.

Species examined:

Clidemia biolleyana Cogn.
Clidemia densiflora (Standley) Gleason
Clidemia gracilis Pittier
Clidemia ombrophila Gleason
Clidemia pittieri Gleason
Clidemia purpurea D. Don
Clidemia radicans Cogn.
Clidemia reitzlana Gleason
Miconia abbreviata Markgraf
Miconia acuminifera Triana
Miconia acutifolia Ule
Miconia adenocalyx Urban & E. Ekman
Miconia aeruginosa Naudin
Miconia affinis DC.
Miconia alata (Aubl.) DC.
Miconia albicans (Sw.) Triana
Miconia albiviridis Urban & E. Ekman
Miconia alborufescens Naudin
Miconia alpina Cogn.

Miconia alternifolia (Griseb.) Alain
Miconia alypifolia Naudin
Miconia amazonica Triana
Miconia ampla Triana
Miconia amplexans (Criiger) Cogn.
Miconia andersonii Fawcett & Rendle
Miconia anisotricha (Schlecht.) Triana
Miconia apiculata Urban & E. Ekman
Miconia aplostachya (Bonpl.) DC.
Miconia argentea (Sw.) DC.
Miconia argyrophylla DC.
Miconia asclepiadea Triana
Miconia aspergillaris (Bonpl.) Naudin
Miconia attenuata DC.
Miconia aurea (D. Don) Naudin
Miconia aureoides Cogn.
Miconia bailloniana J. F. Macbr.
Miconia barbinervis (Benth.) Triana
Miconia barkeri Urban & E. Ekman


Miconia basilensis Urban & E. Ekman
Miconia bipendlifera Cogn.
Miconia borealis Gleason
Miconia brachycalyx Triana
Miconia bracteolata (Bonpl.) DC.
Miconia brenesii Standley
Miconia brevipes Benth.
Miconia bullata (Turcz.) Triana
Miconia burchellii Triana
Miconia buxifolia Naudin
Miconia cabucu Hoehne
Miconia caelata (Bonpl.) DC.
Miconia caesia Cogn. & Gleason
Miconia calvescens DC.
Miconia calycina Cogn.
Miconia campanensis Urban & E. Ekman
Miconia candolleana Triana
Miconia cannabina Markgraf
Miconia capitellata Cogn.
Miconia carassana Cogn.
Miconia caudata (Bonpl.) DC.
Miconia centrodesma Naudin
Miconia ceramicarpa (DC.) Cogn.
Miconia chamissois Naudin
Miconia chionophila Naudin
Miconia chlorocarpa Cogn.
Miconia chtysocoma Gleason
Miconia chrysophylla (Rich.) Urban
Miconia ciliata (Rich.) DC.
Miconia cinerascens Miq.
Miconia coccinea (Rich.) W. Judd & Skean
Miconia concinna Almeda
Miconia condylata Wurd.
Miconia coniphora Urban & E. Ekman
Miconia corallina Spring
Miconia cordata Triana
Miconia coriacea (Sw.) DC.
Miconia cornifolia (Desr.) Naudin
Miconia coronata (Bonpl.) Cogn.
Miconia corymbosa (Rich.) W. Judd &
Miconia costaricensis Cogn.
Miconia crassifolia Triana
Miconia crocea (Desr.) Naudin
Miconia cubatanensis Hoehne
Miconia cubensis (C. Wright ex Griseb.) C.
Wright in Sauvalle
Miconia cuneata Triana ex Cogn.
Miconia curvipetiolata Gleason
Miconia cyanocarpa Naudin
Miconia desmantha Benth.
Miconia desportesii Urban
Miconia diaphanea Gleason
Miconia dielsiana Urban
Miconia dipsacea Naudin
Miconia dispar Benth.
Miconia dodecandra (Desr.) Cogn.
Miconia domingensis Cogn.
Miconia egensis Cogn.

Miconia eichleri Cogn.
Miconia elaeoides Naudin
Miconia elata (Sw.) DC.
Miconia elegans Cogn.
Miconia erioclada Triana
Miconia eugenioides Triana
Miconia expansa Gleason
Miconia fadyenii (Hook.) W. Judd & Skean
Miconia fallax DC.
Miconia fasciculata Gardner
Miconia favosa (Desr.) Naudin
Miconiaferruginata DC.
Miconia ferruginea (Desr.) DC.
Miconia fissa Gleason
Miconia floribunda (Bonpl.) DC.
Miconia foveolata Cogn.
Miconia fragrans Cogn.
Miconia fuertesii Cogn.
Miconia furfuracea (M. Vahl) Griseb.
Miconia glaberima Naudin
Miconia globulifera Cham.
Miconia gracilis Triana
Miconia gratissima Benth. ex Triana
Miconia guatemalensis Cogn.
Miconia heliotropoides Triana
Miconia hexamera Wurd.
Miconia hirtella Cogn.
Miconia hispida Cogn.
Miconia holosericea (L.) DC.
Miconia hookeriana Triana
Miconia hutchisonii Wurd.
Miconia hyemalis St. Hilaire & Naudin
Miconia hymenanthera Triana
Miconia hypiodes Urban & E. Ekman
Miconia ibaguensis (Bonpl.) Triana
Miconia impetiolaris (Sw.) D. Don
Miconia inaequidens Naudin
Miconia involucrata Donn.-Sm.
Miconia ioneura Griseb.
Miconiajimenezii W. Judd & R. Beaman
Miconia jucunda Triana
Miconia krugii Cogn.
Miconia lacera (Bonpl.) Naudin
Miconia laevigata (L.) DC.
Miconia lanata (DC.) Triana
Miconia lanceolata (Desr.) DC.
Miconia langsdorffii Cogn.
Miconia lateriflora Cogn.
Miconia latifolia (D. Don) Naudin
Miconia leblondii W. Judd & Skean
Miconia ledifolia (DC.) Naudin
Miconia lepidota DC.
Miconia leptantha Urban & E. Ekman
Miconia ligulata Almeda (=Leandra
consimilis Gleason)
Miconia ligustrina (Sw.) Triana
Miconia ligustroides (DC.) Naudin
Miconia longifolia (Aublet) DC.
Miconia longispicata Triana


Miconia loreyoides Triana
Miconia luteola Cogn.
Miconia hltescens (Bonpl.) DC.
Miconia macayana W. Judd & Skean
Miconia macrophylla Triana
Miconia macrothyrsa Benth.
Miconia majalis Cogn.
Miconia mandonii Cogn. ex Britton
Miconia mansfeldiana Urban & E. Ekman
Miconia marginata Triana
Miconia matthaei Naudin
Miconia media (D. Don) Naudin
Miconia megalantha Gleason
Miconia melanotricha (Triana) Gleason
Miconia membranacea Triana
Miconia meridensis Triana
Miconia micrantha Cogn.
Miconia microcarpa DC.
Miconia micropetala Cogn.
Miconia minutiflora (Bonpl.) DC.
Miconia mirabilis (Aublet) L. O. Williams
Miconia monciona Urban & E. Ekman
Miconia monocephala Urban
Miconia multiflora Cogn.
Miconia multiglandulosa Cogn.
Miconia multiplinervia Cogn.
Miconia multispicata Naudin
Miconia muricata (D. Don) Triana
Miconia myriantha Benth.
Miconia neomicrantha W. Judd & Skean
Miconia neriifolia Triana
Miconia nervosa (Sw.) Triana
Miconia nigricans Cogn.
Miconia nitidissima Cogn.
Miconia nodosa Cogn.
Miconia notabilis Triana
Miconia nystroemii E. Ekman ex Urban
Miconia oinchrophylla Donn.-Sm.
Miconia oligocephala Donn.-Sm.
Miconia orcheotoma Naudin
Miconia ossaeifolia Urban & E. Ekman
Miconia paleacea Cogn.
Miconia pallida Gleason
Miconia papillosa (Desr.) Naudin
Miconia paradoxa (Martius ex DC.) Triana
Miconia pedicellata Cogn.
Miconiapepericarpa DC.
Miconia phaeophylla Triana
Miconiapileata DC.
Miconiapilgeriana Ule
Miconia pinetorum Naudin
Miconia pittieri Cogn.
Miconia plukenetii Naudin
Miconia polygama Cogn.
Miconiaprasina (Sw.) DC.
Miconia pseudocentrophora Cogn.
Miconia pseudonervosa Cogn.
Miconia pseudorigida Proctor
Miconia pteropoda Benth.

Miconia puberula Cogn.
Miconiapubipetala Miq.
Miconia pujana Markgraf
Miconia pulvinata Gleason
Miconia punctata (Desr.) D. Don
Miconia purpureus (D. Don) W. Judd &
Miconia pustulata Naudin
Miconia pycnoneura Urban
Miconiapyramidalis DC.
Miconiapyrifolia Naudin
Miconia quadrangularis (Sw.) Naudin
Miconia racemifera Triana
Miconia racemosa (Aublet) DC.
Miconia radulaefolia (Benth.) Naudin
Miconia ravenii Wurd.
Miconia reclinata (Bonpl.) Naudin
Miconia reducens Triana
Miconia rhodantha Wurd.
Miconia rigida (Sw.) Triana
Miconia rigidissima Urban & E. Ekman
Miconia rigidiuscula Cogn.
Miconia nrbens (Sw.) Naudin
Miconia nibiginosa (Bonpl.) DC.
Miconia ntfescens (Aublet) DC.
Miconia nificalyx Gleason
Miconia rupestris Ule
Miconia salicifolia Bonpl. ex Naudin
Miconia samamensis Urban & E. Ekman
Miconia sanguinea (D. Don) Triana
Miconia schlechtendalii Cogn.
Miconia schlimii Triana
Miconia sciurea Uribe
Miconia selleana Urban & E. Ekman
Miconia septentrionalis W. Judd & R.
Miconia semrlata (DC.) Naudin
Miconia sessilifolia Naudin
Miconia simplex Triana
Miconia sintenisii Cogn.
Miconia smaragdina Naudin
Miconia sphagnicola Urban & E. Ekman
Miconia splendens (Sw.) Griseb.
Miconia squamulosa (Sw.) Triana
Miconia staminea (Desr.) DC.
Miconia stelligera Cogn.
Miconia stenobotys (Rich.) Naudin
Miconia stenostachya DC.
Miconia stevensiana Almeda
Miconia striata (M. Vahl) Cogn.
Miconia subcompressa Urban
Miconia ternatifolia Triana
Miconia tetrandra (Sw.) D. Don ex G. Don
Miconia tetrasperma Gleason
Miconia tetrastoma Naudin
Miconia tetrazygioides Urban & E. Ekman
Miconia theaezans (Bonpl.) Cogn.
Miconia thyrsoidea (M. Vahl) R. Howard
Miconia tiliaefolia Naudin


Miconia tinifolia Naudin
Miconia tin Triana
Miconia tomentosa (Rich.) D. Don
Miconia tonduzii Cogn.
Miconia trianaei Cogn.
Miconia trinervia (Sw.) D. Don ex G. Don
Miconia triplinervis Ruiz & Pav6n
Miconia truncata Triana
Miconia urophylla DC.
Miconia uvifera Naudin
Miconia valeriana (Standley) Wurd.
Miconia versicolor Naudin
Miconia virgulata Gleason
Miconia viscidula Urban & Cogn.
Miconia wilsonii Cogn.
Miconia wittii Ule

Miconia xenotricha Urban & E. Ekman
Miconia zanonii W. Judd, Skean, & R.
Ossaea boekei Wurd.
Ossaea bracteata Triana
Ossaea brenesii Standley
Ossaea laxivenula Wurd.
Ossaea macrophylla (Benth.) Cogn.
Ossaea quinquenervia (Mill.) Cogn.
Ossaea robusta (Triana) Cogn.
Ossaea rufibarbis Triana
Ossaea semijuca Gleason (=Clidemia
semijuca (Gleason) Wurd.)
Ossaea sessilifolia (Triana) Wurd.
Ossaea sparrei Wurd.
Ossaea spicata Gleason

PACHYANTHUS: Evergreen shrubs with determinate shoots; twigs terete to angled, nodose, with
ridge encircling each note, producing one to several leafy nodes before forming a terminal
inflorescence; druse crystals present. Indumentum of conspicuous to very reduced stellate hairs,
on stems, leaves, inflorescence axes, and hypanthia. Leaves opposite, decussate, petiolate,
coriaceous, flat; margin entire, plane to revolute; venation acrodromous, suprabasal, with a
prominent midvein, usually 1 to 3 pairs of secondary veins (although some of these occasionally
inconspicuous), and numerous percurrent tertiary veins perpendicular to midvein; mite-
domatia lacking or rarely present in axils of midvein and 2 major secondary veins, formed by a
tuft of elongate-branched (modified stellate) hairs. Inflorescences terminal cymes, reduced and
bearing only 1 to 7 (rarely ca. 13) flowers; axes flattened. Flowers perfect, 5- or 6-merous,
sessile. Hypanthium persistent, coriaceous, cylindrical-campanulate (and often tearing into
triangular, sepal-like segments), unlobed, not constricted above ovary, with stellate hairs.
External calyx lobes 5 or 6, very short to elongate, terete, rarely flattened; internal calyx lobes
5 or 6, distinct, not calyptrate, broadly triangular. Petals 5 or 6, ovate to obovate, with acute,
acuminate, or blunt apex, usually abruptly narrowed at base, glabrous. Stamens 10 or 12, +
isomorphic, glabrous, geniculate, inserted at apex of hypanthium and deflexed to one side of
flower; anthers ovate, straight to curved, dehiscing by a small apical pore, the connective
thickened but non-appendaged. Ovary inferior, 3- to 5-locular, with axile placentation, the
ovules numerous; style cylindrical, curved, glabrous; stigma capitate, papillose. Fruit a robust
berry. Seeds small, angular-obovoid, the test + smooth to minutely roughened by bulging cells.

Species examined:

Pachyanthus angustifolius Griseb.
Pachyanthus cubensis A. Rich. (incl. subsp.
blancheanus (Urban) Borhidi)
Pachyanthus discolor J. Norlind
Pachyanthus longifolius Jennings
Pachyanthus lundellianus (L. O. Williams)
W. Judd & Skean

Pachyanthus mayarensis Urban
Pachyantdus oleifolius Griseb.
Pachyanthuspoiretii Griseb.
Pachyanthus reticulatus Britton & P.
Pachyanthus tetramerus Urban & E. Ekman
Pachyanthus wrightii Griseb.

TETRAZYGLA: Traditional generic circumscription is retained pending more detailed investigation
of the complex of related species within Miconia (see text); see descriptions in Howard (1989)
and Fawcett & Rendle (1926).


Species examined:

Tetrazygia albicans (D. Don ex Naudin)
Tetrazygia angustifolia (Sw.) DC.
Tetrazygia aurea R. Howard
Tetrazygia bicolor (Mill.) Cogn.
Tetrazygia biflora (Cogn.) Urban
Tetrazygia brachycentra (Griseb.) C. Wright
Tetrazygia cordata Alain
Tetrazygia crotonifolia (Desr.) DC.
Tetrazygia delicatula (A. Rich.) Borhidi
Tetrazygia discolor (L.) DC.
Tetrazygia eleagnoides (Sw.) DC.

Tetrazygia hispida (Sw.) Cogn.
Tetrazygia impressa Urban
Tetrazygia laxiflora Naudin
Tetrazygia longicollis Urban & Cogn.
Tetrazygia pallens (Spreng.) Cogn.
Tetrazygia tuerckheimii (Cogn.) E. Ekman
ex Urban (likely conspecific with T.
Tetrazygia urbaniana (Cogn.) Croizat ex
Tetrazygia urbanii Cogn.
Tetrazygia urceolata (Urban) Borhidi

The following species of Miconia may be basal members of Tetrazygia; the systematics of this
group needs to be studied in more detail (see text):

Miconia ancistrophora (C. Wright) Triana
Miconia androsaemifolia Griseb.
Miconia baracoensis Urban
Miconia cerasiflora Urban
Miconia humilis Cogn.
Miconia mexicana (Humb. & Bonpl.)

TococA: Circumscription of genus not
description in Wurdack (1980).

Species examined:

Tococa acuminata Benth.
Tococa aristata Benth.
Tococa bolivarensis Gleason
Tococa capitata Trail
Tococa caquetana Sprague
Tococa caudata Markgraf
Tococa ciliata Triana
Tococa coronata Benth.
Tococa discolor Pilger
Tococa formicaria Martius
Tococa gonoptera Gleason
Tococa guianensis Aublet
Tococa hirta Berg. ex Triana
Tococa lancifolia Spruce ex Triana

Miconia obtusa (Griseb.) Triana
(=Calycogonium obliquum (Griseb.)
Miconia pachyphylla Cogn.
Miconia thomasiana DC.
Miconia zemurrayana Standley & L. O.

substantially altered as a result of this study; see

Tococa lasiostyla Cogn.
Tococa longisepala Cogn.
Tococa macrophysca Spruce ex Triana
Tococa mitens (Benth.) Triana
Tococa obovata Gleason
Tococa occidentalis Naudin
Tococa pachystachya Wurd.
Tococa quadrialata (Naudin) J. F. Macbr.
Tococa rotundifolia (Triana) Wurd.
Tococa stephanotricha Naudin
Tococa subciliata (DC.) Triana
Tococa ulei Pilger
Tococa undabunda J. F. Macbr.


i' Y
D 4mm



Figure 1. Calycogonium, Conostegia, and Tococa. A, Calycogonium lindenianum; mite-domatia
formed from connate hairs. B, C. rhomboideum; hair-tuft mite-domatia. C, C. hispidulum;
twig showing distinctive architectural pattern (see discussion in text) and reduced inflorescences.
G, H, C. calycopteris; note flattened external calyx lobes and 4-lobed hypanthium. D-F,
Conostegia pyxidata Proctor; note lack of external calyx lobes and inner calyx lobes fused into a
stout, conical, circumscissilly dehiscing cap. I, Tococa coronata Benth.; ant-domatia at base of
lamina. J, T. aristata Benth.; anther with minute dorso-basal tooth.


Figure 2. Clidemia. A,B, C. hirta; note sympodial growth with pseudolateral inflorescences and
5-merous flowers. C, D, "Heterotrichum" umbellatum; note large berry with elongate external
calyx lobes, 6-merous flower with blunt petals, and characteristic indumentum. E, F, "H."
angustifolium; note obviously terminal inflorescence.






Figure 3. Pachyanthus and Tetrazygia. A, Pachyanthus discolor Naudin; note 6-merous flowers
with non-appendaged stamens, reduced cyme. B, Pachyanthus lundellianus; large berry with
coriaceous (and longitudinally splitting) hypanthium/calyx. F, P. poiretii Griseb.; flower bud. C-
E, Tetrazygia longicollis; note constricted hypanthium and elongate external calyx lobes (C),
anther (D), young fruit with apically curved style with minute stigma (E).




Figure 4. Tetrazygia. A, T. tuerckheimii; note terminal inflorescence. B, T. urbaniana; note 5-
merous flowers and berries with + non-constricted hypanthia. C, T. pallens; note constricted
hypanthium. D, E, T. bicolor; note stylar characters, zygomorphic androecium, and terminal




F 9



)K L M

Figure 5. Leandra and Miconia. B, C, Leandra area; note anther characters and acute petals
(B) and roughened, elongate, multicellular hair (C). A, D-M, Miconia anthers: A, M. dodecandra
Cogn.; D, M rigidiscula Cogn.; E, M. urophylla DC.; F, M. subcompressa; G, M. chlorocarpa Cogn.;
H, I, M. media (D. Don) Naudin; J, K, M. laevigata (L.) DC.; L, "Ossaea" bracteata Triana (a
member of 0. sect. Octopleura, actually a Miconia, see discussion in text); M, M. ciliata (Rich.)


Figure 6. Leandra. A, "Ossaea" asperifolia; note terminal inflorescence with numerous 5-merous
flowers, acute petals. B-D, "O." hirsuta; branch with reduced terminal inflorescence (B), 4-
merous flower with acuminate petals (C), young fruit with elongated external calyx lobes (D). E,
"O." lima; note reduced inflorescence, indumentum of thick-based hairs.


Figure 7. Miconia. A, B, M. favosa; note distinctive androecium (sect. Chaenopleura; see
discussion in text). C, M. rubens (Sw.) Naudin (sect. Cremanium). D, M. laevigata (L.) D. Don
(sect. Miconia). E, M. dodecandra (Desr.) Cogn. (sect. Tamonea). F, M. tetrastoma Naudin (sect.
Cremanium). G, M.prasina (Sw.) DC. (sect. Miconia).


a b


c d

e f

Figure 8. Seeds of ternninal-flowered Miconieae: A, Calycogoniim rhamnoideum (Proctor 21389);
B, Miconia macrodon (Steyermark 54960), a species of Clidemia; C, Clidemia umbellata (Rehder
s.n.); D, Clidemia hirta (Judd 5145); E, Conostegia montana (Hodge 3441); F, Tetrazygia
crotonifolia (Judd 2980). See discussion in text.


a b

c d

e f

Figure 9. Seeds of terminal-flowered Miconieae: A, Leandra coroides (Hansen and Nee 7600);
B, Leandra secunda (Zamcchi 1908); C, Leandra chaetodon (Schunke 5184); D, Leandra aurea
(Irwin et al. 25787); E, Leandra lima (Skean 1804); F, Miconia schlimii (Smith 13). See discussion
in text.



a b

Figure 10. Seeds of terminal-flowered Miconieae: A, Miconia amazonica (Ancuash 326); B,
Miconia knrgii (Judd 5121). See discussion in text.

Table 1. Character state values for genera of terminal-flowered Miconieae (as delimited herein); 0=plesiomorphic state, 1 =apomorphic state,
()= occasional to rare condition.

taxa/characters 1* 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Anaectocalyx 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Calycogonium 0 0 0(1) 1(0) 0,1 1 0 0(1) 0 0(1) 0 0 0 0 0,1 0(1) 0(1)
Clidemia 0 0 0 0,1 0 0,1 1(0) 0 0 0 0 0(1) 0(1) 0(1) 0 0 0(1)
Conostegia 0 0 0 0 0,1 0,1 0(1) 0 0 0 0 0 0(1) 0 0 0 0(1)
Paclyanthus 0 0 0 0(1) 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0,1
Tetrazygia 0 0 0(1) 0(1) 0(1) 1(0) 0(1) 0(1) 0 0(1) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0,1
Tococa 0 0 0 0,1 0(1) 0,1 0,1 0 0 0 0 0(1) 1(0) 0 0 0 0
Leandra 0 0(1) 0(1) 0(1) 0(1) 0,1 0,1 0 0,1 0 0 0(1) 0 0 0(1) 0 0
Miconia 0 0 0 0 0,1 0,1 0,1 0(1) 0 0(1) 0(1) 0(1) 0 0 0(1) 0(1) 0,1

taxa/characters 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34

0 0 0 0 0 0,1 0 1 1
0 0 0,1 0 0 0,1 0 0 0,1
0,1 0 0(1) 0 0(1) 0(1) 0 0(1) 1
0 0 0 0,1 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1(0) 1 0 0 0 0 1
0 0,1 0(1) 0(1) 0 0 0 0 1
0,1 0 0,1 0(1) 0 0(1) 0 0 1
0,1 0 0,1 0(1) 0(1) 0,1 0,1 0,1 1
0,1 0 0(1) 0(1) 0(1) 0(1) 0,1 0(1) 1

0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0,1 0(1) 0(1) 0 0
0(1) 0,1 0 0(1) 0 0 0 0
0(1) 0,1 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 1(0) 0 0 0 0 0 0
0,1 0 0 0,1 0 0 0 0
0(1) 0 0 0 0 0,1 0 0
0,1 0(1) 0 0(1) 0 0 0,1 0
0,1 0,1 0,1 0(1) 0 0(1) 0 0,1

*Occurs only in Catocoryne, a poorly known genus (see text).


Table 1 Continued

taxa/characters 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51

Anaectocal)y 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
Calycogonium 0,1 0 0,1 0,1 0 0 0,1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0,1 0 0 0
Clidemia 1(0) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0(1) 0 0 0 0 0 0(1) 0 0 0
Conostegia 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0,1 0 1(0) 0 0 0
Pachyanthus 0,1 0 0(1) 0 0 0 0,1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0(1) 0 0 0
Tetrazygia 0,1 0(1) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0,1 0 0 0
Tococa 0(1) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0(1) 0 0 0 0 0 1(0) 0 0 0
Leandra 0,1 0 0 0 0 0 1(0) 0 0,1 0,1 0 0 0 0,1 0 0 0
Miconia 0(1) 0 0 0 0 0 0,1 0(1) 0,1 0(1) 0,1 0(1) 0 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1

taxa/characters 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67

Anaectocalyx 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0? 0? ? ? ?
Calycogonium 0 0 0(1) 0 0 0 0 0 0,1 1 0 0 0 0 0 ?
Clidemia 0 0 0 0 0 0(1) 0 0(1) 0 1 0(1) 0 1(0) 0 0 0,1
Conostegia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0(1) 0 0 0 1 0
Pachyanthus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1(0) 0 0 1 0 ?
Tetrazygia 0 0 0(1) 0 0 0 1 0 0(1) 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Tococa 0 0 1 0 0(1) 0 0 0(1) 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Leandra 0 0 0,1 0,1 0 0 0(1) 0(1) 0 1 0 0,1 0,1 0 0 0
Miconia 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0 0,1 0 1 0(1) 0(1) 0,1 0 0 0

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