Title: On-farm research to develop technologies appropropriate to farmers
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00095683/00001
 Material Information
Title: On-farm research to develop technologies appropropriate to farmers the potential role for economists
Physical Description: 7 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Byerlee, Derek
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
Donor: unknown ( endowment )
Publisher: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)
Place of Publication: Mexico, D.F.
Publication Date: 1979
Copyright Date: 1979
Subject: Agriculture -- Research -- On-farm -- Technological innovations   ( lcsh )
Agricultural innovations -- Research -- Economic aspects   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 8).
General Note: "Economics Program."
General Note: "Paper presented at the Conference of the International Association of agricultural Economists, Banff, Canada, Sept. 1979."
Statement of Responsibility: Derek Byerlee ... et al..
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00095683
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 435813050

Full Text

/6~o Ot ( ,

/T Londres 40, Apdo. Postal 6-641, Mexico 6, D.F. Mdxico


The Florida Growers and Shippers League has been established
for the mutual benefit of its members. It is a body incorporated
under the laws of the State of Florida, but without capital stock,
and to be run without profit. The charter requires that there shall
be an executive committee of nine, three of whom shall be elected
at each annual meeting of the League, which is held at the same
time and place as the meeting of the State Hotticultural Society.
Any person may become a member of the League by paying
the membership fee of one dollar per year and agreeing to pay the
assessments for the support of the work. These assessments for
the present season are as follows:
Citrus fruits and pineapples, one-sixth of one cent per box or
Vegetables and all other products, fifty cents per car.

Traffic Manager. Secretary-Manager.
Executive Offices, Orlando, Florida.

Executive Committee:

L. B. SKINNER, Dunedin, President.
DR. J. H. ROSS, Florence Villa, 1st Vice President.
H. C. SCHRADER, Jacksonville, 2nd Vice President.
J. C. CHASE, Jacksonville.
J. R. DAVIS, Bartow.
A. F. WYMAN, Bradentown.
W. M. GIST, McIntosh.
D. S. BORLAND, Buckingham.
V. J. KROME, Homestead.


Presented at the Annual Meeting of the League, held in the Tampa
Bay Casino, Tampa, Florida, April 14, 1915.

Ladies and Gentlemen:
The past year has been one of great activity and great develop-
ment for the Florida Growers and Shippers League. Matters of vital
importance have arisen, and the necessity of maintaining such a pro-
tective association as this has been proven beyond a doubt. The
citrus and vegetable interests of the state have developed so greatly
within recent years, and the problems affecting every grower and
shipper have become so numerous and of such great importance that
it has become imperative to maintain a strong organization to handle
all such problems.
There are still some people who do not grasp the real scope of
the work of the League. They think it must be some kind of a
marketing organization, or if not a real marketing organization, at
least it is a competitor of the Citrus Exchange in one way or another.
The League has been established sufficiently long now so that its
sphere of work has become pretty well defined. It is a competitor of
nothing now in existence in the state. There isn't a reason for any
person or organization feeling jealous of the success of the League,
or with-holding their most loyal support.
The plan of incorporation presented at our last annual meeting
is proving very satisfactory. The machinery of the League has been
reduced to a minimum.
The League is governed by an Executive Committee of nine
people. For the purpose of selecting this Committee, the state
is divided into three geographical divisions: a northern district,
which shall consist of all those counties lying north of Citrus,
Sumter, Lake, Seminole and Brevard counties; a southern district,
which shall consist of all those counties lying south of Hillsboro,

Polk, Osceola and Brevard counties; a middle section, which shall
consist of all the counties lying between the northern and southern
The members of the Executive Committee are elected for a
term of three years. Three members, one from each district, are
elected at each annual meeting. The Committee elects its own
officers. The Committee with the officers elected for the past
year has been as follows:
L. B. Skinner, Dunedin, President.
Dr. J. H. Ross, Florence Villa, 1st Vice-Pres.
H. C. Schrader, Jacksonville, 2nd Vic.'-Prcs.
J. C. Chase, Jacksonville.
Z. C. Chambliss, Ocala.
J. R. Davis, Bartow.
A. F. Wyman, Bradentown.
H. E. Heitman, Fort Myers.
T. V. Moore, Miami.
The term of office of the following members of the Committee
expires with this meeting: Z. C. Chambliss, Ocala; Dr. J. H. Ross,
Florence Villa and T. V. Moore, Miami.
The following members have one year more to serve: J. C.
Chase, Jacksonville; J. R. Davis, Bartow, and A. F. Wyman,
The following members have two more years to serve: H. C.
Schrader, Jacksonville; L. B. Skinner, Dunedin, and H. E. Heitman;
Fort Myers.
Since our last annual meeting five meetings of the Executive
Committee have been held. The members attending these meetings
have paid their own travel and hotel expenses, and have received
no pay for their services on the Committee. The Committee has
supported the management most loyally indeed, and on every
matter of importance we have had unanimous action of the Com-
The membership reported last year was 1027. These included
all the names secured by Mr. Hamner, and all those secured
after the first of January, 1914, prior to our meeting of last
April. In the formative period many persons joined whose interest
was small, but who were willing to pay one dollar to see a new
thing started.
The paid up membership on April 1st of this year was 1,153,
a net gain of 126 over a year ago. While the gain has not been
great, yet the present membership represents a much more sub-
stantial support than we had last year.

During January last we made a check of all the members
who had renewed their membership, and sent a notice to all the
remainder. A total of 738 failed to renew, and their names have
been dropped from the list. Beginning with our last annual meet-
ing, each membership card has been dated, and the membership
expires one year from date unless renewed. The present active
membership, therefore, represents only those who have paid in
cash since April 1st, 1914.

The accounts of the League have been audited recently by
Charles Neville & Co., Certified Public Accountants, of Savannah,
Ga., and Jacksonville, Fla. The fiscal year of the League ends
with August 31st. From January 1st, 1914, to the end of our fiscal
year, the total receipts were $6,495.98 and the total disbursements
$6,197.74, leaving a balance on hand of $298.24. From Sept. 1, 1914,
to March 31, 1915, the receipts, together with balance on hand Sept.
1st, was $3,450.23. The disbursements were $3,224.84, leaving a
balance on hand March 31st of $225.39.

Although there has been no provision in our incorporation
papers to organize local associations of the League, yet it has
been thought from the first that there would be some such local
organizations. In my last annual report I expressed the idea that
fifty active local associations over the state would greatly strength-
en the State League, but that it would require at least one organ-
izer to keep that number of associations alive. Nothing during
the past year has led me to change my opinion in this matter. The
most of the work on which the League is engaged is more or less
distant from the individual grower. and it is only when some local
master, such a,: the introduction of a new disease, is presented
that l1cl growers become aroused, and it is l'.?ssible to organ'zo
them into a local organization that has any real strength. An
illustration of this is the South Dade County Fruit Growers and
Truckers Association. It was with considerable difficulty that
we got these growers in the Redlands country to form an associa-
tion last spring to fight the canker. The splendid work this or-
ganization has accomplished during the past nine or ten months
is well known to you all. A very considerable portion (220) of our
membership is with this local association. Another local asso-
ciation. although with a very small number of members, that has
had strength, is the one at Miami, known as the Dade County
Fruit Growers and Truckers Association. This, too, has been
held together because of the canker fight. There have been

organized also associations at the following places: Winter Haven,
Clearwater, Elfers, Fort Myers, Stuart, Boynton, Grand Island
and Kissimmee. The last two represent rather more permanent
organizations. They have had more or less regular meetings, and
are taking an active interest in many local matters.

The office work of the League has grown very rapidly during
the past year. This has necessitated a considerable expenditure
for office equipment, stationery, postage and stenographic assist-
ance. When the citrus canker work was put upon the League it
required an additional stenographer. At times the correspondence
has been so great that two stenographers have been unable to
handle it. While a daily in-coming mail of twenty-five letters is
not a regular thing, yet on the other hand, it is not uncommon for
the League to receive as many as fifty letters in a single day. In
attempting to keep our Executive Committee and the traffic officials
of the different marketing agencies informed of the work being
done, we have made a practice of sending out carbon copies of many
letters, and this has added considerably to the clerical work in the
Another matter that has added considerable work to the
office has been the issuing of press notices from time to time. In
order to get the work of the League before the public, we have
ibsued nearly every Monday a short press notice, telling of the
work accomplished or under way by the League, and also making
announcement of matters with which we feel our members should
be familiar. In the matter of rate changes and legislative
questions affecting our interests, we have taken tne ground that
publicity should be given them whether the changes were due to
our work or not, or even whether the changes were advantageous
to our members. The League is the only state organization having
for its object the handling of such state-wide matters, and hence
we feel that it is a part of our work to give publicity to these gen-
eral matters affecting the interests of the entire industries.

Another of our problems is to keep our members in close touch
with the work of the League. While the press circulars have done
a great deal to help, there are still many members who know next
to nothing of our work. We want every member a loyal member,
and we feel that if he knew just what was being done for him, his
loyalty would be assured. To bring about this end the manage-
ment proposes to issue, perhaps four times a year, a mimeograph

circular, which will be sent to each member, and which will sum-
marize the important matters handled since the previous circular
was issued.

The League has issued one bulletin during the past year. This
was published as Bulletin No. 1, and was entitled, "The Citrus
Canker Situation in Florida." 3,000 copies were printed, and the
majority of them have been distributed. A small six-page circular,
describing the objects of the League, and giving its officers, was
re-issued. A copy of the proposed Crop Pest Bill was printed by the
League for use with the members of the Legislature. The Traffic
Department, at the order of the Interstate Commerce Commission,
had printed a "Brief," in connection with a rate case handled by the
Before such an association as this can accomplish much, it
must first become established. The scope of its work must be pret-
ty clearly defined, and the general policy of its management
become known. We believe this has been done. At the very out-
set we stated that all our dealings with the railroad officials, legis-
lators, and all others, would be "above board," gentlemanly, and
yet carried on energetically; that before we resorted to courts or
commissions we would use every possible means of settling matters
In a more business-like method. We have found the railroad of-
ficials, especially, more than willing to meet us half way, and while
we have been accused of leaning in favor of the transportation
companies, yet we believe that the very great majority of our
members will agree with us that the policy of setting matters
outside of court is far more satisfactory. We appreciate the fact
that there are times when such settlements cannot be made, and
the League stands ready when those times come to present our
arguments before the proper tribunal in as strong a way as is pos-
Because of certain legislative matters in the national govern-
ment, and in more or less of the states, and to simplify our rate
structure, it is going to be to the advantage of the state, and
especially to the vegetable industry, to reduce the number of dill-
ferent sized crates and other packages which are used. I believe
the time is not far distant when those packages that remain in use
will become by law "Standard Packages," and it would not surprise
me greatly if the use of packages other than the standard one
would be prohibited.
During the last hours of the recent Congress. the first of these

bills was passed, fixing the standard for barrels and also for one
third, one-half and three-quarter barrels. The barrel that has been
made the standard shall be of the following dimensions: length of
stave, 28 1-2 inches; diameter of heads. 17 1-8 inches; distance be-
tween heads, 26 inches; circumference of bulge, 64 inches, outside
measurement; and the thickness of staves not greater than 4-10
of an inch, provided, that any barrel having the capacity of 7,056
cubic inches shall be a standard barrel. The use of any other
barrel for fruits (other than cranberries), vegetables and other dry
commodities, is absolutely prohibited. The law becomes effective
July 1st, 1916.
A subject closely related to the last is legislation pertaining to
pure food regulations. These laws may relate to mis-branding.
artificiai coloring or frutt, laneling or packages containing fruits
and vegetables, etc. On March 3, 1913, Congress passed an
amendment to the Pure Food Act, which was far more reaching in
its effect than was generally supposed. This amendment went into
effect September 3, 1914. Some of the regulations of the Depart-
ment on this matter read as follows:
"Except as otherwise provided by this regulation, the quantity
of the contents, in all cases of food, if in package form, must be
plainly and conspicuously marked in terms of weight, measure or
numerical count, on the outside of the covering or container usually
delivered to consumers."
"The quantity of the contents so marked shall be the amount
of food in the package."
"If the quantity of the contents be stated by weight or measure
it shall be marked in terms of the largest unit contained in the
As I interpret these regulations, there is no question that the
majority of the packages shipped out of Florida containing fruits
and vegetables come under the regulations, and a shipper failing
to mark the contents upon the package is liable to prosecution under
the law. There is a misunderstanding in the minds of many that
it is necessary for the Department to state specifically that a cer-
tain package must he marked in a specific manner. The law, how-
ever, does net provide for any such arrangement, and I cannot
see how a shipper could use this as an excuse for failing to mark
his packages properly. The League has used its best influence
to have certain modifications made. With the present law, how-
ever, and with its enforcement left to the Bureau of Chemistry,
there seems little hope for any changes in the interpretation of the

There will be constantly more and more of such laws passed
by the national government, and by the different states. Undoubt-
edly the League will have to devote considerable time in keeping
itself informed as to these laws, and in seeing tilac the interests
of its members are properly safeguarded.

Some of our members asked us to see if the railroads and Pull-
man company could not be persuaded to reduce the price asked
for grapefruit on their dining cars. Letters were sent to all the
principal Southeastern lines, calling their attention to the matter.
The Seaboard Air Line was the first to respond favorably, reducing
the price to ten cents per half portion and fifteen cents per whole
fruit. The following lines have also agreed to a reduction: Atlantic
Coast Line, The N. C'. & St. L., the Mobile & Ohio, tle L. & N., and
the Pullman Company on its butfet cars.

By far the biggest undertaking of the League has been in con-
nection with the canker work. In my last annual report I called
your attention to the presence of a new citrus disease in the
state, and emphasis was laid upon the fact that it would take stren-
uous efforts on the part of the entire industry to keep the disease
from spreading over the whole citrus belt. After the discussions
of this afternoon little further need be said. The position of the
League in this work, I believe, has been made clear. It has cost
a lot of money to fight the disease up to the present time, but the
state as a whole has lost only a trifle in comparison to what the
growers in the diseased area have suffered. The state must con-
tinue the work, and the majority of you can well afford to carry
on the fight in a far section of the state, rather than to allow the
disease to come nearer home.
A total of $15,753.22 was paid to the League up to April 1st,
1915, for the Citrus Canker eradication work. Checks drawn on
this account up to the same date total $14,912.07, leaving a balance
on hand of $841.15. This covers only the amounts handled through
the Orlando office of the League, and does not include the large
sums expended through the local associations of the League in Dade
County; neither is the appropriation received from the United
States Department of Agriculture included in this total.
The Citrus Canker fund has been handled entirely separate
from the general funds of the League, which has been made neces-
sary because of many contributions received from those who were not
members of the League. Great credit should be given the Finance
Committee, which has received the greater portion of the pledges to

carry on the work. This Committee has consisted of the follow-
ing well-known men: D. C. Gillett, J. C. Chase, Jefferson Thomas,
B. L. Hamner and L. D. Jones. Among the large contributors have
been the railroads operating in Florida, marketing organizations,
crate, paper and fertilizer manufacturers, manufacturers of pack-
ing house equipment, development companies and many large
A suggestion was made a little time ago that the League have
prepared, if possible, a moving picture film, showing the work of
eradicating the canker, and bringing out perhaps some other feat-
ures that might be of interest and value to the industry. The in-
troduction of canker into Florida presented such an excellent il-
lustration of the ease with which a disease or insect pest may come
to us from another state, or from a foreign country, that we felt
this weakness on the part of our state should be emphasized, and
brought to the attention of the farmers and fruit growers every-
where. There are other diseases and other insect pests even more
serious than we now have in Florida, and the League feels that our
people should be thoroughly aroused to the dangers that confront
us, and the members of our Executive Committee thought that a
moving picture film, shown in different parts of Florida, would pre-
sent this in a more forceful manner than could be don" by writing.
or even by .speech.
There is also a constant danger that some infections of the
canker have been missed in the state. The moving picture shows,
very much enlarged, diseased fruit, leaves and twigs, and the pho-
tographs are so true to nature that we believe any citrus grower
seeing this film would immediately recognize the disease if lie
had it upon his property.

The so-called "Crop Pest Bill" is a measure for which the
farm people of the state have been asking for several years past.
The majority of the states in the Union are spending considerable
sums of money in keeping out of their states new diseases and
insect pests. Florida has been doing practically nothing along
this line. The more progressive growers have realize the danger
for some time. The movement was started in the Horticultural
Society. During the past year the League has co-operated with the
Horticultural Society and its officers in the work-first, of arousing
public opinion to the need of such a bill-second, to the drafting
of a bill that seems to meet our needs, and third, to informing the
Legislators of the State of the provisions of this bill, and of the
great need there is to the entire state for mtlul a iImeasilre. I be-
lieve I am safe in saying to you that we have not left many stones

unturned to secure tile passage of a Crop Pest Bill that will be
adequate, and that will have sufficient finances back of it to have
it properly enforced.

Another bill that is now pending before the State Legislature,
which has the support of the League, is an appropriation bill to
carry on the canker eradication work. When the white fly was
introduced into California, their Protective League met the emer-
gency, and was the means of financing the work until their Legis-
lature met. When that time came their Legislature provided for the
further continuance of tile work, and also reimbursed the League
for the money already spent. We do not believe that public sen-
timent is strong enough in Florida to justify us in asking for re-
imbursement for money so far expended. We do feel that the
citrus industry is of such great importance to tile state of Florida
that the state as a whole should carry on the further eradication
work, and to that end the League has favored an appropriation' of
$125,000, which is to be expended during the next two years for
this work.
The precooling of Florida fruits and vegetables has passed
the experimental stage during the past year. Two commercial
plants have been built and operated during the season just ending.
Both are reported as extremely successful.
During last summer several conferences were held between
the high traffic officials of the Florida roads and the 'Manager of
the League, looking toward the publishing of a precooling tariff
that would be satisfactory to both shippers and transportation
lines. Such tariffs were published during August and September of
last year. The California rate of $7.50 per car for the use of the
car for precooling and initial icing was granted, and a rate of $5.00
was made for the use of the car when the bunkers were not used for
initial icing. The minimum load is made 360 boxes of citrus fruits;
for vegetables the minimums remain the same as under refrigera-
As additional precooling plants are built, some changes in the
tariffs will be needed. The railroad officials, however, have ex-
pressed their willingness to co-operate with the League in develop-
ing this method of shipping perishable freight from Florida.

The League is not unmindful of the changing situation with
regard to the grapefruit industry of the state. During the past,
the supply has not equaled the demand, and as a result, the prices

have been good. An immense acreage has beon set, however, dur-
ing recent years, and a changed condition has been brought on.
The fact remains, however, that grapefruit is not in general use,
especially in many sections of the country. We believe it is going
to be necessary during their next few years for the growers and
shippers of grapefruit to carry on a popularizing campaign over the
entire country. To that end. the League is attempting to interest
the transportation companies in co-operating in this movement. On
March 18th, a conference was called by the League at St. Augustine,
which was attended by the authoritative representatives of prac-
tically every railroad in the Southeastern territory, and also by a
few growers and shippers. The League presented facts and argu-
ments to show that the grapefruit industry was a comparatively
cheap one, and that the railroads could afford to separate this com-
modity from other citrus fruits, making a lower rate apply thereon.
We feel that the situation is a very critical one, and that the trans-
portation lines realize this, and will therefore grant a substantial

This case has considerable history, and as there appears to be
some misunderstanding as to the results of the long drawn-out liti-
gation, I want to make it clear to you in the shortest manner
possible. It was styled No. 1168, Florida Fruit & Vegetable Ship-
pers Protective Association versus Atlantic Coast Line Railroad et
al; and No. 3808, Railroad Commission of the State of Florida ver-
sus Seaboard Air Line Railway et al. The Interstate Commerce
Commission promulgated an order requiring the Florida East Coast
Railway to establish certain reduced rate:, on fruits and vegetables
(the same distance scale as was prescribed for A. C. L. and S. A.
L. Rys.) with which the F. I. C. Ry. complied under protest, at the
same time appealing to the Commerce Court, which body, in June
of 1912, sustained the findings of the Interstate Commerce Com-
mission and consequently vacated the preliminary injunction. The
railroad then appealed to the United States Supreme Court. which
in June. 1914, reversed the findings of the lower court, which was
purely on account of some technicalities in connection with the
elimination, not purposely, of some evidence which had a direct
bearing on the East Coast conditions. Thereupon, the F. E. C. Ry.
advanced the rates on August 5, 1914, to the old basis. It should
be borne in mind that the Supreme Court did not actually pass upon
the reasonableness of the rates, and contrary to the opinion of some
people, that Court did not make and approve of the rates which
the railroad is now exacting for its services up to Jacksonville. In
August last, the League upon petition liled with the Commission

Suspension and investigation request, so as to prevent the advanced
rates from going into effect, and the secretary engaged counsel and
made a hurried trip to Washington for oral argument before the
Commission. In this the Florida Railroad Commission was very
active, and at the Washington hearing both the chairman, Mr. Burr,
and attorney, Mr. Hudson, appeared and materially assisted in ac-
complishing what was sought. Owing to the complex legal situa-
tion, it was agreed among ourselves that the best steps to be taken
would be the filing of a new complaint. Matters were under way
for this when the seriousness of the situation growing out of the
wars became manifest, and it was thought inadvisable to then pro-
ceed in the matter. As the tendency has since been toward
an increased financial depression, and the railways throughout the
country have clamored for additional revenues, and have been
getting them right along, no further action has been taken.
The management of the League, however, stands ready to pro-
ceed with the case provided the members themselves, or the Execu-
tive Committee, so directs.

In my last annual report, attention was called to the need
of a traffic and claim department in the League. During last sum-
mer, the needs of this department became so apparent that the
manager presented the matter to the Executive Committee. Not-
withstanding the lack of funds, the Committee authorized the
establishment of such a department, and Mr.. E. C. Hoskins of Tam-
pa was employed as Traffic Manager. The department was opened
on July 15, 1914. Mr. Hoskins is unusually well qualified to handle
matters pertaining to rates, as he has been associated with tariff
and rate work practically all his life. His personal acquaintance
with a large number of traffic officials has also been of great value
to the League.
The first thing undertaken by this new department was the col-
lection of a complete tariff file for all of the perishable business
of Florida. Our complete file now consists of about 80 tariffs,
from which rates to all the mark cl' o f the United States and Can-
ada may be obtained. The Lcanuz, it prepared to furnish to mem-
bers any data of this kindl, anm1 PI.o information regarding routes,
service, etc.
The traffic department has already accomplished many things
in the way of reductions in rates, publication of through rates, cor-
rections of tariffs, etc. I take pleasure in reading a summary of
the report submitted by the Traffic Manager.

This has been a very important subject to Florida. It has
been brought to what appears a satisfactory conclusion through the
League's co-operation with other traffic organizations throughout
the country. The railroads have been keen to realize the great
disasters following car shortages, where the movement of perish-
able freight is involved, and they have striven for a long time to
devise ways and means by which the car efficiency may be ade-
quately provided, believing all the lime that the only solution of the
problem was the prompt release of the equipment by both shippers
and receivers. To accomplish this, however, unnecessary penal-
ties were provided in tariffs a few months back and as a result
there arose a general complaint by shippers and receivers all over
the country. The Commission suspended the tariffs and it was
then that a compromise was reached with the American Railway
Association by which the railroads agreed to rates of a more satis-
factory nature. Under the present rules refrigerator cars may be
held for loading or unloading for $1.00 per day for the first three
days after free time allowed, and $3.00 per day for the succeeding
three days, etc. This makes a charge of $6.00 at the end of the
sixth day after placement, instead of $14.00 as was proposed. The
new charge means an increase of only $2.00 for a si-- day period over
the old charge that was computed at $1.00 per day. Substantially
as good a compromise was reached with respect to cars held in
transit or at diverting points.

As already stated, I believe we will be by next season con-
fronted with some very important problems, which offer subject
for close consideration at this time. One of them is this reconsign-
ing and diverting charge. We have already prevented being placed
in effect a charge of $2.00 per car for diverting cars at Potomac
Yards, and possibly at Cincinnati and other gateways. The Penn-
sylvania and Baltimore & Ohio Railroads withdrew this charge
at Potomac Yards upon our protest to the Commission in November.
However, at this time there are rumors on all sides as to the
Railroads making a charge on all classes of traffic consigned and
diverted. If there is any general move made upon the part of
the railroads to place a charge of this character in effect, it will
be combatted in a concerted manner.

Considerable attention has been given to these matters, and
an exhaustive study made of the rates. As to service conditions, a
few complaints have reached us, which were promptly handled

with the officials of the Southern Express Company and in each
case adequate facilities for the handling of our perishables were
promptly provided, and the communities affected have expressed
their appreciation of the League's instrumentality in bringing about
the improved service. As to the rate feature, much could be said,
but I am not permitted to go into details here. We have received
some complaints and have made a careful analysis of them, and
while some of the rates appear rather excessive, it cannot be said
that they are discriminatory in any sense. They are all based on
mileage, and if a given rate is unjust from or to any particular
point, it must be conceded that they are all unjust on the com-
modity to which the rate is applicable. It is possible that the scale
or classification is too high in some instances as between the ar-
ticles of produce. Our conclusions are that the estimated or billing
weights are more nearly correct than those used by the railroads
in connection with freight rates. It may be of interest to say here
that the express companies have made a deplorable financial show-
ing under the present rates, due largely, we believe, to the effect the
parcels post has had on small packages, and upon such showing the
Interstate Commerce Commission has just ordered the whole mat-
ter of rates reopened. We are no-w in communication with the
Commission for the purpose of ascertaining information pertaining
to the assignment of the hearing, which will be o-' a public nature
-probably in Washington-and I feel that we should by all means
have our traffic manager attend the meeting with a view to protect-
ing our interests. Too much for Florida has gone by default in the
past in such important meetings as this one.

Apparently, it is not clear to some members as to the character
of claims which the League has undertaken to handle, as several
times we have been requested to intercede in the collections where
the produce has been consigned to a dealer, who failed to make
returns. That is purely a marketing phase, which is not embraced
in our program, and we cannot handle such matters. However, we
are having much success in the adjustment of claims against the
railroads and express companies for overcharge in rates and
loss and damage to shipments. For this work a small fee is charged
so as to defray the additional expense involved in bringing about
settlements, and it is not designed to realize any profit whatever
therefrom. We do not make a charge unless we are successful
in getting the claims settled. We have recently obtained settle-
ment in several instances where the shipper filed claims direct and
the same were declined. Any member desiring service of this
kind should communicate with the Traffic Department.

This is one of the first subjects undertaken upon the addition
of our Traffic Department, and I am pleased to say that same has
just been handled to a very successful conclusion. Every oonces-
sion that was asked of the railroads in this connection has been
granted, and as a result we will no longer be imposed upon by un-
scrupulous dealers located in these so called "pockets," as under
the arrangements that have been perfected, cars may be back-hauled
at a very nominal charge in connection with the reconsignment to
more profitable points. 1Merely to give you some idea of what a
task a general subject of this character constitutes, approximately
125 communications were exchanged with our members and the
transportation companies in this case alone.
The Interstate Commerce Commission decided this case on
February 9th. It is No. 6151, and was mentioned in my former re-
port. Briefly, while the Commission did not change the vegetable
rates, those on citrus fruits, carloads, were made 10.8 cents per box
less than formerly; also the minimum weight was reduced from
26,000 to 24,000 pounds, effective April 3rd. The question of fil-
ing a new complaint by the League on the vegetable rates is one
that is now 'being considered.
This case was styled "Investigation & Suspension Dockets 352
and 393," and received a full hearing by the Interstate Commerce
Commission, an adverse decision having been handed down recently.
About a year and a half ago the railroads advanced the rates to
the above points, as well as to all other markets in what is known
as "Western Trunk Line Territory." The advances ranged from
two to twelve cents per crate-perhaps a fair average would be five
cents a crate. The advanced rates were suspended and a long
battle followed. The case was turned over to the League last De-
cember. It was briefed and our Traffic Manager appeared be-
fore the Commission at Washington, December 19th, having en-
gaged counsel that assisted him in the oral argument. It would
require pages to treat with the subject in its entirety-suffice it to
say that every known effort was made to win the case, and while
it cost approximately $300.00, which was privately subscribed by
certain vegetable interests owing to our not having sufficient
funds, it must not be overlooked that by reason of the rates being
under suspension and investigation the Florida shippers did not
have to pay the increased rates last season and about half of this
one, constituting a large, although incalculable, saving of money.

Formal complaint has just been filed with the Interstate Com-
merce Commission, praying for the establishment of a just and
reasonable rate and refund of excessive charges applied on a car
shipped by a member in December, 1914, to Lineville, Ala. The de-
livering railroad based its charges on the through rate from ship-
ping point to Talladega, Ala., which point is 29 miles beyond
Lineville, Ala., plus an interstate class arbitrary back to destina-
tion, thus making a through rate of 75.6 cents per box-7.6 cents
box higher than rate from shipping point to Chicago, Ill., that was
established a few years ago by the Commission. Reparation to
the extent of $76.80 has been asked for, and if this is granted, it
will mean a net profit to the grower of approximately 11 cents a
box. It will cost the League at least $50.00 to handle this case to
a conclusion, and while on the surface it may seem unwise to some,
the fact should not be overlooked that a favorable decision would
carry with it the establishment of a reasonable rare by which fur-
ther business may be had at the point in seasons to come. It
is worth while mentioning 'here that had not the rate been so un-
reasonable the shipper could have disposed of several more cars.

This is a matter that has been agitated for years, but we are
still without through rates on account of inability of the railroad-;
to reach harmonious understanding as to by whom they will be pub-
lished. We all know of the great difficulty experienced in success-
fully marketing our products in that rapidly developing south-
western section, and that our apparently slow progress has been
due to our complex rate facilities. The railroads themselves ad-
mit inability to quote the through rates correctly at all times. The
simplicity of the rate arrangement from California has enabled
that state often to take orders which our shippers should have had.
The League, in conjunction with the traffic departments of some
of the marketing agencies, has been conducting an extensive cam-
paign during the past four months for publication of through rates
in a simple way so that everyone will be in a position to determine
rates when desired, and as a result we feel almost certain in saying
to you at this time that the rates will be available for next season.

This embraces the Pacific Coast States, also Idaho, Nevada,
Wyoming and Montana. As in the case of rates to the Southwest-
.ern Territory, it is difficult to obtain correct rates to the far west
owing to the manner in which they are published by the Trans-
Continental Freight Bureau. We have asked for through rates
from Florida shipping points, and the only obstacle at this time is
the question by whom will they be published. The western lines
-do not want to clothe the Florida railroads with authority to issue
the rates. We have recommended that, if the western lines will
not yield to the wishes of the Florida roads, as well as their Florida
patrons, the Trans-Continental Freight Bureau publish a separ-
ate tariff of our rates, also refrigeration charges.

We have had a very limited number of through rates published
by the Florida railroads to Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, North and
South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Colorado and Utah, on our various
vegetables. This has caused a lot of speculation on the part of the
shippers, and has cost us dearly by reason of our misrouting cars
and having them overcharged. It is very difficult to determine the
correct rates in a majority of cases, as to do so means figuring
combinations over many gate-ways, which is impractical owing to
not having the tariffs of the numerous western roads. The Florida
railroads have the same difficulty and invariably have to wire
for the factors west of the Mississippi River. We have handled
this question with the General Freight Offices of the S. A. L.
and A. C. L., having submitted a list of all markets to which
through rates are desired, and are pleased to report that the rates
are being printed at this time.

Recently the bulk rates on oranges were reduced, which were
also made applicable to grapefruit. The rates apply from all rail
points in Florida to markets generally in the south-east and eastern
sections, extending as far west as Mississippi River crossings, as
far north as St. Louis, Louisville and Cincinnati; also Pittsburgh,
Buffalo and practically all markets of any import east thereof.
The League, while not responsible for these rates, for obvious
reasons, has been the recipient of voluminous correspondence relat-
ing thereto, and merely as a matter of information to the State
at large bulletined them through the press. As to what effect rates
of this nature will have on the citrus industry, I am not prepared
and do not care to make any prophecy.

Several members having expressed a desire to have rates to
eastern Canada apply via Cincinnati, as well as through Potomac
Yards, so that an option could be had of the Cincinnati, Pittsburgh,
Cleveland, Buffalo and adjacent markets, the proposition has been
handled with the various railroads, and advices have just reached
us that all arrangements have been perfected and the rates will be
published very soon. In a few instances, owing to divisional ar-
rangements between the railroads, the rates via Cincinnati will be
just a trifle higher, while in other cases they will be lower than
those through Potomac Yards.

This is another matter in which the League has been interested.
Prior to this season the F. E. C. Ry. had never extended rates of
this nature. Those of you interested in this subject know that the
rates on the East Coast now are just as favorable as the rates
of the Seaboard Air Line and Atlantic Coast Line Railways.

When this plan was conceived years ago to -oncentrate fruit
at certain points for packing the growers owned the field boxes in
which the fruit has been transported, and it has been the custom of
the railroads to return the empties at one cent each. Now, the field
boxes are owned largely by the packing houses, or dealers at the
packing points, and the empties are forwarded to the growers and
the return movement is with the fruit. On account of the empty
movement not being of a return nature to fit the requirements of
the tariffs, some of the agents have been assessing charges based
on the State classification distance rate, making the cost from $15.00
to $40.00 for a car of empty boxes. We were apprised of this situa-
tion and promptly handled the matter with traffic officials of the
Florida railroads, who have promised to modify the application of
the tariffs so as to permit of the one cent rate applying.

For a long time the ('lyde Line has considered reducing rates
from Jacksonville to New York, Boston and Philadelphia. We
have recently noticed that the F. E. C. Ry. has published, effective
April 23rd, rates from Jacksonville for account of the Clyde Line,
which mean a reduction of 4 1-2 cents per box on citrus fruit,
carloads, minimum 300 boxes. The fact that this reduction has
been restricted to the East Coast section. also that the less than car-

load rates on citrus fruits, as well as any of the pineapple and vege-
table rates were not changed, is not understood, and as the action
of the Clyde Line would seem to constitute a discrimination by not
giving the reduction to other sections of the State, the matter is
now being handled with its officials.

Prior to last Fall through rates to a limited number of markets
in this section were being published in Florida Orange-Pineapple
Tariff. Those rates, however, represented nothing more than sum
of the rates to St. Paul-Minneapolis and the local beyond. By
reason of a controversy between our lines and the western Cana-
dian roads, through rates were eliminated from the Lariff on Decem-
ber 5th last. We handled this matter with both interests and were
able to have rates established to all the markets in Alberta, Sas-
katchewan and Manitoba that are approximately 40 cents per box
less than those formerly in effect to a limited number of markets.
We arranged with the Florida lines to obtain permission from the
Commission so that the rates were made effective on short notice.

An examination of an order of the Commission, effective April
15, 1910, concerning rates that were promulgated from Jacksonville.
as a basis for making through rates, to northern markets like Chi-
cago, St. Paul, Kansas City, Omaha,- etc., revealed that the rail-
roads in that section never carried out the spirit of the order, and
by reason thereof it was found that rates to some of the markets
which were not specifically [mentioned, were in violation of the
long and short haul section of the Act to Regulate Commerce. It
was this discovery that enabled us to recently obtain substantial
reductions in the rates to these points. Much other work of
this particular nature is now going on, and we expect to find many
such situations existing and have the discrimination removed.

In my last report reference was made to rates on vegetables
from this section, and I had been given to understand by the of-
ficials of that road that all of the rates from the old Sanford &
Everglades R. R. (now the property of the A. C. L. I. ItR.) had been
reduced to the Sanford basis. Our Traffic Manager, in making a
systematic check of rates from all shipping points in Florida, dis-
covered that the rates to Jacksonville, Fla., for use in making up
through rates to Southwestern, Northwestern and Pacific Coast

Terminals, have not as yet been changed. The matter has been
reopened and advice received that the rates will be reduced at
once. Shipments that have been made during the past two seasons
are entitled to the new rates, and if the shippers will communicate
with us and produce original freight bills and copies of ladings, we
will be able to obtain permission of the Interstate Commerce Com-
mission by which the railroads will refund the excessive charges.

In recent decision the Commission prescribed rate $1,30 box
frcm Jacksonville, when from beyond, to Montana jobbing towns,
which is the same rate we have to northwest Pacific coast ter-
minals, such as Seattle, Wash., yet our rate to Spokane, Wash., lo-
cated directly Litermediate, is $1.408 box. Rates in general to
Spokane have been t0e subject of much litigation, and investiga-
tion by the Commission, for several years. We are now in cor-
respondence v'ith both the railroads and Commission with a view
to getting equitable rates established.

It has developed we are in numerous instances withocu
through published rates to what may well be called our home terri-
tory, and a list comprising over thirty points in the States of Geor-
gia, Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee and Kentucky, was submit-
ted us a few days ago, for the purpose of handling with the rail-
roads and having reasonable through rates established. Some of
the points are prominent towns and offer good markets, the ob-
stacle being the excessive freight rates. The rates now are made
by adding to the through rate to a nearby junction point an inter-
state class local, which in some cases produces rates even higher
than we have to Chicago, St. Paul, Omaha, Kanoas City and the
States of Oklahoma and Texas. The matter has just been placed
before the railroads, and it is believed that in view of the fact
that the present method of making the rates is a violation of a
certain portion of the Act to Regulate Commerce, of which the In-
terstate Commerce Commission is making an exhaustive investiga-
tion in the South-east, reasonable through rates will be published
in time for next season.

Since the first of this year we have been making a check of
rates from every shipping point in Florida (about 1,500 points), to
approximately three thousand markets in the United States and
Canada, and having the railroads correct numerous rates; at the

same time regulating the whole rate structure so as to remove
all rates of a discriminatory nature, many of which have existed
for years. So far as is known, this is something which has never
been attempted before, either individually or collectively, by Florida
growers and shippers. This is a gigantic task and many months
will be required in which to complete same.

We have adopted a plan by which all changes in our rates will
be promptly announced through the press of the State, and these
will also be included in our regular bulletins to members. All
tariffs and supplements thereto are examined immediately upon
receipt, so as to determine what. if any, changes are made. The
public cannot rely absolutely upon the agents of the railroads for
authentic information of this character, reasons for which should
be apparent to all of you.

In making a comparative study and detailed check of our
various rates an opportunity is being afforded us to simultaneously
compile a Rate Guide for the information of members and other
interested parties-an idea conceived by the Traffic Manager be-
fore coming with the League. This rate medium or service should
prove an invaluable asset to the organization, as it contemplates
placing before you at all times the freight rates from every ship-
ping point in Florida to approximately 3,000 markets, in such a sim-
ple manner that you will have no trouble in determining your own
rates. The Executive Committee at its last meeting authorized that
the task be proceeded with, and at this time it is about half com-
pleted. The service will be ready for inauguration at the begin-
ning of next season, and before we adjourn here I want to have
an opportunity of presenting this matter more in detail for your
Were I to attempt to explain in detail the many corrections we
have been able to point out to the railroads, all of which have been
due more or less to errors in tariff compilation in years past, it
would require an indulgence on your part which I don't want to
ask. The important ones have recently been announced through
the press over the State, and will hereafter be included in our
periodical bulletins as well. However, I do want to bring to your
attention, by way of illustrating the benefits to be derived from a
careful check of the tariffs and a study of our rate structure, just a

few representative corrections we have had made in the past week
-briefly as follows:
Texarkana, Ark.-Tex., citrus fruit and pineapples, carloads,
when from stations on the F. E. C. Ry., reduction of 48 cents box,
taking effect April 23.
Newport, Ark., citrus fruit and pineapples, carloads, when
from stations on the F. E. C. Ry., reduction of 2 cents box, taking
effect April 23.
Harrisburg, Pa., tomatoes and other vegetables, carloads, when
from stations on F. E. C. Ry., reduction of 6 cents crate, effective
April 23.
Deadwood, S. D., citrus fruit and pineapples, carloads, from all
Florida, will be reduced 12 cents per box, effective w:ll issuance of
next supplement to Florida Orange-Pineapple Tariff No. 4.
Crawford, Nebr., citrus fruit and pineapples, carloads, from all
Florida, will be reduced 9 cents per box, effective with issuance
of next supplement to Florida Orange-Pineapple Tariff No. 4.
Ogden, Utah, citrus fruit and pineapples, carloads, from all
Florida, will be reduced 4 cents per box, effective with issuance
of next supplement to Florida Orange-Pineapple Tariff No. 4.
El Paso, Texas, citrus fruit and pineapple rates, carloads, tak-
ing effect April 30, will be made clear in the tariff so there will be
no difficulty in determining same, and especially avoiding over-
charges which have been made on practically every car hereto-
While the foregoing traffic matters have consumed a large
part of the time of our Traffic Manager, considering that not un-
frequently he has had to attend rate hearings and conferences
away from headquarters, they by no means constitute all the work
that has been undertaken. Your interests are being watched in
many matters to which I have not made specific references. We
are not unmindful of the development of perishable traffic from
California through the Panama Canal, nor the advantage in low wa-
ter rates to New Orleans and New York City that is causing a most
wonderful development of pineapples and grapefruit in Porto Rico,
Isle of Pines and Cuba. These are things with which in time we
must reckon. We are looking forward with keen interest to the
reconstruction of all rates throughout the entire southeastern States,
which the traffic officials have been working on for months and
will continue throughout the summer, in order to bring the rates in
harmony with the long-and-short-haul provision of the Act to Regu-
late Commerce. Many important changes in our rates must neces-
sarily follow the completion of such a gigantic task. In all mat-


ters of common interest we have the cooperation of other organ-
ized bodies, such as the National League of Commission Merchants,
the International Apple Shippers Association, the Western Fruit
Jobbers Association of America, the National Industrial Traffic
League and the California Citrus Protective League.
Many of the matters on which we have reported are only under
way. The field of work is very great indeed. We want the sup-
port of every member. We need more members. We need a larger
financial support. The possibilities are almost unlimited. We
thank you for your past support, and we trust that the personal
relations between officers, Executive Committee and members may
continue as friendly and cordial as they have been in the past.

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs