Proceedings of the twenty-seventh...
 Alphabetical list of rabbis
 Back Matter

Group Title: Proceedings of the Executive Board of Hebrew Union College
Title: Proceedings of the Executive Board
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00095556/00001
 Material Information
Title: Proceedings of the Executive Board
Alternate Title: Annual reports
Physical Description: v. : ; 26 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Union of American Hebrew Congregations -- Executive Board
Publisher: Union of American Hebrew Congregations.
Place of Publication: Cincinnati
Publication Date: 1920
Frequency: annual
Subject: Reform Judaism -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Jews -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Synagogues -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began in 1870s?
Numbering Peculiarities: 47th annual report covers meetins held on June 6, 1920, Jan. 16, 1921 and May 23, 1921.
General Note: Description based on: 47th (1920).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00095556
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Judaica Collections at the University of Florida
Holding Location: Judaica Collections at the University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 123555173
lccn - 2007229155

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    Proceedings of the twenty-seventh council, Union of American Hebrew - Buffalo, May 23-26, 1921
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    Alphabetical list of rabbis
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Full Text

Proceedings of the Executive Board

Hebrew Union College,
Cincinnati, June 6, 1920.
Pursuant to the order of the President,
the Executive Board met in semi-annual ses-
sion at ten A. M.
Present: Mr. N. Henry Beckman, Mr.
Alfred M. Cohen, Mr. G. A. Efroymson,
Mr. J. Walter Freiberg, Mr. Isaac Goldberg,
Mr. Simeon M. Johnson, Judge Max B. May,
Mr. Wm. Ornstein, Mr. Sigmund Rheinstrom,
Mr. Chas. Shohl, Mr. Samuel Straus and Mr.
Herman Wile.
President Mr. J. Walter Freiberg pre-
Secretary Rabbi George Zepin recorded
the minutes of the meeting.

Letters were presented from the follow-
ing members of the Board who were unable
to attend the meeting: Mr. Isaac W. Bern-
heim, Mr. Fred E. Bruml, Judge Josiah
Cohen, Mr. Harry Cutler, Mr. Adolf Kraus,
Mr. J. R. Morse, Mr. A. C. Ratshesky, Mr.
Marcus Rauh, Mr. Maurice D. Rosenberg,
Mr. S. W. Rosendale, Mr. Julius Rosen-
wald, Mr. A. L. Saltzstein, Mr. Jacob H.
Schiff, Mr. Louis Schlesinger, Mr. Jacob
Schnadig, Mr. Isaac Schoen, Mr. Joseph
Wiesenfeld, Mr. Albert Wolf, Mr. W. B.
Woolner and Mr. Ludwig Vogelstein.

To the Executive Board of the Union of
American Hebrew Congregations:
Gentlemen-I beg to report that we now
have 213 congregations belonging to the
Union, with a total membership of 27,705.
This represents a gain of 2,729 members
during the last six months. Carrying out
the instructions of the last meeting of the
Executive Board, your Secretary com-
municated to the congregations of the
Union the several resolutions adopted both
by the Twenty-Sixth Council and by the
Executive Board at its last meeting. As a
result of this correspondence sixty-nine
congregations reported increases in mem-
bership aggregating, as stated above, 2,729.

Synagog Pension Fund
At the meeting of the Executive Board
held June 22nd, 1919, your secretary was
instructed to ascertain how many congre-
gations would join in the Union's project
of providing pensions for their rabbis.
In carrying out these instructions your
Secretary issued four letters and a pam-
phlet containing a digest of the resolutions
adopted at the Twenty-Sixth Council. In
view of the fact that the matter had been
referred to a Special Committee, our litera-
ture contained a definite statement that the
plans set forth were adopted at the Twenty-
Sixth Council of the Union and were sub-
ject to revision. The letters were issued
quite recently. It is too early to report
any results.

Status of the Campaign
We are in the midst of the Collections
for 1920. Thus far we have secured 4,702
subscribers who have given a total of
$119,323.27. 112 cities are conducting their
November Trip
We are planning to conduct a tour of 200
cities in the United States by a committee
of 100 in the month of November. We
have thus far received replies from 69 men
who have consented to visit cities in their
neighborhood in connection with this trip.
We are now making arrangements for mass
meetings in all those cities.

In the interim between meetings the fol-
lowing appointment was made by Mr. J.
Walter Freiberg, President:
Mr. Benjamin M. Engelhard, Chicago, on
the Board of Managers.
Respectfully submitted,

The following appropriations for the next
fiscal year beginning November 1st, 1920,
were then voted:


For the Executive Board ......... .$109,100
For the Board of Governors ...... 95.000
For the Board of Managers ....... 62,350
For the Board of Delegates ....... 2,100
For the National Federation of
Temple Sisterhoods.......... 20,550

Total ........................ $289,100
Of the above amount $200,000 was ap-
propriated out of the subscription funds, the
remainder from other funds held by the

It was moved and duly carried that it is
the sentiment of the Executive Board that
we are not opposed to inserting advertis-
ing in the Union Bulletin. It was further
moved and duly carried that the considera-
tion of all details connected with plans of
this description be left to a committee to
be appointed by the President.
Mr. Freiberg announced that he would
appoint the officers of the Union as a com-
mittee to handle this business.

It was moved and duly carried that the
following appointment made by the Presi-
dent in the interim of the meeting of the
Executive Board be approved:
On the Board of Managers of Synagog
and School Extension: Mr. Benj. M. Engel-
hard of Chicago, for the term expiring Jan.
1, 1923..

Executive Board
It was moved and duly carried that Mr.
Mortimer Fleishhacker, of San Francisco,
be elected to fill the unexpired term of Mr.
I. W. Hellman, Jr., of San Francisco. The
term expires January 1st, 1923.

Board of Governors
The following members of the Board of
Governors of the Hebrew Union College
whose term expires January 1st, 1921, were
duly reelected for a period of 3 years, term
expiring January 1st, 1924: Marcus Aaron,
Pittsburgh, Pa., A. G. Becker, Chicago, Ill.,
Dr. Henry Berkowitz, Philadelphia, Pa., Dr.
Joseph Krauskopf, Philadelphia, Pa., Simon
Lazarus, Columbus, Ohio, Rabbi Charles S.

Levi, Milwaukee, Wis., Alfred Mack, Cin-
cinnati, Ohio, Dr. David Philipson, Cincin-
nati, Ohio, Dr. Joseph Silverman, New York,
N. Y., and Dr. Joseph Stolz, Chicago, Ill.

Board of Managers
The following members of the Board of
Managers, whose term expires January 1st,
1921, were duly reelected for a period of
3 years, term to expire January 1st, 1924:
Hon. Harry Cutler, Providence, R. I., J.
Walter Freiberg, Cincinnati, Ohio, Fred L.
Guggenheimer, New York, N. Y., Judge
David Leventritt, New York, N. Y., Judge
Irving Lehman, New York, N. Y., Henry L.
Mayer, San Francisco, Cal., Julius Rosen-
wald, Chicago, Ill., Sigmund Rheinstrom,
Cincinnati, Ohio, Alfred Selligman, Louis-
ville, Ky., and Herman Wile, Buffalo, N. Y.
It was moved and duly carried that Mr.
Philip J.'Goodhart, of New York, and Mr.
Henry M. Toch, of New York, be elected
on the Board of Managers, terms to begin
immediately and to expire January 1st, 1923.

It was moved and duly carried that the
President be authorized to appoint a com-
mittee to draft memorial resolutions in
honor of the deceased member of the
Executive Board, Mr. I. W. Hellman, Jr.,
of San Francisco.

It was moved and duly carried that the
XXVII Council of the Union be held in
Buffalo, N. Y., on January 18, 19 and 20,
It was moved and duly carried that the
President be authorized to appoint a Com-
mittee on Program for the XXVII Council
of the Union.
It was moved and duly carried that the
address delivered by Mr. Alfred M. Cohen,
President of the Board 'of Governors, at
the Graduation Exercises held June 5th,
1920, be published in the Union Bulletin.




j|arrp Cutler

Cincinnati, August 27, 1920.

At a special meeting of the Executive Board of the Union of American
Hebrew Congregations, the death of Colonel Harry Cutler was reported and
on motion it was resolved that Resolutions be adopted expressive of the
sentiments of the members of the Board.
The following Resolutions which were subsequently presented by a
Committee consisting of B. Mahler, Cleveland, Ohio, Chairman, G. A. Efroym-
son, Indianapolis, Ind., Herman Wile, Buffalo, N. Y., Albert Wolf, Philadelphia,
Pa., and Marcus Rauh, Pittsburgh, Pa., were unanimously adopted. These
Resolutions were ordered to be entered upon the minutes and -a copy to be
forwarded to the family of Colonel Cutler.

3ht lemoriam

The Union of American Hebrew Congregations learned with great sorrow
of the death of Colonel Cutler. His passing away filled the hearts of those
who knew him and associated with him with a true sense of great loss.
Colonel Cutler's death removes from the ranks of Jewish leaders in America
a man whose record will stand as a lasting monument to his useful life.
Through his attachment to the Jewish faith and ideals he labored and
inspired other to labor for a firm preservation of Judaism in America. As a
Vice-President of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations, his efforts
were for many years directed constantly, with unswerving loyalty and unfailing
devotion, toward promoting the interests of Israel and its religion. He
faithfully measured up to every duty imposed upon him by Judaism and in
so doing made himself a noble exemplar to all whose hearts beat with
unflinching faith in the God of Israel.

By order of the Executive Board of
the Union of American Hebrew Congregations.


3facob J0. cdjiff

Cincinnati, September 26, 1920.

At a special meeting of the Executive Board of the Union of American
Hebrew Congregations, the death of Mr. Jacob H. Schiff was reported and
on motion it was resolved that Resolutions be adopted expressive of the
sentiments of the members of the Board.
The following Resolutions which were subsequently presented by a Com-
mittee consisting of Simon W. Rosendale, Albany, N. Y., Chairman, Isaac W.
Bernheim, Louisville, Ky., Julius Rosenwald, Chicago, Ill., Daniel P. Hays,
New York City and A. C. Ratshesky, Boston, Mass., were unanimously adopted.
These Resolutions were ordered to be entered upon the minutes and a copy
to be forwarded to the family of Mr. Schiff.

3n Oiemoriam

In the midst of the greatest period of storm and stress ever known in
Jewish history, in the face of the tremendous problems which Judaism and
the Jews must solve in order to conquer for themselves the'right to continue
their historic mission as servants of God on earth, the Union of American
Hebrew Congregations, together with the Jews of the whole world, pauses to
express its profound sorrow at the death of one who contributed so much to
the stability and welfare of his people and his religion.
Jacob H. Schiff, of noble character and lofty vision; ideal in his devotion
to his faith and his brethren; judicious and discerning in his worldly dealings;
high spirited and genuine in his aims; commanding universal respect by his
integrity, sincerity and honor; considering his position of affluence in life as
one of duty and service to mankind; giving of his heart and of his means;
charitable, kindly, sympathetic, an intense patriot and a fervent Jew.
Jacob H. Schiff embodied in himself the qualities of wisdom and spirit,
the elements of grandeur of our Biblical leaders, the great soul of our past,
the poise and dignity and firmness of our hopes and aspirations.
In the multiplicity of his duties, as wide as the world and as deep as the
probity of his heart, he was ever interested in the life and glory of Judaism.
He took a leading part in the advancement of the faith of Israel, in the
solution of its problems, in the promotion and organization of its projects
and works. He saw the important role assigned by history to American

Judaism, he realized its responsibilities and opportunities and, with a gen-
erosity and enthusiasm flowing from the fulness of his Jewish heart, he sup-
ported it and served it.
As a member of the Executive Board of the Union of American Hebrew
Congregations, he was a conspicuous leader in its service. His deep concern
with the future of Judaism in this country and its growing influence on the
generations to come led him to take a great and sincere interest in the
maintenance of the' Hebrew Union College, to which institution he gave
unstintingly for its development and growth.
Mindful of the religious and spiritual needs of isolated Jewish communi-
ties scattered throughout the country, he advocated making adequate provision
for effective work among them through the agency of the Department of
Synagog and School Extension.
Realizing that the foundation laid in the hearts of the children will bear
the superstructure of Judaism, he founded at the Hebrew Union College an
institute for the training of religious teachers.
Ever solicitous for the welfare of the spiritual leaders of Judaism in
their days of old age, in their days of retirement from active service, he
contributed generously toward the creation of ways and means required to
put the Synagog Pension System on a practical basis.
Together with the entire world, the Union of American Hebrew Congre-
gation bows its head in sadness and humility before the inscrutable will of
Providence. But that grief is mitigated by the faith that the life of Jacob
H. Schiff will have a far reaching influence for good; that for years to come,
his name and record will stand out like a glowing beacon light, beckoning to
others to follow in his steps of service and achievement, valued not for their
material success, but for their example of justice, righteousness and helpful-
ness to mankind.
Be it resolved that the Union of American Hebrew Congregations extend
its deepest sympathy to the bereaved family in its great loss, a loss profoundly
felt and mourned by all the children of Israel.

By order of the Executive Board of
the Union of American Hebrew Congregations.


- I -


Proceedings of the Executive Board

Sinton Hotel,
Cincinnati, January 16, 1921.
Pursuant to the order of the President,
the Executive Board met in semi-annual
session at half past three P. M.
Present: Mr. J. Walter Freiberg, Mr.
Sigmund Rheinstrom, Mr. F. Bruml, Mr.
N. H. Beckman, Mr. Chas. Shohl, Mr. M.
D. Rosenberg, Mr. Louis Schlesinger, Mr.
Simeon M. Johnson, Mr. Alfred M. Cohen,
Mr. S. Straus, Mr. L. Vogelstein, Mr. I.
Goldberg, Mr. A. L. Saltzstein, Mr. Jacob
R. Morse and Mr. Herman Wile.
President Mr. J. Walter Freiberg pre-
Rabbi George Zepin, Secretary, recorded
the minutes of the meeting.

Letters were presented from the follow-
ing members of the Board who were unable
to attend the meeting: Mr. Adolf Kraus,
Mr. Henry Morgenthau, Mr. William Orn-
stein, Mr. A. C. Ratshesky, Mr. Simon W.
Rosendale, Mr. Jacob Schnadig, Mr. Isaac
W. Bernheim, Mr. Julius Rosenwald, Mr.
Isaac Schoen, Mr. Joseph Wiesenfeld, Mr.
Albert Wolf, Judge Josiah Cohen, Mr. Gus-
tave A. Efroymson and Mr. W. B. Woolner.

The following annual reports were then
presented, and upon motion duly carried,
were ordered to be transmitted to the
Twenty-seventh Council of the Union:
(a) Secretary.
(b) Public Accountants.
(c) Board of Governors of the Hebrew
Union College.
(d) Board of Delegates on Civil Rights.
(e) Board of Managers of Synagog and
School Extension.
(f) National Federation of Temple Sis-

The resignation of Judge Max B. May
from the Executive Board and the Board of
Managers was presented. It was moved and
duly carried that the resignation be accepted
with regret and that the Secretary be in-
structed to advise Judge May to that ef-
It was moved and duly carried that the
following appointments made by the Presi-
dent in the interim between meetings of
the Executive Board be approved:

On the Executive Board, Mr. Mortimer
Fleischhacker, of San Francisco, to take
the place of Mr. I. W. Hellman, Jr., of
San Francisco, deceased.

On the New York Executive Committee:
Messrs. Ben Altheimer, Jacob Brenner, Da-
vid M. Bressler, Philip J. Goodhart, Daniel
P. Hays, Isaac Landman, David Leventritt,
Philip H. Lustig, Nathan J. Miller, Adolph
S. Ochs, Morris H. Rothschild, Henry M.
Toch and Ludwig Vogelstein.

It was moved and duly carried that Mr.
Mortimer L. Schiff, of New York City, be
elected a member of the Executive Board
to fill the unexpired term of his father,
Mr. Jacob H. Schiff, deceased.

It was moved and duly carried that Mr.
Jacob W. Mack, of Cincinnati, be elected
a member of the Executive Board of the
Union to fill the unexpired term of Judge
Max B. May, of Cincinnati, resigned.

It was moved and duly carried that Mr.
Emil Nathan, of St. Louis, be elected a
member of the Executive Board to fill the
unexpired term of Colonel Harry Cutler,



It was moved and duly carried that Mr.
Simeon M. Johnson, of Cincinnati, be
elected a member of the Board of Managers
of Synagog and School Extension to fill
the unexpired term of Judge Max B. May
of Cincinnati, resigned.
It was moved and duly carried that Col-
onel Harris Weinstock, of San Francisco,
be elected a member of the Board of Gov-
ernors of the Hebrew Union College to fill
the unexpired term of Mr Henry Wangen-
heim, of San Francisco, deceased.

In connection with the report of the Presi-
dent of the National Federation of Temple
Sisterhoods, it was moved and duly car-
ried that the request for an appropriation to

cover the expense of an additional Field
Secretary be referred to the President with
power to act.

In accordance with the Minutes of the last
meeting of the Executive Board, the Presi-
dent appointed the following committee on
Program for the Twenty-seventh Coun-
cil of the Union: Mr. S. Rheinstrom, Mr.
Alfred M. Cohen, Mr. Herman Wile, Mr.
Jacob R. Morse and Mr. A. L. Saltzstein.

The special Committee appointed to draft
suitable resolutions in memory of Mr. I. W.
Hellman, Jr., presented the following reso-
lutions, which were unanimouslyy adopted:


3n Olemoriam


The Union of American Hebrew Congregations, in company with many
other organizations and institutions, mourns the passing of I. W. Hellman, Jr.,
of San Francisco, California, a member of the Executive Board, and is proud
to place on its records this expression of its appreciation of his character
and worth.

Mr. Hellman was for many years a loyal friend and generous supporter
of the Union. He was an enthusiastic champion of its aims and purposes
and a zealous co-worker of its propaganda activities on the Western coast.
He became a member of the Executive Board in 1919, filling the place of
the late Jesse W. Lilienthal.

He was deeply interested in all matters Jewish in the city of his residence,
a valued officer of Temple Emanuel and a leader and officer in many other
organizations, and was affiliated actively with all the leading social and philan-
thropic institutions of San Francisco.

His passing at so early an age leaves a great void not only in the circles
in which he was active in the city of San Francisco, but in the councils of
the Union and in every sphere of activity in behalf of the cause of Judaism,
to which he was devoted and in the furtherance of which he was so deeply

Resolved, That this tribute to a loyal Jew, a noble man and an exemplary
citizen be recorded on our minutes and a copy sent to the bereaved family.

The Executive Board of the Union of
American Hebrew Congregations.
Sigmund Rheinstrom,
Julius Rosenwald,
Simeon M. Johnson,
George Zepin,


__ __I___ ~I __ _


Mr. Daniel P. Hays, Chairman of the
Sub-Committee on Synagog Pension Fund,
submitted the following letter, addressed to
Lim by Mr. L. Vogelstein, as the report of
the Committee.
It was moved and duly carried that the
same be received and spread upon the Min-
On Board the Mauretania,
March 25th, 1920.
Daniel P. Hays, Esq.,
115 Broadway,
New York City.
My Dear Mr. Hays:
Since last June's meeting of the Execu-
tive Committee of the U. A. H. C. when you
were appointed Chairman of the Sub-com-
mittee on Pension Fund, I have studied the
question and the report made by the pre-
vious sub-committee.
In view of the difference of opinion which
arose between Rabbi Zepin on one side and
-you and myself on the other side, I have
gone over the sub-committee's report once
more most carefully, but can only reiterate
my serious objections to the plan as out-
lined, which in my humble opinion is not
feasible. In criticising the plan submitted
I do not wish to question in the least the
high ideals which guided the formulators of
the plan, and beg to state most emphatically
that I consider it one of our foremost du-
ties to introduce a pension system; however,
because I am of this opinion I desire to
recommend a scheme which can be put into
effect at once, even though my plan may
have grave shortcomings. Before going
into the details of any plan I wish to dis-
cuss a few questions of fundamental im-
portance for any plan to be submitted:
The plan limits the pension fund to Rab-
bis (43rd Annual Report, p. 8153). Should
cantors not be included? I do not see any
reason for excluding them.
The restrictions as to remarriage (43rd
An. Rep., p. 8462) I would suggest that in
case of the death of a Rabbi who does not
leave a widow but leaves children under the
age of eighteen, the widow's pension be
paid such children until they reach the age
of eighteen. This will probably not add to
the cost of insurance.
One of the serious objections to the plan

submitted is the necessity of getting three
hundred congregations to join (43rd An.
Rep., p. 8154). It seems, to say the least,
doubtful whether the assent of 300 congre-
gations could be obtained in a short time.
This stipulation which appears necessary
under the proposed plan for actuarial rea-
sons would therefore put off the plan for
many years.
The question of increased salary (45th
An. Rep., p. 8461) should receive more seri-
ous consideration. I believe no increase in
salary of a man over sixty years should be
considered by the pension fund unless it
was paid for at least three years prior to
retirement. Premiums paid for less than
three years should be refunded to the con-
gregations. (If our plan of placing the
Pension Fund with an Insurance Company
should be adopted, this proviso might be
revised in accordance with the stipulations
of the Insurance Company).
Minister changing his occupation (45th
An. Rep., p.-8462): the proviso should be
enlarged giving the minister the right to
continue to pay premiums as though he re-
mained in the ministry, getting the full
benefit of the pension.
All the above remarks are of minor im-
portance; the vital issue lies in the amount
of money necessary to carry out the plan.
In accordance with the plan, the U. A. H.
C. will set aside $100,000 per annum for
ten years for the fund (45th An. Rep., p.
8497) the fund must be guaranteed and
the amount should be enlarged to an equi-
valent of $1,348,700 (45th An. Rep., p.
8459). In as much as this amount would
have to be on a cash basis, and assuming
4% interest on deferred payments, allowing
the deduction of $112,400 available at pres-
ent, it would take eighteen years at the
rate of annual payments of $100,000 to es-
tablish this fund. In other words, the
Union would have to guarantee and pledge
its credit for a period of eighteen years at
the rate of $100,000 to proceed with this
plan, while in the meantime the whole
scheme might collapse owing to lack of
participation on the part of the congrega-
tions, three hundred of which have to join
(43rd An. Rep., p. 8154) in order to de-
clare the plan operative.
The whole plan hinges upon the Union's
financial position, and in turn the Union's



existence would be bound up with our abil-
ity to raise for eighteen years not less
than $100,000 per annum, because the pen-
sion fund once inaugurated becomes not
only a moral but a legal obligation of the
Union and the payments are executory, or,
if in default, the congregation and the rab-
bis are, to use a strong expression, cheated
out of their money.

The history of lodges, benevolent asso-
ciations, etc., are a grave warning against
such a procedure, but these organizations
differ from our scheme in so far as in their
instance the contributor is also the benefi-
ciary and therefore has to blame himself
for a foolish investment. In our case the
beneficiary is a third person, the contributor
is his congregation and the Union stands
in loco Insurance Company and would un-
dertake -a venturesome enterprise if it as-
sumed a responsibility like the one proposed.
What have the proponents to show as to
the Union's ability to carry out its obliga-
tions? Merely that in 1919 an intensive
campaign produced about $350,000, not in
annual subscriptions but largely as dona-
tions. On the other hand, the financial
struggles of the Union are too well known
to us to be so readily forgotten, and we
are all seriously doubting our ability to
raise a similar fund annually. The Union
has barely been able to reestablish its capi-
tal and endowment funds which had been
encroached upon during the past ten years
or so. If the pension obligation is assumed
by the Union it becomes legally and mor-
ally the first lien on the Union's treasury
and all other work would have to be set
aside in default of funds. The action of the
Convention in voting two-thirds of the ex-
cess over $200,000 annual receipts to the
fund is no guarantee or safeguard; if such
should be available it can be used to ex-
cellent advantage for the pension fund un-
der the plan which I am going to propose,
in order to extend the scope of the system
more quickly than we can forsee today.
I respectfully submit that there is a vast
difference between voting funds which have
been collected and guaranteeing funds to be
collected. No careful business man would
be willing to guarantee under similar cir-
cumstances in his own business what the
Union is expected to guarantee. Assuming
that a business man had an income of $12,-

000 per annum for a number of years, and
owing to special efforts and good luck in-
creased his income to $325,000 in one year
and his expenses to $200,000; do you think
he would be ready to guarantee an addi-
tional $100,000 for eighteen years and risk
You will see from the above statements
that my objections to the plan are merely
and solely based on the Union's inability to
carry it out and a casual glance at the
actuarial cost as given in the plan (45th
An. Rep., p. 8461) fully explains the situa-
tion. If the premium of 9% for ages under
thirty years rises to nearly 100% at the age
of sixty-three years, and to 50% at the
age of fifty-nine years, it stands to reason
that it is cheaper and more business like
to eliminate such men who would obligate
the Union to set aside a larger amount of
money than they could ever receive. For
instance take a man of sixty-three with a
salary of $5,000; under the plan proposed
his congregation would have to pay:
8% ....................... $ 400
The Union would pay 89%.. 4,500
For five years............. $24,500
Plus interest at 4% abt.... 1,050 S25,550
The retiring minister at the age of sixty-
eight, would then be entitled to $2,500 per
annum pension, or in other words, he would
have to live to an age of over eighty years
to receive back in pensions the amount con-
tributed in his behalf. It seems reasonable
to suppose that most of the better situated
congregations are prepared even today to
pay a compensation to a retiring rabbi, and
the urgent need for a pension fund would
only apply to smaller congregations and to
low salaried rabbis.
If, however, it be true that the Union is
unable to raise the necessary funds to carry
through a complete pension system at once,
is there any reason why this system would
not or should not be gradually introduced?
This argument led me to investigate the
pension question in the light of what can
be practically carried out, i. e., at an an-
nual expense which the Union could afford
to assume. I also came to the conclusion
that for a number of weighty reasons, par-
ticularly the prompt introduction of a pen-
sion system, the desirability of having it
handled by experienced people, the neces-
sity of making it proof against unforseen



losses in the first years while the fund is
being built up, and finally the doubt
whether we can corral three-hundred con-
gregations at the beginning-it would be
more advisable to have the pension system
handled by an Insurance Company of high
standing. Such a company would in itself
be a guarantee for the success of the sys-
tem and relieve the Union from all other
obligations except to provide the initial
fund. On the basis of group insurance the
Metropolitan Life Insurance Company sub-
mitted the following premium rates:
25-30..... 9% 50-55..... 24%
30-35.....10% 55-60..... 35%
35-40.....12% 60-65..... 59%
40-45.....14% 65- .....165%
You will note that the rates are slightly
lower than those mentioned on page ten
of the report.
The plan I suggest is to limit the pen-
sion fund for the time being to ministers
under the age of forty-five permitting, how-
ever, all congregations to participate, pro-
vided they pay the additional premium for
ministers over forty-five. According to
records available there are 262 ministers
below 45 years of age.
The congregations would pay the Insur-
ance Company the base rate of 8% per
annum on the minister's salary, limited as
far as the Union is concerned to $5,000,
i. e., if they desire to pay a pension of over
$2,500, any additional expense would be
for account of the respective congregation.
The Union would have to provide a fund
of $450,000 in order to cover the excess
premium above the base rate, owing to the
fact that a large number of ministers are
above the age of thirty years. This pay-
ment of $450,000 cash could be commuted
into 10, 15 or 20 years' annual payments;
I figure roughly it would take:
11 yearly payments of about $50,000
or 15 yearly payments of about 40,000
or 20 yearly payments of about 30,000
The Union could fix the amount of annual
payments reasonably according to its own
convenience, while the Insurance Company's
standing would amply guarantee the fulfil-
ment of the pension contract. This plan
would not bar ministers above the age of
forty-five from joining the pension system

immediately, provided their congregations
should be willing to assume the additional
cost of such insurances.
The Union could well afford to allow all
ministers to join, though, of course, the
above amount would have to be increased.
For instance, suppose in addition to minis-
ters of an age below forty-five there was a
desire on the part of a congregation which
has a minister of the age above forty-five
but below fifty, receiving a salary of $5,000,
to join, the cost would have to be distri-
buted as follows:
Total cost, 18% on $5,000 ........... $900
Cong. base rate 9% ............. $450
Cong. Excess over 45 years,
18%-14%=4% ................ 200

Cong. Total annually ............ $650
Union difference bet. base rate 9%
and 40/45 class 14%=5% ..... $250
This plan is feasible also in accordance
with the financial condition of the Union;
for instance, the plan could be started-with
ministers at -an age below forty, according
to our records 183, at a cash cost to the
Union of $200,000 or twenty annual pay-
ments of about $12,500. On the other hand,
should the Union be financially strong
enough to assume additional burdens it
could extend the plan in a few years for
ministers up to fifty years, by paying the
necessary amount either in cash or deferred
annual payments into the Insurance Com-
It stands to reason, however, that under
no circumstances should ministers of an age
over fifty be included in the present plan,
because the high cost of such insurance is
out of proportion to its benefits and it
seems more advisable for either the con-
gregation or the Union or both, to handle
individual cases on an emergency basis.
I would recommend that in addition to
the amount to be set aside annually for the
pension fund ,a sum of money be reserved
for the purpose of taking care of such
emergency cases during the next twenty to
twenty-five years; by that time the pension
system, if now adopted for men up to forty-
five, would be universal and no further
need for such funds would exist.
If it should be decided by the Executive
Committee to adopt the plan and assume
the obligation of ten annual payments of



about $55,000, we could set aside for the
first ten years $10,000 annually, and there-
after $25,000 annually for emergency cases.
If the cash payment should be commuted
into twenty annual payments of $30,000,
the emergency fund might receive $15,000
per annum.
In view of past experience such proviso
should be ample to cover cases which
need outside help, while the burden of
most other cases will continue to remain
on the shoulders of the individual congre-
gations, until about twenty to twenty-
five years the whole ministry would be
covered by our pension system.
Grave objections have been raised to my
suggestions which should not be brushed
aside without being carefully analyzed.
1. The plan is abortive land does not
take care of those who are most likely to
be in need of it:
While this must be admitted as true I
beg to submit that under this plan at least
some ministers will be benefitted and a
beginning will be made, while the inclusion
of all ministers would make it necessary
to postpone the plan for many years more,
thus making it more difficult later on.
Those who are in urgent need would be
taken care of out of the emergency fund.
2. The adoption of this plan would
alienate some congregations and ministers
who would be excluded owing to the age
I cannot take this objection very seri-
ously and hope that men are going to be
altruistic enough to see the great benefits
which only temporarily accrue to others,
but in which they are going to participate
in the course of time.
3. The adoption of -a limited pension
plan deprives us of a drawing card for
propaganda for the Union. Granted, but
is it a better drawing card to make vain
promises which cannot be put into prac-
tice, or to make a start with a pension
system and have at once a practical dem-
onstration and application of it at least
50% of our congregations?
4. We are breaking faith with our con-
tributors, particularly Mr. Schiff. I feel
confident that every business man and
surely Mr. Schiff, is going to endorse the
plan if properly presented to him.

In conclusion I want to say that I feel
that the introduction of a pension system
is imperative, that the lack of it is a dis-
grace to the Jewish community, but that
we cannot be expected to correct all the
shortcomings of the past two generations
at once. Therefore, if we make an effort
to remedy the situation, our effort should
be honest and within the limitations which
our supporters have placed upon us. We
should not hold out to our supporters uto-
pian ideas, but show by our action and our
inability to do more the urgent necessity
for more generous support.
Yours very truly,
The subject matter of the report of the
Synagog Pension Fund Commission and the
report of the Sub-Committee were discussed
informally. At the. close of the discus-
sion the following resolution, presented by
Mr. Simeon M. Johnson, was unanimously
"RESOLVED, that this Board favors the
immediate adoption of a practical plan for
establishing a Pension Fund for Rabbis
through the agency of an insurance com-
pany, and as an earnest thereof, favors that
there be appropriated annually, a sum not
in excess of twenty thousand dollars ($20,-
000), to carry out said plan whenever said
plan is adopted.
"Be it further resolved that the Sub-Com-
mittee on Synagog Pension Fund be ap-
pointed and that it be instructed to formu-
late such a plan for submission to the next
Biennial Council of the Union."
The Chairman appointed the following
Sub-Committee to formulate the plan elabo-
rated in the course of the discussion: Mr.
L. Vogelstein, Chairman, Mr. D. P. Hays,
Mr. A. L. Saltstein and Mr. A. M. Cohen.
A communication from the Joint Distri-
bution Committee was presented to the
Board requesting the assistance of the
Union in a project for adopting European
orphans. It was moved and duly carried
that the Secretary be instructed to render
such assistance as is within the power of
this organization.

/ President.



Proceedings of the Executive Board

Hotel Lafayette, Buffalo, N. Y.,
May 23, 1921.
Pursuant to the call of the President,
the Executive Board met at the above place
and date at 10 A. M.
Present: Messrs. N. H. Beckman, A. M.
Cohen, G. A. Efroymson, I. Goldberg, D. P.
Hays, A. L. Levi, J. W. Mack, J. R. Morse,
A. S. Ochs, M. Rauh, S. Rheinstrom, M. D.
Rosenberg, S. W. Rosendale, L. Schlesinger,
J. Schnadig, Charles Shohl, S. Straus, L.
Vogelstein, J. Wiesenfeld, H. Wile, A. Wolf
and W. B. Woolner.
Vice-President Mr. Charles Shohl pre-
Secretary Rabbi George Zepin recorded
the minutes.

Letters were presented from the following
members of the Board who were unable to
attend the meeting: Messrs. J. Walter Frei-
berg, Fred E. Bruml, A. Kraus, A. L. Saltz-
stein and Isaac Schoen.
It was moved and duly carried that the
presiding officer send a telegram of greet-
ing to Mr. J. Walter Freiberg, expressing
the regret of the members of the Executive
Board at his absence.

To the Executive Board of the Union of
American Hebrew Congregations.
The Constitution of the Union of Amer-
ican Hebrew Congregations does not pro-
vide any definite business for this meeting.
The meeting that usually precedes the Coun-
cil takes the place of the meeting held in
December, where the annual reports are re-
At the last meeting of the Executive
Board, January 16, 1921, annual reports
from all the departments of the Union were
received and ordered to be placed before
the XXVII Council of the Union. The only,
report that was not in hand at that time
was the report of the New York Executive

Committee, which has since been received
and is ready for presentation at this meet-

Providing for Fifty Instead of Forty Mem-
bers of the Executive Board
The following amendment to the Consti-
tution was proposed at the XXVII Council
of the Union, Boston, May 22, 1919, by
Congregation Rodef Shalom of Pittsburgh,
Pa., and in accordance with the provisions
of the Constitution was referred to the Ex-
ecutive Board for an expression of opinion.
Resolved-That Section 9 of the Constitu-
tion, entitled "Executive Board", shall be
amended to read as follows:
Section 9. The Council shall elect fifty
members (nine of whom shall constitute
a quorum), to be styled the Executive
Board, whose office shall be in Cincinnati,
Ohio. The term of office shall be four
years and until their successors are elected.
Twenty-five members shall be elected by
each Council.
Since the last meeting of the Executive
Board the following (8) Congregations have
joined the Union, with an aggregate mem-
bership of 4,955, making our full list 230
Congregations and the individual member-
ship 35,862:
New York, N. Y.-Sinai Congregation of
the Bronx.
New York, N. Y.-Congregation Mt. Ne-
New York, N. Y.-Congregation Mt. Zion.
St. Louis, Mo.-Congregation B'nai El.
Racine, Wis.-Congregation Sinai.
Minneapolis, Minn.-Congregation Temple
Wilmington, N. C.-Congregation Temple
Chicago, Ill.-Congregation B'nai Abra-
Since the close of the last fiscal year we
have collected on subscriptions $142,628.06
as compared to $129,517.222 at the close of
May of 1920.


I take pleasure in reporting that the
Laymen's Tour conducted during the month
of November was brought to a successful
close. About two hundred meetings were
held in various cities and over one hun-
dred and twenty-five laymen traveled at
their own expense to various points to ad-
dress these meetings. We have received a
great many letters asking us to make a tour
of this description an annual feature of
our work.
It will be of interest to the members of
the Board to realize that the department of
our income, known as the Hebrew Union
College Scholarship, is steadily increasing
by reason of the activities of the National
Federation of Temple Sisterhoods. In the
report submitted at the last Executive Board
meeting it was stated that the Federation
had raised thirty-seven Scholarships. At
the present time the Sisterhood has already
collected $12,490, equivalent to 38 Scholar-
ships, for the first seven months of the
present fiscal year.
Since the last meeting of the Board the
president has appointed Mr. Edward R.
Cohen a member of the New York Execu-
tive Committee, and Mr. Samuel M. New-
burger has been appointed a member of the
New York Committee for School Extension.
These appointments are presented to your
attention for the approval of the Executive
Respectfully submitted,
GEORGE ZEPIN, Secretary.

It was moved and duly carried that the
proposed amendment to the Constitution,
enlarging the Executive Board from forty to
fifty members, be referred to the XXVII
Council of the Union with the approval of
the Executive Board.
It was moved and duly carried that the
appointment of Mr. Edward R. Cohen on
the New York Executive Committee and
Mr. Samuel M. Newburger on the New
York Committee for School Extension be

A communication was presented from Mr.
Abram I. Elkus, President of the Execu-
tive Council of the Free Synagog, New
York City, setting forth the fact that the

Free Synagog was about to establish a rab-
binical seminary and requesting the ap-
proval and cooperation of the Union of
American Hebrew Congregations.
It was moved and duly carried that the
matter be referred to a special committee
to be appointed by the presiding officer,
and that the committee be instructed to in-
quire into the matter and to report at a
future meeting of the Executive Board.

The annual report of the New York Ex-
ecutive Committee was presented by Mr.
Daniel P. Hays, Chairman (see page 8821
of the Proceedings).
It was moved and duly carried that the
same be referred to the XXVII Council of
the Union.
It was moved and duly carried that the
Committee on Finance and Auditing be em-
powered to negotiate with Mr. Manny
Strauss for the purpose of fixing upon
some form of recognition of his past ser-

The Chairman of the Special Committee
on Synagog Pension Plans, Mr. Ludwig
Vogelstein, reported verbally with reference
to the progress of the work of the commit-
It was moved and duly carried that the
Committee be given further time to present
a report in writing.

The Committee on Program for the XXVII
Council reported the completion of the pro-
It was moved and duly carried that the
report of the Committee be accepted with
the thanks of the Executive Board.

A communication was presented from the
National Federation of Temple Sisterhoods,
requesting authority of the Executive Board
for entering upon a campaign to raise $250,-
000 to finance the building of a dormitory
at the Hebrew Union College.
It was moved and duly carried that the
National Federation of Temple Sisterhoods



be encouraged in its efforts to raise a fund
of $250,000 for the Hebrew Union College
Dormitory, and that the work be facilitated
by the Executive Board in every possible
way. Mr. Daniel P. Hays of New York
City requested to have his negative vote
recorded in the minutes.

Correspondence was presented from the
officers of the Near East Relief Association
requesting the adoption of resolutions
pledging the Union of American Hebrew
Congregations to the support of the work
undertaken by this body.
It was moved and duly carried that the
resolutions be referred to the XXVII Coun-
It was moved and duly carried that the
allowance to Mr. Simon Wolf for office ex-
penses be $300.00 per month, and that the
same shall date from January 1, 1921.

TON, D. C.
Correspondence presented from Mr. Si-
mon Wolf of Washington, reciting the fact
that he had obtained permission of the au-
thorities to hang a picture of Dr. Isaac
M. Wise in the National Gallery, Washing-

It was moved and duly carried that a
painting of Dr. Wise be secured for presen-
tation to the National Gallery at a cost not
to exceed $1,000, and that the details of
the arrangements be left to the President
of the Executive Board.

Correspondence was presented from the
American Jewish Committee requesting the
assistance of the Union of American He-
brew Congregations to the extent of $1,000
for religious work among the Falashas of
It was moved and duly carried that this
request be refused owing to the absence of
adequate funds.
Correspondence was presented from the
Jewish Welfare Board regarding the ap-
pointment of a member on the Committee
on Chaplains of that organization to repre-
sent the Union of American Hebrew Con-
It was moved and duly carried that the
President of the Union be authorized to
make this appointment.

S^p President.


(Continued on page


The Annual


All Departments


The Secretary's Report

To the Executive Board of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations.
I have the honor to report that the Union now has a membership of 222 congrega-
tions, comprising an individual membership of 30,837 persons. This represents a gain,
since the last report made to the Executive Board at its meeting held on December 21,
1919, of 5,509 persons or 21%. Since the last report 15 congregations have joined the
Union as follows:

Jackson, Tenn ...............Congregation B'nai Israel
Schenectady, N. Y............Congregation Sharei Shomajim
Pensacola, Fla.............. Congregation Beth El
Troy, New York.............Congregation Berith Sholem
Louisville, Ky............... Congregation B'rith Sholom
Joplin, Mo ...................United Hebrew Congregation
Yonkers, N. Y .............. Temple Emanu-El
Oklahoma City, Okla........ .Congregation B'nai Israel
Brunswick, Ga.............. Congregation Beth Tefilloh
Brooklyn, N. Y.............. Congregation Beth Sholom-People's Temple
Uniontown, Pa...............Temple Israel
Fremont, Ohio.............. Fremont Hebrew Congregation
Tuscaloosa, Ala...............Temple Emanuel
Wichita Falls, Texas......... Temple Israel
Brooklyn, N. Y............. Constructive Synagogue


Since the last meeting of the Executive Board, Mr. J. Walter Freiberg, President,
made the following appointments which are subject to the approval of the Executive
On the Executive Board, Mr. Mortimer Fleishhacker, of San Francisco, to take the
place of Mr. I. W. Hellman, Jr., of San Francisco, deceased.
On the Board of Managers, Messrs. Philip J. Goodhart and Henry M. Toch, of
New York City.

Mr. J. Walter Freiberg, President, appointed the following to constitute the New
York Executive Committee of the Union, all of whom reside in New York City: Ben
Altheimer, Jacob Brenner, David M. Bressler, Philip J. Goodhart, Daniel P. Hays, isaac
Landman, David Leventritt, Philip H. Lustig, Nathan J. Miller, Adolph S. Ochs, Morris
H. Rothschild, Henry M. Toch, Ludwig Vogelstein.




There are two vacancies on the Executive Board due to the death of Mr. Harry
Cutler, of Providence, R. I., 2nd Vice President, and Mr. Jacob H. Schiff, of New York City.
There is one vacancy on the Board of Governors due to the death of Mr. Henry
Wangenheim, of San Francisco.
There are two vacancies on the Board of Delegates due to the death of Mr. Harry
Cutler and the resignation of Judge Max B. May, of Cincinnati.


In a communication received from Mr. Herman Wile, of Buffalo, the request was
made on behalf of the Buffalo community that the XXVII Council, which is to meet in
that city, postpone its meeting from the usual time in January to a date in May or June.
The vote of the members of the Executive Board on this proposition was solicited by
mail with the following result: Twenty-two voted for a date in May; three, May or
June; three, June; three, January; two had no preference, and seven did not vote. In
accordance with this vote, the date of the XXVII Council was set by the President for
May 23, 1921.


The details under this head are found in the report of the Public Accountant. There
are a number of outstanding features in this connection to which I desire to call your
particular attention.


The total amount'received in dues during the past fiscal year was $33,800.75 as
against $23,898.00 in the preceding year, an increase of $9,902.75 of 41%.
The Twenty-sixth Council of the Union, held in Boston, authorized the appointment
of a Commission on Congregational Membership. This Commission was appointed by
the President and subsequently made a report which was sent to all the congregations
in the Union. This was followed up by a Double-Your-Membership-Campaign stimuated
by the Union and conducted in a large number of cities where the Union is represented.
A considerable increase in individual memberships resulted. This increase in member-
ship is reflected in the increase in the total of this years dues over last year's.


In the Accountants Report subscriptions to the Union are listed under two heads:
General Maintenance Subscriptions and Synagog and School Extension Subscriptions,
making a total for the fiscal year of $177,542.32. For the preceding fiscal year the re-
ceipts under these heads totaled $320,245.56, which indicates a considerable falling off
for this year.

Memorial Donations and Bequests

The total under this head is $8,625.00 contrasted with $15,650.00 in the preceding
fiscal year and $12,064.50 ,the year before. This is purely accidental. These amounts
vary from'year to year and bear no relation to the financial campaign.




Only one loan was made during the fiscal year. This was in the month of January,
before the opening of the year's campaign, and amounted to $12,000.00. It is to be noted
that this loan was liquidated at the end of a month and a half.


Fifteen thousand seven hundred and sixty dollars was received for scholarships as
against $9,008.85 in the preceding year. Three items are included under this head.
Repayment of loans by former students, gifts from congregations and individuals and
scholarships from Sisterhoods. The total amount received, deducting refunds, repre-
sents 49 scholarship units. By far the largest number of scholarships were received
from the Sisterhoods, which contributed 37 units out of the total number.

Sale of Text Books

The sale of Religious School textbooks in the last fiscal year amounted to $7,351.66
as against $4,044.53 in the preceding year, an increase of 82%.

Tract Commission Income

In the fiscal year ending October 31, 1919, the receipts for the Tract Commission
amounted to $1,086.50. The receipts under this head for the current year show a con-
siderable falling off, the total received being $482.91. This is explained by the fact that
we have adopted the practice of not asking regular contributors to the Union to make
separate contributions for tracts. The amounts contributed during the last year were
received from cities where there was no campaign.

The Endowment Fund

Formerly our funds were divided into two classes, General Maintenance and Endow-
ment. Recently there has been a disposition on the part of some of those who give
amounts for special purposes to have the various funds separated in some way. In
accordance with this idea we now have the following endowment and special funds:
Endowment Fund, Scholarships Fund, Hermine Schonthal Publication Fund, Manny
Strauss Propaganda Fund and Synagog Pension Fund.


The various departments of the Union submit bills covering their respective expendi-
tures. In addition to the work of these several departments there are certain activities
which are carried on in the executive offices of the Union. The expenditures incurred
by these activities, which are audited by a special Committee known as the Auditing
and Finance Committee, are given below in detail.




Year Ended October 31, 1920

Auditing Books .......................................................
Stationery .............. . ................. .. ....... ............
Periodicals .............................. .......................
Rent ................................ ............................
Safety Deposit Box Rent ............... ...........................
Postage ...................... ........ ......... ...........
Fire Insurance Premium..............................................
Printing ............................. .........................
Officials' Bonds Premium ..............................................
Salaries ........................... ...........................
Publication of Resolutions ...........................................
Advertising ....................................................
Telegrams ........................... ........................
Office Furniture................................. ..............
Expressage ...................................................
New York Executive Committee ........................................
Refunder on Subscriptions ............... .........................
Union Bulletin.... .............................................
M miscellaneous ................. .................. .. .......
Union Tidings .......................................................
Refund Claimed by Congregations for Money Expended in their Local
Campaigns ......................... .......................

Traveling Expenses-
Rabbi Zepin ........................................ $1,127.43
Rabbi Schwarz ............. ........................ 711.49




Respectfully submitted,
GEORGE ZEPIN, Secretary.

Accountant's Report

Report of Public Accountants

Cincinnati, April 1, 1921.

To the President and Members of the Executive Board of The Union of American Hebrew
Congregations, Cincinnati, Ohio.
In accordance with your instructions we have examined the books and accounts of
the Union of American Hebrew Congregations, for the year ended October 31, 1920,
and beg to report as follows-submitting in part the following Schedules:

SCHEDULE "A"-Balance Sheet at October 31, 1920.

SCHEDULE "B"-General Fund, Receipts and Disbursements, Cash Balance and Finan-
cial Condition.

SCHEDULE "C"-Endowment Fund, Receipts and Disbursements, Cash Balance and
Financial Condition.

SCHEDULE "D"-Hermine Schonthal Publication Fund, Receipts and Disbursements,
Cash Balance and Financial Condition.

SCHEDULE "E"-Manny Strauss Propaganda Fund, Receipts and Disbursements, Cash
Balance and Financial Condition.

SCHEDULE "F"-Statement of Securities.

SCHEDULE "G"-Individual Endowed Scholarship Funds, included in the Endowment

SCHEDULE "H"-Statement of Receipts and Disbursements for the Department of
Synagog and School Extension.

SCHEDULE "I"-Statement of Contingent Fund of Department of Synagog and School

SCHEDULE "J"-Synagog Pension Fund, Receipts and Disbursements, Cash Balance
and Financial Condition.

These Schedules as submitted herewith are supported by Sundry Exhibits, showing
the detail of the principal items therein contained.
We have examined all receipts and disbursements, and find same properly entered
upon the books. The bonds deposited in the Safety Deposit Vault at the Central Trust
Company were examined and verified by us.
This report, in our opinion, correctly states the receipts and disbursements for the
current year and reflects the true financial condition as of October 31, 1920.

Respectfully submitted,

By R. Smethurst, Jr.,
Certified Public Accountant.





At October 31, 1920

Deficit in General Fund...........Exhibit 1 $48,077.86
Balance in Endowment Fund....... Exhibit 1 63,861.65
Deficit in Hermine Schonthal Pub. Fund
Exhibit 1 50.00

Total Cash Balance.......Exhibit 2 $15,733.79

Investment-Par Value-
General Fund.............................. 147,600.00
Endowment Fund ......................... 425,800.00
Manny Strauss Propaganda Fund............ 25,000.00
Hermine Schonthal Publicaton Fund......... 10,000.00

Total Investments ................... 608,400.00

Premium and Interest-
General Fund- Bonds....................... 1,620.58
Endowment Fund-Bonds.................... 11,552.63
Hermine Schonthal Pub. Fund-Bonds......... 50.00

Total Premium and Interest.......... 13,223.21

College Building ............................... 217,799.49

Total Assets .................... $855,156.49


General Fund .................................... $91,681.27
Endowment ................................... 494,328.92
Manny Strauss Propaganda Fund................. 25,000.00
Hermine Schonthal Publication Fund............. 10,000.00
Discounts on Investments Purchased-
General Fund .............................. 9 ,461.45
Endowment Fund.......................... 6,885.36

Total Discounts ..................... 16,346.81
College Building Fund .......................... 217,799.49

Total Liabilities ................... .





At October 31, 1920

General Fund Deficit .......... .......................... .$48,077.86
Endowment Fund............................................ 63,861.65
Hermine Schonthal Publication Fund Deficit.................... 50.00
Manny Strauss Propaganda Fund ............................. .00

Cash Balance all Funds in Fourth Natl. Bank...............



At October 31, 1920

Fourth National Bank-

Balance at Close of Business October 31, 1920..............

Less: Outstanding Checks-

No. 239 I. Bloom, Secretary ....................... $9,760.34
240 George Zepin, Director ..................... 721.75
241 George Zepin, Director ..................... 5,886.77
242 George Zepin, Director ..................... 1,005.74
243 Simon Wolf............................... 175.00
244 Ben Altheimer, Treas ............. ......... 611.36

Total Outstanding Checks..................

Balance as per Books Oct. 31, 1920 .................. .......









A. Receipts and Disbursements for Year Ended October 31, 1920


For Maintenance of All Departments-
Dues from Congregations...........
General Maintenance Subscriptions..
Memorial Donations and Bequests...
M miscellaneous ...................
Interest on Securities ..............
Interest on Bank Deposits..........
National Federation of Temple Sister-
hoods .......................
Interest on Manny Strauss Propa-
ganda Fund...................

Total for Maintenance of all
Depts. ...............

For Hebrew Union College-
Memorial Donations and Bequests...
Subscriptions and Donations for
Scholarships ..................
Interest from Endowment Fund Se-
curities ......................

Total for Hebrew Union College.

For Teachers' Institute-
From the Jacob H. Schiff Foundation.

For Synagog & School Extension-
Subscriptions .....................
Summer Services..................
Religious Text Books ..............

Total for Synagog and School Ex-
tension ...................

For Tract Commission-
Subscriptions .....................

For Work in New York City-
Subscriptions Through Federation
of Jewish Philanthropic Societies....

Total Receipts for General Fund.

$ 33,800.75

















SCHEDULE "B" (Continued)


Board of Governors, Hebrew Union College
Board of Managers, Synagog and School
Extension ......................
Board of Delegates ....................
New York Executive Committee.........
New York Committee for School Extension
Refund to New York Committee.........
Taxes, Street Improvement ............
Finance and Auditing Committee.........
National Federation of Temple Sisterhoods
Interest on Call Loan .................
Interest Accrued on Bond Purchases.....

Total Disbursements ..........

Excess Receipts over Disbursements....

*As against this excess of $47,327.43, there
beginning of the year.

$ 85,160.04




was an overdraft of $61,191.29 at the

B. Statement of Cash Balance at October 31, 1920.
Deficit at November 1, 1919..............................
Add: Excess Receipts for Year Ended Oct. 31, 1920...$ 47,327.43
Securities Matured and Sold................. 20,000.00
Borrowed M onies ............................. 12,000.00

Less: Securities Purchased......................... 52,214.00
Borrowed Monies Repaid..................... 12,000.00
Transfer to Hermine Schonthal Publication Fund 2,000.00

Deficit at October 31, 1920...............................

0. Statement of Financial Condition of General Fund-
Cash Overdraft at October 31, 1920 ....................
Investm ents ....................................... 147,600.00
Add: Premium and Interest..................... 1,620.58

Less: Discounts .............................. 9,461.45

Net Cost of Investments..... ..............

Balance in General Fund................












A. Receipts and Disbursements for Year Ended Oct. 31, 1920-
Scholarships ....................................... $ 1,000.00
Donations ................ ....................... 350.00

Total Receipts .................................. $ 1,350.00
Disbursements for Expenses-
None ............................................. .00

Excess Receipts Over Disbursements .............. 1,350.00

B. Statement of Cash Balance at October 31, 1920.
Cash Balance at November 1, 1919 ....................... 68,031.65
Add: Receipts for the Year Ended October 31, 1920... 1,350.00
Securities Matured and Sold................... 41,943.40


Less: Securities Purchased......................... 44,963.40
Transfer to Hermine Schonthal Pub. Fund...... 2,500.00


Cash Balance at October 31, 1920 ................ 63,861.65

C. Statement of Financial Condition of Endowment Fund-
Cash Balance at October 31, 1920....................... 63,861.65
Investments ................. .................... 425,800.00
Add: Premium and Interest....................... 11,552.63

Less: Discounts .................................. 6,885.36

Net Cost of Investments........................ 430,467.27

Balance in Endowment Fund ..................... 494,328.92




A. Receipts and Disbursements for Year Ended Oct. 31, 1920-
From Joseph Schonthal .............................
Disbursements for Expenses-
None ........................................

Excess Receipts over Disbursements..............




B. Statement of Cash Balance at Oct. 31, 1920-
Receipts for year ended Oct. 31, 1920................ ....... 5,500.00
Transfer from General Fund ............................. 2,000.00
Transfer from Endowment Fund ........................ 2,500.00

Less: Securities purchased ............................. 10,050.00

Deficit at October 31, 1920 ........................... 50.00

C. Statement of Financial Condition of Hermine Scholthal Pub-
lication Fund-
Cash Overdraft at October 31, 1920 ......................
Investments ........................................... $10,000.00
Add: Premium ................................... 50.00

Cost of Investments ...........................

Balance in Hermine Schonthal Pub. Fund........






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For the Year Ended October 31, 1920

War Finance Corporation 5% Gold Bonds......
U. S. Certificates of Deposit..................
Cleveland, Ohio Bonds.......................
Reading, Ohio Bonds ........................
Pomeroy, Ohio Bonds .................. ....
Lakewood, Ohio Bonds.....................
Collinwood, Ohio Bonds ....................

Total Securities Sold ................. ..


Par Realization







For the Year Ended October 31, 1920

Par Value Prem. Discount Interest

U. S. Certificates of Indebtedness............
U. S. Cerificates of Deposit (Sold)............
Fourth Liberty Loan Bonds .................
Pacific Fruit Express Company Bonds.........
Portsmouth, Ohio Sewer Const. Bonds.........
Marion, Ohio Bonds ........................
Xenia, Ohio Bonds ........................-.
Delaware & Hudson Collat'l Trust Certificates.


Total Investments Purchased ............ $109,500.00
Fourth Liberty Loan Bonds (Donated)......... 250.00



$3,053.50 85.82
251.30 233.34

$782.20 $3,304.80 $712.77

Total ............................. $109,750.00

Note: Accrued interest amounting to $712.77 on bond purchases is charged to the
General Fund, .as this fund receives the benefit of all interest earnings.





At October 31, 1920

Scholarship Fund-
William Solomon Rayner Scholarship................... $7,500.00
Samuel Leon Frank Scholarship...................... 7,500.00
Madeline Wise Rheinstrom Scholarship................. 6,000.00
Mina & Louis I. Aaron, "Free" Scholarship............. 7,000.00
Mrs. Sarah Well Scholarship.......................... 1,000.00
Myer Oettinger Scholarship ............................ 7,500.00
Rev. Dr. Kaufmann Kohler Scholarship................. 2,500.00
Sol May Scholarship .................................. 10,000.00
Laura Seasongood Scholarship ......................... 7,610.00
Ella H. Philipson-Prize Essay............... .......... 1,500.00
Emil G. Hirsch Scholarship .................. .......... 6,000.00

Total Scholarship Fund ........................


$ 64,110.00




Statement of Receipts and Disbursements

For Year Ended Oct. 31, 1920

Citizens National Bank-

Balance at November 1, 1919 .................

From Union of American Hebrew Congregations
Payroll October 29, 1920 ................ ....

Less: Amount deposited in First Nat'l Bank
for Loans .................... .....

N et Receipts .......................

Office Expense .............................
Telephone ..................................
Express .............. .....................
R ent .....................................
Postage and Telegrams .............. .......
Salaries .................... .........
Insurance ............................... .
Office Furniture .........................
Less: Returns .........................

Traveling-Rabbi Rosen .....................
-Rabbi Egelson ..................
Rabbi Leiser .....................
Rabbi Zepin .....................
Supervisors' Expense .......................
Tract Commission ..........................
Farmers' W welfare ...........................
Sabbath School Exhibit ......................
Summer Services .........................
Publications ................................
Board of Editors ....... ..................
Chicago Committee .........................
Less: Refund ........................










125.00 26.16

New York Committee for School Extension..... $443.69
Less: Refund .......................... 100.00 343.69

Total Disbursements ...............

Cash Balance as per Books-Ex. 1........







At October 31, 1920

Citizens National Bank-

Balance at close of business Oct. 31, 1920 ................

Less: Outstanding Checks:
N o. 3763 ...............................
3776 ...............................
3777 ...............................
3778 ...............................
3779 ...............................
3780 ...............................
3781 ...............................
3782 ...............................
3783 ...............................
3784 ...............................
3785 ...............................
3786 ...............................
3787 ...............................
3788 ...............................
3789 ...............................
3790 ...............................
3791 ...............................

Total Outstanding Checks ..........................

Cash as per Books at Oct 31, 1920....................










For Year Ended October 31, 1920

First National Bank-
Balance at November 1, 1919 ......................... $822.57

Loans to various Departments repaid .................... $83,885.97
Synagog and School Extension Funds.................... 22,612.53


Synagog and School Extension.......................... $21,879.42
Loan to Union of American Hebrew Congregations......... 65,985.20
Loan to National Federation of Temple Sisterhoods........ 13,764.78
Advance payment to May & Kreidler ...................... 150.00
Loan for Traveling Expenses of Officers.................. 2,652.25
Loan to Board of Governors ........................... 21.30
Loan to Synagog Pension Fund ......................... 511.62
Loan to Post Office .................. ................. 165.00
Loan to Contingent Fund, New York Office............... 550.00
Loan for Miscellaneous ................................. 2.33
Loan to Union of Amercan Hebrew Congregations for Pur-
chase of Bonds ................................... 83.49


Balance in Contingent Fund-Exh. 1................ $1,555.68





At October 31, 1920

First National Bank-

Balance at close of business October 31, 1920........................ $8,801.55

Less: Outstanding Checks:
No.3485.... $15.00 No.3676.... $100.00
3644.... 2.50 3677.... .25
3650.... 1.78 3678.... 250.00
3652.... 21.88 3679.... 1.36
3653.... 11.29 3680.... 5.00
3655.... 19.13 3681.... 18.63
3656.... 2.50 3682.... 51.74
3657.... 32.00 3683.... 60.00
3658.... 2.40 3684.... 2,000.00
3659.... 91.27 3686.... 22.40
3660.... 1,187.75 3688.... 12.00
3661.... 30.00 3689.... 15.00
3662.... 2.00 3690.... 12.00
3663.... .95 3691.... 12.00
3664.... 50.46 3693.... 12.00
3665.... 333.33 3695.... 16.00
3666.... 250.00 3697.... 14.00
3667.... 250.00 3698.... 16.00
3668.... 500.00 3699.... 8.00
3669.... 200.00 3700.... 12.00
3670.... 250.00 3702.... 22.50
3671.... 833.33 3707.... 13.40
3672.... 150.00 3708.... 9.60
3673.... 125.00 3709.... 13.62
'3674.... 100.00 3710.... 10.80
3675.... 75.00
Total Outstanding Checks ................ ..................... $7,245.87

Cash as per Books at October 31, 1920............................... $1,555.68









A. Receipts and Disbursements for Year Ended October 31, 1920-
Donations ........................................
Interest on Investments.................... ..........

Total Receipts ... ............ .............
Disbursements for Expenses-
Printing .........................................
Postage ............... .............. ...........

Total Disbursements .............................

Excess Receipts over Disbursements.....................









B. Statement of Fund Cash Balance at October 31, 1920-
Balance at November 1, 1919............................
Add: Excess Receipts for year ended Oct. 31, 1920....

Less: Investments purchased ......................

Balance at October 31, 1920 ..............................

C. Statement of Financial Condition of Pension Fund-
Cash Balance ..................... .................
Investments ....................................... $117,500.00
Less: Discounts .............................. 231.55

Cost of Investm ents ...............................

Balance Synagog Pension Fund .........................


On Hand
Oct. 31,
U. S. Third Liberty Loan..$112,200.00
U. S. Third Liberty Loan..
U. S. Third Liberty Loan..

Total ................ $112,200.00

Cost Par

$2,608.48 $2,800.00
2,213.63 2,500.00

$4,822.11 $5,300.00

Rate Amt.
4.25 $4,768.50
4.25 59.45

$4,827.95 $117,500.00

On Hand
Oct. 31,

The Hebrew Union College



Board of Governors Hebrew Union College

Cincinnati, October 30, 1920.
To the Executive Board of the Union of
American Hebrew Congregations.
The Board of Governors of the Hebrew
Union College presents to you its report
covering the period from November 1, 1919,
to October 31, 1920.
At the November, 1919, meeting the Fac-
ulty reported its selection by unanimous vote
of Mr. Jacob H. Schiff and Mr. Louis Mar-
shall as the first to receive the degree of
Doctor of Hebrew Law, honors causa, in
recognition of their distinguished services in
the cause of Judaism and Humanity. The
Board of Governors approved the action of
the Faculty. At a later meeting it was de-
cided that the conferring of the honorary
degree be made a part of the exercises of
Commencement Day.
The first joint meeting of the Board of
Governors and Faculty was held in this
month and gave all the welcome opportunity
of discussing many important problems of
the College and the student life.
In the month of December arrangements
were made by the Faculty for the holding
of services at the Home for the Jewish Aged
in Avondale by students of the College or
members of the Faculty.
Upon advice of the Committee on Build-
ings and Grounds and the approval of the
recommendations by the Board, improve-
ments were ordered in the heating plant of
the Building. The results have proven quite
At the January, 1920, meeting, the resig-
nation of Dr. J. Victor Greenebaum, as Col-
lege Physician in charge of the Department
of Hygiene, was accepted. Dr. Hiram B.
Weiss was appointed College Physician, and
Dr. Greenebaum was appointed head of the
Department of Hygiene and was made a
member of the Students' Welfare Committee,
representing the Hygiene Department. The
Board also decided upon the appointment
of a Committee recommended by Dr. Greene-

baum, which is to have direct charge of the
Hygiene Department.
The election of officers was held at the
January meeting and resulted in the unani-
mous re-election of Mr. Afred M. Cohen as
President, and in the election of Mr. Oscar
Berman as Vice-President of the Board. Mr.
Isaac Bloom was reappointed secretary.
The month of February marked the re-
turn of Dr. Kohler to the halls of the
College after an absence of several weeks
on account of illness. On Saturday, Febru-
ary 21st, Dr. Kohler again took charge of
the Chapel services.
An annual prize of $50.00 was established
by friends of the mother of Harvey E. Wessel,
one of this year's graduates, in memory of
his grandfather, Dr. Isaac Schwab.
Founder's Day was celebrated on Satur-
day, March 22nd. Rabbi Joseph S. Kornfeld,
of Columbus, Ohio, was the orator of the
occasion. Mr. Cohen, the President of the
Board of Governors, read the list of scholar-
ships established by Sisterhoods of the vari-
ous congregations throughout the country
in honor of Founder's Day. The list will be
found in another page of this report.
At the March meeting the Board estab-
lished a rule whereby the Librarian of the
College is to be considered a member of
the Faculty and be in line for a pension
when the conditions and circumstances war-
rant it.
Mr. Simon Lazarus, of Columbus, Ohio,
announced the creation by him of an an-
nual prize of $100.00 in memory of his
father, Fred Lazarus.
Upon the recommendation of Dr. Kohler,
the President appointed a special commit-
tee to investigate the so-called San Remo
Declaration. This committee has made an
extensive investigation of the subject, but
has not as yet filed its final report.
During the month of April Rabbi Jacob
Singer, of Lincoln, Neb., delivered a series
of lectures on Synagogal Music.
Jacob R. Marcus, a graduate of this year,
was made a member of the Faculty by his



appointment as instructor in Bible and Rab-
binics for the year 1920-21.
The Graduation Exercises were held on.
Saturday afternoon, June 5th, the degree of
Rabbi being conferred upon the members of
the Senior Class. The Baccalaureate Ad-
dress was delivered by Rabbi David Marx,
of Atlanta, Ga., and the Valedictory by
Rabbi Jacob R. Marcus. The Honorary De-
gree of D. H. L., recently established, was
conferred upon Mr. Jacob H. Schiff and Mr.
Louis Marshall, in absentia. Both gentle-
men communicated regret at their unavoid-
able absence and their appreciation of the
honor bestowed. President Cohen announced
the award of the following prizes:
To Abraham I. Shinedling-Prize of Fifty
Dollars for the highest academic stand-
ing throughout the Collegiate Depart-
To Bernard Heller-The Kaufmann Kohler
Prize of One Hundred Dollars for es-
say on "The Place of the Psalms in the
Development of Judaism".
To Abraham I. Shinedling-The Joseph E.
Sales Prize of Fifty Dollars for essay
on "The Methods of Procedure at Rab-
binical Assemblies in the Talmud."
To Leon Fram-The Jacob H. Kaplan Prize
of Fifty Dollars for essay on "The Re-
ligious Disputations in the Talmud."
The graduates now occupy pulpits in the
following cities:

Rabbi Joseph L. Baron, Davenport, Iowa.
Rabbi Leon Fram, Chicago, Ill.
Rabbi Solomon Fineberg, Niagara Falls,
N. Y.
Rabbi Bernard Heller,-Scranton, Pa.
Rabbi Samuel J. Harris, Lafayette, Ind.
Rabbi Samuel S. Kaplan, Meridian, Miss.
Rabbi Solomon Landman, Springfield, Ill.
Rabbi Harvey E. Wessel, Asheville, N. C.
Rabbi Abraham I. Shinedling is tempor-
arily employed by the Department of Syna-
gog and School Extension and Rabbi Jacob
R. Marcus has become a member of the Fac-
ulty of the College.
The secretary of Temple Emanu-El, San
Francisco, Cal., informed the Board of the
demise, on June 5th, of Henry Wangenheim,
a member of this Board. The President was
requested to convey the Board's sympathy
to the family of Mr. Wangenheim.
At the June, 1920, meeting Dr. J. Victor
Greenebaum, head of the Department of Hv-

giene, presented the annual report of the
College Physician.
Cincinnati, June 29, 1920.
Board of Governors, Hebrew Union College.
It is with great pleasure that I present to
you my first annual report concerning the
work as Physician to the Hebrew Union Col-
lege students. I have been in charge of
the work since February 1, 1920, but
will include in the statistics the medical
work done by my predecessor, which in this
case is Dr. J. V. Greenebaum.
1. We had a moderate Influenza epidemic
which did not strike the students very severe-
ly. There were no unusual complications
and all made uneventful recoveries. The
students were taken care of at both the
Jewish and General Hospitals. Only two
of the boys were patients at the General
2. Complete physical examinations were
made of thirty members of the college body;
this includes seven new examinations. The
response the students made to this routine
examination was very gratifying, and I be-
lieve that the students of the College should
be reexamined every two or three years in
order to keep up our work in remedying in-
itial defects and if possible to prevent other
defects from occurring.
3. Conferences were constantly held with
students in order to have these defects reme-
4. The Jewish Hospital has been of the
greatest help to us in the care of our stu-
dents who needed hospital attention and for
special examinations as X-Rays.
5. Frequently some of the students have
minor illnesses which require from one to
three days' attention. It is impossible for the
boys to receive the proper care at their
boarding houses and it does not seem en-
tirely fair to send them to the hospital for
only two or three days. I mention this one
phase of an entire group which would in-
dicate that a dormitory for the boys is
greatly needed. Besides caring for this sec-
ondary matter the proper supervision can be
taken over their living quarters, food, and
to a certain extent, some of their habits.
It would certainly put new spirit into the
entire student body if they had a Dormitory
where the majority of them could live.
6. I wish that the consultants who have
worked so faithfully for us would receive a



letter of thanks from the Board of Gover-
nors. The following is the list of consultants

and the number of
amined and treated.
Dr. Forcheimer... 10
Dr. Jones. ...... 14
Dr. Mombach...... 2
Dr. Tauber ........ 3
Dr. Weiss ......... 6
Dr. Freiberg...... 1
Dr. Lurie ........ 3
Dr. Allen ........ 1

patients each one ex-

Dr. Hinnen.....
Dr. Zielonka....
Dr. Rabkin.......
Dr. McKim......
Dr. Bettman.....
Dr. Iglauer......
Dr. Frankel.....
Dr. Ransohoff...

Dr. Rauh. ....... 1
7. The following figures are a resume of
the entire year's work. There are sixty-nine
students in College. Two hundred students
were seen. This figure is derived by the
addition of the number of these students
which come each month.
Office calls........................209
Complete physical examinations.... 30
Home calls....................... 59
Jewish Hospital calls............. 105
General Hospital calls............. 10
Contagious Hospital calls........... 4
Total hours work for year...........157
Operations ....................... 5
Seventeen consultants gave fifty-six ex-
aminations and treatments for us.
Respectfully submitted,
College Physician.
At the September meeting Mr. Cohen, on
behalf of the Board of Governors, extended
congratulations to Dr. Kohler on the occa-
sion of the fiftieth wedding anniversary of
Dr. and Mrs. Kohler, which occurred on
August 28th.
Entrance examinations were held on Sep-
tember 29th *and 30th. Eighteen (18) appli-
cations for admission had been received.
Of the applicants seventeen (17) presented
themselves for examinations.
In his report this month Dr. Kohler al-
luded to the death of Mr. Jacob H. Schiff,
of whom he said: "In the death of Jacob
H. Schiff our College has lost one of its
distinguished supporters and benefactors, our
Teachers' Institute its founder." The fol-
lowing tribute to the memory of Mr. Schiff
was subsequently adopted.

Cincinnati, October 26, 1920.
"Know ye not that there is a prince and
a great man fallen in Israel this day?"
If ever there was an occasion for putting

this agonized question of the Biblical poet,
it is at this time when all Israel is mourn-
ing the passing of him who for years stood
easily first in American Jewry. Jacob H.
Schiff in all his thinking and doing was a
faithful son of the synagogue, a generous
patron of Jewish learning, an inspiring
leader in every movement for the welfare
of his coreligionists. Nothing Jewish was
foreign to him. Citizen of the great world
though he was, and identified with interests
of farthest reaching import, he yet found
his especial delight in the service of all
causes which made for the advancement of
Judaism and its works. His entire life was
verily a Kiddush ha Shem, a sanctification
of the name of God.

Jacob H. Schiff has taken a high place
among those illustrious sons of the house
of Israel, who during the course of the
generations have, as lovers of the Torah,
held aloft the torch of Jewish idealism.
Not only did he with unstinted generosity
respond to every call for the relieving of
material want, not only did he feed the
hungry, clothe the naked, relieve the sick
and provide for the incurable, but under-
standing clearly as he did that man lives
not by bread alone, but by the fruits of the
spirit, he assisted mightily in strengthening
the spiritual foundations laid by prophets
and sages, by rabbis and thinkers. Himself
descended from scholars whose names shine
in the firmament of Jewish learning, he was
a great friend of such learning and made
the educational institutions the wards of
his liberality. As Jewish learning tran-
scends all lines of mere opinion, so did this
princely giver, whatever may have been his
own individual sympathies of religious
thought and practice, include within the
scope of his generosity all schools that
taught the word of the living God.
As the governing board of the Hebrew
Union College, one of these schools of higher
Jewish learning, we had frequent occasion
during the lifetime of this constant bene-
factor to express our appreciation of the
great services he rendered to Judaism and
humanity. And now that he has passed be-
yond the horizon of our seeing, we can only
record again our unforgetting gratitude that
the Guardian of Israel raised up in our
days this noble man who represented in his
life and activity all that was finest in the



striving of Israel on this earth. All good
works will miss him sadly and none more
so than the Hebrew Union College. In
honoring him by conferring upon him re-
cently an honorary degree in recognition of
his great services to the furtherance of lofty
Jewish endeavor, the institution honored it-
self. His name is enrolled among the hon-
orary alumni of our institution. Blessed
was he of the Lord, who in every generation
rears witnesses who testify through their
lives unto Him and His truth. Of such
was Jacob H. Schiff. Our sages declared
that the righteous live though dead. Jacob
H. Schiff lives. He is accounted among the
righteous who shine through all eternity
like the stars of Heaven.
For the Board of Governors of the Hebrew
Union College:
ISAAC BLOOM, Secretary.
ALFRED M. COHEN, President.
At the meeting this month Dr. Kohler in-
formed the Board of the invitation extended
to the College by the Friedlander-Cantor
Memorial Committee to take part in the
memorial exercises for the late Professor
Friedlander and Rabbi Cantor, the latter a
graduate of the Hebrew Union College.
These exercises were held on September 9th
in Carnegie Hall, New York. Dr. Kohler
addressed a message to the Committee in
behalf of the College.
Dr. Kohler also reported that arrange-
ments have been completed with the follow-
ing students to officiate bi-weekly during the
academic year.
Henry J. Berkowitz, Knoxville, Tenn.
Milton Ellis, Jackson, Miss.
Carl N. Herman, Saginaw, Mich.
Hyman Iola, Portsmouth, Ohio.
Alvin S. Luchs, Zanesville & Bellaire, O.
Harry S. Margolis, Lima, Ohio.
Myron M. Meyerovitz, Owensboro, Ky.
Irving F. Reichert, Rockford, Ill.
Fredk. I. Rypins, Danville, Ill.
Wm. B. Schwartz, Louisville, Ky.
Jack H. Skirball, Bay City, Mich.
Bernhard J. Stern, Cairo, Ill.
Morris Youngerman, Portsmouth, Ohio.
The College was opened on Saturday, Octo-
ber 2nd, with the usual exercises in the
Chapel. Regular sessions began on Wednes-
day, October 6th. The registration showed
an enrollment of seventy-three (73) students,
distributed in the following classes:
Seniors, 14; Juniors, 6; III Collegiates,

7; II Collegiates, 10; I Collegiates, 9; A
Graders, 3; B Graders, 4; C Graders, 3;
D Graders, 9; Specials, 5; Students taking
partial courses, 2; Student given permission
to register later, 1.
Of these, thirty (30) students are gradu-
ates of a University, thirty-two (32) are at-
tending the University of Cincinnati, and
ten (10) are students at High School. These
students hail from the following states:
California, 1; District of Columbia, 2;
Georgia, 1; Illinois, 6; Indiana, 2; Kentucky,
1; Louisiana, 1; Maryland, 3; Michigan, 1;
Minnesota, 1; Mississippi, 1; Missouri, 2;
New Jersey, 1; New York, 13; North Caro-
lina, 1; Ohio, 24; Oklahoma, 1; Oregon, 2;
Pennsylvania, 6; Tennessee, 1; Wisconsin, 2.
On October 13th the annual joint meeting
of the Board of Governors and the Advisory
Board of the Hebrew Union College was
held. In addition to a fine representation
of local members of the Board this meeting
was attended by Dr. Rosenau and Rabbi
Wolsey, non-resident members of the Board,
and by Dr. Schulman, representing the Board
of Governors, Rabbi Witt, representing the
Alumni Association, and Dr. Kaplan, repre-
senting the Central Conference of American
Rabbis, on the Advisory Board. The prin-
cipal subject discussed at this meeting was
the inadequate accommodations afforded the
students of the College in private homes and
the necessity for the erection of a Dormi-
tory. At this meeting it was announced that
the Alumni Association of the College had
voted one-half of its treasury, namely, one
thousand dollars ($1,000.00) towards the
fund for the erection of a Dormitory.
At the regular meeting in October the
Board was informed of the attainment by
Mr. Charles Shohl of his seventieth birth-
day anniversary on October 24th. The con-
gratulations of the Board were extended to
Mr. Shohl by President Cohen.
At this meeting the President of the Col-
lege and the members of the Faculty were
voted substantial increases in salary.
The Board of Governors expressed its ob-
ligations to the Sisterhoods of the congrega-
tions in many cities and to the National Fed-
eration of Temple Sisterhoods for gifts of
scholarships to the student body as well as
to congregations and individuals for bequests
and gifts. These are given in the following




From National Federation Temple Sisterhoods-
The Temple Sisterhood, Atlanta, Ga. ( in honor of Dr. David Marx's twenty-
fifth anniversary with the Temple) .................................. $300.00
Baltimore Hebrew Congregation Sisterhood, Baltimore, Md. (Adolf Guttmacher
Scholarship) ...................................................... 300.00
Sisterhood Oheb Shalom Temple, Baltimore, Md. (Szold-Kaiser Scholarship) 300.00
Har Sinai Sisterhood, Baltimore, Md. (Einhorn Scholarship)................ 300.00
Sisterhood Oheb Shalom Congregation, Baltimore, Md. (The Rose H. Golden-
berg Scholarship) ..................................... ............ 300.00
The Temple Israel Sisterhood, Boston, Mass ................ ............... 300.00
Isaiah Woman's Club, Chicago, Ill. (The Isaac M. Wise Memorial Scholarship) 300.00
Sisterhood B'nai Sholom Temple Israel, Chicago, Ill. (Gerson B. Levi Scholar-
ship) for year 1919-20................................. ...... ...... 350.00
Sisterhood B'nai Sholom Temple Israel, Chicago, Ill. (Gerson B. Levi Scholar-
ship) for year 1920-21.................... ........................ 350.00
Plum St. Temple Sisterhood, Cincinnati, Ohio (The Isaac Mayer Wise Scholar-
ship) ........................................................... 300.00
Rockdale Avenue Temple Sisterhood, Cincinnati, Ohio (The Dr. Max Lilienthal
Scholarship) ............................. .................... .... 300.00
Euclid Avenue Temple Sisterhood, Cleveland, Ohio......................... 350.00
The Temple Women's Association, Cleveland, Ohio.......................... 350.00
Sisterhood of Indianapolis Hebrew Congregation, Indianapolis, Ind. (The
Moses Selig Scholarship) .......................................... 300.00
Adath Israel Sisterhood, Louisville, Ky................................... 300.00
The Ladies' Auxiliary of Children of Israel, Memphis, Tenn ................ 350.00
The Temple Sisterhood, Nashville, Tenn .................. ............... 350.00
Temple Sinai Sisterhood, New Orleans, La. (James K. Gutheim Scholarship).. 300.00
The Woman's Association of Temple Rodeph Shalom Congregation, New York,
N. Y ............................................................. 350.00
The Sisterhood of Rodef Shalom Congregation, Pittsburgh, Pa. (In honor of
the anniversary of Mr. & Mrs. Moses Oppenheimer's Golden Wedding).. 300.00
Sisterhood Rodef Shalom Congregation, Pittsburgh, Pa. (J. Leonard Levy
Scholarship) ....................................... .............. 300.00
Sisterhood of Rodef Shalom Congregation, Pittsburgh, Pa. (Given by Mrs.
Meyer Forst, in memory of her parents Mr. & Mrs. Chas. Falk)......... 300.00
Sisterhood of Washington Hebrew Congregation, Washington, D. C. (Dr.
Abram Simon Scholarship) ................ ............. ........... 300.00
7 Complete Scholarships of $350 each-two each from Districts Nos. 2 & 11,
and two each from Districts Nos. 5, 6 & 10 ........................... 2,450.00
3 Complete Scholarships of $300 each-Districts Nos. 1, 3 & 9............ 900.00
3 Complete Scholarships of $350 each comprising amount from Districts Nos.
1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 & 13............... ... ................ 1,050.00
3 Complete Scholarships of $300 each-left over from last year............ 900.00

From Congregations-

Jewish Community of Huntington, W. Va................................. 300.00
Sabbath School Children of Temple B'nai B'rith, Los Angeles, Calif......... 25.00
Emanu-El Theological Seminary Association, New York .................... 515.00
Congregation Rodef Shalom, Philadelphia, Pa ........................... 300.00



Congregation Emanu-El, San Francisco, Cal. (Elkan Cohen Memorial Scholar-
ship) for year 1919-20............... .............................. 300.00
Congregation Emanu-El, San Francisco, Cal. (Elkan Cohen Memorial Scholar-
ship) for year 1920-21.................... .......... .......... 300.00

From Individuals-

Albert Steindler, Chicago, Ill. (To be known as the Carl Steindler Scholarship) 350.00
Mr. & Mrs. J. J. Kiser, Mr. and Mrs. Melville S. Cohn, and Mr. Sol S. Kiser,
Indianapolis, Ind. (Dina S. Kiser Scholarship) ......................... 300.00
Gustav and J. H. Bernheimer, of Kansas City, Mo. (in memory of I. E. Bern-
heimer) ......................... ........... ...................... 300.00
E. J. Reefer, of Kansas City, Mo. (In memory of M. C. and Marie Reefer). 300.00
Mrs. Wm. B. Woolner, Peoria, Ill. (in memory of Samuel Woolner), (two
payments) ............................................. 700.00
"A Friend," Pittsburgh, Pa .................. ......... ............ 150.00


Mr. Ben E. Rice, of Cincinnati, Ohio., in memory of Lehman Holstein and
Teresa Holstein (additional) ....................................... 100.00
Mrs. Sol Fein, of Milwaukee, Wis., in memory of her father, Rev. Adolph
Pollak, her mother, Regina Pollak and her husband, Solomon Fein...... 300.00
Mrs. Theresa A. Strauss, Cincinnati, Ohio, in memory of her father, Victor
A braham ........................................................ 100.00
Mrs. Ida T. Levy, Pauline Drucker and Josephine Lederer, of New York City,
daughters; and Edna Michaelis, granddaughter; in memory of their father
and grandfather, the late Henry Tobias ............................. 100.00
Miss Rae Joseph, of Detroit, Mich., daughter, and Sam and Abe Joseph, sons,
in memory of Hyman Joseph, their father ........................... 100.00
Mrs. Sam Sanger, of Waco, Tex., in memory of her husband, Sam Sanger..... 500.00
Mr. Simon Lazarus, of Columbus, O., in memory of his father, Fred Lazarus. 100.00
Mrs. Frederica H. Ullman, of Philadelphia, Pa., in memory of her husband,
Adolph Ullman.......................................... ........... 500.00
Mr. & Mrs. Charles Shohl, of Cincinnati, O., in memory of their son, Richard
S. Shohl........... ................................... .......... 100.00
Mr. Henry Fox of Cincinnai, O., in memory of his wife, Rebecca Fox........ 100.00
Mrs. Samuel Sommer, of Cincinnati, O., in memory of her husband, Samuel
Sommer ....................................... ................ 100.00
Mrs. Pauline T. Drukker, of New York City, in memory of her husband,
Michael S. Drukker ............................................... 100.00
Mr. & Mrs. S. Blum, of Louisville, Ky., in memory of their son, Leon Goodman 100.00
Mr. Wm. Frieder, of Cincinnati, O., in memory of his wife, Theresa Frieder.. 250.00
Mrs. Gus Blass, of Little Rock Ark., in memory of her husband, Gus Blass.. 100.00
Mrs. Gus Blass & Mrs. Max Heiman, of Little Rock, Ark., in memory of their
mother, Mrs. Amelia Katzenstein...................................... 100.00
Mr. Oscar Fox, of Cincinnati, O., in memory of his father, George Fox....... 250.00
Mrs. Eva G. Halle, of Memphis, Tenn., in memory of her husband, Philip A.
H alle ............................ .. ...... ..................... 100.00
Mr. Morris L. Bettman, of Cincinnati, O., in memory of his mother, Matilda
Wald and his father, Bernhard (additional).......................... 100.00
Mrs. M. C. Weil, of Detroit, Michigan, in memory of her husband, M. C. Weil. 100.00
Joseph M. Plaut of Cincinnati, O., in memory of his father, Michael and his
mother, Jeanette Plaut ............................................ 200.00
Mrs. Grace Joseph, of Detroit, Mich., in memory of her husband, Philip Joseph 100.00
Mrs. Max Heiman, of Little Rock, Ark., in memory of her husband.......... 100.00



Miss Carrie Wolf,, of Cincinnati, O., in memory of her aunt, Clara Simon
(additional) .......................................... ......... 50.00
Mrs. Louis Moore, of New York City, in memory of her husband, Louis Moore 50.00
Miss Rose L. Martin, of Evansville, Ind., in memory of her mother, Mrs. Sarah
Martin ........................... ........ .................. ..... 100.00

Philip Whitlock, Richmond, Va............................................ 500.00
Louis S. Levi, Cincinnati, Ohio .......................................... 250.00
Mrs. Sarah Buxbaum, Louisville, Ky..................................... 100.00
Miss Clara Simon, Cincinnati, Ohio, in memory of her father Joseph Simon
and her mother Elizabeth Simon (additional) .......................... 100.00
Max Silberberg, Cincinnati, Ohio ........................................ 200.00
Meyer Jacobs, Ligonier, Ind.......................................... 1,000.00
Mrs. Johanna Friedlander, Joplin, Mo., in memory of her husband, Henry
Friedlander ........................................ .. ............. 200.00
Louis I. Aaron, Pittsburgh, Pa., in memory of his wife, Mina Lippman Aaron.. 1,000.00
Jacob Strauss, Pittsfield, Ill............................................ 100.00


Salaries of Faculty and Instructors...................... .............. 39,716.44
Salaries of Librarian and Staff.......................................... 7,091.28
Purchases and Maintenance of Library.................................... 5,016.38
Salaries of Secretary's Office............ ...... ......................... 1,770.00
Maintenance of Buildings and Grounds .................................... 13,912.77
Department of Hygiene ............................................... 537.00
The Kaufmann Kohler Prize ............................................ 100.00
Students' Emergency Loan Fund .......................................... 100.00
Stipendiary Items ...................................................... 15,319.00
Teachers' Institute........................................ .............. 1,597.17

Respectfully submitted,




One of the fundamental rules of academic
instruction admittedly is, that freedom of
thought and independence of research be
granted to all the teachers.
Still, -a rabbinical school, however pro-
gressive in its tendency, must necessarily
have a positive Jewish character.
There must be unity and harmony in the
system of instruction, and the various
branches of study must be so inter-related
as to lead to, and culminate in, the incul-
cation of the doctrines of Judaism as a
living faith and as the life mission of the
Accordingly the system of instruction at
the College, based as it is upon a nine
years' course (four years of the Preparatory
and five years of the Collegiate depart-
ment) is -an organic unit. The instruction
proceeds methodically from the mastery of
the form to the full comprehension of the
subject-matter, and from an encyclopedic to
the specific and systematic knowledge of
the branches taught. In the Preparatory
department all stress is laid upon the ele-
mentary knowledge. A thorough famil-
iarity with the grammar and the vocabulary,
which enables the student to read the un-
punctuated text of the Pentateuch with the
commentaries, as well as easy portions of
the Mishnah, must be combined with a gen-
eral knowledge of the contents of rabbinical
literature and history of the Prayerbook
and the Psalms and of the doctrines and
ceremonies of Judaism. The Collegiate de-
partment divides itself again into two parts,
the three lower grades being devoted more
to the acquisition of material, the upper
two to systematic and specific theological
The principal subjects taught at the He-
brew Union College are:
Bible Exegesis, which, while following
the purely scientific methods of our age, is
to maintain its historical continuity with
the past by the consultation of the medieval
Jewish commentators and the ancient inter-

The study of the Talmud divides itself
into three successive stages. A complete
study of the Mishnah within the few years
of college life being a matter of impossi-
bility, a fair acquaintance with the prin-
cipal treatises is aimed at in the first stage,
Bertinoro's Commentary being used as a
substitute for the Gemarah. In the next
stage select portions of the Gemarah are
read. In the third the Halakah is studied
in its development from the Midrash,
Baraitha and Gemarah to the Codes and
the selections are made with a view to the
practical value of the subjects for the rabbi
of today.
The Haggadic portion of the Talmud, as
well as the Midrash, -are studied with a
view to their paramount value and import-
ance for the rabbi owing to the ethical and
theological teachings they contain and sup-
plemented by lectures on the history of the
Haggadah and Haggadists.
The Apocryphal, Apocalyptic and Hellen-
istic literatures receive special attention,
inasmuch as they hold the key to a full
understanding of the Haggadic and mystic
lore of Judaism. Without familiarity with
the Hellenistic propaganda and the Pseu-
depigraphic literature of the pre-Talmudic
epoch no historical reception of the rab-
Dinical development of Judaism is possible.
Still less can the New Testament, which no
rabbi of today can afford to ignore, be un-
derstood without these studies.
The study of the philosophic literature of
the medieval Jew is still indispensable to
the modern rabbi as offering him the aid
and suggestions for solving the great prob-
lems of life in the light of moden princi-
ples of thought. The works of Saadyah,
Gabirol, Juda Halevi, Maimonides, Crescas
and Albo have been instrumental in shap-
ing the Jewish mind and still form the
sources of inspiration for the regeneration
of Judaism.
The ancient Prayerbook forms as essen-
tial a factor of Judaism as does the Talmud,
and a thorough knowledge of Jewish Liturgy


General Plan of Instruction
of the Hebrew Union College



and its history is indispensable to the rabbi,
however small the portion is that is still
in use today.
The History of the Jewish People divides
itself mainly into two parts. The one is
the history of the nation from its beginning
to the fall of Jerusalem under Rome, which
in its general outline is taught in the Pre-
paratory department. The other is the his-
tory of the Jewish people from the time of
their dispersion throughout the Roman em-
pire until our own time. This latter part
of Jewish history, extending over nearly
2,000 years of European history, presents
problems on the solution of which depends
the right estimate of the Jew as a citizen
and as a factor of human civilization.
The History of Judaism and its sects
comes within the province of historical
theology. Its study is to trace the origin
and development of the Mosaic and Rab-
binical Judaism with its institutions and
lead over to a deeper understanding of
Prophetic or Reform Judaism. It thus paves
the way to Systematic Theology which en-
deavors to sum up in positive form the es-
sential beliefs of Judaism in consonance
with the religious consciousness of the mod-
ern Jew.
Alongside of this goes a course of study
of Comparative Religion, -and especially of
the sources of Christianity and Islamism to
form the scientific basis for Jewish Apolo-
Practical theology divides itself into two
branches of study: The first and foremost
part consists of Jewish Homiletics. As the
sermon constitutes an integral part of the

divine service, it must, both as to its tenor
and its choice of text and of subject, bear
the stamp and reflect the view and atmos-
phere of synagogal life by showing its con-
tinuity with the past. It is therefore studied
in connection with the Midrash and the
Homiletic literature of the past as well as
of modern times. The second part consists
of a historical study of the rites and cere-
monies of Judaism with a view to their
aptitude and applicability to modern time,
particularly as far as the public functions
of the modern rabbi are concerned.
Jewish Ethics is studied as a special sys-
tem of thought different from Christian
ethics in principle and character, based upon
genuinely Jewish sources while in har-
mony with the broad psychological and
historical views of our day.
Pedagogy, too, inasmuch as the religious
instruction of the young is one of the most
important and difficult tasks entrusted to
the rabbi, forms one of the branches taught.
Questions such as how to conduct a reli-
gious school, how to teach religion and
ethics and particularly how to use the Bible
as a source of inspiration and religious in-
struction for the child require a thorough
training and fine psychological observation.
Last but not least does Applied Sociology
or the Science of Philanthropy form a part
of the curriculum, since upon the modern
rabbi often devolves a large part of the
charitable work in a Jewish community,
and he must know how to combine the
new method with the ancient spirit of Juda-
ism in the field of practical righteousness
(Zedakah) and Social Service.

The Teacher's Institute
of the Hebrew Union College


The work of the Teachers' Institute of the
Hebrew Union College during the academic
year of 1919-1920 was of a two-fold nature.
Extension lectures for teachers in Jewish
Religious Schools and others interested in
this work were held in the following cities:
Youngstown, O.; Erie, Pa.; Buffalo, N. Y.;
Detroit, Mich.; Birmingham, Ala., and Wil-
mington, N. C.

The regular summer session of the Teach-
ers' Institute was held in Cleveland, Ohio,
for the fifth successive year, from June 20
to June 28. While, for the various reasons,
the attendance was not as large as in pre-
vious years, the work done was of the usual
high calibre. The lectures were delivered by
Drs. Deutsch and Morgenstern. Dr. Deutsch
conducted two courses, (a) Jewish History



in the Modern Period, and (b) Jewish Liter-
ature. Dr. Morgenstern likewise conducted
two courses of lectures, (c) The Prophet
Isaiah: His Time and Work, and (d) The
Book of Daniel and Jewish Apocalyptic
Literature. About forty students, for the
most part teachers in the various Jewish re-
ligious schools of Cleveland, were enrolled;
twenty-six certificates of attendance and
work were distributed.
Moreover, the first graduation from the
Summer School of the Teachers' Institute
was held in Cleveland, in April, 1920, at
which the principal, Dr. Grossmann, dis-
tributed thirty diplomas to all students who
had attended at least three sessions of the
Institute in Cleveland held in previous years
and had received certificates of attendance
and work done at each session. The exer-
cises were participated in by the rabbis of
A session of the Teachers' Institute was
held in New York City. This was an event
of more than ordinary significance. For a
number of years the rabbis of the Reform
wing of Judaism in New York City had at
the annual meetings of the Central Confer-
ence of American Rabbis requested the He-
brew Union College, acting through the
Teachers' Institute, to institute classes for
the training of teachers for their religious
school. Circumstances, however, had pre-
vented the inauguration of this work sooner.
But finally, through earnest cooperation of
the New York Association of Refrom Rabbis,
the first session was held April 6-10, 1920.
This Institute was successful far beyond
anticipation. The opening session was held
in Temple Emanu El, while the regular class
sessions were held in the centrally located
Temple Israel (82d St., W.). Between eighty

and ninety regular students were enrolled,
besides many visitors who attended the lec-
tures. The classes were conducted by Drs.
Deutsch, Lauterbach and Morgenstern. So
enthusiastic were the New York Rabbis and
teachers because of the benefits of this Ses-
sion that plans were immediately prepared
for the continuation of the class work during
the year under the guidance of a number of
the local Rabbis and superintendents, re-
solved upon the holding of a second In-
stitute session the following year.
This second session of the Teachers' In-
stitute in New York City will be held Jan-
uary 30-February 5, 1921. Encouraged by
the success of last year, this Session will
continue for a longer period and will be
upon a somewhat more extended scale. A
Session of the Institute will also be held
simultaneously in Brooklyn for the benefit
of those teachers who can not attend the
Session in New York.
In addition the sixth summer session of
the Teachers' Institute will be held at Cleve-
land, 0., in June, 1921. Negotiations are
also being completed with the Rabbis and
teachers of Chicago looking to the resump-
tion of our activities in that city, after an
interruption of three years. Correspondence
is also being carried on with the Rabbis of
other cities for the same end. Extension
lectures- will likewise be delivered in quite
a number of cities in all parts of the coun-
try, as for example in Galveston, Houston,
San Antonio and Dallas, Texas; Birmingham
and Selma, Alabama; Little Rock, Arkansas;
Richmond, Virginia; Indianapolis, Indiana;
Louisville, Kentucky, and Detroit, Michigan.
All in all the academic year 1920-1921, prom-
ises to be one of the busiest and most fruit-
ful in the history of the Teachers' Institute.




The Library
of the Hebrew Union College

By ADOLPH S. OKO, Librarian

The outstanding features of the year's
work in the Library have been due almost
wholly to the after-effects of the World
War. A comparatively large number of the
accessions represent volumes of periodical
and serial publications, acquired to com-
plete the many broken sets, as well as a
considerable quantity of the Judaica relat-
ing to the War, which is being gathered as-
siduously. It is to be noted that there is
a continued difficulty in getting books from

The following is a table of statistics:
By Purchase...................... 1,721
" G ift ......................... 554
" Exchange .................... 124
Old Stock......................... 254

Total ...................... 2,653

Classification and Cataloguing:
V olum es ........................
C ards ..........................
Volumes drawn ...................
bound ...................


The gifts include many volumes from the
library of the late Rev. Dr. Machol, the gift
of Rabbi Harry Levi, of Boston. I have
also to record the gift of a collection of
very interesting pamphlets by Dr. Adolph
Guttman, late of Syracuse, New York.
The progress of the Library, I may add,
is much more significant than can be ex-
pressed in a table of statistics. Our Li-
brary is for both accumulation and original
research. The growth of its various collec-
tions is, therefore, tantamount to its ser-
vice. And its acquisitions are significant not
in proportion to the number of volumes ac-
quired, but rather in proportion to their im-


The Alumni
of the Hebrew Union College
Alphabetical arrangement and present residence

In order to insure correctness of this list the Alumni are urgently requested to send
notification of any change in their position or in their academic degrees to
DR. HENRY ENGLANDER, Registrar, H. U. C., Cincinnati, O.

1883 Israel Aaron, D. D.t
1916 Samuel J. Abrams, M. A., Boston,
1901 David Alexander, B. A., Akron, O.
1900 Abraham S. Anspacher, Ph. D., Hart-
ford, Conn.
1919 Garry J. August, A. B., St. Joseph,
1918 Nathan E. Barasch, A. B., East
Orange, N. J.
1920 Joseph L. Baron, M. A., Davenport,
1901 Moise Bergman, B. A., Albuquerque,
N. M.
1883 Henry Berkowitz, D. D., Philadelphia,
1906 Louis Bernstein, B. A., Baltimore, Md.
1912 Israel Bettan, D. D., Charleston, W.
1901 Joseph Blatt, B. A., Oklahoma City,
1908 Joel Blau, B. A., Trenton, N. J.
1913 Irving M. Bloom, B. A., New York,
N. Y.
1895 Seymour G. Bottigheimer, B. A., Peo-
ria, Ill.*
1905 Frederick F. Braun, B. A., Brooklyn,
N. Y.
1919 Barnet R. Brickner, M. A., Toronto,
1900 Abram Brill, B. A., Shreveport, La.
1903 Morris Cahan, B. A., New York, N. Y.*
1887 Edward N. Calisch, Ph. D., Richmond,
1916 Hyman B. Cantor, M. A.t
1916 Simon Cohen, B. A., Springfield, O.
1899 Simon R. Cohen, B. A., Brooklyn, N. Y.
1896 Frederick Cohn, Ph. D., Omaha, Neb.
1912 Samuel S. Cohon, B. A., Chicago, III.

Those marked with a are located in places
t Deceased.

1906 Abraham Cronbach, D. D., Chicago,
1898 Max Cohen Currick, B. A., Erie, Pa.
1889 Heiman J. Elkin, B. A., Washington,
D. C.*
1898 Hyman G. Enelow, D. D., New York,
N. Y.
1901 Henry Englander, Ph. D., Cincinnati,
1904 Harry W. Ettelson, Ph. D., Philadel-
phia, Pa.
1919 Abraham Feinstein, M. A., Hunting-
ton, W. Va.
1918 Abraham J. Feldman, A. B., Phila-
delphia, Pa.
1901 Morris M. Feuerlicht, B. A., Indian-
apolis, Ind.
1913 David Fichman, B. A., New Orleans,
1920 Solomon Fineberg, B. A., Niagara
Falls, N. Y.
1900 William H. Fineshriber, B. A., Mem-
phis, Tenn.
1919 Joseph Fink, M. A., Terre Haute, Ind.
1903 Henry M. Fisher, B. A., Atlantic City,
N. J.
1893 Charles Fleischer, B. A., Boston,
1902 Solomon Foster, B. A., Newark, N. J.
1908 G. George Fox, Ph. D., Fort Worth,
1920 Leon Fram, A. B., Chicago, Ill.
1916 Harvey B. Franklin, Ph. B., Oakland,
1892 Leo.M. Franklin, B. L., Detroit, Mich.
1915 Solomon B. Freehof, A. B., Cincin-
nati, Ohio.||
1900 Charles J. Freund, B. S., B. L., To-
ledo, O.

stated, but are not officiating rabbis.

x Superintendent United Jewish Charities.
t Professor of Biblical Exegesis and Biblical History in Hebrew Union College.
II Assistant Professor of Rabbinics in Hebrew Union College.
xx Executive Director The Jewish Charitable and Educational Federation.






















Aaron Friedman, M. D., Hoboken,
N. J.*
Benjamin Friedman, B. A., Syracuse,
N. Y.
Harry G. Friedman, Ph. D., New York,
N. Y.*
William S. Friedman, LL. D., Denver,
Ephraim Frisch, B. A., New York,
N. Y.
Alexander H. Geismar, B. L., Brook-
lyn, N. Y.*
Abram Gideon, Ph. D., New York,
N. Y.*
Alfred T. Godshaw, B. A., Waco, Tex.*
Samuel H. Goldenson, Ph. D., Pitts-
burgh, Pa.
Raphael Goldenstein, B. A., Sioux
City, Ia.
Sidney E. Goldstein, B. A., New York,
N. Y.
Nathan Gordon, M. A., Montreal, Can.*
Bennett Grad, B. A., Milwaukee, Wis.
Samuel Greenfield, B. L., New York,
N. Y.
Moses J. Gries, B. A.t
Louis D. Gross, M. A., Brooklyn, N. Y.
Louis Grossmann, D. D., Cincinnati, O.
Rudolph Grossman, D. D., New York,
N. Y.
Samuel M. Gup, M. A., Providence,
R. I.
Adolf Guttmacher, Ph. D.t
Julius Halprin, A. B., Montreal, Can.
Samuel J. Harris, B. A., La Fayette,
Bernard Heller, M. A., Scranton, Pa.
James G. Heller, M. A., Cincinnati,
Max Heller, M. L., New Orleans, La.
Abram Hirschberg, B. A., Chicago, Ill.
Samuel Hirshberg, M. A., Milwaukee,
Abraham Holtzberg, B. A., Chatta-
nooga, Tenn.
Isadore Isaacson, Ph. B., Selma, Ala.
Edward L. Israel, A. B., Evansville,
Pizer W. Jacobs, B. A., Paducah. Ky.

Those marked with a are located in places stated, but are not officiating rabbis.
t Deceased.
I Executive Director, Y. M. H. A. of New York City.

1886 Moses Perez Jacobson, B. A., Atlantic
City, N. J.
1904 Joseph Jasin, B. A., Gloversville,
N. Y.
1891 Israel Joseph.+
1899 Theodore F. Joseph, B. A., Danville,
1902 Emanuel Kann, t. A., Piqua, O.*
1914 Israel L. Kaplan, B. A., Jacksonville,
1902 Jacob H. Kaplan, Ph.D., Cincinnati, O.
1920 Samuel S. Kaplan, M. A., Meridian,
1919 Max Kaufman, A. B., Greenville,
1899 Israel Klein, B. A., Chicago, Ill.
1902 Samuel Koch, M. A., Seattle, Wash.
1909 Louis J. Kopald, M.A., Buffalo, N.Y.
1898 Joseph S. Kornfeld, B. A., Columbus,
1903 Solomon L. Kory, B. A., Vicksburg,
1903 Nathan Krass, Litt. D., New York,
N. Y.
1883 Joseph Krauskopf, D. D., Philadelphia,
1916 Jacob B. Krohngold, B. A., Akron,
1903 Louis Kuppin, B. A., Chicago, Ill.*
1906 Isaac Landman, B. A., Far Rockaway,
N. Y.
1920 Solomon Landman, B. A., Springfield,
1914 Charles B. Latz, M. A., Tulsa, Okla.
1914 Morris S. Lazaron, M. A., Baltimore,
1902 Maurice Lefkovits, Ph. D., Duluth,
1900 David Lefkowitz, B. L., Dallas, Tex.
1916 Julius Leibert, B. A., Spokane, Wash.
1900 Emil W. Leipziger, B. A., New Or-
leans, La.
1914 Lee J. Levinger, M. A., New York,
N. Y.I1
1889 Charles S. Levi, B. A., Milwaukee, Wis.
1897 Harry Levi, B. A., Boston, Mass.
1890 Clifton H. Levy, B. A., New York,
N. Y.*
1907 Felix A. Levy, Ph. D., Chicago, II1.



1916 Morris Lichtenstein, M. A., Athens,
1918 Harry S. Linfield, Ph. B., Philadel-
phia, Pa.
1890 Gustave H. Loewenstein, B. A., New
York, N. Y.*
1905 Meyer Lovitch, B. A., Peoria, Ill.
1901 Solomon C. Lowenstein, B. A., New
York, N. Y.I[
1891 Alexander Lyons, Ph. D., Brooklyn,
N. Y.
1918 Wolfe Macht, A. B., Waco, Texas.
1900 Juda Leon Magnes, Ph. D., New York,
N. Y.*
1914 Edgar F. Magnin, B. A., Los Angeles,
1914 Louis L. Mann, Ph. D., New Haven,
1902 Eugene Mannheimer, B. A., Des
Moines, Ia.
1899 Leo Mannheimer, Ph. D., New York,
N. Y.*
1920 Jacob R. Marcus, B. A., Cincinnati,
1894 Isaac E. Marcuson, B. L., Macon, Ga.
1901 Elias Margolis, Ph. D., New York,
N. Y.
1918 Jerome Mark, A. B., Helena, Ark.
1894 David Marx, B. L., Atlanta, Ga.
1910 Israel I. Mattuck, A. M., London, Eng-
1902 Eli Mayer, Ph. D.t
1896 Harry H. Mayer, B. A., Kansas City,
1917 Samuel S. Mayerberg, M. A., Dayton,
1912 Maurice M. Mazure, M. A., Pittsburgh,
1917 Samuel Felix Mendelsohn, B. A.,
Chicago, Ill.
1906 Louis D. Mendoza, B. A., Norfolk, Va.
1903 Max J. Merritt, B. A., Montreal, Can.

1897 Julius H. Meyer, B. A., Chicago, Ill.*
1901 Martin A. Meyer, Ph. D., San Fran-
cisco, Cal.
1917 Jacob I. Meyerovitz, M. A., Gary, Ind.
1900 Jacob Mielziner, M. A., Copenhagen,
1906 Julian H. Miller, B. A., St. Louis,
1919 Albert G. Minda, A. B., South Bend,
1918 Louis A. Mischkind, M. A., Wheeling,
W. Va.
1918 Arthur S. Montaz, Ph. B., Chicago,
1902 Julian Morgenstern, Ph. D., Cincin-
nati, 0.$
1901 Alfred G. Moses, B. A., Mobile, Ala.
1898 Leon M. Nelson, B. A., Richmond, Va.*
1895 Morris Newfield, A. B., Birmingham,
1898 Simon Peiser, B. A.
1883 David Philipson, D. D., LL. D., Cin-
cinnati, O.
1912 Jacob B. Pollak, M. A., New York,
N. Y.xx
1900 Jacob S. Raisin, Ph. D., D. D., Charles-
ton, S. C.
1903 Max Raisin, LL. D., Brooklyn, N. Y.
1914 Marius Ranson, B. A., Albany, N. Y.
1905 Joseph Rauch, B. A., Louisville, Ky.
1906 Max Reichler, B. A., New York, N. Y.
1915 Harold F. Reinhart, A. B., Baton
Rouge, La.
1902 Abraham B. Rhine, D. D., Hot Springs,
1909 William Rice, T. M., Salt Lake City,
1917 Harry R. Richmond, B. A., Paterson,
N. J.
1917 Jerome Rosen, M. A., Cincinnati,

Those marked with a are located in places stated, but are not officiating rabbis.
t Deceased.
1 Executive Secretary N. Y. Federation for the Support of Jewish Philanthropic Soc's.
t Professor of Bible and Semitic Languages in the Hebrew Union College.
II Instructor in Bible and Rabbinics in Hebrew Union College.
xxAsst. Director of Synagog and School Extension in New York City.



1889 William Rosenau, Ph. D., Baltimore,
1909 David Rosenbaum, Ph. D., Austin,
1913 Adolf Rosenberg, B. A., Pensacola,
1894 Isidor E. Rosenthal, B. A., Lancaster,
1908 Herman Rosenwasser, A. M., San
Francisco, Cal.
1904 J. Leonard Rothstein, B. A., Pine
Bluff, Ark.
1885 Isaac Rubenstein.t
1891 Charles A. Rubenstein, M. A., Balti-
more, Md.*
1889 Isaac L. Rypins, B. L., St. Paul,
1919 Joseph E. Sales, A. B.t
1919 Meyer Salkover, A. B., Cincinnati,
1893 Marcus Salzman, Ph. D., Wilkes-
Barre, Pa.
1919 Ira E. Sanders, A. B., Allentown, Pa.
1916 Israel J. Sarasohn, M. A., Cumber-
land, Md.
1880 Tobias Schanfarber, B. A., Chicago,
1909 Samuel Schwartz, T. M., Cleveland,
1906 Jacob D. Schwarz, B. A., Cincinnati,
1918 Alexander Segel, A. B., Fresno, Cal.
1920 Abraham I. Shinedling, Joplin, Mo.
1904 Mendel Silber, B. A., M. D., New Or-
leans, La.
1915 Abba H. Silver, M. A., Cleveland, O.
1916 Maxwell Silver, B. A., Flushing, L. I.
N. Y.

Those marked with a are located in places
t Deceased.

1884 Joseph Silverman, D. D., New York,
N. Y.*
1894 Abram Simon, Ph. D., Washington,
D. C.
1909 Jacob Singer, M. A., Lincoln, Neb.
1895 George Solomon, B. A., Savannah, Ga.
1893 Michael G. Solomon, B. L., Los An-
geles, Calif.
1904 Nathan Stern, Ph. D., New York, N. Y.
1884 Joseph Stolz, D. D., Chicago, Ill.
1904 Joseph H. Stolz, M. A., Ft. Smith,
1915 Jacob Tarshish, B. A., Yonkers, N. Y.
1913 Sidney S. Tedesche, B. A., San An-
tonio, Tex.
1918 Jacob Turner, A. B., Chicago, Ill.*
1901 Leon Volmer, B. A., New Orleans,
1914 Elkan C. Voorsanger, B. A., New
York, N. Y.11
1902 Isidor Warsaw, B. A., Waco, Tex.*
1918 Philip Waterman, A. B., Kalamazoo,
1909 Aaron L. Weinstein, M. A., Fort
Wayne, Ind.
1918 J. Max Weis, A. B., New York, N. Y.
1897 Harry Weiss, B. A., Brooklyn, N. Y.
1920 Harvey E. Wessel, M. A., Asheville,
N. C.
1903 Jonah B. Wise, B. A., Portland, Ore.
1903 Louis Witt, B. A., St. Louis, Mo.
1909 Horace J. Wolf, M. A., Rochester,
N. Y.
1897 Philip Wolf, B. A.
1899 Louis Wolsey, B. A., Cleveland, O.
1900 George Zepin, B. A., Cincinnati, O.$t
1899 Martin Zielonka, M. A., El Paso, Tex.

stated, but are not officiating rabbis.

** Instructor in Mathematics, University of Cincinnati.
f Assistant Secretary, Union of American Hebrew Congregations, Cincinnati, Ohio.
tt Superintendent Jewish Orphans' Home.
tt Secretary, Union of American Hebrew Congregations, Cincinnati, Ohio.
jI In Poland with Relief Commission.



Class of 1883
Israel Aaron
Henry Berkowitz
Joseph Krauskopf
David Philipson

Class of 1884
Louis Grossmann
Max Heller
Joseph Silverman
Joseph Stolz

Class of 1885
Isaac Rubenstein

Class of 1886
Moses Perez Jacobson
Tobias Schanfarber

Class of 1887
Edward N. Calisch

Class of 1888

Class of 1889
Heiman J. Elkin
William S. Friedman
Moses J. Gries
Rudolph Grossman
Adolf Guttmacher
Charles S. Levi
Wm. Rosenau
Isaac L. Rypins

Class of 1890
Alexander H. Geismar
Clifton H. Levy

Class of 1891*
Samuel Greenfield
Samuel Hirshberg
Israel Joseph
Alexander Lyons
Charles A. Rubenstein
Class of 1892
Leo M. Franklin
Class of 1893
Charles Fleischer
Aaron Friedman
Marcus Salzman
M. G. Solomon
Class of 1894
Abram Gideon
Bennett Grad
Isaac E. Marcuson
David Marx
Isidore E. Rosenthal
Abram Simon

The Alumni
Chronological Arrangement

Class of 1895
Seymour G. Bottigheimer
Morris Newfield
George Solomon

Class of 1896
Frederick Cohn
Gustave H. Loewenstein
Harry H. Mayer

Class of 1897
Harry Levi
Julius Henry Meyer
Harry Weiss
Philip Wolf

Class of 1898
Max Cohen Currick
Hyman G. Enelow
Abram Hirschberg
Joseph S. Kornfeld
Leon M. Nelson
Simon Peiser

Class of 1899
Simon R. Cohen
Theodore F. Joseph
Israel Klein
Leo Mannheimer
Louis Wolsey
Martin Zielonka

Class of 1900
Abraham S. Anspacher
Abram Brill
Wm. H. Fineshriber
Charles J. Freund
Pizer W. Jacobs
David Lefkowitz
Emil W. Leipziger
J. Leon Magnes
Jacob Mielziner
Jacob S. Raisin
George Zepin

Class of 1901
David Alexander
Moise Bergman
Joseph Blatt
Henry Englander
Morris M. Feuerlicht
Solomon C. Lowenstein
Elias Margolis
Martin A. Meyer
Alfred G. Moses
Leon Volmer

Class of 1902
Solomon Foster
Emanuel Kahn
Jacob H. Kaplan
Samuel Koch

Maurice Lefkovits
Eugene Mannheimer
Eli Mayer
Julian Morgenstern
Abraham B. Rhine
Isidor Warsaw

Class of 1903
Morris Cahan
Henry M. Fisher
Solomon L. Kory
Nathan Krass
Louis Kuppin
Max J. Merritt
Max Raisin
Jonah B. Wise
Louis Witt

Class of 1904
Harry W. Ettelson
Harry G. Friedman
Ephraim Frisch
Alfred T. Godshaw
Samuel H. Goldenson
Joseph Jasin
J. Leonard Rothstein
Mendel Silber
Nathan Stern
Joseph H. Stolz

Class of 1905
Frederick E. Braun
Sidney E. Goldstein
Meyer Lovitch
Joseph Rauch

Class of 1906
Louis Bernstein
Abraham Cronbach
Nathan Gordon
Isaac Landman
Louis D. Mendoza
Julian H. Miller
Max Reichler
Jacob D. Schwarz

Class of 1907
Felix A. Levy
Class of 1908
Joel Blau
G. George Fox
Herman Rosenwasser
Class of 1909
Louis D. Gross
Louis J. Kopald
William Rice
David Rosenbaum
Samuel Schwartz
Jacob Singer
Aaron L. Weinstein
Horace J. Wolf



Class of 1910
Israel I. Mattuck


Class of 1911

Class of 1912
Israel Bettan
Samuel S. Cohon
Maurice M. Mazure
Jacob B. Pollak

Class of 1913
Irving M. Bloom
Adolf Rosenberg
David Fichman
Sidney Tedesche

Class of 1914
Isadore Isaacson
Israel L. Kaplan
Charles B. Latz
Morris S. Lazaron
Lee J. Levinger
Edgar F. Magnin
Louis L. Mann
Marius Ranson
Elkan C. Voorsanger

Class of 1915
Solomon B. Freehof
Julius Halprin
Harold F. Reinhart
Abba H. Silver
Jacob Tarshish

Class of 1916
Samuel J. Abrams
Hyman B. Cantor
Simon Cohen
Harvey B. Franklin
Raphael Goldenstein
James G. Heller
Abraham Holtzberg
Jacob B. Krohngold
Julius Leibert
Morris Lichtenstein
Israel J. Sarasohn
Maxwell Silver

Class of 1917
Benjamin Friedman
Samuel S. Mayerberg
Samuel F. Mendelsohn
Jacob I. Meyerovitz
Harry R. Richmond
Jerome Rosen

Class of 1918
Nathan Barasch
Abraham J. Feldman
Samuel M. Gup
Harry S. Linfield
Wolfe Macht
Jerome Mark
Louis A. Mischkind
Arthur S. Montaz
Alexander Segel
Jacob Turner
Philip Waterman
J. Max Weis

Class of 1919
Garry J. August
Barnet R. Brickner
Abraham Feinstein
Joseph Fink
Edward L. Israel
Max Kaufman
Albert G. Minda
Joseph E. Sales (deceased)
Meyer Salkover
Ira E. Sanders

Class of 1920
Joseph L. Baron
Solomon Fineberg
Leon Fram
Samuel J. Harris
Bernard Heller
Samuel S. Kaplan
Solomon Landman
Jacob R. Marcus
Abraham I. Shinediing
Harvey E. Wessel




Register of Students
Collegiate Department

Berkowitz, Henry J., B. A., Cincinnati, O.
Ellis, Milton M., B. A., Cincinnati, O.
Freund, Iser, B. A., Cincinnati, O.
Herman, Carl N., B. A., Cincinnati, O.
Iola, Hyman, B. A., Rochester, N. Y.
Luchs, Alvin S., Bellaire, O.
Margolis, Harry S., B. A., Dayton, O.
Meyerovitz, Myron M., B. A., Washington,
D. C.
Reichert, Irving F., B. A., New York, N. Y.
Rypins, Frederick I., B. A., Omaha, Neb.
Schwartz, William B., B. A., New York, N. Y.
Skirball, Jacob H., B. A., Cincinnati, O.
Stern, Bernhard J., M. A., Chicago, Ill.
Youngerman, Morris, B. A., Cincinnati, O.

Isserman, Ferdinand M., B. A., Newark, N. J.
Mark, Julius, Cincinnati, O.
Markowitz, Samuel H., M. A., Pottstown, Pa.
Rosenberg, Samuel, Terre Haute, Ind.
Starrels, Elihu, Philadelphia, Pa.
Sternseher, Wm., B. A., San Francisco, Gal.

Blank, Sheldon H., M. A., Mt. Carmel, Ill.
Frankel, Benjamin, B. A., Peoria, Ill.
Glueck, Nelson, B. A., Cincinnati, O.
Rothman, Walter E., B. A., Detroit, Mich.
Stern, Harry J., B. A., Steubenville, O.
Aaronsohn, Michael, Baltimore, Md.
Bazel, Solomon N., B. A., Braddock, Pa.
Binstock, Louis, B. A., Memphis, Tenn.
Bretton, Max, Ambridge, Pa.
Caplan, Harry, Baltimore, Md.
Feinberg, Abraham L., Bellaire, O.
Nathan, David S., Cincinnati, O.
Urich, Morris, Milwaukee, Wis.
Wolk, Samuel, B; A., Baltimore, Md.
Bookstaber, Philip D., M. A., Cincinnati, O.
Fineberg, Howard, Cincinnati, O.
Finkelstein, Adolph H., Goldsboro, N. C.
Freed, Abraham, New York, N. Y.
Kronman, Harry L., New York, N. Y.
Lipman, Mayer, Ph. B., Cincinnati, O.
Lipschutz, Theodor, New York City.
Peiser, Walter G., Brooklyn, N. Y.
Shillman, Samuel R., Pittsburgh, Pa.

Preparatory Department

Gordon, Samuel H., Portland, Ore.
Schostak, Louis H., Milwaukee, Wis.
Taxey, Joseph, Pittsburgh, Pa.

Blachschleger, Eugene, Cincinnati, O.
Dorfman, Bernard M., Cleveland, O.
Eisendrath, Maurice N., Cincinnati, O.
Neumark, Martha, Cincinnati, O.

Alexander, Mordecai L., New York, N. Y.
Feibleman, Julian B., B. A., Jackson, Miss.
Glazer, Bable, Seattle, Wash.

Bernstein, Louis F., Indianapolis, Ind.
De Koven, Seymour R., Chicago, Ill.
Falk, Gustav F., New Orleans, La.
Feuer, Leon I., Cleveland, Ohio.
Greenwald, Milton, Louisville, Ky.
Kahn, Lawrence E. B., Cincinnati, Ohio.
Kramer, Alexander, Washington, D. C.
Regner, Sidney L., Rochester, N. Y.
Unger, Sidney, New York, N. Y.
Francis, Abraham, Rochester, N. Y.
Liebman, Joshua, Cincinnati, Ohio.
Mallin, Herman, Cincinnati, Ohio.
Rosensweig, Ephraim, Cincinnati, Ohio.
Tavel, Henry, Cincinnati, Ohio.
Dunie, Robert L., Cincinnati, Ohio.
Englander, Henry, Cincinnati, Ohio.



Degrees Conferred

Doctor of Divinity

1886 David Philipson. 1888 Louis Grossmann. 1910 Abraham B. Rhine.
1887 Israel Aaron. 1894 Rudolph Grossman. 1913 Jacob S. Raisin.
Henry Berkowitz. 1898 Joseph Stolz. 1915 Abraham Cronbach.
Joseph Krauskopf. 1902 Hyman G. Enelow. Israel Bettan.
Joseph Silverman.

Honorary Degrees Conferred

Doctor of Divinity

1883 Solomon Eppinger, preceptor H. U. C., died at Cincinnati, February 11, 1890.
1883 Aaron Hahn, rabbi at Cleveland, O.
1887 Benjamin Szold, rabbi at Baltimore, died at Berkeley Springs, W. Va., July 31, 1902.
1890 Henry Zirndorf, professor H. U. C., died *at Cincinnati, December 17, 1893.
1891 David W. Marks, rabbi at London, England, died at London, May 3, 1909.
1892 David Davidson, preceptor H. U. C.
1894 Moritz Lazarus, professor University of Berlin, died at Meran, Austria, April 13,
1896 Moritz Steinschneider, professor, Berlin, died at Berlin, January 24, 1907.
1898 Moses Mielziner, professor H. U. C., died at Cincinnati, February 18, 1903.
1901 Emil G. Hirsch, rabbi of Sinai Congregation and professor in the University of
1902 Bernhard Felsenthal, rabbi emeritus, Chicago, died at Chicago, January 12, 1908.
1903 Jacob Voorsanger, rabbi, San Francisco, died at Monterey, April 27, 1908.
1909 Siegmund Mannheimer, professor H. U. C., died at Cincinnati, December 18, 1909.
1910 Ephraim Feldman, professor H. U. C., died at Cincinnati, November 16, 1910
1912 Israel Abrahams, Cambridge, England.
1916 Gotthard Deutsch, Ph. D., professor H. U. C.

Doctor of Hebrew Law
1920 Louis Marshall, LL. D.
1920 Jacob H. Schiff, D. C. S.

Bachelor of Theology
1894 Ephraim Feldman, professor H. U. C.
1895 Jacob Voorsanger, rabbi, San Francisco.

1885 Ignatz Mueller, rabbi, Louisville, Ky.

Civil Rights



Board of Delegates on Civil Rights

To the Executive Board of the Union of
American Hebrew Cngregations.
The past year has not yet brought official
peace. The drastic War laws are still in
force-consequently many problems are un-
solved and many regulations have entailed
individual and collective hardships.
Personal requests and voluminous corres-
pondence have engaged the -Board-the
Passport question; transmission of money;
the landing, even if temporarily, of illiterate
refugees; the many phases of the situation
regarding the securing of vises on pass-
ports at home and abroad-and have made
a budget of constant labor and sympathetic
interest. As far as possible relief was se-
cured, and the thanks and gratitude of all
were expressed in person and by letter.
The Immigration problem causes grave
apprehension. There has been and still is
since the World War, a great exodus from
every part of Europe which is not confined
to any one country but comes practically
from all. The great mass comes from the
former Russian Empire, Italy and Germany.
Our hearts go out to the unfortunates. We
want to help them, especially those who
can not help themselves. Farm laborers,
domestic help and refugee relatives of
American citizens here should be given
preference over others. The passports of
all such should be vised by our Consuls
abroad. This action abroad by our Consuls
has been advocated by this Board for many
years, and is the recommendation of the
Commissioner at Ellis Island who appeared
before the Senate Committee this week.
The literacy test should be rescinded, and,
if restriction is necessary, laws should be
enacted to prohibit the revolutionary ele-
ment from landing. All this is important
now. When normal conditions revive in
Europe, when racial, civil and religious

liberty shall be maintained by the
the people, then immigration will
normal and a gradual flow outward
a welcome solution.

will of
will be

At the present time the Immigration Bill
recently introduced in Congress is before
the Senate Committee, and hearings there-
on are being held before this Committee.
Your Chairman was invited to appear. The
following is a synopsis of his-recommenda-
tions and suggestions presented at said
hearings in behalf of this all-important
"Mr. Siegel's amendment in regard to
fugitive relatives of citizens of the United
States who seek our shores, is a step in
the right direction.
"In the annual report to the Executive
Committee of the Union of American He-
brew Congregations, the Board of Dele-
gates speaks in emphatic terms of the great
problem of immigration; stating that while
heretofore it was largely a measure not
only of sentiment but of practical states-
manship to be liberal in legislation, the
Board could not deny the fact that, owing
to the present unrest prevailing all over
the world and the abnormal onrush of
immigration, a temporary restriction had
become essential, which should be modified
so -as to permit the landing of such refu-
gees as have relatives here who are citi-
zens of the United States.
"The above report also discusses the
literacy test, which I consider a grievous
blunder on the part of a former Congress.
It is brawn and brain that is needed, and
that is never dangerous. The dangerous
immigration comes in the shape of anar-
chists, socialists, revolutionists and Bolshe-
viki, who are capable of speaking, reading
and writing seven languages and are pa-
triotic in none. The other day a steamer
brought twenty-five hundred canary birds,



singing from port to port, yet incapable of
any other act of happiness save that of
their glorious song. So the immigrant,
capable of working, brings a valuable asset
to the wealth of the nation without en-
dangering its future.

"While the organization I have the honor
to represent is Jewish in faith, it is thor-
oughly patriotic in the object to be attained.
This legislation is regarded by us from the
standpoint of Americanization, and the per-
petuity of our institutions. We are as in-
tensely devoted to the principles of our
Government and to the Americanization of
all our people as any other portion of our
common citizenship. Why not pass an-
Act temporarily restricting immigration un-
til absolute peace has been declared be-
tween all the nations-giving the Presi-
dent the power to suspend or continue the
Act until conditions, looking towards a per-
manent solution of all our problems, shall
have made it advisable for Congress to
consider less stringent legislation."
The question of Sunday and Sabbath has
involved considerable thought and study,
and a very pertinent case is in the follow-
ing correspondence:

"Niagara Falls, N. Y., Nov. 23, 1920.
Hon. Simon Wolf,
Washington, D. C.
Dear Sir:
May we have a word from your re-
garding the following?
For upwards of sixty years we have
been keeping the Jewish Sabbath, and un-
til within the last year have never been
molested when doing business on the
first day of the week, Sunday. An agi-
tation recently, not at all directed against
us but emanating from a quarrel among
the local barbers, gained momentum until
finally the City Manager, a personal
friend of ours, against his will, was, he
felt, compelled to ask us to close, even
though he knew how conscientiously we
observed the Jewish Sabbath. Have had
an interview with Mr. in
New York, who says that they will again
this year introduce in the New York
Legislature a bill exempting all who keep
a day a week as holy time, as they should
have a defense against an action to close

their respective stores on the first day
of the week. We understand that you
are a member of the Committee on Civil
Rights and wish to know if you have
given the matter any thought and whether
you think it would be futile to bring
such a case before the Federal authori-
ties, since our Constitution promises re-
ligious liberty and equal rights.
We have one of the largest shops in
Niagara Falls, employing about thirty
people, and as stated, having kept our
Sabbath day so rigidly for upwards of
sixty years, we are assured that not only
have we the respect of practically all
the citizens of our city but comparatively
few of them object to our doing business
on the first day of the week, since we al-
ready keep a full Saturday till six o'clock.
We should very much appreciate a few
words from you regarding this.
Very truly yours,

Acknowledgment of this letter was made
with promises to give the matter prompt
attention and communicate with the writers
again. Following this promise, the matter
was at once taken up with Hon. Julius
Kahn, Member of Congress, who responded
to the following effect:

"November 30, 1920.
Hon. Simon Wolf,
Washington, D. C.
My dear Friend:
I have yours of November 26th, with
enclosure, and have carefully noted same.
I believe that the Sunday laws is a
matter for the States to regulate. I do
not deem it wise to introduce a Bill in
Congress upon that subject. About ten
or fifteen years ago, bills were introduced
for Sunday observances in the District.
The Seventh Day Adventists made a de-
termined fight against the legislation. I
was on the District Committee at that
time and took my stand with the Seventh
Day Adventists. It would renew the old
fight were a bill introduced even for the
District of Columbia. It would give the
narrow minded and bigoted an oppor-
tunity to endeavor to bring about stricter
Sunday laws.



I have frankly stated my views on the
subject and if these people want relief
they should apply to the Legislature of
the State of New York.
Very. sincerely yours,
(Signed) JULIUS KAHN."

This information was conveyed to our
New York friends, who replied that they
had had this matter up a number of times
in their State Legislature and expected to
have a Bill introduced in both branches of
the legislature of their state this year, but
as they had little hope of success, from
past experience, had taken the matter up
with the Board hoping to secure National
legislation in the matter.
State and not National regulation is the
remedy, and the Federal Constitutional
guarantee of religious liberty does not apply
to the states. In this connection, we can
not refrain from calling attention to the
agitation for further Blue Laws. We should
work with all our influence to prevent any
further inroads on personal and religious
liberty. The adherents of the un-American
attempt are bringing the ship of State
dangerously near the brink of national
The question of stopping the circulation
through the mails of scurrilous literature
calculated to stir up racial and religious
hatred should be taken up, either by Gov-
ernmental regulation or Congressional legis-
lation. Steps to that end have been taken.
In this connection, in the notorious Henry
Ford matter, the Chairman of this Board
published a pamphlet entitled "Are We Not
All Brethren?", pleading for the cessation
of race hatred and religious prejudice.
Many letters have been received from
Christian friends, enclosing copies of letters
which they have written to Henry Ford, and
in language so thoroughly American that
it was a pleasure to read them.
Another important question to be con-
sidered is that of aiding financially or offi-
cially, countries that deny equal rights to
the citizens of said countries. No recogni-
tion should be given by the people of the
United States unless guarantees are secured
that shall evidence the good faith of the
country recognized in pledging themselves
to respect the principle of equal rights for
all citizens. All this is not asked as Jews,

but as patriotic American citizens. We
have a common interest, and are as ever
ready to serve the Republic. We have no
titular religious head to whom we must
swear fealty. Our Supreme Sovereign out-
side of the great First Cause is the Con-
stitution of the United States and the flag
of our country, inspired by the loftiest
ideals. We cannot go astray.
Mr. Leo Wise, a member of the Board,
called the attention of the Chairman to the
expected meeting of the Brotherhood of the
World to be held in Washington, D. C. In
consequence, your Chairman appeared be-
fore that body, was received with great
enthusiasm, and, after he had addressed
them at length, the following Resolution
was adopted by said body:
Resolution offered October 13, 1920.
"The Congress has welcomed Dr. Wolf
to the platform and has taken his brother-
ly word to heart. In return they assure
him and his coreligionists that, in the
opinion of this Congress, the toleration
of persecution, whether social or political,
based on religious difference, is incompat-
able with Brotherhood or the essential
spirit of Christ."
The members of the Board have as usual
been vigilant, and have from time to time
corresponded with the Chairman, and have
at all times rendered cheerful cooperation.
Hon. Julius Kahn and Hon. Isaac Siegel
have been of great assistance in Congress,
and our friend and colleague, Max J.
Kohler has, as usual, been of invaluable
service to the Board. Special attention is
drawn to the article written by Mr. Kohler
on "Religious Liberty Guarantees at the
Peace Conference" published in the Novem-
ber-December number of the "American
Law Review"-a most interesting and ex-
haustive resume of this important subject,
which required hours of thought and study.
We wish it were possible to incorporate it in
this report, but lack of space prevents. In-
stead, however, we ask every one to give it
a thorough and careful study.
During the past year a number of our
Board members have passed to their final
reward, notably our good brother, Colonel
Harry Cutler, of Providence, Rhode Island.
Respectfully submitted,
SIMON WOLF, Chairman.


Synagog and School Extension


Program of Synagog and School Extension

Season of 1919-20

(a) In Rural Districts.
(b) In Small Cities.
(c) In Metropolitan Centers.
(d) Summer Services.
(e) In Colleges.
(f) In Hospitals and Institutions.
(g) In Prisons and Reformatories.

(a) Text-books.
(b) Home Study Magazine.
(c) Tracts.
(d) Prayer-books and Prayer-book Reprints.

(A) Organization of Synagogs and Schools in New England.
(B) Survey of Religious School Conditions in Harlem, New York City.
(C) University Religious Welfare Work in Central and Eastern States.




Board of Managers of Synagog and School Extension

Cincinnati., O., Oct. 31, 1920.
To the Executive Board of the Union of
American Hebrew Congregations:
Gentlemen: A survey of the season of
1919-1920 reveals the fact that the work of
Synagog and School Extension has made the
usual progress in most of its departments
and has achieved special results in a few
activities which were given more than ordi-
nary attention. The program of activities
printed on the preceding page gives a gen-
eral outline of the activities of the Depart-
ment of Synagog and School Extension.
These are summed up under the general
headings, "Synagog and School Extension
through Organization", "Publication of Re-
ligious Literature" and "Special Regional
Activities". These headings and the divi-
sions under them may serve to mark off the
general boundaries of the activities, but can-
not serve to describe the numerous under-
takings in each subordinate department. A
description of the most important of these
enterprises will be given in the following
few paragraphs. Even this description can-
not attempt to recite the assistance rendered
through the vast amount of correspondence
maintained by the Department of Synagog
and School Extension. Outgoing letters .and
pieces of mail are numbered. While we
have no record of the pieces of mail issued
by the Department of Synagog and School
Extension, the total issued by the Union,
Federation and Department was, on Octo-
ber 31st, 103,247. The Department issued
about one-third of this number.


The most outstanding activities of the
season were, first, the work carried on in
New England by Rabbi Rosen; second, the
University Religious Welfare Work partici-
pated in by Rabbi Egelson of our Depart-
ment and by Dr. Englander and Rabbi Free-
hof of the Hebrew Union College; third, the
growth of the Home Study Magazine and
fourth, the enlargement of the work in New
York City.

The Department of Synagog and School
Extension as such, has had no part in the
Laymen's Tour except in so far as the plans
of the Union are conceived with but one pur-
pose in mind and executed in the same gen-
eral offices. In making this reference to the
Laymen's Tour, the Board of Managers
wishes to record its profound belief that no
movement in many years has been produc-
tive of so much "Synagog Extension" as this
unusual march for Judaism conducted by a
band of over 100 devoted laymen. Nothing
that the Department has attempted to do has
equaled in effect the forty days of mass
meetings in 150 cities in the United States.
We do not recite this as an activity of the
Department of Synagog and School Exten-
sion, but as a fact in the progress of Syna-
gog and School Extension.

In the Fall of 1919 we engaged Rabbi
Jerome Rosen, formerly of Spokane, Wash.
Rabbi Rosen was assigned the task of visit-
ing the communities in New England for
the purpose of organizing Religious Schools
and Synagogs. A special part of this re-
port will be devoted to the work accomplished
in New England. In July, 1920, Rabbi
Rosen severed connections with the Depart-
ment for the purpose of visiting Europe. In
August, 1920, we engaged Rabbi Jacob B.
Pollak, formerly of Elmira, N. Y., who is
now in charge of our New York City office.

(a) Rural Communities.
Our work in the rural communities has
increased but slightly in volume. For the
present the only point of contact between
the Department of Synagog and School Ex-
tension and Jewish children living upon
farms consists of our Home Study Magazine
which is distributed free of charge to Jew-
ish farmers' children. The Magazine has
been increased in size and has been very
much improved in content. A special para-



graph dealing with this subject will appear
later in this report.

(b) Small Cities.
The work of the supervisors and deputies
in the smaller cities has been somewhat
less in volume than in some preceding years.
This work includes organizing schools, cong-
regations, study circles, but for the most
part consists in regular visits subsequently
paid to these cities by the supervisor and
deputies for the purpose of conducting ser-
vices and maintaining religious school work.
We have not yet returned to our pre-war
status. Many communities that were served
in this way a few years ago are waiting to
be re-organized. Fifty-five supervisors and
deputies made 356 visits to 152 cities for the
purposes described above. The statistical
report of the work of the supervisors ap-
pended to this general report enumerates the
cities and the nature of the services ren-

Synagog and School Extension in New Eng-
land-Special Regional Activity-A.
From time to time the Department has
carried out intensive Synagog Extension
campaigns in various parts of the United
States. A number of years ago, when the
Department was first organized, active cam-
paigns of this sort were conducted in the
Central States, from the Great Lakes to the
Gulf of Mexico. Subsequently these were
carried further East and West. A few years
ago a similar program was conducted in
Western Pennsylvania, where numerous
cities were visited and schools organized.
The season's work concluded with a meet-
ing of rabbis and teachers ,and religious
leaders in Pittsburgh, under the leadership
of the late Dr. J. Leonard Levy. Some time
thereafter we sent a worker to the Pacific
Coast for a complete season. The same
program could undoubtedly be repeated with
profit in many parts of the United States.
We would like to assist in solving these
problems by placing special workers in every
section of the country to minister to the
leaderless groups of Jews. The unfortunate
dearth of rabbis, which causes thirty or
forty pulpits to remain vacant, has been felt
by the Department as well.
Rabbi Jerome Rosen joined the staff of
the Department in the Fall of 1919 and was
assigned to New England to make a complete

survey of conditions. Rabbi Rosen remained
in New England for the complete season.
He concentrated his attention particularly
upon the cities in Connecticut and Massa-
chusetts, visiting many cities two or three
times to bring about lasting results. In
many communities he organized synagogs
and schools for religious services and in-
The rabbis living in New England as well
as in New York City and its environs were
of great assistance in maintaining these ser-
vices after organization was effected. The
congregations of New York as well as the
Association of Reform Rabbis of New York
voted their approval of our activity. The
rabbis enlisted voluntarily to make regular
visits to these newly organized congregations
in order to conduct religious services. They
rendered great service to the Cause, fre-
quently absenting themselves from their
congregations on Friday evenings and some-
times on Saturdays.
Rabbi Rosen was particularly fortunate in
having the guidance and assistance of the
late Colonel Harry Cutler, of Providence,
R. I., a member of the Board of Managers.
He met with Colonel Cutler often and the
season's work was concluded by calling a
conference in Providence of rabbis and re-
ligious leaders from all parts of New Eng-
land. Colonel Cutler presided at this meet-
ing. Great enthusiasm for the work of
Synagog and School Extension was aroused.
Rabbi Rosen's withdrawal from the De-
partment to visit his family in Europe, and
our inability to secure a Field Secretary to
succeed him, has rendered it impossible for
us to continue this work in New England.
A complete statement of the work accom-
plished in each city, as well as the names
of the laymen and rabbis who gave their
voluntary services, is given in a special re-
port on Synagog Extension Activities in New
The following is a brief list of the cities
in which Rabbi Rosen worked:
In Connecticut: Bridgeport, 3 visits; Bris-
tol, 2 visits; Danbury, 3 visits; Greenwich,
1 visit; Meriden, 2 visits; New Britain, 3
visits; New London, 3 visits; Norwich, 2
visits; South Norwalk, 1 visit; Stamford, 3
visits and Waterbury, 3 visits.
In Massachusetts: Fall River, 4 visits;
Lancaster, 1 visit; Lawrence, 1 visit; New
Bedford, 1 visit; Pittsfield, 1 visit; South



Framingham, 1 visit; Taunton, 1 visit; West-
boro, 1 visit and Worcester, 1 visit.

(c) Metropolitan Centers.

This work for the present is confined to
New York City. Work in metropolitan cen-
ters can only be carried on where the city
itself undertakes to raise an amount of
money commensurate with the needs of the
situation. The services rendered by the De-
partment consist of direction and standard-
ization of the work. In New York City we
have opened an office at 24 East 21st St.
Rabbi Jacob B. Pollak is in charge of the
activities, which consist primarily of manag-
ing the Ezra School. This school is main-
taining its usual activities and registration.
A special report of the New York Commit-
tee for School Extension, which is submit-
ted as, part of this report, contains a full
statement of the details involved and of the
plans now being perfected for the organiza-
tion of two more schools, one to be main-
tained in part by Temple Beth El and an-
other to be similarly maintained in part by
Temple Emanu-El.
Rabbi Pollak's activities are not confined
to the schools alone. He is in charge of our
New York office which is the headquarters
for the New York Executive Committee of
the Union, the New York Committee on
Propaganda of the National Federation of
Temple Sisterhoods and the local office of
the New York Federation of Reform Con-
The New York Executive Committee of
the Union has arranged several very suc-
cessful mass meetings in New York and in
Brooklyn. These are to be followed by
similar meetings in the various synagogs in
New York City. At these meetings the work
of the Union of American Herew Congrega-
tions was dwelt upon, and enthusiasm was
aroused for the progress of our Cause.
Preparations for an elaborate financial cam-
paign have been in progress for some time
and favorable results are soon expected.
The New York Committee on Propaganda
of the National Federation of Temple Sister-
hoods has as its object securing the affilia-
tion of Sisterhoods for the National Federa-
tion and also uniting all the Sisterhoods
of New York City in various enterprises
which will make for the deepening of the
Jewish religious consciousness.

The Federation of Reform Synagogs of
New York City was organized to assist the
Union in its campaign for funds and to
secure the cooperation of the Reform
Congregations in the solution of practical
problems that arise in New York City. The
Union has placed its office and the services
of its workers at the disposal of these three
Boards and Committees.

The Harlem Survey-Special Regional Ac-
The outstanding achievement of the sea-
son in New York was the completion of a
survey of Jewish Religious School Condi-
tions in Harlem. The work was undertaken
by Mr. Louis E. Goldstein, Principal of the
Ezra School. The survey is submitted in
full as part of the report of the New York
Committee for School Extension, and deals
in detail with the number of children at-
tending all the public schools in Harlem,
the number and character of the Jewish re-
ligious schools in that section, etc., etc.

(d) Summer Services.
The work of the Department in the field
of Summer Services consists in stimulating
a desire for such services; in supplying
prayer books, hymnals and other accessories;
in sending special workers to organize ser-
vices and also in supplying these summer
pulpits with rabbinical and lay leaders.
Strange as it may seem, there has always
been a certain amount of opposition to Sum-
mer Services. Part of our work has con-
sisted in breaking down this opposition. Our
measure of success in this field is attested
by the increasing number of summer re-
sorts where Jewish religious services are
regularly conducted. Last year fifty rabbis
and laymen conducted two hundred and fifty-
four services in thirty-nine places. This rep-
resents a material increase over the work
of the preceding year. Ten thousand and
seventy-nine prayer-books, hymnals, prayer-
book and hymnal reprints and other
accessories were distributed. While the
Department of Synagog and School Exten-
sion has occasionally been called upon to
pay the expenses of rabbis who are re-
quested to fill the pulpits in out of the way
places, there has been a small income aris-
ing from these services. Summer congrega-
tions have endeavored to show their appre-
ciation by soliciting small contributions.



Last year $476.20 was sent to the Depart-
ment-a small amount, but indicative of the
fact that the services are desired and that
our efforts are appreciated. Services, this
year, have been conducted in all parts of
the United States. Names of rabbis and
laymen who assisted in this enterprise are
mentioned in the statistical summaries.
Rabbi Felix Ievy of Chicago was especially
helpful in arranging for the supply of sum-
mer pulpits in Michigan and Wisconsin.
(e) University Religious Welfare Work.
During the past season we made special
efforts to inaugurate activities in a number
of universities. We have, as a rule, been
dependent upon the work of the supervisors
and deputies. This season we assigned to
Rabbi Egelson the task of visiting the prin-
cipal universities in the Central and Eastern
States. We were also fortunate in secur-
ing the services during vacation periods of
Dr. Englander and Rabbi Freehof of the
Hebrew Union College. As a result of these
activities the Department has come into far
closer touch with the work at the university
centers. At the close of last season we
offered a series of prizes for orations de-
livered on Jewish subjects. While these
were approved by the rabbis conducting work
at the several universities, the facts were
published too late for any response during
the past season. We hope that these plans
will meet with a better response during the
present season.
Forty-two rabbis visited twenty-three uni-
versities and conducted thirty-eight meetings.
Of these rabbis ten were in constant touch
with students at sixteen universities either
visiting them fortnightly, having individual
conferences with the students or conducting
classes for them in Hebrew or Jewish His-
Special Survey of University Conditions in
Central and Eastern States Special
Regional Activity-C.
Early in the Fall of 1919, Rabbi Louis I.
Egelson, Assistant Director of the Depart-
ment, made an extended trip to many uni-
versities in the Central and Eastern States
to meet the Jewish students, to study their
environment and to effect whatever religious
organization possible in order to keep the
Jewish students in touch with their religion
during their college careers. Since the prob-
lem is not so serious at universities located

in organized Jewish centers, Rabbi Egelson
limited his visits to universities situated in
smaller, unorganized communities.
His itinerary included the following uni-
University of Missouri, at Columbia, Mo.;
Kansas State University, at Lawrence, Kan-
sas; University of Iowa, at Iowa City, Ia.;
University of Wisconsin, at Madison, Wis.;
University of Illinois, at Champaign, Ill.;
University of Indiana, at Bloomington, Ind.;
Cornell University, at Ithaca, N. Y.; Dickin-
son College, at Carlisle, Pa.; Lehigh Uni-
versity, at South Bethlehem, Pa., and Prince-
ton University, at Princeton, N. J.
At only one of these universities was the
number of Jewish students too small to
warrant an organization. A Jewish Students'
Association was formed at the University of
Wisconsin and at the University of Indiana.
At the other universities arrangements were
made with the students for periodic meet-
ings to be addressed by visiting rabbis. In
connection with the proposed work at these
institutions Rabbi Egelson conferred with
Rabbis Harry H. Mayer, of Kansas City,
Mo.; Eugene Mannheimer, of Des Moines,
Ia.; Morris Feuerlicht, of Indianapolis, Ind.;
Louis J. Kopald, of Buffalo, N. Y., and Louis
J. Haas, of Harrisburg, Pa. The activities
inaugurated by these visits were continued
throughout the scholastic year with the as-
sistance of several rabbis who conducted
services at these colleges.
At our invitation Prof. Solomon B. Free-
hof, of the Hebrew Union College, visited
New England and addressed the Jewish stu-
dents at four universities located in small
communities, namely; University of Maine,
at Orono, Me.; Bowdoin College, at Bruns-
wick, Me.; Massachusetts Agricultural Col-
lege, at Amherst, Mass., and Connecticut
Agricultural College, at Storrs, Conn. Prof.
Freehof also visited the University of Illi-
nois, at Champaign-Urbana, Ill.; the Ohio
State University, at Columbus, Ohio; Pur-
due University, at Lafayette, Ind., and the
University of Indiana, at Bloomington, In-
At our request Dr. Henry Englander, of
the Hebrew Union College delivered two
addresses before the Jewish students of the
University of Indiana, Bloomington, Ind.;
one address at the University of Kentucky,
Lexington, Ky., and four lectures at the Ohio
State University, Columbus, Ohio.



(t and g) Religious Work at Institutions
for Defectives and Delinquents.
In this department also we made a special
attempt to have workers from our own office
get into personal touch with the supervisors
of these institutions and with the inmates.
Rabbi Jerome Rosen as well as Rabbi Joseph
Leiser, both of our Department, visited a
number of institutions for this purpose.
Rabbi Rosen visited the Industrial School
for Girls, Lancaster, Mass.; the Industrial
School for Boys, Westboro, Mass., and the
Massachusetts Reformatory for Women,
South Framingham, Mass. Rabbi Leiser
visited the State Prison, Jackson, Mich., and
the Industrial School for Boys, Lansing,
Twenty-eight supervisors and deputies
made 298 visits to 41 hospitals and correc-
tional institutions. Wherever possible ser-
vices were conducted for the adult inmates
and religious classes for the juveniles. We
have the cooperation of the National Feder-
ation of Temple Sisterhoods which has dis-
tributed appropriate literature and supplied
dainties for the inmates of these institutions
on certain religious festivals. The Central
Conference of American Rabbis has sold us
a number of prayer-books and permitted us
to reprint certain parts of Volume I of the
prayer-book for distribution in these insti-
tutions. Seventy-five institutions are on the
mailing list for our Home Study Magazine
receiving over 10,000 copies, and 130 institu-
tions receive the Union Bulletin. While
there are a great many institutions for de-
fectives and delinquents, by far the great
majority of these institutions have no Jewish
inmates and many of the remainder have only
a few. Our efforts are reaching about 75%
of the institutions which offer opportunities
for work of this description. During the
last season the Department made special
arrangements with Rabbi David Marx, of
Atlanta, Ga., for the welfare work at the
Federal Prison in Atlanta, Ga.

During the past season we have distributed
102,127 printed items under this heading,
such as text books, copies of the Home
Study Magazine, tracts and sermons, prayer-
books, hymn books, and prayer and hymn
book reprints. The output is considerably
larger than in any preceding season.

(a) Text Books.
We have published no new text books this
season but we have increased the number
sold. The 27 different items which we now
sell have been introduced into 289 schools
and have been purchased in addition by 176
individuals who may or may not be con-
ducting schools. Our publications have been
handled by 19 publishers and booksellers.
We have supplied 26,738 text books and ac-
cessories to children, and teachers; an in-
crease of 8,468 items over corresponding
sales of last year. A number of new text
books are in preparation and some are in
press. The writing of new text books, how-
ever, is a matter that is not altogether de-
pendent on the Department of Synagog and
School Extension, or the Board of Editors.
Some authors require more time in the pro-
duction of their books than others.
The last season witnessed the creation of
the Hermine Schonthal Endowment Fund.
Mr. Schonthal has contributed $10,000 to this
fund. The interest is to be used for the pub-
lication of books and the fund is to be per-
mitted to grow by the addition at the close
of each season of the profits made from the
sale of the books published by this fund.
Two books have already been published by
the Hermine Schonthal Publication Fund and
the third is in preparation.

(b) Home Study Magazine.
We have published the Home Study Maga-
zine for a number of years, but before last
season we gave the matter very little atten-
tion. The content of the magazine consisted
of our lesson publications in a modified
form. Beginning with last season we turned
the paper into a children's magazine. Before
that the magazine had not been sold, but
we had a free circulation ranging from 3,000
to 4,000 copies per month, aggregating from
30,000 to 40,000 copies per year.
After we changed the form and content
of the Home Study Magazine we continued
to distribute the same to Jewish farm chil-
dren without cost, but we also placed the
magazine on sale. This season 41 religious
schools subscribed for 16,625 copies. We
added to our free mailing list 75 institutions
where we sent 10,724 copies in the course
of the season, making a total of almost 54,-
000 copies distributed last year. This year,
beginning with September, the increased sale
of the Home Study Magazine has necessi-


. L B-r .j . -- ... ... . ...-- I -- . .-- r j r. .... L .


tated our printing 13,000 copies per month
and it looks as though we will exceed 130,-
000 copies per season. Unsolicited individ-
ual subscriptions are received almost daily.
(c) Tracts and Sermons.
The report of the Tract Commission which
is appended contains the details of the Holi-
day Sermons Pamphlet issued in advance
of the Fall Holiday Season. We distributed
the pamphlet to 310 communities which de-
sired to conduct services but were unable to
secure rabbis. The remainder of the edition
of 1,500 was sent to subscribers and others
on request.
The Tract Commission also prepared Holi-
day Notices which were distributed to 575
evening papers and 338 morning papers in
every city in the United States and Canada
having a considerable Jewish population.
These are intended to forestall the inac-
curate descriptions of our holidays that are
sometimes published in the daily press.
The Tract Commission also conducts a
Holiday Observance Campaign among the
universities and schools. During August of
this year circulars were sent to 129 presi-
dents of universities and 570 superinten-
dents of public schools, calling attention to
the dates of our Holy Days and asking that
wherever possible examinations be set on
days that will not conflict with the observ-
ance of the Jewish Holy Days. The broad-
minded spirit prevailing in our educational
institutions was manifested in the numerous
favorable replies which we received. A num-
ber of school superintendents asked for ad-
ditional copies of the calendar in order to
place them in the hands of every school
A somewhat similar letter was sent to the
superintendents of institutions for delin-
quents and detectives, asking that the Jew-
ish inmates be permitted to observe the
Jewish Holy Days, if such permission is not
incompatible with the discipline of the in-
Four Tracts have been held in readiness
by the Tract Commission for publication,
pending the decision of the U. S. postal au-
thorities with reference to securing second
class mailing privilege. This has finally been

denied and the Tracts will be issued as third
class mail. It is planned that the above four
Tracts should be distributed during the year
1921 beginning with January.

(d) Prayer-Books, Hymn-Books and Re-
The Department is in receipt of a great
many requests for prayer-books, hymn-books
and reprints of various parts of the prayer-
book. By special arrangement with the Cen-
tral Conference of American Rabbis we have
been supplied with prayer books and hymn
books and with the permission to make re-
prints of certain parts of these books. These
are being distributed without charge at sum-
mer resorts, at institutions, to rabbis on
trips of organization and to student congre-
gations. Thirteen thousand one hundred and
sixty-eight items were distributed during the
past season.

We chronicle with regret the passing away
of Colonel Harry Cutler, a member of our
Board of Managers for many years. Colonel
Cutler was not only interested in following
the achievements of the Board, but took an
active and personal interest in the various
enterprises and especially in those which
centered in the New England States. We
have mentioned the assistance given to Rabbi
Rosen in his work, but this is merely indica-
tive of the love he bore for the Jewish
Cause. His counsel will be missed in the
deliberations of our Board.

The work of Synagog and School Extension
is dependent to a very large extent upon the
voluntary services rendered by a great many
rabbis and laymen, to whom the Board of
Managers herewith extends its thanks and
appreciation. The list of names is far too
great to enumerate .again in this part of the
report. Some of these fellow-workers are
on the Board of Editors, others on the Tract
Commission, and a very large number are
among the supervisors and deputies and lay-
workers, acknowledgment to whom is made
in the reports which are attached.




From Summer Congregations
Summer Congregation-Cedar Lake, Wis....................................$ 10.00
(Through courtesy of Mr. Bernhard Stern, of Cin'ti, O.)
Summer Congregation-Cedar Lake, Wis .................................... 15.00
(Through courtesy of Mrs. J. W. Apter, of Chicago, Ill.)
Summer Congregation-Elkhart Lake, Wis .................................. 74.00
(Through courtesy of Mrs. David Schwartz, of Chicago, 11.)
Summer Congregation-Long Lake, New York ................................ 28.50
(Through courtesy of Dr. Nathan Stern, of New York, N. Y.)
Summer Congregation-Manitou, Colo....................................... 25.00
(Through courtesy of Rabbi Louis Bernstein, of St. Joseph, Mo.)
Summer Congregation-Oden, Mich......................................... 71.00
(Through courtesy of Mr. Ben Rice, Cincinnati, Ohio.)
Summer Congregation-Ottawa Beach, Mich............................... 46.00
(Through courtesy of Mr. Sam'l Hassenbusch, of St. Joseph, Mo.)
Summer Congregation-Ottawa Beach, Mich ................................ 46.25
(Through courtesy of Rabbi Leonard J. Rothstein, of Pine Bluff, Ark.)
Summer Congregation-Sacandaga Park, N. Y............................ 160.45
(Through courtesy of Rabbi Solomon Foster, of Newark, N. J.)


Respectfully submitted,
GEORGE ZEPIN, Secretary.


This digest contains a complete summary
of Rabbi Rosen's work in New England in
1919 and 1920.

Bridgeport-3 visits. Conferred with Rabbi
Samuel J. Abrams in regard to Syna-
gog Extension in New England. Oc-
cupied Rabbi Abrams' pulpit while he
conducted services for the new congre-
gation at Stamford.
Bristol-2 visits. Conferred with leaders of
community and made arrangements for
instituting a lecture course on Jewish
Danbury-3 visits. Conferred with the
leaders. Succeeded in organizing mod-
ern services. Two services were con-
ducted by Rabbi Maxwell Silver, then
of Brooklyn, N. Y., and by Rabbi Joshua
Bloch, of New York City.
Greenwich-1 visit. Found those of more
liberal tendency too few in number to
warrant a separate organization.
Hartford-2 visits. Conferred with Rabbis
Abraham Anspacher and Abraham No-
wak in regard to Synagog Extension
and Prison Welfare Work in New Eng-
Meriden-2 visits. Conferred with leaders
of liberal element. Addressed meeting
of B'nai B'rith on organization of a
Jewish Study Circle. Arranged for first
lecture which was delivered by Rabbi
Louis Mann, of New Haven, Conn.
New Britain-3 visits. Conferred with the
leaders. Found people interested in or-
ganization of a modern congregation.
Made arrangements for lecture which
was delivered by Dr. David Levine, of
Brooklyn, N. Y.

New London-3 visits. Interested a number
of prominent Jews in the organization
of a modern congregation. Addressed a
meeting of the Local Lodge I. O. B. B.
Norwich-2 visits. Conferred with the
leaders. Made arrangements with the
president of the Y. M. H. A. for lectures
on Jewish topics.

South Norwalk-1 visit. Conferred with the
leaders. Organized a committee on ar-
rangements to have Friday evening ser-
vices the following season.

Stamford-3 visits. Conferred with the
leaders. Addressed meetings of several
organizations. Organized a modern con-
gregation. Conducted the first services.
Fifteen services were conducted by
Rabbis Jerome Rosen, Samuel Abrams,
then of Bridgeport, Conn., B. A. Elzas,
Clifton H. Levy, B. A. Tintner, Joshua
Bloch, Bernard Kaplan and Ephraim
Frisch, of New York City and Rabbis
Max Raisin and Louis D. Gross, of
Brooklyn, N. Y.

Waterbury-3 visits. Met with the leaders.
Addressed general mass meeting and
also a joint meeting of the Y. M. H. A.
and Y. W. H. A. with the purpose of
securing the membership in the congre-
gation of the conservative element of
the community.

Boston-2 visits. Conferred with Rabbi
Harry Levi, of Boston, Mass., Mrs. E.
I. Goulston and Rabbi Moses Sedar, of
Dorchester, Mass., with regard to the
welfare work in the penal institutions
in and around Boston. Conferred also
with Rabbi Levi on general program of
Extension work in New England.


Special Report on

Synagog Extension Activities

in New England



Fall River-4 visits. Conferred with the
leaders. Addressed a meeting of the
representative Jews. Committee ap-
pointed to make arrangements for a
larger meeting and to take steps for
the organization of a modern congre-
gation. Addressed a meeting of the
Jewish Study Circle. Addressed Y. W.
H. A. and outlined a curriculum for the
religious school of the Y. W. H. A.
Made arrangements for lecture which
was delivered by Rabbi Alexander Lyons,
of Brooklyn, N. Y.
Lancaster-1 visit to the Industrial School
for Girls. Conferred with the authori-
ties with regard to the spiritual and re-
ligious welfare of the Jewish inmates.
Conferred with Mrs. J. J. Dann who has
charge of the religious work at the
Lawrence-1 visit. Addressed meeting of
the newly-organized congregation.
New Bedford-1 visit. Conferred with the
leaders. Found that the congregation
had just been reorganized along modern
Pittsfield-1 visit. Made arrangements for
bi-weekly Friday evening services. As-
sisted in reorganizing the religious
school. Eight services were conducted
by Rabbis Harry Richmond, of Paterson,
N. J., Maxwell Silver, then of Brooklyn,
N. Y., Nathan Barasch, of Troy, N. Y.,
Max Kaufman, then of Schenectady, N.
Y., Louis D. Gross, of Brooklyn, N. Y.,
Adolph Rosenberg, then of Newburgh,
N. Y., and Mr. Ferd. Isserman, a stu-
dent at the Hebrew Union College, Cin-
cinnati, O.
South Framingham-1 visit to the Massa-
chusetts Reformatory for Women. Con-

ferred with authorities. Found the re-
ligious work in charge of Rabbi Moses
Sedar, of Dorchester, Mass.
Taunton-1 visit. Found need for organiz-
ing a modern congregation. Arranged
for later visit.
Westboro-1 visit to the Industrial School
for Boys. Conferred with the super-
intendent. Conferred with Mr. A. M.
Hillman, of Worcester, Mass., in charge
of the religious work at the School.
Worcester-1 visit. Conferred with Rabbi
J. Bienenfeld, of Worcester, Mass., and
others with regard to the organization
of a Prison Welfare Work Committee.
Outlined work to be done among the de-
linquents at various institutions. Rec-
ommended list of books to be placed in
some of the institutions for use of the

Paterson-1 visit. Occupied Rabbi Harry
Richmond's pulpit in Paterson, N. J.,
while he conducted services at Pittsfield,

New York-2 visits. Attended meeting of
Reform Rabbis' Association in order to
obtain cooperation of the members.
Also visited New Rochelle, Mt. Vernon
and Yonkers for same purpose.

Providence-4 visits. Addressed Rabbi
Samuel Gup's congregation at Provi-
dence, R. I. Held conferences with the
late Col. Harry Cutler. Arranged for
and attended in capacity of secretary
the Conference of New England Rabbis
and Laymen on June 2, 1920.



Statistical Report

of the Department of Synagog and School Extension


Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts. Supervisor, Rabbi Harry Levi, Boston, Mass.

Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Me.-Rabbi Sol- Dartmouth College, Hanover, N. H--Rabbi
omon B. Freehof, of the Hebrew Union Abraham Anspacher, of Hartford, Conn.,
College, representing the Department, vis- visited and delivered a lecture before the
ited and addressed the Jewish student Jewish student body.
body. Massachusetts Agricultural College, Amherst,
University of Maine, Orono, Me.-Rabbi Solo- Mass.-Rabbi Solomon B. Freehof, of the
mon B. Freehof, of the Hebrew Union Hebrew Union College, visited and ad-
College, visited and addressed the Jewish dressed the Jewish student body.
student body.


Boston, Mass.--The Department cooperated
with Rabbi Moses Sedar, of Dorchester,
Mass., representative of the Prison Aid
Society of Boston, by supplying him with
leaflet reprints of the prayer-book, Home
Study Magazines and Union Bulletins for
use in his work as Chaplain of the vari-
ous institutions in Massachusetts under
his charge.

Lancaster, Mass.-Lancaster Industrial School
for Girls. The Department cooperated
with Mrs. J. J. Dann, in charge of the
religious work among the Jewish in-
mates, by supplying history leaflets,

Camp Hiawatha, Cornish, Me.-Eight services.
Organized by Miss L. Ryttenberg, of New
York City. Children at camp acted as
Camp Kohut, Oxford, Me.-Eight services.
Conducted by Dr. George A. Kohut, of
New York City.
Camp Truda, Oxford, Me.-Eight services.
Conducted by Dr. Maurice Thorner, of
Jersey City, N. J.
Cedar Crest Camp, Oakland, Me.-Eight ser-
vices. Conducted by the boys themselves.

Union Home Study Magazines and Union
Shirley, Mass.-Shirley School for Boys. The
Department cooperated in the religious
work done at the school by supplying
history leaflets, Union Home Study Mag-
azines and leaflet reprints of the prayer-
Westborough, Mass.-Industrial School for
Boys. The Department cooperated with
Mr. A. M. Hillman, of Worcester, Mass.,
who has charge of the religious instruc-
tion of the Jewish inmates, by supplying
history leaflets, Home Study Magazines
and leaflet reprints of the prayer-book.

under the supervision of Rabbi Joseph I.
Gorfinkle, of Mt. Vernon, N. Y., Director
of the Camp.
Pleasant Lake Camp for Boys, Oxford, Me.
-Eight services. Conducted by Dr. Mau-
rice Thorner, of Jersey City, N. J.
Tripp Lake Camp, Poland, Me.-Eight sev-
vices. Conducted by Dr. George A. Ko-
hut, of New York City.
Fabyan House, White Mts., N. H.-Ten ser-
vices. Conducted by Dr Joseph Silver-
man, of New York City.

Connecticut, Rhode Island. Supervisor, Dr. Louis L. Mann, New Haven, Conn.

Trinity College, Hartford, Conn.-Rabbi Abra- Connecticut Agricultural College, Storrs, Conn.
ham Anspacher, of Hartford, Conn., took -Rabbi Solomon B. Freehof, of the He-
an active interest in the students, brew Union College, representing the De-
Yale University, New Haven, Conn.-Rabbi apartment, visited and addressed the Jew-
Louis L. Mann, of New Haven, Conn., kept ish student body.
in constant touch with the Jewish stu- Brown University, Providence, R. I.-Rabbi
dents. Samuel Gup, of Providence, R. I., visited

Wethersfield, Conn.-Connecticut State Prison. Howard, R. I.-Sackanosset School for Boys.
Rabbi Abraham Anspacher, of Hartford, Rabbi Samuel Gup, of Providence, R. I.,
Conn., visited the Jewish inmates weekly, visited frequently.

Middletown, Conn.-Connecticut Hospital for
the Insane. Visited by Rabbi Samuel
Gup, of Providence, R. I.





Northern New York. Supervisor, Rabbi Horace J. Wolf, Rochester, N. Y.
Lake Placid, N. Y.-Rabbi Jacob Lubin, of Tupper Lake, N. Y.-Rabbi Jacob Lubin, of
Plattsburg, N. Y., made several visits to Plattsburg, N. Y., visited occasionally to
organize community, organize community.
Syracuse University, Syracuse, N. Y.-Rabbi delivered several lectures before the Jew-
Benjamin Friedman, of Syracuse, N. Y., ish student body.

Comstock, N. Y.-Great Meadow Prison. Re-
ligious welfare of the Jewish inmates in
charge of Rabbi H. M. Lasker, of Troy,
N. Y., resident Chaplain. Department
sent religious and reading material.
Dannemora, N. Y.-State Prison Welfare
Work in charge of Rabbi S. Yudelson,
Dannemora, N.Y.-Dannemora State Hospital.
Welfare work in charge of Rabbi S.
Yudelson, Chaplain. Department sent
reading material.
Ogdensburg, N. Y.-St. Lawrence State Hos-
pital. Rabbi Emil Levison, of Ogdens-
burg, N. Y., visited the Jewish patients
and looked after their welfare.

Chaplain. Services were conducted twice
a month and on Holidays. Department
sent religious and reading material.
Dannemora, N. Y.-Hospital for Insane Con-
victs. Religious Welfare Work in charge
of Rabbi S. Yudelson, Chaplain. Depart-
ment sent religious and reading material.
Syracuse, N .Y.-Syracuse State School for
Mental Defectives. Rabbi Benjamin
Friedman, of Syracuse, N. Y., gave re-
ligious instruction to 40 children every
two weeks. The Department supplied
pamphlets containing children's services
and also reading material.


Camp Cayuga, South Schroon, N. Y.-Nine
services. Conducted by Camp directors
and counsellors.
Camp Mondawmin, Schroon Lake, N. Y.-Six-
teen services. Boys at Camp took turns
reading the services. Mr. Leo W. Simon,
of Washington, D C., was in charge of
Camp Ronah on Lake George, Glen Eyrie,
N. Y.-Eight services. Organized by Miss
Ida E. Schott, of Cleveland, 0. Ad-
dressed by Dr. B. M. Gruenberg, of New
York City, and Dr. E. A. Lowe, of Ox-
ford, England.
Long Lake, N. Y.-Seven services. Conducted
by Rabbis Rudolph Grossman and Nathan
Stern, of New York City. The amount of
$28.50, collected at the services, was con-
tributed to the Union of American He-
brew Congregations.

Port Kent, N. Y.-Four services. Conducted
by Rabbi Max Reichler, of New York
City. Services were conducted at the
summer home of Mr. Emil Fleischl.
Sacandaga Park, N. Y.-Sixteen services.
Conducted by Rabbis Solomon Foster, of
Newark, N. J., and Simon R. Cohen, of
Brooklyn, N. Y., assisted by Messrs. Max
Stern and Simon Dannenberg, of New
York City. The sum of $160.45 was con-
tributed to the Union of American He-
brew Congregations.
Star Lake, N. Y.-Eight services. Conducted
by Rabbis Henry Cohen, of Galveston,
Texas, Ephraim Frisch, of New York
City, and Joseph Rauch, of Louisville,
Ky., assisted by Mrs. Henry Cohen, Mrs.
Ephraim Frisch and Mrs. L. Levinson, of
New York City.


Southwestern New York. Supervisor, Rabbi Louis J. Kopald, Buffalo, N. Y.

Binghamton, N. Y.-Rabbi Benjamin Fried- school of twenty children and visited the
man, of Syracuse, N. Y., visited and con- school from time to time.
ducted services. Olean, N. Y.-Visited by Rabbi S. J. Schwab,
Corning, N. Y.-Rabbi Jacob B. Pollak, then then of Bradford, Pa.
of Elmira, N. Y., organized a religious

Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y.-Visited by
Rabbi Louis I. Egelson, of the Depart-
ment, to assist in organization of reli-
gious services. Rabbi Louis J. Kopald,
of Buffalo, N. Y., supervised the work of
the student congregation and invited the
speakers. Ten services were conducted
by Rabbis Benjamin Friedman, Syracuse,

Auburn, N. Y.-State Prison. Rabbi Benja-
min Friedman, of Syracuse, N. Y., vis-
ited regularly. Arranged a Passover en-
tertainment and Seder for the Jewish
Elmira, N. Y.-New York State Reformatory.
Rabbi Jacob B. Pollak, then of Elmira,
N. Y., conducted services every Sunday

N. Y., Louis Kopald, Buffalo, N. Y., Fred-
erick E. Braun, New York City, Max
Currick, Erie, Pa., Isaac Landman, Far
Rockaway, N. Y., Meyer Lovitch, then of
Scranton, Pa., Sidney Goldstein, New
York City, the late Eli Mayer, Albany,
N. Y., and Professor Nathaniel Schmidt,
of Cornell University.
afternoon for the Jewish inmates, and
also conducted special services on the
Holy Days. Union Hymnals were fur-
nished by the Department of Synagog and
School Extension. The Department also
enlisted the cooperation of the National
Federation of Temple Sisterhoods in pro-
viding general reading matter.


Industry, N. Y.-New York State Agricultural school for the children. Leaflets on Jew-
and Industrial School. Rabbi Max Moll, ish history, Home Study Magazines and
of Rochester, N. Y., visited weekly. Union Bulletins were furnished by the
Rabbi Moll arranged a Seder for the in- Department of Synagog and School Ex-
mates. He also conducted a religious tension.

Newark, N. Y.-Newark State School. Rabbi raised $500 among the Jewish people in
Max Moll, of Rochester, N Y., conducted Rochester for purchase of pianola, games,
services monthly. toys, books, etc. Rabbi Max Moll, of
Rochester, N. Y., conducted services at
Sonyea, N. Y.-Craig Colony for Epileptics. regular intervals and also on Passover
Rabbi Horace J. Wolf, Rochester, N. Y., and Rosh Hashanah.


New Jersey. Supervisor, Dr. Henry J. Berkowitz, Philadelphia, Pa.

Princeton University, Princeton, N. J.-Vis- by Dr. Samuel Goldenson, of Pittsburgh,
ited by Rabbi Louis I. Egelson, Assistant ta. and Rabbis Harry Richmond, of
Director of the Department, to organize Paterson, N. J., and Morris Lazaron, of
services for the Jewish students. Ser- Baltimore, Md.
vices were conducted and lectures given
Glen Gardner, S'. J.-New Jersey State Sani- Department furnished hymnals and leaf-
torium for Tuberculous Diseases. The let reprints of the prayer-book.
Mt. Arlington, N. J.-Three services. Con- Wildwood, N. J.-Four services. Conducted by
ducted by Dr. Abram Simon, of Wash- Rabbis Louis -itt, of St. Louis, Mo., and
ington, D. C. Emil Leipziger, of New Orleans, La., as-
sisted by Miss Jane Crone, of Dayton, O.


Eastern Pennsylvania. Supervisor, Dr. Joseph Krauskopf, Philadelphia, Pa.
Honesdale, Pa.-Visited monthly by Rabbi Nanticoke, Pa.-Visited by Rabbi Marcus
Marcus Salzman, of Wilkes-Barre, Pa. Salzman, of Wilkes-Barre, Pa.
Mahanoy City, Pa.-Visited by Rabbi Moses Pittston, Pa.-Visited by Rabbi Marcus Salz-
Eckstein, then of Hazelton, Pa. man, of Wilkes-Barre, Pa.

Lafayette College, Easton, Pa.-Rabbi David Lehigh University, South Bethelhem, Pa.-
Levy, of Easton, Pa., kept in touch with Visited by Rabbi Louis I. Egelson, of
the students and brought them into closer the Department. Secured the cooperation
contact with the local community. of Rabbi Ira L. Sanders, of Allentown,
Pa., in visiting the Jewish students and
organizing an association.

Hamburg, Pa.-State Sanitarium. Visited by
Rabbi Julius Frank, of Reading, Pa.

Camp Kewanee, La Plume, Pa.-Nine services. Mt. Penn, Berks County, Pa.-Nine services.
Conducted by Rabbi Abraham Anspacher, Conducted by Rabbi Julius Frank, of
of Hartford, Conn. Reading, Pa.


Western Pennsylvania. Supervisor, Dr. Samu el I. Goldenson, Pittsburgh, Pa.
Lewistown, Pa.-Rabbi Louis J. Haas, of Har- dressed the congregation once a month.
risburg, Pa., conducted services and ad- Took steps to organize a religious school.

Dickinson College, Carlisle, Pa.-Rabbi Louis dressed the students on several occasions
I. Egelson, Assistant Director of the De- and arranged Chanukah and Purim ser-
partment, visited for the purpose of or- vices and celebrations. Rabbi Isidor
ganizing religious services. He secured Rosenthal, of Lancaster, Pa., also ad-
the cooperation of Rabbi Louis J. Haas, dressed the Jewish students.
of Harrisburg, Pa., who subsequently ad-



Huntingdon, Pa.-Pennsylvania State Reform-
atory. Visited frequently by Rabbi Moses
J. S. Abels, of Altoona, Pa.

Carlisle, Pa.-U. S. A. State Hospital. Rabbi
Louis J. Haas, of Harrisburg, Pa., vis-
ited the Jewish patients.

Cresson, Pa.-Cresson Sanitorium. Rabbi
Moses J. S. Abels, of Altoona, Pa., visited
several times and arranged for magazines
to be sent to the Jewish inmates.

West Virginia, Western Maryland. Supervisor, Dr. William Rosenau, Baltimore, Md.

Prostburg, Md.-Rabbi Morris Baron, then of
Cumberland, Md., visited periodically.

South Carolina, Northern Georgia. Supervisor, Rabbi David Marx, Atlanta, Ga.

Darlington, S. C.-Rabbi Jacob S. Raisin, of ganized a religious school and weekly
Charleston, S. C., visited once a month, services.
organized a religious school and weekly Orangeburg, S. C.-Rabbi Jacob S. Raisin, of
services. Charleston, S. C., visited monthly, con-
Georgetown, S. C.-Visited periodically by ducting services and superintending the
Rabbi Jacob S. Raisin, of Charleston, religious school.
S. C. West Point, Ga.-Visited regularly by Rabbi
Kingstree, S. C.-Rabbi Jacob S. Raisin, of David Marx, Atlanta, Ga.
Charleston, S. C., visited monthly, or-

Porter Military Academy, Charleston, S. C.- quently and arranged for the Jewish stu-
Rabbi Jacob S. Raisin, of Charleston, S. dents to attend weekly services at the
C., visited frequently and arranged for synagogue.
the Jewish students to attend weekly ser-
vices in the synagogue. University of South Carolina, Columbia, S. C.
--Rabbi Jacob S. Raisin, of Charleston,
The Citadel, Charleston, S. C.-Rabbi Jacob S.C., visited on several occasions.
S. Raisin, of Charleston, S. C., visited fre-
Atlanta, Ga.-Federal Penitentiary. Rabbi
David Marx, of Atlanta, Ga., visited at
regular intervals.
Milledgeville, Ga.-State Sanitorium. Rabbi
Isaac E. Marcuson, of Macon, Ga., visited
the Jewish patients.

Southern Georgia and Florida, except Western Florida. Supervisor, Rabbi George Solomon,
Savannah, Ga.

Bainbridge, Ga.-Rabbi Edmund A. Landau,
of Albany, Ga., visited periodically.

University of Plorida, Gainesville, Pla.-Vis-
ited by Rabbi Israel Kaplan, of Jackson-
ville, Fla., who organized a study circle.

Alabama, Western Florida. Supervisor, Rabbi Morris Newfield, Birmingham, Ala.

Anniston, Ala.-Visited by Rabbi Morris New- Demopolis, Ala.-Visited monthly by Rabbi
field, of Birmingham, Ala. Abram Brill, then of Meridian, Miss.
Rabbi Brill conducted services, delivered
Decatur, Ala.-Visited by Rabbi Morris New- lectures and supervised the religious
field, of Birmingham, Ala. school.


Gadsden, Ala.-Visited by Rabbi Morris New- Sheffield, Ala.-Visited by Rabbi Morris New-
field, of Birmingham, Ala. field, of Birmingham, Ala.
Huntsville, Ala.-Visited by Rabbi Abraham Tuscaloosa, Ala.-Visited by Rabbi Morris
Holtzberg, of Chattanooga, Tenn. Organ- Newfield, of Birmingham, Ala Visited
ize4 a religious school and conducted re- also by Rabbi Alfred G. Moses, of Mo-
ligious services, bile, Ala., who assisted in the work of
the religious school.

University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Ala.- Ala., visited and addressed the Jewish
Rabbi Morris Newfield, of Birmingham, students.


Southern Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana. Supervisor, Dr. Maximilian Heller,
New Orleans, La.

Donaldsonville, La.-Rabbi Harold F. Rein- odic intervals, conducting services and
hart, of Baton Rouge, La., conducted ser- the religious school.
vices once a month. Brookhaven, Miss.-Rabbi Wm. Ackerman, of
Natchez, Miss., arranged to visit bi-
Plaquemine, La.-Rabbi Harold F. Reinhart, weekly and conduct services. Organized
of Baton Rouge, La., visited frequently, a religious school.
He organized a religious school and con-
ducted the classes. He also put forth Jackson, Miss.-Visited regularly by Rabbi
efforts to strengthen the Jewish com- Solomon L. Kory, of Vicksburg, Miss.
munity and organize a congregation. Visited also by Rabbi Wnm Ackerman, of
Natchez, Miss.
St. Francisville, La.-Rabbi Harold F. Rein- Woodville, Miss.-Visited by Rabbi Wm. Ack-
hart, of Baton Rouge, La., visited at peri- erman, of Natchez, Miss.

Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, La. students at the chapel. The Jewish stu-
-Rabbi Harold F. Reinhart, of Baton dents attended regular services at Tem-
Rouge, La., occasionally addressed the pie B'nai Israel.

Baton Rouge, La.-The State Penitentiary. Rabbi Harold F. Reinhart visited at in-
Rabbi Harold F. Reinhart, of Baton tervals.
Rouge, La., conducted services occasion-
ally for the Jewish inmates. Angola, La.-State Prison Farm. Visited by
Rabbi Harold F. Reinhart.
Baton Rouge, La.-Baton Rouge Parish Jail. Rabbi Harold F. Reinhart.


Southern Louisiana. Supervsor, Rabbi Emil W. Leipziger, New Orleans, La.

Lafayette, La.-Rabbi Harold F. Reinhart, of Opelousas, La.-Rabbi Harold F. Reinhart, of
Baton Rouge, La., visited regularly and Baton Rouge, La., visited at intervals
conducted services once a month, and conducted services.


Texas and Northern Louisiana.

Amarillo, Texas.-Rabbi George Fox, of Ft. Rabbi Fox also organized a religious
Worth, Texas, organized a congregation school and a sisterhood.
and conducted services once a month.

Pineville, La.-Louisiana Hospital for the In-
sane. Visited by Rabbi Harry Weiss, of
Alexandria, La.



Southeastern Texas. Supervisor, Rabbi Henry Cohen, Galveston, Texas.

Corpus Christi, Texas.-Rabbi Henry Cohen, Mart, Texas.-Rabbi Wolfe Macht, of Waco,
of Galveston, Texas, visited on several Texas, visited and organized a religious
occasions, school.
Marlin, Texas.-Visited by Rabbi Wolfe Victoria, Texas.-Rabbi Henry Cohen, of Gal-
Macht, of Waco, Texas. veston, Texas, visited and conducted ser-
vices occasionally.

University of Texas, Austin, Texas.-Rabbi Texas State Medical College, Galveston, Tex.
David Rosenbaum, of Austin, Texas, kept -Rabbi Henry Cohen, of Galveston,
in touch with the students individually. Texas, kept in touch with the students
Agricultural and Mechanical College, College and conducted a class in Jewish post-
Station, Texas.-Texas rabbis visited sev- biblical history. The Jewish students at-
eral times during the year. tended services at Rabbi Cohen's Temple.

Huntsville, Texas.-State Penitentiary. Vis- Weldon, Texas.-Convict Camp (Eastham
ited by Rabbi David Rosenbaum, of Aus- State Farm). Rabbi Henry Cohen, of
tin, Texas. Galveston, Texas, reported that the Jew-
Huntsville, Texas.-Wynne State Prison Farm. ish inmates were visited regularly.
Visited by Rabbi David Rosenbaum, of
Austin, Texas.

Western Tennessee, Northern Mississippi, Arkansas. Supervisor, Rabbi Wm. H. Fineshriber,
Memphis, Tenn.
Eudora, Ark.-Rabbi Harry A. Merfeld, then ducted services, delivered lectures and
of Greenville, Miss., conducted services supervised the religious school.
and the religious school. Greenwood, Miss.-Rabbi Harry A. Merfeld,
Forrest City, Ark.-Visited by Rabbi Jerome then of Greenville, Miss., visited regu-
Mark, of Helena, Ark., who conducted larly, conducting services and the reli-
services and organized a religious school. gious school.
Rabbi Mark arranged for bi-weekly ser- Indianola, Miss.-Visited by Rabbi Harry A.
vices. Merfeld, then of Greenville, Miss.
Marianna, Ark.-Rabbi Jerome Mark, of Hel- Lexington, Miss.-Rabbi Solomon L. Kory, of
ena, Ark, organized a congregation and Vicksburg, Miss., visited at regular inter-
religious school. Rabbi Mark conducted vals and conducted services.
services bi-weekly. Rosedale, Miss.-Rabbi Harry A. Merfeld,
Clarksdale, Miss.-Rabbi Jerome Mark, of then of Greenville, Miss., visited monthly
Helena, Ark., organized a religious school and conducted the religious school.
and paid occasional visits. Starkville, Miss.-Rabbi Samuel Kaplan, of
Columbus, Miss.-Visited by Rabbi Abram Meridian, Miss., visited and organized a
Brill, then of Meridian, Miss, who con- congregation.

Little Rock, Ark.-State Penitentiary. Rabbi kept in touch with the Jewish inmates.
James G. Heller, then of Little Rock, Ark.,

Meridian, Miss.-East Mississippi Insane dian, Miss., visited the asylum occasion-
Asylum. Rabbi Abram Brill, then of Meri- ally.


Eastern and Central Tennessee. Supervisor, Dr. Isidore Lewinthal, Nashville, Tenn.

University of Chattanooga, Chattanooga, Tenn. regularly on Friday evenings at the Vine
-Rabbi Abraham Holtzberg, of Chatta- Street Temple.
nooga, Tenn., organized and conducted a
class of Jews and non-Jews for the pur- Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tenn.-Vis-
pose of studying Hebrew. ited by Dr. Isidore Lewinthal, of Nash-
ville, Tenn. Many of the students at-
Belmont College, Nashville, Tenn.-Visited tended the regular Friday evening ser-
by rr. Isidore Lewinthal, of Nashville, vices at Rabbi Lewintlfal's Temple.
Twtar Tve students attended services



Kentucky. Supervisor, Dr. Joseph Rauch, Louisville, Ky.

State University of Kentucky, Lexington, Ky. senting the Department of Synagog and
-Dr. Henry Englander, of the Hebrew School Extension, conducted services for
Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio, repre- the students of the University.

Louisville, Ky.-Industrial School of Reform. pointed at the suggestion of Rabbi
The children received religious instruc- Joseph Rauch, of Louisville, Ky., by the
tion every Sunday. The teacher was ap- Jewish Welfare Federation of Louisville.


Southern Ohio. Supervisor, Dr. David Philipson, Cincinnati, Ohio.
Middletown, O.-Dr. Henry Englander, of the
Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, O., or-
ganized a congregation.

Camp Remington, Madisonville, O.-Eighteen Freed, a student at the Hebrew Union
services. Conducted by Mr. Abraham College, Cincinnati, Ohio.


Northwestern Ohio. Supervisor, Rabbi Louis Wolsey, Cleveland, Ohio.
Pindlay, Ohio-Rabbi Adolph Steiner, then of
Lima, O., visited weekly.

Toledo, Ohio-Juvenile Court. History leaf- the use of the children in charge of the
lets were supplied by the Department for Court.

Lima, Ohio-Lima State Hospital. Rabbi Days. On Pesach matzos were supplied
Adolph Steiner, then of Lima, O., held and food for Seder was prepared for the
services for the patients on the Holy patients.


Southern Indiana. Supervisor, Dr. Louis Grossmann, Cincinnati, Ohio.
Jeffersonville, Ind. Indiana Reformatory. services and held conferences with the
Rabbi Joseph Rauch, of Louisville, Ky., boys individually. A Seder was prepared
visited bi-weekly, conducted religious for the boys.


Northern Indiana. Supervisor, Rabbi Tobias Schanfarber, Chicago, Ill.
Michigan City, Ind.-Rabbi J. Max Weis, then
of Gary, Ind., visited and organized the
religious work of the community.

University of Notre Dame, St. Joseph, Ind.- Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, Ind.-Vis-
Rabbi Albert J. Minda, of South Bend, ited by Rabbi J. Max Weis, then of Gary,
Ind., kept in touch with the Jewish stu- Ind.

Michigan City, Ind.-Indiana State Prison. visited monthly and conducted religious
Rabbi J. Max Weis, then of Gary, Ind., services.




Michigan; Southern Peninsula. Supervisor, Rabbi Leo M. Franklin, Detroit, Mich.

Pontiac, Mich.-Visited by Rabbi Leo M. of Detroit, Mich. They organized a reli-
Franklin, of Detroit, Mich., Rabbi Samuel gious school. Teachers were sent from
Mayerberg, then of Detroit, Mich., and the Sabbath School of Temple Beth El
Messrs. I. Goldberg and L. Simon, also of Detroit to give weekly instruction.

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich.- ducted periodically by visiting rabbis.
Student Congregation was organized sev- The Department of Synagog and School
eral years ago by Rabbi Leo M. Frank- Extension defrayed part of the expenses.
lin, of Detroit, Mich. Services were con-


Adrian, Mich.-Industrial School for Girls.
Mrs. F. Bacharach, of Adrian, Mich., with
the assistance of her daughter and niece,
conducted a class in Jewish history. His-
tory leaflets were supplied by the De-
partment of Synagog and School Exten-
Jackson, Mich.-State Prison. Visited by
Rabbi Joseph Leiser, Field Secretary of
the Department. Assisted in securing a
committee in Jackson to interest itself

Camp Roosevelt, Muskegon, Mich.-Seven ser-
vices. Conducted by Rabbi Felix Levy,
of Chicago, Ill., and Messrs. Bernhard
Stern and Carl Herman, students at the
Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.
Charlevoix, Mich.-Three services. Conducted
by Dr. Emil G. Hirsch and Rabbi Felix
A. Levy, of Chicago, Ill., assisted by a
committee made up of the following:
Mr. Jonas Hiller, of New Orleans, La.,
Messrs. Charles Shohl, Julius Glaser and
Gerson Brown, of Cincinnati, Ohio, Mr.
I. Goldberg of Detroit, Mich., and
Messrs. Alfred Kohn and Jacob Schnadig,
of Chicago, Ill. The soloists at the ser-
vices were Mrs. Albert Myers, of Spring-
field, Ill, and Bessie Rosenberg, of Cin-
cinnati, Ohio.
Frankfort, Mich.-Five services. Conducted
by Rabbi George Zepin, of Cincinnati, 0.,
and Dr. David Neumark, of the Hebrew
Union College, Cincinnati, 0., assisted by
Miss Leah Rosenthal, Miss Martha Neu-
mark and Mrs. Albert -Wolfstein, of Cin-
cinnati, 0., Mrs. L. Kronthal, of Chicago,
Ill., Mrs. L. Marks and Mrs. Irwin Stone,
of San Antonio, Texas, and Mrs. Levin-
son, of Toledo, O.
Mt. Clemens, Mich.-Five services. Con-
ducted by Rabbi C. David Matt, of Min-
neapolis, Minn., and Mr. Samuel Horchow.
of Portsmouth, Ohio.
Oden, Mich.-Seven services. Conducted by
Dr. William Rosenau, of Baltimore, Md.,

in behalf of the Jewish inmates. A spe-
cial library was started for the Jewish
inmates, using as a nucleus the books
provided through the Department.
Lansing, Mich.-Industrial School for Boys.
Visited by Rabbi Joseph Leiser, of the
Department. Assisted in securing a com-
mittee made up of the prominent Jews of
Lansing to take charge of the welfare
work in the institution.

assisted by a committee under the leader-
ship of Mr. Ben Rice, of Cincinnati, 0.,
and Mr. Philip Strauss, of Lexington, Ky.
Services were conducted at the homes
of Mr.-. M. Marcus and Mr. Joseph A.
Magnus. Dr. Rosenau also organized a
Bible Class and conducted the six meet-
ings of the class at the home of Mr.
Herbert Oettinger, of Cincinnati, Ohio.
The sum of $71.00, collected at the ser-
vices, was contributed to the Department
of Synagog and School Extension.
Omena, Mich.-Three services. Conducted by
Rabbi Joseph Kornfeld, of Columbus, O.,
assisted by Mrs. Max Harmon, of Co-
lumbus, Ohio, and Mrs. Henry Lampliner,
of Cleveland, Ohio.
Ottawa Beach, Mich.-Five services. Con-
ducted by Rabbis Ignatius Mueller, of
Louisville, ly., David Rosenbaum, of
Austin, Texas, Albert G. Minda, of South
Bend, Ind., Philip Waterman, of Kalama-
zoo, Mich., and Leonard J. Rothstein, of
Pine Bluff, Ark., assisted by Mr. Samuel
Iassenbusch, of St. Joseph, Mo., Mr. H.
Levy, of Kansas City, Mo., and Miss
Loder, of Chicago, Ill. The amount of
$92.25, collected at the services, was con-
tributed to the Department of Synagog
and School Extension.
Petoskey, Mich.-Two services. Conducted by
Rabbi Morris Newfield, of Birmingham,
Ala., assisted by Mrs. Alick Rosenthal, of
Petoskey, Mich.


Southern Wisconsin. Supervisor, Rabbi Samuel Hirshberg, Milwaukee, Wis.
University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis.-Vis- Milwaukee, Wis., Rabbi Max J. Merritt,
ted by Rabbi Louis I. Egelson, Assistant then of Chicago, Ill., Rabbis Abram
Director of the Department. With the Hirschberg, Felix Mendelsohn and Felix
cooperation of Professor Louis B. Wolf- A. Levy, of Chicago, Ill., J. Max Weis,
enson, of the University of Wisconsin, then of Gary, Ind., and Professors Louis
organized "The Jewish Students Associa- B. Wolfenson and P. M. Dawson, of the
tion." Those who conducted services and University of Wisconsin. The Department
delivered addresses before the Jewish supplied Union Hymnals and leaflet re-
Students Association were Rabbis Sam- prints of the prayer-book.
uel Hirshberg and Charles S. Levi, of


Brown's Lake, Wis.-One service. Conducted
by Mr. Morris Urich, student at the He-
brew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.
Cedar Lake, Wis.-Two services. Conducted
by Messrs. Morris Urich and Bernhard
Stern, students at the Hebrew Union Col-
lege, Cincinnati, O., assisted by Mrs. J.
W. Apter, of Chicago, ll. The sum of
$25.00 was contributed to the Union of
American Hebrew Congregations.
Elkhart Lake, Wis.-Four services. Conduct-
ed by Rabbis David Rosenbaum, of Aus-
tin, Texas, Jacob Turner, of Chicago, Ill.,
and Messrs. Morris Urich and Bernhard

Stern, students at the Hebrew Union Col-
lege, Cincinanti, 0., assisted by Mrs. Da-
vid Schwartz, Mrs. Henry Lewis and Miss
Pearl Franklin, of Chicago, Ill. Mem-
bers of the choir were: Misses Well,
Wilson, Bauer, and Mesdames Ekhart,
Abraham, Maier and Charlotte, of Chi-
cago, Ill, and Mrs. Leonhard Lewis, of
Champaign, Ill. The amount of $74.00
was contributed to the Union of Amer-
ican Hebrew Congregations.
Waukesha, Wis.-Four services. Conducted
by Mr. J. L. Frost, of San Antonio,
Texas and Mrs Stuart Meyers, of Louis-
ville, Ky., assisted by Mr. Samuel Sugar.


Southern Illinois.
Champaign, 11l.-Rabbi Edward Israel, then Lincoln, X11.-Rabbi Edward Israel, then of
of Springfield, Ill., conducted bi-weekly Springfield, Ill., organized a religious
services and the religious school, school and conducted bi-weekly services.
Decatur, Il.-Visited by Rabbi Edward Is-
rael, then of Springfield, Ill.

University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana, Ill.
-Visited by Rabbi Louis I. Egelson, As-
sistant Director of the Department, who
addressed the students and conferred with
them in regard to their plans for the
season. Rabbi Solomon B. Freehof, of

the Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, 0.,
representing the Department, visited and
addressed the Jewish students. Rabbi
Edward Israel, then of Springfield, Ill.,
addressed the Jewish students and kept
in constant touch with them.


Minnesota. Supervisor, Rabbi Isaac L. Rypins, St. Paul, Minn.
St. Cloud, Minn.-State Reformatory. Rabbi neapolis, Minn., was actively interested
C. David Matt, of Minneapolis, Minn., in the welfare of the Jewish inmates.
made arrangements for services- for the Stillwater, Minn.-State Prison. Rabbi Isaac
Holy Days. L. Rypins, of St. Paul, Minn., took an ac-
Sauk Center, Minn.-State Industrial School tive interest in the Jewish inmates.
for Girls. Rabbi C. David Matt, of Min-


Northern Missouri. Supervisor, Dr. Leon Harrison, St. Louis, Mo.
University of Missouri, Columbia, Mo.-Vis- Samuel Sale, Samuel Thurman, Abraham
ited by Rabbi Louis I. Egelson, Assistant Halpern and Louis Witt, of St Louis,
Director of the Department. Offered the Mo., Rabbi Louis Bernstein, then of St.
assistance of the Department in arrang- Joseph, Mo., Rabbi Jacob Meyerovitz, then
ing for services to be held for the Stu- of Leavenworth, Kansas, and Mrs. Isaac
dents' Congregation at regular intervals. Halpern, of St. Louis, Mo. The Depart-
Those who addressed the Student Con- ment supplied Hymnals and leaflet re-
gregation were Rabbis Leon Harrison, prints of the prayer-book.

Boonville, Mo.-Missouri Training School for
Boys. The Department of Synagog and
School Extension cooperated with Mrs.
Felix Victor, of Boonville, Mo., in charge

of the religious instruction of the boys,
by supplying copies of the Union Prayer-


Southern Missouri.
Jefferson City, Mo.-State Penitentiary. Ser- supplied by the Department of Synagog
vices were held for the Jewish inmates and School Extension.
on the Holy Days. Prayer-books were





Kansas, Oklahoma. Supervisor, Rabbi Harry H. Mayer, Kansas City, Mo.
Bartlesville, Okla.-Rabbi Charles B. Latz, of
Tulsa, Okla., visited and organized a re-
ligious school.

Kansas State University, Lawrence, Kansas.- dressed the Student Congregation were
Visited by Rabbi Louis I. Egelson, As- Rabbis Harry H. Mayer, of Kansas City,
sistant Director of the Department of Mo., and Jacob Meyerovitz, then of
Synagog and School Extension, who con- Leavenworth, Kansas. The Department
ferred with the students and offered the of Synagog and School Extension sup-
assistance of the Department. Student plied leaflet reprints of the prayer-book
Congregation was formed. Those who ad- and Sermon Pamphlets.

Leavenworth, Kansas-Military Disciplinary Leavenworth, Kansas Federal Penitentiary.
Barracks. Rabbi Jacob Meyerovitz, then Rabbi Jacob Meyerovitz, then of Leaven-
of Leavenworth, Kansas, conducted ser- worth, Kansas, was actively interested,
vices bi-weekly for the Jewish inmates, and with the assistance of Mr. Morris
He interviewed the prisoners individ- Abeles, of Leavenworth, conducted bi-
ually, investigated cases for the Board of weekly services. Rabbi Meyerovitz also
Welfare and communicated in behalf of conducted Purim services. The Depart-
the prisoners with parents, relatives and ment of Synagog and School Extension
friends. Mr. Morris Abeles, of Leaven- supplied leaflet reprints of the prayer-
worth, was actively interested in the book.
welfare of the inmates. Rabbi Emil El-
linger, of Leavenworth, Kansas, con-
ducted Holy Day services.


Colorado and New Mexico. Supervisor, Dr. Wm. S. Friedman, Denver, Colo.

Canon City, Colo.-State Penitentiary. Rabbi ited and interested himself in the welfare
Simon Cohen, then of Pueblo, Colo., vis- of the Jewish inmates.

Pueblo, Colo.-Colorado Insane Asylum. The through Rabbi Simon Cohen, then of
Department of Synagog and School Ex- Pueblo, Colo.
tension supplied matzos for Passover

Maniton, Colo.-Five services. Conducted by Misses Rosine and Gertie Klein, of Jop-
Rabbi Louis Bernstein, then of St. Jo- lin, Mo., and Miss Margaret Loebstein,
seph, Mo., assisted by Messrs. I. Fried, of Cedar Rapids, Iowa. The amount of
B. Levi, B. Cohen and Miss Sinsheimer, $25.00, collected at the services, was con-
of Houston, Texas, Mrs. L. Bernstein, of tribute to the Union of American He-
St. Joseph, Mo., Mrs. J. Sanger, of Waco, brew Congregations.
Texas, Miss Weinstein, of Omaha, Neb.,

Central California. Supervisor, Rabbi Jacob Nieto, San Francisco, Cal.
Capitola and Santa Cruz, Cal.-Three services.
Conducted by Rabbi Emanuel J. Jack, of
Stockton, Cal.

Northern California. Supervisor, Dr. Martin A. Meyer, San Francisco, Cal.

Folsom City, Cal.-State Prison. Rabbi Mich- San Quentin, Cal.-State Prison. Dr. Martin
ael Fried, of Sacramento, Cal., visited A. Meyer, of San Francisco, Cal., kept in
regularly and conducted services. The constant touch with the Jewish inmates.
Department of Synagog and School Ex-
tension supplied Union Prayer-books.

Big Trees, Calaveras County, Cal.-One ser-
vice. Conducted by Rabbi Emanuel Jack,
of Stockton, Cal.



Iowa. Supervisor, Dr. Joseph Stolz, Chicago, Ill.

State University of Iowa, Iowa City, Ia.- held individual conferences with each
Visited by Rabbi Louis I. Egelson, As- Jewish student.
sistant Director of the Department of Iowa State Teachers' College, Cedar Falls, la.
Synagog and School Extension. Not a -Rabbi Emanuel Sternheim, then of
sufficient number of Jewish students to Sioux City, Iowa, visited and interviewed
warrant organization. the Jewish students.
Iowa State College, Ames, Ia.-Rabbi Eman- Morningside College, Sioux City, Ia.-Rabbi
uel Sternheim, then of Sioux City, Ia., Emanuel Sternheim, then of Sioux City,
visited and addressed the students and Iowa, visited frequently and kept in con-
stant touch with the Jewish students.

Fort Madison, Ia.-State Penitentiary. Rabbi special cases that came from his own
Emanuel Sternheim, then of Sioux City, neighborhood.
Iowa, interested himself in the several

Nebraska and South Dakota. Supervisor, Dr. Frederick Cohn, Omaha, Nebraska.

Hastings, Neb.-Rabbi Jacob Singer, of Lin- Nebraska City, Neb.-Rabbi Jacob Singer, of
coln, Neb., organized a religious school. Lincoln, Neb., organized correspondence
The classes were conducted by two chil- religious school.
dren trained by Rabbi Singer for this
purpose. Weekly lessons were corrected Norfolk, Neb.-Rabbi Jacob Singer, of Lin-
by the teachers of Rabbi Singer's reli- coin, Neb., enrolled the children in his
gious school at Lincoln, Neb. correspondence religious school.


University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Neb.-Vis- University of South Dakota, Vermillion, S. D.
ited by Rabbi Jacob Singer, of Lincoln, -Rabbi Emanuel Sternheim, then of
Neb., who kept in touch with the individ- Sioux City, Ia., visited and held confer-
ual students. ences with the Jewish students.
Wayne State Normal School, Wayne, Neb.-
Visited by Rabbi Emanuel Sternheim,
then of Sioux City, Ia.


Lincoln, Neb.-State Penitentiary. Rabbi and looked after the physical and moral
Jacob Singer, of Lincoln, Neb., visited needs of the inmates.


Sioux Falls, S. D.-School for the Deaf. City, Ia., visited and looked after the wel-
Rabbi Emanuel Sternheim, then of Sioux fare of the Jewish pupils in the school.


Washington. Supervisor, Rabbi Samuel Koch, Seattle, Wash.

Aberdeen-Hoquiam, Wash. -Rabbi Raphael Chehalis-Centralia, Wash.- Rabbi Raphael
Goldenstein, then of Tacoma, Wash., or- Goldenstein, then of Tacoma, Wash., vis-
ganized a religious school and estab- ited and organized a religious school.
lished Friday evening services.

University of Washington, Seattle, Wash.- coma, Wash., visited and addressed the
Rabbi Raphael Goldenstein, then of Ta- Jewish students.



McNeil Island, Wash.-Federal Penitentiary. periodicals, fruits, etc. Rabbi Goldenstein
Rabbi Raphael Goldenstein, then of Ta- also conducted a Seder for the Jewish in-
coma, Wash., visited several times, con- mates.
ducting services and distributing books,

Southern New Mexico and Southwestern Texas, Southern Arizona. Supervisor, Rabbi Mar-
tin Zielonka, El Paso, Texas.


Phoenix, Ariz.-Visited by Rabbi Martin Zie- delivering addresses, and on one occasion
lonka, of El Paso, Texas, who delivered confirmed the class in the religious
an address. school. Mrs. Charles F. Solomon, of Tuc-
Tucson, Ariz.-Rabbi Martin Zielonka, of El son, was in charge of the religious
Paso, Texas, visited on several occasions, school.

City College, El Paso, Texas-Jewish students
were invited to services and Seder at
Rabbi Zielonka's Temple in El Paso.


Northern Wisconsin, Northern Michigan. Supervisor, Rabbi Chas. S. Levi, Milwaukee, Wis.

Camp Kawaga, Minocqua, Wis.-Seven services.
Conducted by Rabbi B. C. Ehrenreich, of
Montgomery, Ala.


East Central Ohio. Supervisor, Rabbi Joseph S. Kornfeld, Columbus, O.

Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio-Dr.
Henry Englander, of the Hebrew Union
College, Cincinnati 0., representing the
Department of Synagog and School Ex-
tension, visited on four occasions and

addressed the Jewish student body. Rabbi
Solomon B. Freehof, also of the Hebrew
Union College, representing the Depart-
ment, visited and addressed the Jewish

Columbus, Ohio-Ohio Penitentiary. Prayer- Lancaster, Ohio-Boys' Industrial School. The
books were supplied by the Department Department of Synagog and School Ex-
of Synagog and School Extension for the tension supplied prayer-books for the ser-
services conducted at the penitentiary. vices which were in charge of Mr. J. C.
Meyers, of Columbus, Ohio.


Central Indiana. Supervisor, Rabbi Morris M. Feuerlicht, Indianapolis, Ind.


Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind.-Rabbi
Solomon B. Freehof, of the Hebrew Union
College, Cincinnati, Ohio, representing the
Department of Synagog and School Ex-
tension, visited and addressed the Jewish
student body.
Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind.-Vis-
ited by Rabbi Louis I. Egelson, Assist-

ant Director of the Department of Syna-
gog and School Extension, who offered
the assistance of the Department in ar-
ranging for religious services. Dr. Henry
Englander and Professor Solomon B.
Freehof, of the Hebrew Union College,
Cincinnati, O., representing the Depart-
ment, visited and conducted services for
the Jewish student body.



New York City-The Ezra School, a religious Extension. 475 pupils attended. Ar-
week-day school organized by the Depart- rangements are being made for opening
ment of Synagog and School Extension, of two schools to be maintained by Tem-
successfully continued under the direction ples Emanu-El and Beth El respectively
of the New York Committee for School with the support of the Department.

New York City, Manhattan State Hospital.- ducted by Rabbi Abraham Blum, Chap-
Leaflet reprints of the prayer-book were lain.
supplied for the services which were con-

Arcady Camp for Girls, Wingdale, N. Y.-One
service. Conducted by Rabbi Clifton H.
Levy, of New York City.
Big Indian, N. Y.-Ten services at Lehman
House, under the auspices of the Jewish
Working Girls' Vacation Society. One
service was conducted by Mr. William
Schwartz. student at the Hebrew Union
College, Cincinnati, O.
Catskill Mt. House, Catskill Mts., N. Y.-Two
services. Conducted by Dr. Kaufmann

Kohler, President of the Hebrew Union
College, Cincinnati, 0., assisted by Mr.
Louis Lichtenstein and Mr. Albert Eisen-
berg, of New York City.
Long Beach, N. Y.-Eight services. Conduct-
ed by Rabbi Julian Miller, of St. Louis,
Mo. Temporary organization formed,
with Mr. Trieger, President, and Miss
Pomeranz, assistant.
Wingdale, N. Y.-One service. Conducted by
Rabbi Clifton H. Levy, of New York City.



Annual Report
of the New York Committee
for School Extension

New York, N. Y., Oct. 31, 1920.
To the Board of Managers of Synagog and
School Extension,
The New York Committee for School Ex-
tension takes pleasure in submitting a re-
port of its activities during the past year.
The most important accomplishment of
the year was the preparation of a survey of
religious school conditions in the Harlem
section, which was undertaken by Mr. Louis
E. Goldstein, Principal of the Ezra School.
Our previous experience in the Bronx was
of great help in completing the survey of
Harlem. The results of the survey are
given in subsequent pages of this report.
In addition to maintaining Ezra School in
the Bronx, your committee has been endeav-
oring to find suitable quarters for two new
schools to be established shortly. Temple
Beth El, of New York, has offered to pay
50% of the maintenance of a school, the
Union to appropriate a similar amount an-
nually. In commemoration of the 75th an-
niversary of Temple Emanu-El, that congre-
gation voted $5,000 for the establishment
of a religious school on condition that the
Union set aside a like sum for that purpose.
The Union has readily agreed to these con-
For the management of these projects, an
office has been opened in New York City at
24 East 21st St., with Rabbi Jacob B. Pol-
lak in charge. It is our hope that during
1921 we will have at least three religious
schools in operation.

The Ezra Hebrew School, which was es-
tablished in 1916 by our Committee in order
to remedy the crying need for religious
school facilities in the Bronx, and which has
now become an established institution in the
neighborhood, has passed through another
year of fruitful and varied activities.
The year has been a critical one in the
history of our school. The poor accommo-
dations which were made sufficient during

the first few years of its existence, have
become entirely inadequate. For the ac-
commodation of other schools in the neigh-
borhood, buildings have been erected or
modern school buildings have been pur-
chased. In order to maintain the reputa-
tion which we have acquired and to retain
the place which we have created for our-
selves in the religious life of the Jews in
the Bronx, it is essential that we follow the
example and provide modern and safe ac-
commodations for the boys and girls whom
we instruct.

During the past year our registration has
fallen somewhat below normal. This, I ap-
prehend is entirely due to the lack of ac-
commodations. The building which we have
been using since our school was organized
was old and dilapidated at the time we took
possession of it, but no better building was
at any time or is now available. During
the five years we have occupied it, only
such repairs were made as were absolutely
unavoidable, so that the building has conse-
quently deteriorated, and is now in an ex-
tremely poor condition-wholly unfitted for
school purposes.
The average registration during the year
was 475, from 25 to 50 below the average
of the previous two years. The very satis-
factory record of attendance has been main-
tained, the percentage averaging between
85 and 90%. The efficient system of atten-
dance investigation, to which this favorable
showing was largely due during the past
few years, has been continued.
The time of the sessions has been slightly
changed. Whereas previously the first class
assembled at 3:10 P. M. and the last class
was dismissed at 7:10 P. M., the time has
now been shifted to 4 to 8 P. M., owing
to the difficulty of the children of the first
session to reach the school at 3:10 in the
afternoon. On Sundays our sessions are
from 9 A. M. to 1 P. M. as formerly. Dur-



ing the year a Sabbath afternoon service
was added, and it is held on Saturdays from
3 P. M. to 4:30 P. M.
There are ten grades, ranging from 1A to
Post Graduate. Our teaching staff con-
sists of five teachers, and sessions are con-
ducted daily except Fridays. The lower
grades receive five hours' instruction per
week, and the upper grades 71/ hours.


A-History. Our curriculum was organ-
ized not merely to give the children a
knowledge of Hebrew history, but to instill
in them a Jewish consciousness, a love for
our people, and a pride in our history. His-
tory is taught in all the grades. The first
year is devoted to stories of prominent Jew-
ish characters, such as Jacob, David, Moses
and the like. From the second year on, his-
tory is taught scientifically, and from an
ethical point of view. In the third grade
the child begins with the story of Creation.
During the regular course, the entire period
of Jewish history is covered, and in the Post
Graduate class the pupils are now study-
ing the history of the Jews in America.
The time devoted to this subject varies
with the various grades, averaging from 1
to 11 hours per week.
B-Religion and Observances. In teach-
ing this subject, it is our aim to give the
child a knowledge of the fundamental pre-
cepts upon which our religion is founded.
We also strive to make him understand and
appreciate the various traditional ceremo-
nies which he observes at home and in the
synagogue. The Ten Commandments are
taught in Hebrew and in English. Creeds,
customs, holidays, the Sabbath and the ar.-
rangement of the Prayer Book constitute
other subjects of instruction.
C-Bible. Beginning with the third year,
the child is taught to translate the Bible.
At first, simple portions from the Pentateuch
are chosen, but as the child passes from
grade to grade, he takes up such portions
of the Bible as Judges, Samuel, Kings,
Psalms, etc. Very little time is devoted to
this subject in the lower grades, but in the
highest grades an average of from two to
two and one-half hours per week of biblical
instruction is given. Our Post Graduate
class has begun the study of biblical com-

mentaries, and at the present time is being
initiated into the study of Rashi in the orig-
inal Hebrew.
D-Hebrew. Hebrew is taught with a
two-fold purpose:
1. To give the child the facility to read
at sight portions of the Bible and the pray-
2. To give the child some fluency in read-
ing and writing modern Hebrew.

In the first grade the child is taught to
read from the Reshith Daath. This is fol-
lowed by the study of such text-books as
Rabbi Reichler's Hebrew Manual, the
Shacharith, the Sepher Hatalmid, and finally
the Bible proper. Hebrew grammar is
taught in the higher grades.
E-Prayer Book. Prayer Book teaching
has also a two-fold purpose:
1. To give the child fluency in reading the
daily, Sabbath and holiday prayers.
2. To acquaint the child with the arrange-
ment of the Prayer Book, so that he may be
easily able to follow it when he goes to the
synagogue for services. When the child
completes the Reshith Daath, he is immedi-
ately introduced to the Prayer Book itself,
no intermediary text-books being used. Sev-
eral of the most important prayers are se-
lected and translated. Some of these are
the morning and evening prayers, the eigh-
teen benedictions, the Sh'ma, etc.

F-Singing. During the past year we
have added to our teaching staff a regular
instructor in music who visits each class
once a week and instructs our children in
the singing of various Hebrew and English
songs and hymns, which songs are after-
wards sung at our Sunday morning assem-
blies and Sabbath afternoon services.
G-Special Classes. Many pupils come to
our school who are above the age of 12, and
who have hitherto received no religious in-
struction whatsoever. It has been found im-
practical and almost impossible to place
these boys and girls in the same class with
children of six and seven years of age. A
special course, covering four years of in-
struction, has, therefore, been provided for
these pupils, since it is hardly probable that
they will attend our school for more than
four years.




A-School Clubs. Various clubs, com-
posed of parents and others, meet in our
school. There are ;also literary clubs, a
Glee Club, a Scout Club, our school choir
and the like.

B-Local Committee. During the early
years of our existence it was found neces-
sary to organize a Local Committee, which
would act as a connecting link between the
people of the neighborhood and our school.
Since then, however, the Jewish people in
the neighborhood have learned to respect
and confide in the school, and the Local
Committee, finding that its function had dis-
appeared, is now, to all intents and pur-
poses, non-existent. The Parents' Associa-
tion has to a large extent taken the place
which the Local Committee formerly held.

C-Ezra People's Synagogue. Our audito-
rium is used on Saturdays and holidays for
regular services. The conduct thereof has
been entrusted to a group of our co-religion-
ists in the neighborhood. This synagogue
has been a source of revenue. During the
year an average of about $15.00 per month
is realized as rent, and on the High Holi-
days a net income of $952.25 was derived
from the sale of seats.

D-Parents' Association. This organiza-
tion, composed of the parents of our pupils,
is constantly growing more active and more
important to the existence of our school.
The reason for creating this organization
was to enlist the interest of the parents in
the school itself. Generally the parent
sends his child to a Hebrew School and
feels that his responsibility to his child ends
there. It was our aim to make the parent
feel responsible not only for sending his
child to Hebrew School, but to see that the
Hebrew School which his child attends is
efficient, and to use his efforts to improve
it. Since its organization, the Parents' As-
sociation has taken on an additional aspect.
There are many poor children in the neigh-
borhood, and the Parents' Association has
felt that its duty is to raise funds to supply
these children with clothing and to provide
their families with food and other necessi-
ties. On Passover a number of needy fami-
lies were helped with all the necessary Pass-
over foods and quite a large number of

children were given articles of clothing. On
Purim and Chanukah the Parents' Associa-
tion provided gifts of candy for each pupil
in the school. A stereopticon was bought
and presented to the school by the Parents'
Association, and this same group of active
and devoted people have lately contributed
towards the purchase of a piano for our
school. The funds of the Parents' Associa-
tion are raised by the sale of tickets for the
Chanukah' and Purim entertainments, and
by the payment of monthly dues by the
members. At the present time there are
over 125 active paying members.

E-Sabbath Afternoon Services. Although
a great need for Sabbath afternoon services
has been felt all along, such organization
could not be affected, because our teachers
did not live in the neighborhood, and there-
fore could not be present on Saturday after-
noon to take charge of the services. During
the year, however, we have added the ser-
vices of a music teacher, who, in addition
to visiting the classes and instructing them
in the singing of Jewish hymns, has organ-
ized a Sabbath afternoon service. Several
boys from our school were chosen and
trained to act as cantors. Then a choir was
organized, so that the entire conduct of the
service is in the hands of the pupils, under
the supervision of the instructor. The chil-
dren are deeply interested, and although at-
tendance is voluntary, the auditorium is
quite well filled every Saturday afternoon.

F-Graduation Exercises. One of the most
important events during the past year, and
one that showed that our school is no longer
in its infancy, but has become an estab-
lished recognized institution in the life of
the Jewish people in the Bronx, was the first
graduation, which was held last Sh'vuoth.
The members of the highest class, who had
been attending ever since the organization
of our school, and who had completed the
course of instruction outlined in our cur-
riculum, were awarded diplomas. A most
impressive ceremony was held, and was very
well attended by the parents and other peo-
ple in the neighborhood. Most of the grad-
uates, however, showed their attachment
for our school by applying for further in-
struction. A post-graduate class was then
formed, and these boys and girls, most of
whom are attending the high schools, come



to us daily for an hour and one-half to re-
ceive further instruction in Jewish history,
Bible, etc.

G-Cooperative Activities. Our school has
all along been cooperating with various
other communal and welfare organizations.
Some of the organizations with whom we
have been in touch during the past year
are the Jewish Big Brothers, the Jewish Big
Sisters, Hebrew Guardian and Sheltering
Aid Society, Fellowship House, and the like.
In closing this report I wish to again em-

phasize the great necessity of a modern and
up-to-date building in which to house the
various activities of our school. Originally
an experiment, the Ezra Hebrew School has
now far outgrown the most sanguine hopes
that were entertained when it was founded.
Our school has now become an institution
and occupies a very important place in the
life of the Jewish community of the Bronx.
We cannot stop where we are. We must
proceed and extend our activities. To accom-
plish this, a new building is absolutely nec-

Disbursements for Year Ended October 31, 1920

Rent ..................................... ............... $ 1,799.97
Salaries ..................................... ............ 11,089.92
Equipment and Repairs ................................... 287.05
Stationery and Office Supplies............................ 220.04
Advertising and Printing ................. ........ ........... 61.40
School Books.................... ........................ 247.04
Light and Heat ........................................... 447.89
Telephone, Telegraph and Postage .......................... 58.60
Holiday Services ....................................... 1,071.75
Insurance ................ ........................... 95.91
General ............................................ 130.96
Exchange ................................................ 3.00

Respectfully submitted,

Assistant Director.



A Survey of

Jewish Religious School Conditions
in Harlem, New York City

The heavy influx of Jews to this country
from Eastern Europe during the last four
decades has created a new problem-the
problem of adjustment, so that we might be-
come an integral part of the American peo-
ple without losing our identity and our Jew-
ish consciousness. Coming here as fugitives
from persecution and discrimination, our
immigrants lost no time in availing them-
selves of the opportunities afforded them in
this country. Their vision was distorted by
the blinding glare of the sun of freedom,
and in the mad pursuit of the dollar they
lost sight of their spiritual needs. The re-
ligious education of the young was neglected,
and so we find our boys and girls growing
up out of touch with Jewish life and unsym-
pathetic to our traditions and ideals.
In New York City, with its one and one-
half million Jews, the problem may not be

more acute than it is elsewhere in the coun-
try, but it is greater. We have in New York
City about 275,000 Jewish children of pub-
lic school age. Of these only 70,000, or ap-
proximately 25 per cent, receive any form
of religious instruction. The rest, more
than 200,000 in number, grow up in prac-
tical ignorance of the ideals and traditions
of Judaism, and are in danger of becoming
totally estranged from the Jewish people.


The conditions in Harlem proved to be
even worse than in the other districts of
the city. The results of a careful survey
of the public and religious schools of Har-
lem made in November, 1919, show that
whereas there is a population of 47,987
Jewish children in the district, 9,603, or
only 20 per cent, attend the Jewish religious

Comparison of the number of Jewish children in New York City
and those receiving instruction at the Jewish Religious Schools:
Jewish Children in New York City ............ ......... ................ 275,000
Attending Jewish Religious Schools .........................................70,000

NOTE-The above figures are approximations obtained by our careful observations com-
bined with the figures obtained by the Jewish Community of New York in their Communal
Register issued in 1918.

Comparison of the number of Jewish children in Harlem
and those receiving instruction at the Jewish Religious Schools:
Jewish Children in Harlem ........................... ......... .............. 47,987
Attending Jewish Religious Schools................................. ........... 9,603

NOTE-The above figures have been carefully compiled as a result of a thorough investi-
gation of the Public Schools and Jewish Religious Schools in Harlem.



F --i L- -- .--

,L\ J I L ._-


-,- ~- -- ,- -


A double circle represents a public school and the number at its left represents the num-
ber of Jewish children attending that school; a star represents a Hebrew School and
the number at its right its total register.

o_ I _: .... : _ .. : _
---i_ .. _
,.: OF iALE ,,OIN =.., .....H O DSRCT IH
~ ~ ~~AT E IY ... "IH ---,- --:_ 1,,- -.....
__ dul ic rpeet ul sho n h ub a t e rpeet h u-
,,_--- ', Je is ch-- :e atenin tha ,col trrpeet a erwSho
jtl; nu be -"' .... =ih s to-a -':"



The totals mentioned in the preceding
paragraphs are the results of a careful sur-
vey of the forty-six public schools in Har-
lem. The figures, tabulated in Chart No. 3,
are careful approximations based on infor-
mation furnished by interested parties.
They form a reliable working basis. The
figures reveal the fact that the Jews con-
stitute approximately one-half the popula-
tion of Harlem. Jewish children form
48.02% of the school registration. There
are some neighborhoods in the district
where the Jews compose almost 100% of
the population.


The Jewish religious schools in this city
fall into six distinct types--the Talmud
Torah, the Congregational Week-Day School,
the Sunday School, the Institutional School,
the Organized Private School and the Un-
organized Cheder.

The Talmud Torahs, which accommodate
almost two-fifths of the entire Jewish re-
ligious school registration in Harlem, rank
first in importance as well as in size. There
are nine of these schools, and their pupils
constitute 38.4% of all the Hebrew School
children in the district.

There are sixteen Congregational Week-
Day Schools in the district, which speaks
very well for the Congregations in Harlem.
Most of the Orthodox Congregations, due
to lack of funds, have hitherto sorely neg-
lected this duty. Their program includes
only a synagogue for worship and a cemetery
for the burial of the dead. Religious in-
struction is not included. However, they
are beginning to take a different view of
things, and one by one they are falling into
line. Hardly a synagogue has been built
within the past few years which did not
make provision for class-rooms. The six-
teen schools already in existence in Harlem
house 15.7% of the Hebrew School chil-
dren in the district.
There are seven Sunday Schools in Har-
lem, all of these run by the Reform Con-
gregation, except one, which is not con-
nected with any Congregation. The Sun-

day Schools take care of 18% of the chil-
Institutional Schools, so called because
of their connection with institutions other
than Congregations, number six. They
rank third in the list of schools and pro-
vide for 1,553 or 16.1% of the children.

There are also six Organized Private
Schools. These schools cater to the well-
to-do class who want to get for their chil-
dren a good training in modern Hebrew.
They have a total registration of 341, which
constitutes 3.6% of the total.

The Unorganized Schools number twenty-
six and have 784 pupils or 8.2% of the total
Hebrew School registration.

A seventh source of Jewish religious edu-
cation is the private teacher who visits the
pupil at his home and teaches him individ-
ually. These private teachers have been
omitted from this discussion because it is
impossible to ascertain their number or
the number of children whom they reach.
A brief word should, however, be said in
passing concerning them.

These teachers fall into two distinct
classes: the old-fashioned, traveling "Mel-
amed" who goes to the homes of the pupils
because he cannot afford to pay rent for a
"Cheder", and the modern trained teacher,
very often a Rabbinical or College student
who, because of his training and ability, is
very much sought after by those who can
afford to pay his fees and who do not want
to send their children to the Religious
Schools. The fees vary greatly, from
twenty-five cents per week for the former
type of teacher to five dollars per hour for
the latter. A rough estimate of the number
of children receiving such instruction in
Harlem would be 350, or about as many as
attend the Organized Private Schools.
Several years ago information was gath-
ered by the Jewish Community of New
York, covering the whole city. According
to this information, which was compiled and
published in the Jewish Communal Register
in 1916, there are 71 Talmud Torahs, 50
Congregational Week-Day Schools, 31 Sun-
day Schools, 10 Institutional Schools, 9 Or-
ganized Private Schools, and 500 Unorgan-
ized Chedarim in the entire city. Com-
paring these figures and allowing for



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