Group Title: Lake Alfred AREC Research report
Title: Packinghouse newsletter
Full Citation
Permanent Link:
 Material Information
Title: Packinghouse newsletter
Series Title: Lake Alfred AREC Research report
Alternate Title: Citrus packinghouse newsletters
Packing house newsletter
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Citrus Experiment Station (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Citrus Experiment Station (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Agricultural Research and Education Center (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Citrus Research and Education Center (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Indian River Research Education Center
Publisher: Citrus Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Lake Alfred Fla
Lake Alfred Fla
Publication Date: August 1973
Copyright Date: 1965
Frequency: irregular
completely irregular
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Harvesting -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruits -- Packing -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Additional Physical Form: Also issued on the World Wide Web.
Dates or Sequential Designation: No.1 (Sept. 1, 1965)-
Issuing Body: Issued by the Citrus Experiment Station (no. 1-38); Lake Alfred (Fla.) Agricultural Research and Education Center (no. 39-136); Lake Alfred (Fla.) Citrus Research and Education Center (no. 137-189); and the Ft. Pierce (Fla.) Indian River Research and Education Center (no. 190- ).
General Note: Title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: No. 202 (Aug. 1, 2005)
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00095555
Volume ID: VID00044
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 02430250
lccn - 2006229390

Full Text
tter #56 (*-*)
Lake Alfred AREC Research Report-CS73-8
1000 copies
S ~ August 17, 1973

Editor: W. F. Wardowski
Harvesting and Handling Section
University of Florida
~c Agricultural Research and Education Center
? LeP. O. Box 1088
Lake Alfred, Florida 33850


04 [oflSEP 4
I.F.A.S. Univ. of Florida \





-Anyone wishing to receive this newsletter crf
may send a dozen stamped, preaddressed cr
envelopes to the above address. I

Newsletter #56 (*-*)
Lake Alfred AREC Research Report-CS73-8
August 17, 1973-WFW-1000

Harvesting and Handling Section



Users of internal combustion-engine (I.C.E.) powered lift trucks may be con-
fused about their responsibility for controlling gaseous emissions in inside work
areas. OSHA limits are on the amount of harmful elements in the air that workers

Representative OSHA exposure limits in terms of contaminant levels for work
area air (maximum eight-hour time-weighted averages), are shown in parts per million
(ppm) in a table below.

Statistics od I.C.E. powered lift trucks without emission-control devices
(engine displacement 140 cu. in. or more) suggest ranges of contaminants found in
the exhaust emissions, also shown in the table.

To control emissions from the truck, regular maintenance is vital. However,
it might be impossible, depending upon the conditions of the plant area, to control
exhaust emissions sufficiently to maintain acceptable work area air without the
use of "low-emission" equipment. Use of this equipment can give average results
as shown in the table below.

Work Truck Exhaust Emissions
Area Air Without Low- With Low-
OSHA Emission Equipment Emission Equipment
Constituent Limits Gasoline LP-Gas Gasoline LP-Gas
ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm

Carbon monoxide 50 16,000-93,000 1000-107,000 7000 4000
Nitrogen dioxide 5 800 1000 1000 1000
Hydrocarbons 3 400-2300 20-2500 250 150

One manufacturer has reported that catalytic converters used on LP gas or
gasoline-fueled trucks can cut engine emissions by as much as: 96.5 percent of
carbon monoxide, 87 percent of hydrocarbons, 95 percent of smoke, and 99 percent
of odor. Effectiveness in noise reduction can be equal to a standard acoustical
muffler. The useful life of a catalytic converter is said to be as much as 3,000
hours with LP gas, 1,500 hours with lead-free gasoline and 500 hours with leaded
gasoline (on a properly tuned engine). These useful life figures have often been
exceeded by thousands of hours.

Finally, on how to control the quality of the work place air, the article
states that one basic problem is to come up with the right ventilation rates to
dilute and remove the carbon monoxide generated by I.C.E. powered lift trucks.
A study of the variables relating to ventilation requirements in plant operations
showed the factors in the dilution and removal of carbon monoxide were: 1) natural
ventilation, 2) mechanical ventilation, 3) the distribution of air flow, 4) room
volume per truck, and 5) the operation area.

August 17, 1973

Under no circumstances should an I.C.E. lift truck be operated in less than
25,000 cu. ft. of space.

The required ventilation rate has been calculated to be about 5000 cfm per
propane-fueled truck and 8000 cfm per gasoline-fueled truck. However, substantial
adjustments usually must be made in any suggested ventilation rates to compensate
for conditions in individual plants. For example, it is indicated that ventilation
rates should be tripled in plants that have no regular lift truck maintenance program.

A wide variety of instruments is available from manufacturers of gas analysis
equipment. The most common chemical type uses colorimetric indicator tubes which
change color or provide a length of stain that can be measured to determine the
gas concentration. Such indicator tube equipment is often used for quick checks,
after which, when a given tube indicates a significant concentration, a follow-
up test is made, using a more precise method of analysis. Individual colorimetric
tubes are relatively inexpensive, expendable devices -- not precision laboratory

NOTE: Before undertaking any changes in connection with OSHA requirements,
managers should obtain complete details of the applicable OSHA
Condensed by
Earl Bowman, USDA/ARS Gainesville
from "Emissions Control--What OSHA Requires--
Controlling Truck Emissions--Controlling
the Workplace Air", Modern Materials
Handling 27(11):49-60.


Word gets around in the produce world and people ask if Alfred Wardowski,
Leslie, Michigan, is related to this citrus Extension agent. You bet--he's my
father. Al Wardowski also gets around as fruit grower, County Commissioner,
member of the International Apple Institute, and recently elected chairman of
the Michigan Apple Committee. The Michigan Apple Committee operates on a
similar basis to the Florida Citrus Commission.

Congratulations, Dad!
W. Wardowski
Extension Service

Newsletter #56

August 14, 1973


Wednesday, September 5, 1973

Agricultural Research & Education Center, Lake Alfred

Registration 8:30 A.M.

Program (see last Packinghouse Newsletter) 9:10 A.M.

to 2:50 P.M. including equipment demonstrations during

lunch period

Equipment Demonstrations:

Plastic Pallet Boxes
Mechanized Tray Packing
4- Degreening Room Fog Humidification System

Noise Reduction for Metal Chutes
Nylon Net Bagging Machine


Available from Union Carbide Corporation, Educational Aids Department, Box 363,
Tuxedo, New York 10987.

English-Metric Conversion Calculator and folder explaining origins of the two
systems. Conversions in length, area, weight, mass, volume, and temperature can
be made with this slide rule-type device. Cost: $2.50

This public document was promulgated at an annual cost
of $201.60, or two and one-half cents per copy to inform
county agricultural directors, ranchers, and growers of
research results in harvesting and fresh fruit handling
and marketing.

Newsleftter #56


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