Group Title: Lake Alfred AREC Research report
Title: Packinghouse newsletter
Full Citation
Permanent Link:
 Material Information
Title: Packinghouse newsletter
Series Title: Lake Alfred AREC Research report
Alternate Title: Citrus packinghouse newsletters
Packing house newsletter
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Citrus Experiment Station (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Citrus Experiment Station (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Agricultural Research and Education Center (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Citrus Research and Education Center (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Indian River Research Education Center
Publisher: Citrus Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Lake Alfred Fla
Lake Alfred Fla
Publication Date: April 1973
Copyright Date: 1965
Frequency: irregular
completely irregular
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Harvesting -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruits -- Packing -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Additional Physical Form: Also issued on the World Wide Web.
Dates or Sequential Designation: No.1 (Sept. 1, 1965)-
Issuing Body: Issued by the Citrus Experiment Station (no. 1-38); Lake Alfred (Fla.) Agricultural Research and Education Center (no. 39-136); Lake Alfred (Fla.) Citrus Research and Education Center (no. 137-189); and the Ft. Pierce (Fla.) Indian River Research and Education Center (no. 190- ).
General Note: Title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: No. 202 (Aug. 1, 2005)
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00095555
Volume ID: VID00040
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 02430250
lccn - 2006229390

Full Text
wsletter No. 52 (-
Lake Alfred AREC Research Report-CS73-3
3 April 1, 1973

Editor: W. F. Wardowski
Harvesting and Handling Section
University of Florida
Sl Agricultural Research and Education Center
P. O. Box 1088
3 nLake Alfred, Florida 33850




APR 26 1973

I.F.A.S. Univ. of Florida

*Anyone wishing to receive this newsletter C 'r -
may send a dozen stamped, preaddressed
envelopes to the above address. 0

wsletter #52 (*-*)
Lake Alfred AREC Research Report-CS73-3
April 1, 1973

Harvesting and Handling Section



A temporary tolerance for the use of limited quantities of benomyl (Benlate)
on citrus has been approved by the Environmental Protection Agency. Benomyl residue
in or on citrus from pre- and/or postharvest application of this fungicide is set
at 10 ppm. Under this temporary tolerance, Benlate-treated fruit may be used for
processing and the pulp for feeding animals.

The expiration date for this temporary tolerance is January 11, 1974. The
experimental data obtained under this tolerance are to be used to establish a per-
manent tolerance.

Export (including Canada) remains a problem. The only residue tolerance
established by a foreign government that we know about to date is from West Germany.

Benlate is manufactured by E. I. DuPont de Nemours and Company as a 50% wettable
powder. Experimentally, Benlate has been a highly effective fungicide against our
major postharvest diseases, stem-end rot and green mold.

Preharvest Application
Benlate can be used preharvest as a means of treating fruit with a fungicide
before degreening. Preharvest fungicidal applicati on arc not intended to replace
postharvest applications, but should supplement them to achieve improved decay control.

(1) Method of Application--Dilute sprays of Benlate have been used in most of
our experimental work. Limited studies with concentrate applications indicate that
they would probably be effective also.
(2) Spray Concentrations--Decay control has been obtained using 1 lb. Benlate/
500 gal. with even better control at 2.5 lb./500 gal. No studies have been made at
the label rate of 1 Ib./A.
(3) When to Apply--The application should be made within 3 weeks before harvest.

Postharvest Application
Benlate can be applied in the packinghouse to unwashed fruit before degreening
and/or to washed fruit after degreening.

(1) Method of Application--Apply Benlate as a nonrecovery water spray or in a
water-based wax. These suspensions must be agitated continuously so the fungicide
will not settle out. There is no rapid method of determining strength of Benlate
suspensions so at present, only non-recovery treatments are recommended. Benlate
is only slightly soluble in water or water-based waxes.
(2) Treating Strength--The suggested treating strength is 600 ppm (1 lb. of
Benlate per 100 gal.). Benlate, at this concentration, is as effective as TBZ at
1000 ppm. Increasing the concentration of Benlate in the treating suspension does
not improve the decay control appreciably.

Newsletter #52

(3) When to Apply--Excess surface water should be removed from fruit before
applying Benlate. The best point on the packing line to apply Benlate is before
drying, whether Benlate is applied in a water suspension or in water-based wax.
To reduce decay during degreening, Benlate may be applied as a water suspension
before degreening without washing fruit. Following degreening and washing, a
second fungicide application should be made.
(4) Container Labeling--All labeling requirements that apply to other post-
harvest fungicides are required for Benlate. A label might read: "Benomyl used
as a fungicide." Benomyl is the generic name which must appear on the label.

Decay control obtained with Benlate in the packinghouse will be comparable
to that resulting from proper use of TBZ. Both fungicides are effective on the
same fungi, particularly green mold, and the two fungi that cause stem-end rot.
If Benlate is properly applied, good control of these fungi can be expected. Benlate
does not control sour rot or Alternaria (black) rot. Fungicides cannot take the
place of good handling methods from picking through packing.

All experimental use must conform with the label which will be found on
Benlate containers. During the period permitted for experimental use of Benlate,
the Division of Fruit and Vegetable Inspection will gather data prior to enforcing
the State minimum residue requirement.

We are interested in working with anyone planning to apply Benlate either
sprayed on trees or applied in the packinghouse. The purpose of this experimental
permit is to obtain information that can be related directly to commercial appli-
cation of this fungicide.
A. A. McCornack
G. E. Brown
Florida Department of Citrus


During the week of March 4 to March 9, the Florida Department of.Agriculture
and Consumer Services conducted a tour of European fruit and vegetable buyers.
This was attended by 17 executives of some of the biggest fruit and vegetable
importing companies from Belgium, Denmark, England, France, West Germany, Norway,
Sweden, and Switzerland (see Available Publications for list of addresses). Some
of the discussions and observations on citrus fruit should be of interest to anyone
contemplating entering or continuing to trade in the export market. Larry Risse,
USDA, Orlando, was invaluable to the Department throughout the tour.

All buyers emphasized very strongly that there must be a "will to export"
whereby the exporter will cooperate to maintain a steady flow of fruit, at times
waiving a short term profit in order to establish a long term outlet. This can
be accomplished by a form of pooling.

External appearance is of critical importance in European markets, for which
grade standards are conditioned far more for exterior appearance than internal
quality. It was difficult to get agreement as to what a "grade" meant. Since a
given package of fruit would have different grades under different systems (e.g.
U.S. grades for Florida oranges, European ISO grades for oranges generally, and


April 1, 1973

Newsletter #52

occasionally a Florida grade that might differ somewhat from U.S. standards).
Bill Pent and Novell Hall, Florida Fruit & Vegetable Inspection, Winter Haven,
led a discussion on grades.

There was general agreement that grapefruit afforded the best prospects for
export with increasing interest in specialty fruit such as tangerines, 'Temples',
tangelos, and 'Murcotts'. Drs. Bill Grierson and Will Wardowski, University of
Florida, Lake Alfred, gave a talk and demonstration on packaging, emphasizing the
value of tray packs for specialty fruits if they were to survive the long journey
overseas. Fruit which arrive misshapen and bruised are unsaleable, and hence,
a liability.

The European buyers who participated in the Seminar were very much concerned
about the practice of Florida shippers overpacking. A question asked by a buyer
from Belgium illustrates the general attitude of all the buyers on this subject.
"Why fill the container so high that you have to use a hammer to close it?" He
was very much concerned about damage to the product which results from overfilling
containers. This appeared to be the number one concern of all the buyers in
regard to packaging of Florida products.

A third point of concern to these buyers is the emphasis which Florida shippers
place on private labels. They felt that if the word "Florida" were emphasized it
would help sell fruit. One buyer said there is much goodwill for "Florida", while
the private labels do not mean anything to European buyers.

Elmer G. Close, Economist
Florida Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services


We get letters --

February 22, 1973

Dear Doctor:

Your Packinghouse Newsletter of February 16, 1973, has me all shook-up.
The soothing words about the safety of TBZ on oranges are just too much'

The Merck Manual, 12th ed., gives human dosage as: Thiabendazole
22 mg/kg b.i.d. for 1 or 2 days depending on the type of infection.

The dosage for a 50 lb. child is therefore 22.72 kg x 22 mg = 0.5
grams b.i.d. or 2.0 grams in 2 days.

...Florida residue regulation 105-1.43 requires 0.1 ppm. In California,
where 0.5 ppm is a more typical residue, 881,000 lbs. of fruit would contain
about 200 grams TBZ, or enough to treat a 5000 lb. elephant!

Now it happens that our Chienne, who weighs about 50 lbs., has a case of
the nasties, but she doesn't like oranges very well. What do I do?
Sincerely yours,
P.S. I think that your floating decimal point sank.

April 1, 1973

Newsletter #52

Dear Confused:

There is no way you could have known we assumed 0.3 ppm TBZ, a reasonable
amount for treated Florida oranges. Also, you could not know we made a 60X
error. The 50 lb. child would only have to eat 14,683 Ibs. (over 7 tons)
of treated oranges, peel and all, in two days in order to get a TBZ medical dose.

Thanks to my friend, Hugh Fitzpatrick, FMC Corporation, Riverside, California,
for serving crow in such a pleasant manner. Actually, Hugh, crow is not so bad
when you get used to it.

W. Wardowski
Extension Service


Available from Dr. W. Wardowski, Harvesting and Handling Section, Agricultural

Research and Education Center, P. O. Box 1088, Lake Alfred, Florida 33850.

"Grove application of benomyl and its persistance in orange fruit" by G. Eldon
Brown and L. Gene Albrigo. Phytopathology 62(12):1434-1438. December, 1972.

Available from Elmer G. Close, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer

Services, Mayo Building, Tallahassee, Florida 32301.

"Buyers who participated in the Florida Export Marketing Seminar and Tour,
March 4-9, 1973". This list includes companies and addresses.

Available from Falconbridge International Limited, Executive & Sales Office,

P. O. Box 40, Commerce Court West, Toronto, Canada.

"Conversion factors, weights and measures, and atomic constants", Copyright,
1968, J.A.M. Gaboury.

This public document was promulgated at an annual cost
of $201.60, or two and one-half cents per copy to inform
county agricultural directors, ranchers, and growers of
research results in harvesting and fresh fruit handling
and marketing.

April 1, 1973

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