letter No. 50
Lake Alfred AREC Research Report-CS73-l
January 9, 1973
Editor: W. F. Wardowski
Harvesting and Handling Section
University of Florida
Agricultural Research and Education Center
P. 0. Box 1088
Lake Alfred, Florida 33850
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
FLORIDA, DEPARTMENT OF CITRUS
kAnyone wishing to receive this newsletter
may send a dozen stamped, preaddressed
envelopes to the above address.
APR 10 1973
I.F.A.S. Univ. of Florida
Newsletter #50 Lake Alfred AREC Research Report-CS73-l
January 9, 1973-WFW-1000
Harvesting and Handling Section
SOUR ROT AND SPECIALTY FRUIT
High incidences of sour rot (Geotrichum candidum) frequently develop in
specialty fruits. Adequate control of this decay with fungicides is not feasible
at present as none of the available materials are very effective against sour rot.
However, SOPP (Dowicide) appears to provide a small amount of decay control.
Fruit injuries play a major role in the development of sour rot as the fungus will
not infect through the intact peel. Actually, fairly extensive injuries into the
albedo are required for infection to occur. However, after a fruit has become
infectedthe decay can spread to other sound adjacent fruit in packed cartons
causing a "nest" of decay.
Fruit flies are attracted by sour rot and many transport the fungus to injuries
in non-infected fruit. The best control of fruit flies is a sanitation program
which removes decayed fruit from the packinghouse before they contaminate the packing
line and attract fruit flies.
John Smoot (USDA, Orlando), Andy McCornack (Florida Department of Citrus, Lake
Alfred), and several packers have reported considerable losses from sour rot on
specialty fruit this season, especially in December. Tangerines have been a parti-
cular problem. It is normal to find that nearly every fruit with sour rot has been
injured, usually at the time of harvest, and this .injury is often plugging. The
main reason sour rot has been so prevalent is that clipping and careful picking
of specialty fruit is nearly extinct. We do not expect any breakthrough in control
of this disease until and unless citrus managers are willing to do whatever is
necessary to ensure reasonable handling of specialty fruit. We do not know how to
refill a plug hole in a citrus fruit and enable it to survive.
Sour rot develops most rapidly at 800F so that our recent record high fall
temperatures most certainly favored the disease. Cooler weather should help to
slow down the disease. Two things can be done to combat sour rot during warm weather
besides waiting for cool temperatures. Rapid handling from harvest to packing
reduces the time exposure to warm temperatures. Also, adequate cold room facili-
ties, particularly precooling before packing, is effective in combating this problem.
More than one packer has saved consultants fees to do their own cold rooms and
lost many times the savings the first season. Bill Grierson, University of Florida,
Lake Alfred and his associates will advise anyone designing new and remodeling old
packinghouses how to best arrange packing lines and cooling rooms but a competent
engineer should be employed to translate such advice into plans and specifications.
The solution to this problem of sour rot on specialty fruit lies with a good
labor relations program whereby pickers will be willing to gently handle fruit in
the grove combined with adequate cooling facilities in the packinghouse, fast
handling after picking, and a proper packinghouse sanitation program.
W. Wardowski, Extension Service
G. E. Brown, Florida Department of Citrus,
This public document was promulgated at an annual cost
of $201.60, or two and one-half cents per copy to inform
county agricultural directors, ranchers, and growers of
research results in harvesting and fresh fruit handling
January 9, 1973
The Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) Regional Office for 8 south-
eastern states is located in Atlanta, Georgia. They have established a toll-free
telephone number which should be in operation for at least a year. They will
answer questions about OSHA, supply sample forms and accept accident reports
or requests for inspection of hazardous conditions.
The complete address: OSHA
1375 Peachtree Street, Suite 587
Atlanta, Georgia 30309
(404) 892-0259 (Atlanta)
(800) 282-1048 (remainder of Georgia)
(800) 241-8598 (outside Georgia)
They wish to point out that local offices may be more convenient to you. In
Suite 204, Bridge Building Federal Office Building
3200 East Oakland Park Boulevard 400 W. Bay Street
Ft. Lauderdale, Florida 33308 Jacksonville, Florida 32202
(305) 525-0611 (904) 791-2895
TIE IN SALES AT SUPERMARKETS IN ITALY
Miami Herald, ca. November 18, 1972
:BIs Key to 'Play'
Women's Nw% Servlce
ROME Bored Italian wives in need of a
little extra cash -- to say nothing of extra plea-
sure are now using the grapefruit code to .
sell sex in Italian supermarkets, a practice that
Shas to be fool-proof as female adultery is pun-
Sishable by jail in Italy.
Most young Italian males know the grape-
fruit code. All you do is go to a supermart,
watch until you see a woman prominently
displaying a packet of three grapefruit, then if
you like the look of her, you politely ask if
you can carry her basket, and eventually pay
for the goods,
If she likes you, the answer is yes. If not,
no harm done.
The police are worried, say, "We know
this is going on in dozens of supermarkets, but
the girls are not committing a crime unless ac-
tually proved to be committing adultery. We
can't think how to stop the grapefruit code."
January 9, 1973
Available from Dr. W. Wardowski, Harvesting and Handling Section, Agricultural
Research and Education Center, P. O. Box 1088, Lake Alfred, Florida 33850.
"Decay caused by Alternaria citri in Florida citrus fruit." by G. Eldon Brown
and A. A. McCornack. Plant Disease Reporter 56(10):909-912. October, 1972.
"Standardization--clear product identification--are good for business." by
W. Wardowski and W. Grierson. The Citrus Industry 52(12):6,7,13. December, 1972.
"Florida citrus--big business and Mickey Mouse." by W. Wardowski. Citrus and
Vegetable Magazine 36(4):cover, 6,20. December, 1972.
PACKINGHOUSE NEWSLETTER INDEX
Bags, Bagging Machines
Biphenyl, see Diphenyl
Brown Recluse Spider
Coordination with Industry
Cycloheximide, see Abscission
Dowicide, see SOPP
Ethylene, see Degreening
Ethylene Explosion Hazard
Food and Drug Administration
Frozen Fruit Separators
Grapefruit from Milkman
Humidity, see Stem-end Rind Breakdown
Labeling for Fung-trlles
16, 21, 22, 32
11, 18, 42
1, 2, 12, 19, 21, 23, 26, 29, 31, 35, 42, 50
3, 5, 6, 7, 18, 19, 22, 25, 33, 35, 39, 40,
1, 6A; 10, 15, 48
2, 3, 8, 11, 17, 22, 34, 37, 48
3, 6A, 10
4, 20, 27, 35
10, 13, 15
9, 18, 36
2, 6, 33, 40, 47
6A, 15, 22, 33, 48
IewSj-iettr 7u- JCLLucr1y V, i:;I
Laws, see Fungicide Regulations
Mertect 260, see Thiabendazole
Oleocellosis (oil spotting)
OPP, see SOPP
Packinghouse Day Program
Packinghouse Newsletter Policy
Peel Injury, see "specific type of injury"
Regulations,'see Fungicide Regulations
Retail Display Area
Refrigeration, see Precooling
Stem-l,.a Rind Breakdown
Supermarket Institute Produce Buyers'
Tolerances, see Residue Tolerances
Tutane, see 2-Aminobutane
Wood Preservative, see Pallet Boxes
hebra Skin. see Tannerines
3, 9, 26, 36, 50
8, 12, 16, 26, 40
17, 24, 32, 38, 47
41, 43, 48
27, 31, 49
2, 3, 8, 10, 11, 21, 23, 31, 34, 36, 48
19, 31, 37, 38, 44, 45, 47, 50
6A, 10, 12, 13, 15
9, 11, 14, 22, 26, 30, 39, 44
9, 14, 22, 46, 47, 49
7, 11, 18, 25, 39
21, 23, 29, 31, 35, 42, 48
9, 24, 31, 34
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