Group Title: Lake Alfred AREC Research report
Title: Packinghouse newsletter
Full Citation
Permanent Link:
 Material Information
Title: Packinghouse newsletter
Series Title: Lake Alfred AREC Research report
Alternate Title: Citrus packinghouse newsletters
Packing house newsletter
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Citrus Experiment Station (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Citrus Experiment Station (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Agricultural Research and Education Center (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Citrus Research and Education Center (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Indian River Research Education Center
Publisher: Citrus Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Lake Alfred Fla
Lake Alfred Fla
Publication Date: May 1972
Copyright Date: 1965
Frequency: irregular
completely irregular
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Harvesting -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruits -- Packing -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Additional Physical Form: Also issued on the World Wide Web.
Dates or Sequential Designation: No.1 (Sept. 1, 1965)-
Issuing Body: Issued by the Citrus Experiment Station (no. 1-38); Lake Alfred (Fla.) Agricultural Research and Education Center (no. 39-136); Lake Alfred (Fla.) Citrus Research and Education Center (no. 137-189); and the Ft. Pierce (Fla.) Indian River Research and Education Center (no. 190- ).
General Note: Title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: No. 202 (Aug. 1, 2005)
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00095555
Volume ID: VID00033
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 02430250
lccn - 2006229390

Full Text

'sletter No. 45

May 19, 1972
1000-WFW-Lake Alfred, Florida 33850

Editor: W. F. Wardowski
Harvesting and Handling Section
University of Florida
Agricultural Research and Education Center
P. O. Box 1088
Lake Alfred, Florida 33850
i I


MAY 2 1972

yUniv. of Florida




*Anyone wishing to receive this newsletter
may send a dozen stamped, preaddressed
envelopes to the above address.

Newsletter No. 45 CS-1972-12
May 19, 1972
1000-WFW-Lake Alfred, Florida 33850

Harvesting and Handling Section



It is time for a new thought with regard to degreening.

Many improvements in citrus degreening have been made in recent yearsa
However, these changes have been in the form of improvements of a basically
inefficient system in that degreening is a "batch process" supplying the packing
line which is a "continuous process". This was no real problem as long as
degreening rooms were small and hand methods were largely employed.

The improvements noted above include not only matters of the design of de-
greening rooms, but also of the physiological reaction of the fruit to conditions
from the tree to the packinghouse line via the degreening room. Our work over
the past 20 years, but particularly detailed studies in the last two seasons by
Andy McCornack, have shown that fruit condition is enormously improved and decay
and/or peel injury losses decreased by getting fruit from the tree into a humid
atmosphere and then from that humid atmosphere to the waxer with minimum delays.
The development of very large pallet box rooms has greatly increased these delays
as it takes so long to load a room and then to bring it to temperature (which is
automatically a period of humidity stress). Once the room is opened, there is
more fruit than can be handled rapidly by the packing line so that degreened
fruit degenerates during the time from the opening of the room to the time when
it is waxed on the packinghouse line. With degreening rooms as large as 5, 6,
, or 7 thousand boxes, these problems can become acute.

Obviously, continuous degreening is called for; and we have been working
with a number of packers checking out improvements that would make this possible.
In particular, a year's experience at Haines City Citrus Growers Association has
shown that with our new "wall duct" design, pallet box degreening rooms can be run
partially filled without any loss of degreening efficiency. Knowing this, it is
possible to design a single large degreening room that can be started on the first
day of the season and run continually until the end of the degreening season. The
only real grounds for having other rooms is to hold already degreened fruit under
high humidity conditions when the packinghouse is not running, e.g. over the weekend.

The basic design of such a room has been drawn up'. At least one, and perhaps
several, such rooms are expected to be built this summer.

Figure 1A shows the general lay-out of a proposed 10,000 box (1,000 pallet
box roon. In actual practice, this room would hold up to 960 pallet boxes, leaving
a 16-foot aisle which should be considered minimal for rapid fruit handling. One
more stack, 6 pallet boxes high, could be added to each row slowly and carefully
to make a minimum of 1,120 pallet boxes for special occasions.

Construction costs are cheaper the nearer a building approaches a cube. This
lay-out is intended to utilize this principle and still provide practical fruit
handling. The type of building is barely indicated. A center ridge roof building

aSee Packinghouse Newsletters 5, 6, 7, 18, 19, 22, 25, 33, 35, 39, 40

Newsletter No. 45

is shown here, but this design can be adapted to other roof types. The type of
building must be designed around the function, not vice versa. A so-called
"fink truss" design is particularly suitable.

A false ceiling is used, above which are the air handling units. The
space between the false ceiling and the roof serves as a pressurized plenum
directing air into the wall ducts running down the back-wall. Figure 1B shows
a plan view at the level of the false ceiling. This false ceiling can be made
of any material that makes an air barrier. Providing the joints are lapped in
the right direction, very light aluminum sheeting works well. Above the false
ceiling, partitions separate the air handling units. There are no partitions in
the room itself. The false ceiling is sloped down at the back (Fig. 1C) to reduce
turbulence as the air enters the wall ducts.

The wall ducts themselves can be made of any material, but in the design we
have tested, 2" x 10" lumber from an old packinghouse was used and admirably
combined the rolls of air duct and a stop for the fork lift truck. Note that
there must be no curb at the back wall which would prevent air passing through
the pallets of the bottom layer of pallet boxes. The wall ducts should be sized to
match the rows of pallet boxes and be deep enough to keep air velocities down to
approximately 1,000 feet per minute where the air enters the duct.

Details of fan capacities, location, and types of controls are not covered
here. However, it is necessary to mention that extremely high humidity is essen-
tial and should be controlled within narrow limits (e.g. 95 to 98% RH). A suitable
system might be a steam jet humidifier downstream from each fan unit and a small
pneumatic water nozzle humidifier in each wall duct with a selective temperature
control as described by D. L. Deason in Newsletter #40. An ethylene analyzer will
also, of course, be essential to regulate ethylene between 1 and 5 ppm; however,
the more progressive packinghouses are already equipped with these.

Two air doors are shown. Two air doors placed on the same side of the room
will work well if they open into another building. If they open to the outdoors,
a single large air door in the middle of the wall would be more efficient, but
should be equipped with good traffic mirrors for safety. If air doors are put
opposite each other on end walls, they will not work efficiently.

Obviously, the base design of this room is eminently suited to use as a cold
storage room when not in use for degreening. However, an initial decision must be
made as to whether this room will ultimately be a dual purpose room used at differ-
ent times for degreening or refrigeration. We regard this dual use as advisable but
an initial decision must be made as to whether this room will ultimately be used
only for degreening or for both degreening and refrigeration. If it is to be a
dual purpose room, construction must take this into account from the beginning.
It is very expensive to go back and rework a degreening room for later refrigeration

Operation of the room can start with the picking of any amount of fruit. We
advise test degreening of sample lots of early fruit, particularly 'Robinson'
tangerines. From the time these sample lots are run, the room runs continually
with scheduled checks for ethylene analysesb, temperature, and humidity. As soon
as any fruit is picked it can start coming in, perhaps a goat-load at a time if

aSee Packinghouse Newsletter No. 25
See Packinghouse Newsletter No. 26

May 19, 1972

Newsletter No. 45

For Continuous Operation



-----Co. 16'
--Co. 16'-.------------------------------------ (

-- -- -- -- -- -- -- .
-------------------- -<
> -40'-

I-a 0


PLAN VIEW Degreening Room for Continuous Operation
Floor Level) PHNL #45 Fi. IA W. Grierson
April 1972 F Pog o 3


Intake / '

M (above false ceiling) i r0

0 a nIO
co r
Air "
SIntake G
CO- -

__________ Partition T. r
(above false ceiling) q a
Air -
Intake 03 O
m 3- "

-ii t


U of Fla. IFAS AREC Lake Alfred
Degreening Room for Contin Operation
PHNL # 45 Fig I I W. Orlerson
April 192 o rPa o

May 19, 1972

the grove is close at hand. Each row
(running from one wall duct) is treated
as a lot of fruit and after a while fruit
is moving in and out steadily instead of
being degreened in batches.

An increasing number of fresh fruit
shippers have had us put on conferences in
the Harvesting & Handling Section to discuss
packinghouse modernization plans. We suggest
this as an-excellent first stage for anyone
wanting to-go into this new approach on
degreening. Call us in good time, and we
will try to set up a conference between
anybody you care to bring, including po-
tential suppliers if you wish, and those of
our staff who are technically involved.
Just give us enough time ahead to arrange
the meeting.

W. Grierson


S'.*.' U of Fla IFAS AREC Lake Alfred

12- l or Stripe

Operation -PHNL f45 Fig.IC
SW. Orlerson April 1972 Page 3o03

Newsletter No. 45


A discussion of the implications of OSHA to citrus organizations sponsored
by Polk County Extension Service is scheduled 1:30-3:30 PM, Tuesday, May 23,
1972, at the Polk County Extension Office, Bartow. Guest speakers will be
Art Garrison, District Safety Supervisor, Florida Department of Commerce, and
William Gordon, Area Director, OSHA, U. S. Department of Labor, Jacksonville.
With State and Federal representatives present, all questions relating to OSHA
will be welcome. See Packinghouse Newsletter No. 44 for the recordkeeping re-
quirements of OSHA.
W. F. Wardowski
Extension Service


"Mrs. Diane Biddinger of Perrinton wants to
start a contest.
"She bought a sack of grapefruit labeled
"seedless". In one grapefruit she found 67
large seeds.
"Who will bid 68?"
Lansing State Journal Newspaper
Lansing, Michigan
April 14, 1972


Available from Tropical Products Institute, 56-62 Gray's Inn Road, London WC1X8LU,

"The Market for Mangos in Selected Western European Countries", No. G-59, 1971.

"The Market for Avocados in Selected Western European Countries", No. G-60, 1971.

"The Market for Canned Grapefruit Segments", No. G-61, 1971.

Available from Prof. Mina Schiffmann-Nadel, Head, Division of Fruit & Vegetable
Storage, Volcani Institute of Agricultural Research, P.O.B. 15, Rehovot, Israel.

"Summaries of Research Work 1967-69, Division of Fruit and Vegetable Storage,"
74 pages, March, 1970.

"Summaries of Research Work 1969-71, Division of Fruit and Vegetable Storage,"
78 pages, December, 1971.

A wealth of information is in these two volumes. Each research project is summarized
in easy-to-read form from a paragraph to a little over a page.
Available from Sperry Rand Corporation, New Holland Division, New Holland,
Pennsylvania, 17557.
"How They Really Doin' Down on the Farm?", New Holland Division of Sperry Rand Corp,
1971. (So:;~: facts and figures assembled from government sources about farm income
and the far; .:i,'s econo.ric situation.)

May 19, 1972

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