Group Title: Lake Alfred AREC Research report
Title: Packinghouse newsletter
Full Citation
Permanent Link:
 Material Information
Title: Packinghouse newsletter
Series Title: Lake Alfred AREC Research report
Alternate Title: Citrus packinghouse newsletters
Packing house newsletter
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Citrus Experiment Station (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Citrus Experiment Station (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Agricultural Research and Education Center (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Citrus Research and Education Center (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Indian River Research Education Center
Publisher: Citrus Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Lake Alfred Fla
Lake Alfred Fla
Publication Date: July 1971
Copyright Date: 1965
Frequency: irregular
completely irregular
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Harvesting -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruits -- Packing -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Additional Physical Form: Also issued on the World Wide Web.
Dates or Sequential Designation: No.1 (Sept. 1, 1965)-
Issuing Body: Issued by the Citrus Experiment Station (no. 1-38); Lake Alfred (Fla.) Agricultural Research and Education Center (no. 39-136); Lake Alfred (Fla.) Citrus Research and Education Center (no. 137-189); and the Ft. Pierce (Fla.) Indian River Research and Education Center (no. 190- ).
General Note: Title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: No. 202 (Aug. 1, 2005)
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00095555
Volume ID: VID00027
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 02430250
lccn - 2006229390

Full Text

wAettet No. 38 (*-*)
Citrus Station Mimeo Report CES 72-4
SJuly 16, 1971
"'850-WFW-Lake Alfred, Florida 33850

Harvesting and Handling Section*
University of Florida
Citrus Experiment Station
'P. O. Box 1088
Lake Alfred, Florida 33850




*Complimentary to members of the
Florida Fresh Citrus Shippers Association.
Others wishing to receive this newsletter
may send a dozen stamped, preaddressed
envelopes to the above address.

,ewsletter No. 38 Citrus Station Mimeo Report CES 72-4
July 16, 1971
850-WFW-Lake Alfred, Florida 33850

Harvesting and Handling Section



The citrus postharvest decay organisms are listed below in approximate
decreasing order of importance for Florida citrus. However, an organism of
relatively minor importance can, under certain conditions, cause the total
loss of a particular crop or load. This list should serve as a guide for
packers to identify the decay fungi.

Stem-end rot (Diplodia natalensis)
This is an economically important decay that occurs most frequently in
ethylene-degreened fruit. Temperatures and humidities used in degreening are
optimum for the growth of Diplodia. Decay usually originates at the stem end
from latent hyphae present in necrotic tissues of the button surface.

Stem-end rot (Phomopsis citri)
Another important postharvest disease in which decay, similar to that
caused by Diplodia, also originates from the button. Phomopsis develops more
frequently in non-degreened fruit. This fungus also causes melanose.

Green mold (Penicillium digitatum)
A disease of extreme importance that develops more commonly in non-degreened
fruit during the winter months when cool temperatures favor its growth. The
degreening process tends to suppress the development of Penicillium. Infection
from airborne spores occurs through injuries formed during picking or packing.

Sour rot (Geotrichum candidum)
A decay frequently found in specialty fruit. Since these fruit are utilized
primarily in the fresh form, decay by Geotrichum is of concern. This fungus is
more difficult to control with fungicides than any of the other decay fungi.
Like green mold, injuries are necessary for infection from spores present on the
fruit surface or packinghouse equipment. This organism will also spread from
infected to healthy fruit in packed cartons.

Black rot (Alternaria citri)
Infection by this relatively unimportant decay organism can occur from
either the stylar or stem end. Stylar-end infection can cause premature coloring
primarily in navels, 'Jaffas', and tangelos. Stem-end infections are mainly
confined to fruit held in long-term storage, such as 'Valencia' oranges held in
cold storage for summer sale. Decay is often not detected until the fruit is cut
to expose the rot in the core.

Newsletter No. 38

Anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides)

A decay considered to be of minor importance which usually develops in
overmature, freeze damaged, or sunburned fruit. However, the specialty
varieties, 'Robinson', 'Lee', 'Nova', and 'Page', tend to be more susceptible
to decay by Colletotrichum, especially when they are ethylene-degreened,
than are round oranges.

Brown rot (Phytophthora citrophthora)
Brown rot is of minor importance and occurs most frequently on the East
Coast. Phytophthora infections occur in the grove by direct fungal penetration
of the peel of mature fruit during extended periods of continuous rainfall or
high humidities. Like sour rot, decay can spread by contact during storage.

Blue mold (Penicillium italicum)
A decay of minor importance which infects and develops similarly to green
mold. Normally, it is only observed on fruit stored for an extended period.
This organism may also spread by contact during storage.

G. E. Brown
Florida Department of Citrus
Agricultural Research & Education Center


One of the few remaining conveniences of urban living is that the milkman
still delivers milk to one's door. Moreover, he often delivers a number of things,
most of them associated with breakfast. The milk in my own household is delivered
by one of Florida's oldest dairies who are also owners of a very large citrus
cannery; and I am sure many of the stockholders and executives are citrus growers.
The monthly bill lists a formidable number of things that I can ask the milkman
to leave. He can leave me milk, cream, yogurt, eggs in various sizes, single-
strength juice, and so on.

This is normal enough for most dairies, but I have never heard of being
able to put out a note for a quart of milk and three medium-sized grapefruit.
Why doesn't somebody try it? It could even be considered in connection with
the work we have already done on prepared grapefruit halves.

W. Grierson
Agricultural Research & Education Center
Lake Alfred


Modern Materials Handling magazine for May, 1971, has a very worthwhile note
on the hazards involved when operators of walkie-type pallet trucks ride on this
equipment which normally provide no safe footing. This can result in a serious
safety hazard.

July 16, 1971

Newsletter No. 38 -3- July 16, 1971

Walkie-type pallet trucks are available with a safe place for the operator
to ride in a standing position. Packinghouse operators purchasing walkie-type
pallet handling equipment for tight places, loading trucks, etc. could
well consider getting the "ride-on" type.

Earl Bowman


In Newsletter No. 35 of February 1, we thanked the public-minded companies and
individuals who contributed so generously to our scholarship fund to help us up-
grade capable non-academic staff members. In that entry, we mentioned that George
Good had, with the help of the scholarship fund, graduated from Florida Southern
College with excellent grades, winning the award for the outstanding student in
the Citrus Department.

I am sure that you will all be interested to hear that George has now not
only received his promotion to the Department of Citrus staff as a "Chemist I",
but also won a final award, the Hughes Award for an outstanding senior student,
which was presented to him on graduation by Dr. A. E. Willson of Coca-Cola,
Foods Division, Inc.

W. Grierson
Agricultural Research & Education Center
Lake Alfred


The program for the Tenth Annual Packinghouse Day, September 8, 1971 is
enclosed with this Newsletter. The program has been expanded by 1-1/2 hours
to accommodate more presentations in a very busy schedule. Also, this year,
there will be several pieces of equipment on display during the lunch period.


Newsletter No. 38 -4- July 16, 1971


Available from Harvesting & Handling Section, Agricultural Research and Education
Center, P. O. Box 1088, Lake Alfred, Florida 33850.

"Effect of Mechanical Harvesting on Keeping Quality of Florida Citrus Fruit for
the Fresh Market" by Robert L. Rackham and W. Grierson. HortScience 6(2):
163-165. April, 1971.

"Pycnidial Release and Survival of Diplodia natalensis Spores" (stem-end rot)
by G. Eldon Brown. Phytopathology 61(5):559-561. May, 1971.

"Appendix I. Minimum Quality (Maturity) Standards for Oranges, Grapefruit,
Tangerines, 'Temples', Tangelos, and 'Murcotts' as of June 30, 1970'. An insert
for Univ. of Fla. Agr. Ext. Ser. Circ. 315, "Quality Tests for Citrus Fruits."

Available from USDA,ARS,TFRD, 102 Agricultural Engineering Building, University
of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601.

"Photoelectric Color Sorting of Vine-Ripened Tomatoes" by Jerome J. Gaffney and
Otto L. Jahn. USDA MRR No. 868. 16 pages.

Available from Clark Equipment Company, Industrial Truck Division, 1921 Escote
Street, Battle Creek, Michigan 49014.

"The Professionals: Rules for Safe Truck Driving", a cartoon-illustrated booklet
designed to help avoid fork lift truck accidents.


in cooperation with


*J**** ***** *** ** ***

Wednesday, September 8, 1971
Agricultural Research & Education Center, Lake Alfred, Florida

NOTE: Box lunches will be served. Visitors wishing lunch (except program
participants) please purchase tickets immediately upon arrival in
order that a lunch can be ordered for you.



8:30 Registration

9:30 Welcome Dr. Herman J. Reitz, Horticulturist and Head, University of
Florida, Agricultural Research & Education Center, Lake Alfred, Florida 33850

Dr. John A. Attaway, Scientific Research Director, State of Florida,
Department of Citrus
Introduction of staff members of the Harvesting and Handling Section

Brief summary reports on research results and industry developments
(Approximately 10 minutes per speaker.)

9:50 Labor
The Citrus Bagman, Henry Swanson, Orange County Extension Director
Our Means of Keeping Good Labor, Roy Knowles, Golden Gem Growers

10:10 Abscission
The Search for Better Abscission Agents, Bill Wilson, D.O.C., Lake Alfred
Why Abscission Agents Work--Today's Best Estimate, Bill Cooper, USDA,
CRD, Orlando

10:30 Decay Control
Decay Control with Grove Applications of Benlate, G. E. Brown, D.O.C.
Lake Alfred
Decay Control with Fungicides, Andy McCornack, D.O.C., Lake Alfred
Residue Analysis and Status of TBZ for Citrus, Fred Hayward, U. of Fla.,
Lake Alfred

11:00 Trash and Pollution
Improved Trash Elimination, Bill Grierson, U. of Fla., Lake Alfred
Noise Control, Calvin Oliver, U. of Fla., Gainesville
What Must Packinghouses do to Comply with Florida's Water Quality
Standards and Pollution Regulations, Gene McNeill, Fla. Dept. of
Pollution Control, Winter Haven
One System of Acceptable Water Pollution Control, Will Wardowski,
Extension Service, Lake Alfred

11:40 Lunch Equipment Demonstrations
(1) New Degreening Rooms, Doug Deason, Lake Alfred
(2) Sloping Belt Trash Eliminator, Bert Robertson, Lake Alfred
(3) Pop-Out Side Pallet Boxes, John Petersen, Lake Wales
(4) USDA Prototype Rope Stock Bagger, Earl Bowman, Gainesville


1:00 Degreening
Effect of Washing Fruit on Degreening, Bill Grierson, U. of Fla., Lake Alfred
Degreening Conditions for Good Fruit, Andy McCornack, D.O.C., Lake Alfred
Influence of Humidity on Healing of Injuries to Oranges, G. E. Brown,
D.O.C., Lake Alfred
Equipment Requirements for Degreening Rooms, Doug Deason, U. of Fla.,
Lake Alfred
Horizontal vs. Vertical Air Movement--A Direct Comparison, Roy Schick,
SEFCO, Vero Beach
A New Look at Ethylene and Color, Ivan Stewart, U. of Fla., Lake Alfred

2:00 Packaging
Improved Cartons Tested on European Market, Phil Hale, TFRD, USDA, Orlando
Proposed Citrus Container Research, Larry Risse, TFRD, USDA, Orlando
Produce Handling Conference, Stan Rosenberger, Extension Service, Gainesville

2:30 Cooling and Storage
Storage of Florida Citrus, Tim Hatton, MQRD, USDA, Orlando
Black Rot on Stored Citrus Fruits, John Smoot, MQRD, USDA, Orlando
New Findings on Peel Disorders, Gene Albrigo, U. of Fla., Lake Alfred

3:00 Meeting will be turned over to Cope Newbern, President, Florida Fresh
Citrus Shippers Association.
Business Meeting: Florida Fresh Citrus Shippers Association
(This is a private meeting not open to the general public.)

Meeting of research workers (University of Florida; Florida Department
of Citrus; Florida Department of Agriculture; and U. S. Department
of Agriculture) in the Conference Room on the second floor of the
Canning Plant

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