Group Title: Lake Alfred AREC Research report
Title: Packinghouse newsletter
Full Citation
Permanent Link:
 Material Information
Title: Packinghouse newsletter
Series Title: Lake Alfred AREC Research report
Alternate Title: Citrus packinghouse newsletters
Packing house newsletter
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Citrus Experiment Station (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Citrus Experiment Station (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Agricultural Research and Education Center (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Citrus Research and Education Center (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Indian River Research Education Center
Publisher: Citrus Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Lake Alfred Fla
Lake Alfred Fla
Publication Date: December 1970
Copyright Date: 1965
Frequency: irregular
completely irregular
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Harvesting -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruits -- Packing -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Additional Physical Form: Also issued on the World Wide Web.
Dates or Sequential Designation: No.1 (Sept. 1, 1965)-
Issuing Body: Issued by the Citrus Experiment Station (no. 1-38); Lake Alfred (Fla.) Agricultural Research and Education Center (no. 39-136); Lake Alfred (Fla.) Citrus Research and Education Center (no. 137-189); and the Ft. Pierce (Fla.) Indian River Research and Education Center (no. 190- ).
General Note: Title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: No. 202 (Aug. 1, 2005)
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00095555
Volume ID: VID00024
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 02430250
lccn - 2006229390

Full Text

wsletter No. 34
7j-/ .

Citrus Station Mimeo Report CES 71-15
December 1, 1970
750-WFW-Lake Alfred, Florida 33850

Editor: W. F. Wardowski
Harvesting and Handling Section*
University of Florida
Citrus Experiment Station
P. O. Box 1088
Lake Alfred, Florida 33850




*Complimentary to members of the
Florida Fresh Citrus Shippers Association.
Others wishing to receive this newsletter
may send a dozen stamped, preaddressed
envelopes to the above address.

Newsletter No. 34 Citrus Station Mimeo Report CES 71-15
December 1, 1970
750-WFW-Lake Alfred, Florida 33850

Harvesting and Handling Section



Although the intention in establishing the shipping holidays at Thanksgiving
and (probably) Christmas are excellent, a possibly dangerous situation is incurred.
Under the rules established by the SAC- GAq fruit can be picked during the shipping
holidays but cannot be "prepared for market." Fruit that has been picked but
not prepared for market is extremely vulnerable to both peel injury and decay
which are apt to show up later after the fruit has been prepared, graded, and

To avoid this situation, any fruit that is picked but not washed and waxed
MUST be held under humid conditions. It should be brought into the degreening
rooms, the fans turned on, and the humidity raised to as close to 100% as possible.
It is not necessary or desirable to add heat expect in the form of steam to raise
the humidity. Fruit held under these conditions has a good chance of avoiding
excessive peel injury and decay.

We repeat that any fruit picked and held under drying conditions is apt to
be a very poor market risk.

W. Grierson
Citrus Experiment Station


The latest tolerances for thiabendazole (TBZ) on citrus outside the USA
provided by Dr. W. L. Kilian (letter of October 29, 1970), Merck, Sharp, & Dohme
International are as follows (ppm = parts per million):

"Country Tolerance PPM
Germany 6 ppm
France 6 ppm (provisional, allows usage)
Belgium 6 ppm
Norway 6 ppm (provisional for 1 year)
Finland 6 ppm (provisional for 1 year)
Italy 6 ppm (Food additive) 3 ppm
if used with SOPP or
Holland 6 ppm; 3 ppm if used with
EEC recommendation is 6 ppm as a food additive
Canada 2 ppm
Australia 2 ppm

Newsletter No. 34


The situation in England is such that they allow citrus treated with thia-
bendazole from Israel, South Africa, and California-Arizona under a temporary
provision for testing various applications and use levels. There is also a
provision in their law which allows the use of chemicals to preserve the quality
of fruit during transit if the chemical is not on their list of carcinogenic
compounds. The high safety factor with thiabendazole places it in a favorable

We interpret this to mean that you may sell TBZ-treated citrus in England
if you can find a buyer.

The tolerance for Dowicide (SOPP) on citrus is 10 ppm. Diphenyl has a
citrus tolerance of 70 ppm in Germany and 110 ppm elsewhere.

Will Wardowski
Extension Service
Citrus Experiment Station


Russell Hinds, USDA, Transportation and Facilities Research Division,
is well-known in the Florida citrus industry for his work at TFRD, USDA, Orlando.
He and Dr. Bill Chace, formerly at USDA, MQRD, Orlando, are now in Rotterdam,
The Netherlands, checking the arrival conditions of U. S. agricultural products
shipped to western Europe. A recent paper by Russ Hinds is listed in the Available
Publications section of this Newsletter and is highly recommended reading. Points
of particular interest are discussed below.

The following important points are listed as having been overlooked by
container operators in the early attempts to ship perishables overseas in
trailer vans:

"1. The performance of the refrigerated vans in domestic land transport
was far from satisfactory for many products, especially fresh fruits
and vegetables.

2. Domestic hauls were much shorter than most overseas movements.

3. Even with the best refrigerated equipment in good working condition,
poor cargo loading patterns sometimes lead to disastrous results.

4. Taking transport vehicles that had evolved over a period of many years
in one transport environment and placing them in a totally different
environment could lead to a host of new problems."

These points are then discussed in detail with improvements and continuing
problems pointed out. A problem load of grapefruit that they examined is used
as an example and suggestions are offered to improve the arrival conditions of
this product.

December 1, 1970

Newsletter No. 34

He lists suggested modifications for refrigerated van containers to allow
them to better meet the needs of perishable products follows:

"1. Controlling temperature throughout the van and its cargo within + 30 F
of the thermostat setting.

2. Controlling relative humidity to avoid cargo dehydration.

3. Periodic purging of the atmosphere in the van, as necessary, to prevent
the buildup of dangerous concentrations of harmful gases.

4. Distributing air uniformly to both the perimeters and interiors
of the load.

5. Securing the cargo firmly in place to prevent shifting and disarrangement
during handling and transport."

Will Wardowski
Extension Service
Citrus Experiment Station


The transportation of perishable products is a critical and expensive link
in the chain of events between the maturity of agricultural products and ultimate
consumption. Claims based on temperature failure alone increased 650% from
1958 to 1968 (see articles from Refrigerated Transporter, Available Publications
in this Newsletter). While most were due to high temperatures, the opposite
problem, chilling injury, of grapefruit is an even more serious problem for
the citrus industry. "Chilling" causes dark sunken areas of the peel of grape-
fruit that may result in 100% loss of the shipment. Early grapefruit may chill
at temperatures below 550 F and late grapefruit below 500 F (Packinghouse News-
letter No. 11, November, 1967). More recent work at MQRD, USDA, Orlando and
Florida Department of Citrus, Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred substantiates
the above recommendations.

The engineers working at TFRD, USDA, Orlando, point out that semi-trailers
and "piggybacks" are designed to maintain temperatures in a precooled load, not
to lower the temperature of a load. The stacking pattern is very important to
equalize temperatures throughout the load and to enable the refrigeration unit
to operate to maximum capacity without damaging that portion of the load immediately
exposed to the air delivery. All van shipments of Florida citrus in cartons
should use the USDA "airstack" loading pattern (see Available Publications).

The problems associated with handling of perishable products, including pro-
duce, meats, flowers, and frozen foods, are included in the agenda for a confer-
ence of national scope being planned for 1971 by IFAS, University of Florida,
and representatives of the packers, shippers, transporters, receivers, and con-
sumers of perishable products. Additional information on this conference will
be presented when available.

Will Wardowski
Extension Service
Citrus Experiment Station

December 1, 1970

Newsletter No. 34


Available from Transportation Research Branch, ARS, USDA, 2607 N. Orange Avenue,
Orlando, Florida 32804.

"Observations on Refrigerated Van Container Service to Europe," by Russell H.
Hinds, Jr. Paper presented at the Transportation in the Seventies Conference,
San Diego, California. April, 1970.

"A Better Loading Pattern for Trailer Shipments of Citrus Fruit," by Russell H.
Hinds, Jr., and J. Kenneth Robertson, USDA, MRR No. 715. September, 1965.

"A Bonded-Block Loading Pattern for Refrigerated Van Container Shipments of
Radishes," by Albert Biales and Thomas Moffitt. USDA, ARS 52-50. August, 1970.

"Exploratory Cooling Tests with 40-foot Refrigerated Trailer and Container
Vans," by Joseph P. Anthony, Jr., TFRD, USDA, ARS 52-48. March, 1970.

"Feasibility of Shipping 'Temple' Oranges in Plastic-Cell Tray-Pack Fiberboard
Boxes," by Philip Hale, Lawrence A. Risse, and John E. Jacobs. TFRD, USDA,
ARS 52-35. July, 1969.

"Labor and Equipment Requirements and Costs for Unitized and Nonunitized Loading
of Florida Citrus into Highway Trailer Vans," by Joseph P. Anthony. TFRD,
USDA, ARS 52-53. November, 1970.

Available from Corrugated Container Institute, P. 0. Box 1752, Lakeland, Florida
33802 (813) 688-5425.

Wall diagrams of the USDA "Air stack" loading pattern.

Available from Harvesting and Handling Section, P. 0. Box 1088, Citrus Experiment
Station, Lake Alfred, Florida 33850.

"Are Perishables too Perishable for Profit?" and "Progress on Problems in
Mechanical Refrigeration," by R. F. McKee, Pacific Fruit Express. Refrigerated
Transporter, April, 1970. pp. 36-38.

Available from Market Quality Research Division, ARS, USDA, 2120 Camden Road,
Orlando, Florida 32804.

"A Comparison of Postharvest Fungicides for Decay Control of Florida Oranges,"
by John J. Smoot and C. F. Melvin, Florida State Horticultural Society 82:243-246.

December 1, 1970

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