Group Title: Lake Alfred AREC Research report
Title: Packinghouse newsletter
Full Citation
Permanent Link:
 Material Information
Title: Packinghouse newsletter
Series Title: Lake Alfred AREC Research report
Alternate Title: Citrus packinghouse newsletters
Packing house newsletter
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Citrus Experiment Station (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Citrus Experiment Station (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Agricultural Research and Education Center (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Citrus Research and Education Center (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Indian River Research Education Center
Publisher: Citrus Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Lake Alfred Fla
Lake Alfred Fla
Publication Date: May 1970
Copyright Date: 1965
Frequency: irregular
completely irregular
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Harvesting -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruits -- Packing -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Additional Physical Form: Also issued on the World Wide Web.
Dates or Sequential Designation: No.1 (Sept. 1, 1965)-
Issuing Body: Issued by the Citrus Experiment Station (no. 1-38); Lake Alfred (Fla.) Agricultural Research and Education Center (no. 39-136); Lake Alfred (Fla.) Citrus Research and Education Center (no. 137-189); and the Ft. Pierce (Fla.) Indian River Research and Education Center (no. 190- ).
General Note: Title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: No. 202 (Aug. 1, 2005)
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00095555
Volume ID: VID00021
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 02430250
lccn - 2006229390

Full Text

Newsletter No. 31
SCitrus Station Mimeo Report CES 70-30
May 22, 1970
F ~ ~ t 750-WFW-Lake Alfred, Florida 33850

Editor: W. F. Wardowski
Harvesting and Handling Section*
University of Florida
Citrus Experiment Station
)- P. O. Box 1088
Lake Alfred, Florida 33850





JUN 3 1970

I.F.A.S. Univ. of Florida '

*Complimentary to members of the t
Florida Fresh Citrus Shippers Association.
Others wishing to receive this newsletter 1Z'
may send a dozen stamped, preaddressed OWNS
envelopes to the above address. M l

Newsletter No. 31
Citrus Station Mimeo Report CES 70-30
May 22, 1970
750-WFW-Lake Alfred, Florida 33850

Harvesting and Handling Section



Thiabendazole (TBZ) has been used by several packinghouses during the
1969-70 season with good results. Samples of treated fruit, taken from these
packinghouses, have been held with comparable check lots to determine the best
methods for applying TBZ. No marked differences in decay control were found
among methods of application.

Methods of Application.--Apply TBZ in water wax or as a nonrecovery spray.
A recovery flood may be used but is not recommended because there is no rapid
method for determining the strength of the TBZ suspensions. TBZ must not be washed
or rinsed from the fruit after it is applied.

Solution Strength.--Concentrations should be 1,000 ppm whether TBZ is applied
in wax or in a water suspension. The Food and Drug Administration has established
a maximum residue of 2 ppm. Fruit treated with water wax containing TBZ at a
concentration of 1,000 ppm have approached but not exceeded the maximum residue
permitted. Water suspensions which are sprayed or flooded on the fruit usually
leave a residue below 0.5 ppm.

Washing fruit.--Nonfungicidal, biodegradable detergents are available for
washing citrus. If Dowicide A is used for washing fruit, it must be declared as
a fungicide by appropriately labeling the containers.

Preliminary Grading.--To cut down the amount of fruit treated with TBZ, most
of the grading can be done after washing (before color-adding and waxing). If
your average packout is 60%, this would mean that 40% of the fruit does not need
to be treated with TBZ. This should result in a better TBZ treatment and some
saving in the amount of TBZ used.

Drying.--Fruit to be treated with TBZ should be washed and 'damp-dried'
before applying TBZ as a nonrecovery spray or in water wax. It is not desirable
to have fruit completely dry before TBZ application. A little moisture on the
fruit will help to spread the fungicide. Where necessary, use absorber (do-nut)
rolls to remove excess water before TBZ treatment. After TBZ is applied as a non-
recovery spray, excess water can be removed with sponge-rubber rolls if dryer
capacity is not adequate. If drying capacity is adequate, fruit can go into the
dryer without removing excess TBZ suspension. There is no danger of 'burning'
the fruit.

kifter water wax is applied, fruit should not be brushed or rolled, except
for a half turn about halfway through the dryer. Drying time will vary with
particular wax, rate of application, and weather.

Labeling.--When TBZ is used, cartons and bags must be labeled to comply with
the Food and Drug Administration regulations. A label might read: "Thiabendazole,
use as a fungicide." Thiabendazole is the generic name for TBZ which should
appear on the label. If Dowicide A or diphenyl are used, they should also be stated
on the label. Individual bags must be labeled; hence, it is not necessary to label
bagmaster cartons.

Newsletter No. 31

TBZ is the best postharvest fungicide for citrus fruit that is approved by
the Food and Drug Administration. If it is properly applied, good decay control
can be expected. Fungicides, however, can not take the place of good handling
methods from picking through packing.

Dr. John J. Smoot
Market Quality Research Division

Andrew A. McCornack
Florida Department of Citrus
Citrus Experiment Station
Lake Alfred


A tire cage built by John Miller, Shop Foreman, Mount Dora Growers,
prevented an accident from being a disaster. The tire cage was designed and
built to contain tires while they are being repaired. The case of the exploding
tire being contained and not causing an injury was reported to the April meeting
of the Florida Citrus Safety Association. It could be worth your trouble to
view Mount Dora's slightly bent tire cage, and build a similar safety device.

Will Wardowski
Extension Service
Citrus Experiment Station


Those who visited the Citrus Experiment Station in the seasons of 1964-65
and 1965-66 will probably remember seeing a very large experimental precooler on
a semi-trailer body at the back of the packinghouse. This piece of equipment
belongs to the USDA, Transportation & Facilities Research Division and was here
for cooperative studies on cooling citrus on a moving belt. The results of this
have now been published as ARS 52-40, April, 1970. (See below.)

The following is taken from the summary of this bulletin:

"Tests demonstrated that fruit in open cartons or wirebound boxes can be
effectively cooled with forced air in 30 minutes by maintaining sufficient tempera-
ture differential between the fruit surface and the airstream. During this period,
the mean mass-average temperature reduction for all types and sizes was 330 F for
fruit in open cartons and 380 F for fruit in open wirebound boxes. Closing the
containers cut the cooling rate in half for the 30-minute period. The 30 minutes
were adequate for cooling fruit in polyethylene net Vexar bags and in shrink-film
tray packs, provided the tray packs were standing on edge. In these tests, the
mass-average temperature was reduced by 400 F. A comparable reduction for fruit
in polyethylene film bags, or for fruit in shrink-film tray packs lying flat,
required 45 minutes.

May 22, 1970

Newsletter No. 31

"Size 126 and 216 'Pineapple' oranges were cooled in open 4/5-bushel wire-bound
boxes. The mass-average temperature of the larger fruit was reduced from 750 to
520 F in 30 minutes. The smaller fruit cooled to 44 in the same time, indicating
the fruit size affects the cooing rate. This effect of fruit size on cooling rate
is also demonstrated with tests of fruit in bulk. In these tests, specimen
'Valencia' oranges carried loose on the conveyor were selected at random for size
and temperature measurement at entrance and exit from the precooler. Cooling
rate was inversely related to both fruit size and duration of cooling period.
Temperature drop was greater for size 324 in 20 minutes than for size 96 in 33
minutes. The difference between cooling rate by size was found to be statistically
significant at the 5-percent level of probability for both the 20 and the 33-
minute periods.

"Because of operating conditions encountered during these tests, much of
the refrigerating effect was lost by infiltration of hot and humid ambient
air and by unusually high solar radiation.

"Although the experimental precooler performed inefficiently, test results
indicate that this concept of forced-air precooling has commercial potential for
packinghouse "in-line" precooling of citrus fruit."

Will Wardowski
Extension Service
Citrus Experiment Station


Bill Goddard, Mechanical Engineer, will transfer from Hyattsville, Maryland
to Orlando, July 1, 1970. Bill will conduct Transport Equipment Investigations
to complement the packaging and handling work currently being carried out at the
Transportation Research Branch, Transportation and Facilities Research Division,
Agricultural Research Service, USDA, 2607 N. Orange Avenue, Orlando.

Mr. Goddard has the earned reputation of being a practical "shirtsleeves"
engineer and has made several working trips to Florida since 1960, working with
Russ Hinds. Bill said that he needs objective values for the design of equipment,
and he will call on various segments of our industry for information and advice.
Mr. Goddard plans to return our cooperation with better designed refrigerated
containers (semi-trailers in this case) to insure correct commodity temperature.

We would like to take( this opportunity to welcome Bill Goddard and his
family to Florida.

Will Wardowski
Extension Service
Citrus Experiment Station

May 22, 1970

Newsletter No. 31


Available from Transportation Research Branch, ARS, USDA, 2607 N. Orange Avenue,
Orlando, Florida 32804.

"An Evaluation of Various Types of Disposable Pallets for Handling and Transporting
Florida Citrus." by J. P. Anthony, Jr., and J. A. Rebentisch, Jr., ARS 52-43.
March, 1970.

"Are Perishables too Perishable for Profit?" and "Progress on Problems in
Mechanical Refrigeration," by R. F. McKee, Pacific Fruit Express. Refrigerated
Transporter, April, 1970. pp. 36-38.

Available from Market Quality Research Division, ARS, USDA, 2120 Camden Road,
Orlando, Florida 32804.

"Degreening of Citrus Fruits in Response to Varying Levels of Oxygen and
Ethylene." by Otto L. Jahn, William G. Chace, Jr., and Randall H. Cubbedge.
Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. Vol. 94, No. 2, March, 1969.

Available from USDA, Foreign Agricultural Service, Washington, D. C. 20250.

"The Marketing Situation for Winter Citrus in Europe." FCF 2-70, April, 1970. 21 pp.

"Citrus Processing in Brazil." FAS M-215, March, 1970.

Available from Dr. Robert C. Rock, Agricultural Extension Service, Univ. of Calif.
Riverside, Calif. 92502. (Limited supplies-first come, first served.)

"A Comparison of Costs of Loading, Shipping, and Receiving California Oranges
from California to Eastern Markets by Selected Unitized Handling Methods." by
R. C. Rock, March, 1970.

"The Citrus Situation and Outlook with Special Reference to the San Joaquin Valley."
by R. C. Rock. Presentation at the Fresno County, AES, Bankers Seminar, March, 1970.

Available from Harvesting and Handling Section, P. O. Box 1088, Citrus Experiment
Station, Lake Alfred, Florida 3385Q.

"Traitements des oranges contre les Penicillium avec des formules A base de
Thiabendazole." by J. Cuill6 and L. Bur-Ravauli. Fruits d-Outre Mer, Vol. 24,
No. 9-10. 1969. pp. 421-424. We have typed on English translations for
the summary and figures.

Program for South Florida Citrus Institute, June 2 and 3, 1970. 4-H Camp
Cloverleaf, Lake Placid, Florida.

Available from three locations: Harvesting and Handling Section, Citrus Experi-
ment Station, Lake Alfred, 33850; USDA/TFRD, 102 Agricultural Engineering Building,
University of Florida, Gainesville, 32601; and Transportation and Facilities Research
Division, ARS, USDA, Federal Center Building, Hyattsville, Maryland 20782.

"Forced Air Precooling of Citrus Fruit on a Moving Conveyor." by W. Grierson,
A. H. Bennett, and E. K. Bowman. USDA, Agr. Res. Ser. ARS.52-40. April, 1970.

May 22, 1970

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