Group Title: Lake Alfred AREC Research report
Title: Packinghouse newsletter
Full Citation
Permanent Link:
 Material Information
Title: Packinghouse newsletter
Series Title: Lake Alfred AREC Research report
Alternate Title: Citrus packinghouse newsletters
Packing house newsletter
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Citrus Experiment Station (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Citrus Experiment Station (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Agricultural Research and Education Center (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Citrus Research and Education Center (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Indian River Research Education Center
Publisher: Citrus Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Lake Alfred Fla
Lake Alfred Fla
Publication Date: January 1970
Copyright Date: 1965
Frequency: irregular
completely irregular
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Harvesting -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruits -- Packing -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Additional Physical Form: Also issued on the World Wide Web.
Dates or Sequential Designation: No.1 (Sept. 1, 1965)-
Issuing Body: Issued by the Citrus Experiment Station (no. 1-38); Lake Alfred (Fla.) Agricultural Research and Education Center (no. 39-136); Lake Alfred (Fla.) Citrus Research and Education Center (no. 137-189); and the Ft. Pierce (Fla.) Indian River Research and Education Center (no. 190- ).
General Note: Title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: No. 202 (Aug. 1, 2005)
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00095555
Volume ID: VID00018
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 02430250
lccn - 2006229390

Full Text

Newsletter No. 27 Citrus Station Mimeo Report CES 70-18
SJanuary 22, 1970
750-WFW-Lake Alfred, Florida 33850

Editor: W. F. Wardowski
Harvesting and Handling Section*
s/ University of Florida
a Citrus Experiment Station
s"i IP. 0. Box 1088
Lake Alfred, Florida 33850




*Complimentary to members of the
Florida Fresh Citrus Shippers Association.
Others wishing to receive this newsletter
may send a dozen stamped, preaddressed IB m 1
envelopes to the above address. .I ,

Newsletter No. 27 Citrus Station Mimeo Report CES 70-18
January 22, 1970
750-WFW-Lake Alfred, Florida 33850

Harvesting and Handling Section



We are once again hearing the old wives' tale that frozen fruit are poisonous
and, in particular, that the white hesperidin crystals that form between the seg-
ments are poisonous. This is simply not so.

Freezing damages the cell membranes to the extent that the moisture can
evaporate from the frozen area. Immature fruit that remain on the tree may
"heal" to a marked extend, the healthy segments compressing the dried out area
into a very small space. Fruit that is mature at time of freezing cannot do this.
It will be first mushy and later have hollow areas (but without shrivelling,
because the membranes allow the water to escape freely), but it will not be


Installation of Separators

An installation in which a mechanical separator (or separators) delivers
fruit direct to the packing lines greatly decreases the out-put of the pack-
inghouse by limiting it to the volume of sound fruit being separated at any
given moment. This makes for a very expensive operation.

Packinghouses using fresh fruit bulk bins or pallet boxes should consider
running the separators independently of the packing lines. A small crew,
working long hours, can accumulate a pool of separated fruit. This "pre-
separated fruit",when run through the packinghouse, will have a very high pack-
out, ensuring a high volume of packed fruit per man-hour of operating time.

Efficiency of Frozen Fruit Separators

Three types of separators are in general use. These include two types of
water separators; one in which the fruit drops in and separation depends upon
both how deep the fruit sinks and how fast it rises; and a more common type of
water separator which delivers the fruit underwater and separation depends only
on how fast it rises. The third type of separator is the chemical or oil emul-
sion separator which uses an emulsion of oil and water whose specific gravity
is adjusted to be between that of the good fruit and the frozen fruit. In all
these, of course, separation is based on the fct that the specific gravity of
the frozen fruit is typically less than that of the non-frozen fruit.

No marked differences were found in the efficiency of these three types
of separators. Instead, the wide differences found were usually accounted
for by one or more of these three factors:

1. Convenience and ease of operation of equipment.

2. An intelligent operator giving his full attention to sampling of
fruit and adjustment of the machine.

Newsletter No. 27

3. A well-arranged sampling station convenient to both fresh and cannery
fruit lines, with the controls of the separator convenient to this
position for systematic and nearly continuous adjustment.

To make such adjustments effective, the controls should not only be
accessible from the sampling position, but should have some form of marking
(on mechanical controls) so that settings could be recorded and reused. A
great deal of bad fruit separation resulted while operators were trying to
readjust controls to a previously known position. Also, a continuous written
record should be kept. This is not only useful for management, but also
enables the operator to do a much more efficient job. For water-type sep-
arators, the control on the selector vane can be on an arc with numbered holes.
For emulsion-type separators, the hydrometer reading substitutes for a
mechanical setting position on the controls.

No one can keep accurate records without some special set-up. Fig. 1
shows a simple sampling station that is very inexpensive to make, and it will
pay for itself in a very short time. Note that it is at a position at which
both the cannery line and the packinghouse line can be sampled simultaneously.
Fruit should be taken alternately from one line or the other until a sample
(usually 10 fruit from each) has been taken. Then, when the fruit are cut
for sampling, the "cap" cut off the stem end is set aside; and when the grade
is known, it is put in the appropriat- tray. Once the samples have been all
cut, then the operator can dry his hands, count the caps, and record on his
sheet. This device is very simple, but it is extremely helpful. We urge
everybody running a separator to make such a sampling station.

A great deal of unnecessary mess, waste, and inefficiency has been observed
in the operation of emulsion separators. These can be most efficient, but we
advise the following measures. To eliminate excessive carry-over of emulsion
(which is expensive as well as messy and may be a serious fire hazard in a wood-
en house after the water has evaporated out of the oil):

1. Chutes should be made of spaced rods with trays underneath to drain
back and reclaim the emulsion.

2. Belts carrying fruit wet with emulsion should have wipers of neoprene or
similar material on the underside to wipe emulsion into a reclam-
ation system.

3. Water eliminator rolls can also be used for emulsion reclamation.

4. Reclaimed emulsion should be drained back through a strainer system,
usually the strainer at the side of the machine can be used.

5. Fruit should be thoroughly rinsed before going into the house.

6. A special warning is offered against allowing this oil emulsion to
get into any other solution, especially Dowicide A-hexamine or equiv-
alent. This could result in excessive residues of fungicides and
perhaps a fruit burn.

January 22, 1970

Newsletter No. 27

Fig. 1. Design for an efficient sampling and regulating station. "A"
Packinghouse line. "B" Eliminations. "C" Remote control on selector
vane with numbered settings. "D" Trays for tops off fruit kept as tally.
"E" Cutting board for fruit from packinghouse line. "F" Cutting board
for fruit from elimination line and sharp knife. "G" Clipboard with record
sheets. "H" Towel for operator to wipe hands before recording data. "I"
Garbage can (or cull chute) for cut fruit. "J" cupboard for supplies
(record sheets, pencils, hone for knife, etc.).

Fig. 2. An efficient apparatus for emulsion regulation.

To raise specific gravity:

1. Open only A, E, and F, pump emulsion from Y to Z.
2. Close A, E, and F, open only C, B, D, pump emulsion
from X to Y.
3. Close B and C, open A and D and separator is then on
To lower specific gravity:

1. Open only A, E, C, pump emulsion from Y to X.
2. Close A and C, open only F, B, D, pump emulsion from
Z to Y.
3. Close F and B, open A and D and separator is then on

January 22, 1970

Newsletter No. 27

Specific Gravity Control for Emulsion Systems

Probably because of the lower initial cost, oil emulsion systems are in-
creasingly common, but can be a trial if not well organized. In particular,
the system of pujmin out into barrels and then pumping in emulsion or water
is difficult to control, messy, wasteful, and inefficient. A very simple con-
trol system was devised consisting of a centrifugal pump, separate from that
used for the circulation of the emulsion, and six valves. This is shown in
Fig. 2. Note that two storage drums or two storage tanks are used, one of which
starts partially filled with the concentrated emulsion and the other starts
partially filled with water. Emulsion is pumped from Y to Z and then from
X to Y to raise specific gravity. It is pumped from Y toX, then Z to Y to
decrease specific gravity. This is done by the operator standing at the
sampling station. This "switchboard" need not be in close proximity to the
separator tank. We stress that it should be near the sampling station.

This type of set-up has been used very successfully to separate not only
frozen fruit, but also granulated 'Valencias', sunburned 'Murcotts', etc.,
thus making it possible to run crops that would otherwise have been impossible
to grade.

W. Grierson
Citrus Experiment Station

The proceeding information is reprinted from Packinghouse Newsletter No. 20,
December, 1968. Most of the observations and advice given are based on a
study published after the 1957 freeze:

"Evaluation of Mechanical Separators for Cold-Damaged Oranges", Proceedings
of the American Society of Horticultural Science. Volume 73, 1959,
Pages 278-287. W. Grierson and F. W. Hayward.

Other publications relating to freezing of citrus may be found in
Packinghouse Newsletter No. 20.



What does a Virginia potato grower do in the winter time? If his name is
Bob Morris of Townsend, Virginia, he is in Florida precooling semitrailers loaded
with citrus. Bob Morris, owner and operator of Bayside Farms, has mobile facilities
to simultaneously precool 10 trucks at present located near the intersection of
1-4 and US-27 (Cross Country Truck Stop), 8 trucks at Leesburg (All State Truck
Stop), and 4 trucks at St. Augustine (G & M Truck Broker). The original units
were obtained to cool his own potatoes at Bayside Farms. They have precooled
numerous perishable crops including peaches, cabbage, and melons. This is his
first experience with precooling of citrus.

January 22, 1970

Newsletter No. 27

The 8-arm "octopus" truck illustrated below is capable of cooling 4 semi-
trailers simultaneously. It delivers over 8,000 cubic feet of air per minute
and has a cooling capacity of 106.5 tons, which is a powerful wind and a lot of
ice. The cold air is blown through the top hoses over the load in the semi,
and air is returned through the bottom hoses back into the truck. Air entering
over the top of the fruit is maintained at 320 F for citrus, William Shepheard,
engineering consultant for Bayside Farms, pointed out that they are able to
deliver much colder air but cannot in this case becauseof possible chilling
injury to the citrus.

With 2 hours of cooling, the fruit is reduced from slightly over 700 to
slightly over 500 F. Mr. Morris claims that the secret of the operation is the
large volume of air that they force into the truck. He mentioned that they
plan to bring an additional unit to Florida this month which has the capability
of the truck in the illustration but which would cool only one semi at a time-
He emphasized that this is strictly an experimental approach and that their
hopes are to obtain faster cooling.

The temperature for optimum development of our major rots in citrus are:
Penicillium and Phomopsis, 750; Diplodia, 85. As the temperature is reduced,
growth of these fungi is slowed up. At 50 F, growth of the stem-end rots is
retarded and that of Penicillium (blue and green molds) is down to about 25% of
its maximum.

Precooling of Florida citrus has been tried many times before but never
with equipment capable of such rapid cooling. Precooling of the fruit cer-
tainly could assist in reducing the incidence of decay and increasing the
market quality. The performance of this equipment is of particular interest
in that it corroborates results from experiments at Lake Alfred and Gainesville,
a USDA bulletin on which should be available next month. Also, MRR 739 and
MRR 845 listed on the last page of this Newsletter and based on University of
Florida and USDA work is of direct interest to those interested in precooling
and refrigeration.

Will Wardowski
Extension Service
Citrus Experiment Station

January 22, 1970



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Unit ready to cool 4 trailers simultaneously.

Cooling . ....... 106. 5 tons
Air Flow . .. . . 8100 cfm
Air Pressure. . . . 24" to 52" W. G.


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Newsletter No. 27


Available from Information Office, Agricultural Research Service, U. S.
Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.

"Tests of Overseas Shipments of California Citrus Fruit--Interrelations Between
Fruit Condition, Biphenyl Content, Transit Temperature, Delayed Loading, and
Bip'enyl Pad Placement." October, 1969. G. L. Rygg. USDA. Agricultural
Research Service. MRR 830 (15 cents).

"Overseas Shipping Tests of California Citrus on Pallets and in Containers--
Interrelations Between Transit, Temperatures, Biphenyl Pad Placement,
Biphenyl Content, and Fruit Condition." October, 1969. G. L. Rygg. USDA.
Agricultural Research Service. MRR 857 (20 cents).

"Biphenyl Residues in Oranges: Effect of Biphenyl Dosage and Pad Placement."
August, 1968. Shirley Norman, G. L. Rygg, and D. C. Fouse. USDA. Agricultural
Research Service. ARS 51-26. ARS 51-26 does not appear to have a price.

"Biphenyl Residues. Decay and Soilage in Oranges. Effect of Carton Ventings,
Barriers, and Biphenyl Dcsages During Storage." Ncvember, 1969. Shirley Norman,
C. C. Craft, D. C. Rouse, and G. L. Rygg. USDA. Agricultural Research Service.
MRR 853 (20 cents).

"Experimental Forced-Air Precooling of Florida Citrus Fruit." May, 1969.
James Soule, University of Florida and A. H. Bennett, TFRD, ARS, USDA. MRR 845
(25 cents). (We have a few free copies--first come, first served. Editor).

"Factors Affecting the Quality of Grapefruit Expor..ed from Florida." March, 1966.
W. G. Chace, Jr., P. L. Harding, J. J. Smoot, and R. H. Cubbedge. USDA,
Agricultural Research Service. MRR 739. (15 cents).

Available from Harvesting and Handling Section, Citrus Experiment Station

"Four Years of Abscission Studies on Oranges." Florida Agricultural Experiment
StatiomJournal Series No. 3388. Vol. 82, 1969. A mimeograph of paper

"Changes in Produce Packaging in a Changing Marketing System." by Donald R.
Stokes. USDA, ARS. This is one paper from a symposium on Produce Packaging
sponsored by the American Society for Horticultural Science. August 20, 1969.

January 22, 1970

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