Group Title: Lake Alfred AREC Research report
Title: Packinghouse newsletter
Full Citation
Permanent Link:
 Material Information
Title: Packinghouse newsletter
Series Title: Lake Alfred AREC Research report
Alternate Title: Citrus packinghouse newsletters
Packing house newsletter
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Citrus Experiment Station (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Citrus Experiment Station (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Agricultural Research and Education Center (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Citrus Research and Education Center (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Indian River Research Education Center
Publisher: Citrus Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Lake Alfred Fla
Lake Alfred Fla
Publication Date: October 1969
Copyright Date: 1965
Frequency: irregular
completely irregular
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Harvesting -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruits -- Packing -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Additional Physical Form: Also issued on the World Wide Web.
Dates or Sequential Designation: No.1 (Sept. 1, 1965)-
Issuing Body: Issued by the Citrus Experiment Station (no. 1-38); Lake Alfred (Fla.) Agricultural Research and Education Center (no. 39-136); Lake Alfred (Fla.) Citrus Research and Education Center (no. 137-189); and the Ft. Pierce (Fla.) Indian River Research and Education Center (no. 190- ).
General Note: Title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: No. 202 (Aug. 1, 2005)
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00095555
Volume ID: VID00016
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 02430250
lccn - 2006229390

Full Text
Neletter No. 25
EsNetsletter No. 25

Citrus Station Mimeo Report CES 70-8
October 13, 1969
650-WFW-Lake Alfred, Florida

Editor: W. F. Wardowski
Harvesting and Handling Section*
University of Florida
Citrus Experiment Station
P. 0. Box 1088
Lake Alfred, Florida 33850




*Complimentary to members of the
Florida Fresh Citrus Shippers Association.
Others wishing to receive this newsletter
may send a dozen stamped, preaddressed
envelopes to the above address.

Ackli k

Newsletter No. 25 (*-*)
Citrus Station Mimeo Report CES 70-8
October 13, 1969
650-WFW-Lake Alfred, Florida 33850

Harvesting and Handling Section



The objectives, policies, and format of this publication will be consistent
to that in the past. A review of some points is in order for new recipients
of the Packinghouse Newsletter.

The Newsletter is specifically concerned with harvesting, packing and shipping
of fresh citrus fruit, and supplements information available in trade journals
within the Florida citrus industry. It has the advantage of no space limitations
and not having publication deadlines when the subject matter is urgent to the

The development of a considerable mailing list would be an unreasonable load
on our hard-working secretarial office. This is being avoided by supplying
agencies, such as the Florida Fresh Citrus Shippers Association, with copies
to mail out to their memberships. Others who wish to receive this Newsletter
can do so by sending in a supply of stamped and self-addressed envelopes. Noti-
fication is given when the last envelope is used.

Subject matter will be drawn from any source which has information pertinent
to the industry. Subject matter will include:

1. Emergency information: as when a critical period of decay or peel
injury is observed to be developing.

2. Information about current research programs in which cooperators are
needed or in which "information to date" may be useful to the industry,
even though the program is not ready to be closed out and and published
as a bulletin, circular, or scientific paper.

3. Reviews of topics of general interest.

4. Recommended procedures and pesticides as related to harvesting and
handling. This issue, for example, includes a review on degreening
during a wet fall.

In order to avoid the problem of having to say something when we have nothing
to say, we do not plan any definite schedule. The Newsletter will be issued when
we have something to pass on that might be of value. Between whiles, we hope
to be like Brer Rabbit and "lie low and say nuthin'"

W. Wardowski
Assistant Horticulturist
Extension Service

SNewsletter No. 25


This is the first year for several years that we have started the season
with very poor degreening conditions. Degreening is bound to be difficult when
the summer is moist,and the trees are putting out flushes of growth after mid-
summer. We have already had a number of calls about degreening rooms that
mysteriously fail to work, although they ran well in previous seasons. This is
almost certainly due to differences in the fruit, not to failure of the room or
the operator. A wet summer and fall makes for difficult degreening conditions,
especially in crops from groves that have had a high rate of nitrogen or nitrogen
applied late in the season. In general, degreening recommendations remain exactly
as stated by Andy McCornack in Packinghouse Newsletter No. 18, November, 1968.
(If you do not have this, let us know; and we can send you one.) However, parti-
cular attention should be given to several points listed below.

Fruit Blemishes

Oleocellosis (oil spotting) can be expected to be severe when wet fruit are
roughly handled. The oil cells are prominent on wet, turgid fruit and, hence,
easily broken. Not only does this cause the black blemish known as oleocellosis,
but the broken oil cells are a favorite point for entry of green mold (Penicillium)
and other decay organisms. In wet weather, every effort should be made to enforce
gentle handling by the pickers. Boxes should be lightly filled, and handling
wet fruit should be kept to a minimum.

"Ring burns" sometimes occur at the points of contact between wet fruit
held in the degreening rooms. There is a wide-spread belief that this is due to
ethylene dissolving in the water on the fruit. This is not correct. The ring
burns are formed when some soluble form of deposit on the fruit is dissolved, and
the solution runs together and concentrates at the points of contact. It never
happens with clean fruit and only occasionally with dirty fruit. We have been
unable to determine which type of deposit on the fruit is particularly responsible.
Fruit having heavy deposits of fertilizer dust, spray residues, etc. may develop
blotchy areas even where the fruit are not in contact. It makes no difference
at all whether the ethylene is turned on or not. Once you have received wet,
dirty fruit, there is little that you can do about it. About the best advice is
to turn the ethylene on, start degreening, and pray.

Sloughing of red and pink grapefruit has not been seen for several years.
We believe that this is due to a happy combination of raised maturity standards
for grapefruit and a succession of seasons with dry weather in the late summer
and fall. When it occurs, it is a very treacherous and expensive trouble. Several
days after picking, just enough to get the crop on its way to market, areas of
the fruit turn chocolate brown and moist and can be slipped off the fruit under
light finger pressure. This is a physiological disease, and we believe that is
due to an immature condition in the peel after "internal quality" has reached
picking standards. It always disappears from the grove within a few days, and
we suggest cautious test pickings in groves of red grapefruit with a known past
history of sloughing.

Zebra skin of tangerines is one condition that should be very much less
likely to occur in a season such as this.


October 13, 1969

SNewsletter No. 25

'Robinson' Tangerines

A special word of warning is offered with regard to this valuable, new
fruit. It is very susceptible indeed to several fungi, including anthrachnose
(Colletotrichum), which does not usually cause fruit decay. 'Robinsons' should
never be held in the degreening room for longer than 36 hours. They should not
be picked until showing an orange color break. Small samples should be test
degreened to make sure that large quantities are not picked until 36-hour
degreening is possible. After packing, they should be refrigerated as promptly
as possible.


'Temples' are the only citrus fruit known to the writer that show a true
ethylene burn in serious amounts. This is a very treacherous thing appearing at
any time up to 2 weeks after leaving the degreening room and causing large areas
of fruit surface to darken. When this occurs (all crops are not susceptible),
the amount of the damage is proportional to both time in the degreening room
and the amount of ethylene used. It is the writer's opinion that 'Temples' should
not be degreened. However, when they are being degreened, ethylene should be
kept to the minimum (not much over one ppm); and the degreening period should
be as short as possible.

Loading Degreening Rooms

Except for our latest design for degreening rooms using horizontal air
movement in pallet box rooms (see Packinghouse Newsletter No. 5), slow degreening
will be severely aggravated by overloading of the rooms. Particularly in rooms
having minimal air circulation, be sure to leave ample space around the walls in
order to get the best circulation possible. Overloading degreening rooms having
barely enough fan capacity can be very costly, not only in terms of the delay in
packing, but because the extra degreening time in this type of weather is apt
to cause very severe losses from Diplodia stem-end rot.


Most of this has been covered in Bulletin No. 681, September, 1964, "Better
Handling of Florida's Fresh Citrus Fruit." We have copies available for anyone
who needs them.

Attention is drawn to the fact that color prints and descriptions of most
types of citrus diseases, insects, etc. (including most of those described above)
can be seen in the hard-cover book "Florida Guide to Citrus Insects, Diseases,
and Nutritional Disorders in Color," edited by Robert M. Pratt. This book is for
sale and available from the Experiment Station for $4.00 plus $.16 sales tax (plus
postage if outside of the USA). It is well worth the money.

W. Grierson
Professor (Horticulturist)
Citrus Experiment Station

October 13, 1969

Newsletter No. 25


Dr. W. L. Kilian, Merck Sharp & Dohme International, provided the following
information about residue tolerances of TBZ outside of the U.S.A. which supersedes
previous lists.

"Citrus fruit treated with thiabendazole can be shipped into Denmark, Sweden,
Norway West Germany, Holland, Canada, Switzerland, Austria, Brazil, Mexico, and
Australia under the 2 ppm tolerance."

"France allows citrus importation at 3 ppm tolerance level, and Italy's
approval is pending also at the 3 ppm level."


The University's annual DARE (Developing Agricultural Resources Effectively)
meeting has been scheduled for October 29-30. The conference will be devoted
primarily to reports from committees on developmental problems and opportunities
seen through 1980.

The conference, open to all those interested in Florida agriculture, will
be held in the auditorium of the J. Hillis Miller Medical Center. The banquet
will be held in the J. Wayne Reitz Union.


For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office,
Washington, D.C. 20402 (price, $.25).

"Experimental Forced-Air Precooling of Florida Citrus Fruit," May, 1969.
Marketing Research Report No. 845. Agricultural Research Service, USDA.

Available from the Harvesting and Handling Section, Citrus Experiment Station.

Abstracts of talks, Eighth Annual Packinghouse Day, September 3, 1969.

"Florida Guide to Citrus Insects, Diseases and Nutritional Disorders in Color,"
April, 1958. Agricultural Experiment Station, Gainesville, Florida. Edited by
Robert M. Pratt. $4.00 plus $.16 sales tax (plus postage if outside of the USA).

October 13, 1969

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