Group Title: Lake Alfred AREC Research report
Title: Packinghouse newsletter
Full Citation
Permanent Link:
 Material Information
Title: Packinghouse newsletter
Series Title: Lake Alfred AREC Research report
Alternate Title: Citrus packinghouse newsletters
Packing house newsletter
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Citrus Experiment Station (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Citrus Experiment Station (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Agricultural Research and Education Center (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Citrus Research and Education Center (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Indian River Research Education Center
Publisher: Citrus Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Lake Alfred Fla
Lake Alfred Fla
Publication Date: August 1969
Copyright Date: 1965
Frequency: irregular
completely irregular
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Harvesting -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruits -- Packing -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Additional Physical Form: Also issued on the World Wide Web.
Dates or Sequential Designation: No.1 (Sept. 1, 1965)-
Issuing Body: Issued by the Citrus Experiment Station (no. 1-38); Lake Alfred (Fla.) Agricultural Research and Education Center (no. 39-136); Lake Alfred (Fla.) Citrus Research and Education Center (no. 137-189); and the Ft. Pierce (Fla.) Indian River Research and Education Center (no. 190- ).
General Note: Title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: No. 202 (Aug. 1, 2005)
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00095555
Volume ID: VID00015
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 02430250
lccn - 2006229390

Full Text

Citrus Station Mimeo Report CES 70-4
August 11, 1969
S' 650-WFW-Lake Alfred, Florida

Editor: W. F. Wardowski
Harvesting and Handling Section*
SUniversity of Florida
Citrus Experiment Station
P. O. Box 1088
Lake Alfred, Florida 33850




SU .,. L BARY.. s
~~~~~~~"' "~~-------

..... Thiv. c-i. Floi., iP

*Complimentary to members of the P4 WI
Florida Fresh Citrus Shippers Association.
Others wishing to receive this newsletter P6ai
may send a dozen stamped, preaddressed f Na -1i
envelopes to the above address. Xr ,

Newsletter No. 24 (-
Citrus Station Mimeo Report CES 70-4
August 11, 1969
650-WFW-Lake Alfred, Florida 33850

Harvesting and Handling Section



We have been receiving a number of calls inquiring as to the advisability
of using a wax containing Dowicide A in order to control stylar-end breakdown
of limes. This starts as a physiological disorder and we know of no experi-
mental work to indicate that a Dowicide wax would be helpful. Various research
results indicate that 2,4-D may be helpful in both maintaining green color and
reducing breakdown. Wax formulations containing 2,4-D are commercially avail-
able and there is a 5 ppm tolerance for residue of 2,4-D on citrus fruits
(including limes).

It is emphasized that when limes are susceptible to stylar-end breakdown
(which coincides approximately with the rainy season) merely bumping a sound
lime on the stylar end can cause the onset of stylar-end breakdown. This is
particularly true with early morning pickings.

If you wish Xerox copies of research papers relating to the above comments,
write to Dr. Wardowski, Editor of this Newsletter.

Carl W. Campbell
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station
W. Grierson
Citrus Experiment Station.


Because of the keen interest in shipping palletized containers of fresh
citrus fruit, preliminary information is given concerning steps being taken
in Florida in the early use of this method of shipment.

In some cases, the specially equipped lift truck required for working
with slip-sheet-type pallets has been purchased; in others, lift trucks already
in use have been equipped with the needed mechanism for handling the slip-sheet

One of the major points of concern has been a pattern for placing bagmaster
containers on pallets that will allow proper air movement and still permit load-
ing a semitrailer with a sufficient number of bagmasters to give economical
transportation cost. Representatives of the Transportation Research Branch,
Transportation and Facilities Research Division, Agricultural Research Service,
U. S. Department of Agriculture, have been working on development of patterns
and assisting shippers in making test shipments. A pattern was developed for
using 40- x 52-inch corrugated fiberboard slip sheets, with a 40- x 48-inch
loading surface, which permitted a load of 828 bagmasters in a trailer. Eight

Newsletter No. 24

hundred is considered the minimum number desirable in a load. Containers pro-
jected 1/4 inch beyond one end (opposite the pull tab) and 1-1/8 inch beyond
pallet edges on each side.

At one packinghouse which uses the above-mentioned pattern, loading in the
trailer is actually in two tiers; that is, one slip-sheet pallet on the floor of
the trailer carries 26 bagmasters, and another slip-sheet pallet on top of this
carries 20 bagmasters, making up a unit of 46 containers. Eighteen of these
two-tiered units are placed in the trailer. No glue or adhesive material is
placed between the layers of cartons. One turn of a high-strength tape is
placed around the top layer of the completed two-tiered unit. The management
at this packinghouse feels that tiering contributes considerably to the stability
of the unit load as a whole, because one slip sheet is at an intermediate point
relative to the full height of the load. Results from shipping-point examination
by the receiver have indicated that this load arrangement carries well and the
product arrives in good condition.

The standard 4/5-bushel carton, because of its dimensions, could be fitted
into a unitizing pattern for slip sheets to give better than the minimum number
desired for a trailer load. In trial operations, pallet patterns have contained
54 cartons, or 972 cartons per 18-pallet load, without an "intermediate" pallet
as was used for the bagmaster palletizing.

Thus far, nothing has been done in Florida citrus packinghouses to mechanize
the palletizing of containers. However, the labor costs are reduced through the
elimination of manual handling of containers. The elimination of manual handling
of containers in the shipping vehicle results in a saving in labor of approxi-
mately 0.113 man-hours per ton, or 2 man-hours per trailer load of 18 pallet
units. At the destination, the manual handling involved in placing individual
containers onto pallets is eliminated, giving a labor saving of approximately the
same amount per load (2 man-hours) as at the shipping point. In addition,
the time required for handling empty pallets of the conventional type is saved
at both the shipping and receiving points, though a value for the time saved is
not currently available.

Trial operations have indicated the following additional cost effects of
using corrugated fiberboard slip sheets:

1. The lift truck with equipment for handling slip-sheet pallets
costs approximately $12,000.

2. Adding equipment for handling slip-sheet pallets to an existing
forklift truck of 4000-pound capacity costs about $4,000 to $5,000,
including side shifter.

3. The 40- x 48-inch (loading surface) slip sheets of corrugated
fiberboard cost about 25 cents each.

4. The cost of the high-strength tape is about $2.00 per trailer load.

2/ Marketing Research Report No. 478 "Receiving Fruits and Vegetables
in Wholesale Warehouses" Transportation and Facilities Research Division,
Agricultural Marketing Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture.

August 11, 1969

Newsletter No. 24

5. The bagmaster box may have to be strengthened by heavier stock, in
the lid only, to withstand the vertical pressure in a unit load of
46 bagmasters, which would increase the cost by 2 to 3 cents per

The slip-sheet type is the lowest in cost of the expendable pallets, though
it requires more expensive lift truck equipment than a type of expendable pallet
that can be used with regular forks on the lift truck.

When too many different kinds of fruit in small quantities must go into
one trailer, difficulty arises in using the palletized method of shipment, be-
cause some small-quantity items may not fill one pallet with the given item.

Earl K. Bowman, Industrial Engineer
Transportation and Facilities Research
Division, Agricultural Research
Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture.


We are indebted to Mrs. Brenda Hawarah, Secretary, Citrus Experiment Station
for the preparation of our new cover and wish to thank her for her talented


Attention is drawn to the fact that not only do we have a new cover (courtesy
of Mrs. Brenda Hawarah in our Secretarial Office) but our "masthead" now includes
an editor--Dr. W. F. Wardowski. Will Wardowski is a member of the Florida Agri-
cultural Extension Service and a member of the Harvesting and Handling Section
at Lake Alfred. To the best of our knowledge he is the first Extension Specialist
in the field of postharvest handling of fruits.

He comes to us from Michigan where he grew up on a fruit farm and took his
doctorate at Michigan State. Later, he covered a six-state midwestern territory
for the Upjohn Company advising on the use of their agricultural chemicals.

In time, Will Wardowski will come to handle the greater part of our extension
activities. As a starter, please write to him for all publications mentioned in
this Newsletter; and on routine phone calls, ask for him if you cannot get the
staff member with whom you are used to dealing.

W. Grierson
Citrus Experiment Station.


Wednesday, September 3, 1969
Auditorium, Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred
10:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m.
Mark your calendars for a fact-filled program to begin your 69-70 season on
the right foot. All interested parties are welcome.

August 11, 1969

Newsletter No. 24


Available from the Harvesting and Handling Section, Citrus Experiment Station

"Use of Benzimidazoles for Control of Fungi in Peel Cultures of Citrus Fruits".
Winter 1968. M. F. Oberbacher and G. Eldon Brown, HortScience, Vol.3(4).

"Phsoderma c ~tri in Citrus Albedo and Callus Tissue",Feb. 1969. G. Eldon Brown
and M. F. Oberbacher, Phytopathology, Vol.59, No. 2, 241-242.

"Legal Maturity of 'Temple' Oranges as Influenced by Lead Arsenate Sprays",
Summer 1969. R. L. Reese and G. Eldon Brown, HortScience Vol.4(2).

Available from USDA, TFRD, 2520 N. Orange Avenue, Orlando, Florida 32804

"Feasibility of Shipping 'Temple' Oranges in Plastic-Cell Tray-Pack Fiberboard
Boxes", July 1969. Philip W. Hale, et. al., TFRD, ARS, USDA, ARS 52-35.

August 11, 1969

in cooperation with


Wednesday, September 3, 1969 at the Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred, Florida.

NOTE: Box lunches will be served. Visitors wishing lunch (except program
participants) please purchase tickets immediately upon arrival in
order that a lunch can be ordered for you.


10:00 Welcome Dr. Herman J. Reitz, Horticulturist and Head, University
of Florida, Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred, Florida, 33850.

10:05 Dr. John A. Attaway, Scientific Research Director, Florida Citrus
Introduction of staff members of the Harvesting and Handling Section.

Brief summary reports on research results and industry developments.
(Approximately 10 minutes per speaker).

10:20 More Dollars per Acre via Fresh Fruit

Bob Bullock, Indian River Field Laboratory, Fort Pierce.
"More Dollars per Acre Begins with a Good Spray Program"

Gene Albrigo, Citrus Experiment Station.
"Research Toward Better External Quality"

Leo Polopolus, Department of Agricultural Economics, University
of Florida, Gainesville.
"Optimum Orange Packing Locations for Florida"

Chuck Covey, Department of Agricultural Economics, University
of Florida, Gainesville.
"Profits Must Result from Intelligent Marketing"

Bill Grierson, Citrus Experiment Station.
"Which Pays Best? Fresh Fruit or Cannery?"

11:10 Chemical Fruit Looseners

Jim Fisher, Florida Citrus Commission.
"Uptake and Distribution of Cycloheximide in the Orange"

Mohamed Ismail, Florida Citrus Commission.
"How to Loosen Fruit but Not Leaves"

Bill Wilson, Florida Citrus Commission.
"Prospects for Abscission Chemicals on Fresh Fruit"

Program for Eighth Annual Packinghouse Day


11:40 New Fungicide Developments

Eldon Brown, Florida Citrus Commission.
"Preharvest Treatments for Postharvest Disease Control"

Andy McCornack, Florida Citrus Commission.
"Effective Application of TBZ"

John Smoot, Market Quality Research Division, USDA, Orlando.
"Shipping Tests with TBZ"


12:10 Box lunches will be served in the cannery or on the grounds depending
on the weather.

1:00 Photoelectric Sorting

Jerry Gaffney, Transportation and Facilities Research Division,
USDA, Gainesville.
"Development of Equipment for Photoelectric Sorting of Citrus
Fruits for Defects"

1:10 Fruit Storage

Andy McCornack, Florida Citrus Commission.
"Suggestions for Storage of Citrus"

Don Phillips, Certi-Fine Fruit Company, Ocoee.
"Cold Storage as an Aid to Marketing"

Will Wardowski, Citrus Experiment Station.
"Grapefruit Halves--The 'Seedless Duncan'"

1:50 Turn meeting over to Tom Brandon, President, Florida Fresh Citrus
Shippers Association.

2:00 Business Meeting: Florida Fresh Citrus Shippers Association. (This
is a private meeting, not open to the general public).

2:10 Meeting of research workers (University of Florida, Florida Citrus
Commission, Florida Department of Agriculture,and U. S. Department
of Agriculture) in the new Research Laboratory Building. This is
across the road, north of the Production Building.

Page 2

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