Group Title: Lake Alfred AREC Research report
Title: Packinghouse newsletter
Full Citation
Permanent Link:
 Material Information
Title: Packinghouse newsletter
Series Title: Lake Alfred AREC Research report
Alternate Title: Citrus packinghouse newsletters
Packing house newsletter
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Citrus Experiment Station (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Citrus Experiment Station (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Agricultural Research and Education Center (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Citrus Research and Education Center (Lake Alfred, Fla.)
Indian River Research Education Center
Publisher: Citrus Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Lake Alfred Fla
Lake Alfred Fla
Publication Date: November 1968
Copyright Date: 1965
Frequency: irregular
completely irregular
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Harvesting -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruits -- Packing -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Additional Physical Form: Also issued on the World Wide Web.
Dates or Sequential Designation: No.1 (Sept. 1, 1965)-
Issuing Body: Issued by the Citrus Experiment Station (no. 1-38); Lake Alfred (Fla.) Agricultural Research and Education Center (no. 39-136); Lake Alfred (Fla.) Citrus Research and Education Center (no. 137-189); and the Ft. Pierce (Fla.) Indian River Research and Education Center (no. 190- ).
General Note: Title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: No. 202 (Aug. 1, 2005)
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00095555
Volume ID: VID00009
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 02430250
lccn - 2006229390

Full Text




Harvesting and Handling Section
University of Florida
Citrus Experiment Station
P.O. Box 1088
Lake Alfred, Florida, 33850
(Complimentary to members of the Florida Fresh Citrus Shippers Association.
Others wishing to receive this newsletter, send a dozen stamped preaddressed
envelopes to the above address.)

Citrus Station Mimeo Report CES 69-14
November 18, 1968
650-WG-Lake Alfred, Florida

Newsletter No. 18 (*-*)
Citrus Station Mimeo Report CES 69-14
November 18, 1968
650-WG-Lake Alfred, Florida

Harvesting and Handling Section



With the start of a new season it seems well to review some general
principles for merchandising Florida citrus fruit from tree to consumer with
minimum losses and maximum profits. These fruits are alive, breathing and
subject to diseases like any other living organism. They are grown and shipped
to make money, which they can do most effectively only if handled properly.


1. Reduce time between picking and waxing to the absolute minimum. An
extra hour under drying conditions between tree and waxer may mean a day off
the life span of an orange.

2. Until waxed, fruit should be kept in shade, if out doors, and in high
humidity, if indoors.

3. Follow recommended procedures for fungicide applications. Remember
that residue analyses are proof that a fungicide has been used, but the fungicide
residue does not relate directly to degree of decay control. (See Packinghouse
Newsletters Nos. 13, Jan. 68 and 15, June 68)#

4. Follow recommended degreening procedures carefully (See below).

5. Do not overfill shipping containers. This is a major cause of mechanical
damage and consequent decay.

6. If packing in polyethylene bags use large hole bags (150 4-inch holes)
and ventilated cartons.

7. Ship promptly. Specialty fruits should be refrigerated. Oranges benefit
from refrigeration down to 36-40o F. Early grapefruit may suffer severe peel
injury from refrigeration temperatures below 50 F.

8. Brace "piggy-back" loads for backward shifting. Conventional truck
loading allows only for forward and lateral shifting. "Piggys" often travel
backwards and severe damage to the load occurs when not braced against movement
towards the rear of the truck.


1. In handling bagged citrus, understand how and when precipitation of
moisture occurs. When warm packed fruit is put into refrigerated conditions,
moisture migrates out of the package and precipitation does not occur. When
packages are moved out of refrigerated conditions, moisture moves into the package
and will not evaporate until after the bags are removed from the cartons---and
then only very slowly unless the bags are extremely well ventilated. (As far as

No. 18 November 18, 1968

Florida citrus is concerned, poly bags are only useful to hold the holes

2. In-store or terminal market consumer packaging.

a. Use maximum package ventilation. Bags should be large-hole type
or net. Film-wrapped tray packs should be open-end sleeve packs or should use
perforated film.

b. Packaging, returning to refrigerated storage, and then out again
to store conditions invites condensation problems. If this is done, use wire
baskets or open crates as master containers if possible.

c. Specialty fruits (tangerines, Temples, tangelos, Murcotts) have
limited display life without refrigeration. Do not pre-package too far ahead.
Keep displays shallow in depth to ensure rapid turn over. If oranges and grape-
fruit are handled as advised, they should keep well enough to justify large
displays. They are NOT, however, "hardware items".

3. Wholesalers and retailers experiencing problems iith keeping quality
of Florida fruit are urged to communicate with the nearest Florida Citrus
Commission merchandising representative. They are our "eyes and ears" in the
market place. If they cannot alert us to current problems, we cannot help
solve them.


Degreening, although necessary at times because the edible portion of the
fruit is mature before the peel develops the characteristic color for the variety,
tends to impair keeping quality. Degreening with ethylene removes the green
color, but does not add color to the fruit. Degreen as short a time as possible.
Ethylene increases the respiration rate of the fruit, resulting in a shorter
shelf life.

Temperature. Fastest degreening occurs at about 850 F. Florida Citrus
Commission Regulation 105-1.13 states, "The temperature of the coloring-room
or enclosure containing fruit which are in the process of being degreened, shall
be so controlled and regulated that the temperature of said coloring-room or
enclosure shall at no time be allowed to exceed 85 degrees Fahrenheit by the
application of heat, except when the added heat comes from steam released into
the atmosphere to increase humidity."

Ethylene Concentration. When using the bubble system of applying ethylene,
use approximately 1 bubble for every 10 field box capacity of the room. Ethylene
applicators should be adjusted so the concentration of ethylene within the room
is between 1 and 5 ppm. (If ethylene is a little high, increase ventilation
rather than cutting back on ethylene delivery).

Humidity. Maintain the humidity in degreening roomsaat 88% to 92% relative
humidity. With a good air movement over the thermometer bulbs, this is a 2 to 3
degree spread between the wet and dry bulb thermometers. (If air movement around
the thermometers is poor use a 1 to 2 degree spread). Maintain humidity by
addition of steam when required.


No. 18 November 18, 1968

Oil spotting (oleocellosis) of navels and Parson Brown oranges can be held
-to a minimum by holding the humidity higher (1 to 2 degree spread). Moisture
on the fruit will not delay degreening of these varieties. Grapefruit, however,
will not degree well when wet or moist.

Humidity control is essential during degreening. This is particularly so
when outside conditions are cold or dry. If citrus fruit is degreened at lower
humidity than recommended, the following things usually happen:

1. Decay increases.

2. Stem-end rind breakdown develops.

3. Fruit becomes soft.

4. There will be a decrease in average size.

Ventilation. Addition of fresh air during degreening is essential to
prevent delay in degreening due to a buildup of carbon dioxide (which is given
off by the fruit during degreening). This is best done by having a small, but
constant, intake of fresh air into each degreening room. This should amount to
about one complete change of air in the room per hour. Do not ventilate rooms
by opening doors or curtains as this lowers the temperature, the ethylene con-
centration and humidity level are lost, and condensation on the fruit may occur.
Not only is time lost until optimum degreening conditions are restored, but an
unnecessary and unhelpful labor cost is involved.

A.A. McCornack
Florida Citrus Commission

Special Warning on Robinson Tangerines

Correctly handled, Robinsons can give almost 100% pack-outs. However,
disastrous losses have been encountered by ignoring these two important rules:

1. Do not pick without an orange color break.

2. Do not degree over 36 hdurs.

It is not "practical" to ignore these two rules. Robinsons without a color
break degree to a pale yellow that does not make grade. This variety is sus-
ceptible to a form of decay (Colletotrichum or anthracnosee") that hardly bothers
other varieties, but can almost wipe out Robinson tangerines degreened for periods
in excess of 36 hours.


Available from the Harvesting and Handling Section, C.E.S.

"Thiabendazole, an Experimental Fungicide for Fresh Citrus Fruit", 1967.
A.A. McCornack and G. Eldon Brown. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 80: 232-237.

"Experimental fungicides applied preharvest for control of postharvest decay
in Florida citrus fruit, 1968. G. Eldon Brown. Plant Disease Reporter, 52:

No. 18 November 18, 1968

"Chemical Abscission Studies of Citrus Fruit", 1967. W.C. Wilson. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 80: 227:231.

"Anatomical and Histochemical Studies of Abscission of Oranges", 1968. W.C, Wilson.
and C.H. Hendershott. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 92: 203-210.

"Citrus Tissue Culture as a means of Studying the Metabolism of Carotenoids and
Chlorophyll", 1967. M.F. Oberbacher. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 80: 254-257.

"Simulated Marketing Tests with Prepackaged Citrus", 1967. W. Grierson and
F.W. Hayward. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 80: 237-241.

"Harvesting and Market Preparation Techniques for Florida Lemons", 1968.
W. Grierson. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 92: 797-806.

"Respiration, Internal Atmosphere, and Ethylene Evolution of Citrus Fruit", 1968.
H.M. Vines, W. Grierson, and G.J. Edwards, 1968. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci.
92: 227-234.

"A Colormetric Method for 2-Aminobutane and its Applications", 1967. F.W. Hayward
and W. Grierson. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 80: 305-308.

"Studies on the Aroma of Intact Hamlin Oranges", 1968. John A. Attaway and
M.F. Oberbacher. Journal of Food Science, 33: 287-289.

Available from Agricultural Publications, University Hall, University of
California, Berkely, California, 94720:

"California Oranges: Acreages and Production Trends, Costs, and Returns", 1968.
Robert C. Rock and Robert G. Platt. University of California Agri. Ext. Service
Pamphlet AXT-237.

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