Group Title: Historic St. Augustine: Cubo Line - City Gates
Title: [Research report re: Cuba Line with notes]
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 Material Information
Title: Research report re: Cuba Line with notes
Series Title: Historic St. Augustine: Cubo Line - City Gates
Physical Description: Report
Language: English
Physical Location:
Box: 8
Divider: Cubo Line - City Gates
Folder: Cubo Line - City Gates
Subject: Saint Augustine (Fla.)
Cubo Line (Saint Augustine, Fla.)
City Gates (Saint Augustine, Fla.)
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida -- Saint Johns -- Saint Augustine
Coordinates: 29.897892 x -81.313605
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00095515
Volume ID: VID00007
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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Pablo Castello,"Plano del Presidio de Sn. Austin de la Florida y sus
Contornos situado en el continent de la Anerica del Norte, en los
30 gS. f~. mins. de latd., el cual con sus Dependencias se entrego
a S. M. -. en 21 de Julio de 1763 por el Articulo 19 de la Paz de
Fontainebleau,'in Verne E. Chatelain, The Defenses of Spanish Florida
1565 to 1763 (Washington: 1941), map 13.
Jeanette T. Connor, "The Nine Old Wooden Forts of St. Augustine," The
Florida Historical Quarterly, IV, No. 3 (January, 1926), 103f, and
IV, No. h (April, 1926), 171 ff; L. A. Vigneras, "FortificaCiones de
la Florida," Anuario de Estudios Americanos, XVI (1959), 533-552.

3Herbert E. Bolton, Arredondo's Historical Proof of Spain's Title to
Georgia (Berkeley: 1925), 28-35; Albert C. Manucy, The Building of
Castillo de San Marcos (Washington: 1942), 1-8.

4Chatelain, op. cit., 50.

5Manucy, op. cit., 1-2.

Royal officials of Florida to the crown, St. Augustine, March 4, 1686,
Archivo General de Indias $h-$-12/32, --f6t photostatt in Stetson
Collection, P. K. Yonge Library of Florida History, University of
Florida, li rcfiln t ...... 3.

The Early Cubo Line, 1704-1738

Charles W. Arnade, The Sie;e of St. Augustine in 1702 (Gainesville:
1959), 5, 22, 26, 27, 35, 37, 39-h0, 55, 57.

81bid., 3.

The provincia.1, fathers, and difinidores of Florida to the crown,
St. Augustine, August 17, 1685, AGI 54-5-12/29, 14 f(j photostatt in
Spanish Records 1566-1802, North Carolina Alistorical Commission, ~ifr
a-4t'4 a 4 0-6, complaining that Governor Juan Marquez Cabrera did
not take any action when heathen Indians, aided and armed by the English,
burned and sacked the village and mission of Santa Catalina de Afuica

in Timucua Province on March 10, 1685.

10Acuerdo sobre los fortines, San Agustin, 8 de junio de 1704, in
"Demanda puesta por los Sefores Jueces Oficiales de la Real Hacienda
contra el Excmo. Sefor Maestro de Campo General Don Jose de Zuiiga
y la Cerda, gobernador de Cartagena, sobre diferentes capitulos y
cargos,"San Agustin, 1707, AGI 58-2-8, b b- (Stetson, er (ees
ae49), 307. ,

11Governor Francisco de Corcoles y Martinez of Florida to the crown,
St. Augustine, September 30, 1706, AGI 58-1-27/98, 4- (NC,-&Er-+,,

12Junta de guerra, San Agustin,,26, de-e tubre-de 1705, in Viceroy of New
Spain to the crown, Mexico, June 6, 1706, AGI 58-2-7/;, .~6 (NC
Stetson, .a..-ae 118-119.
13au,,rn.- .Franeis- _d C'rcoles y- Mhartinse F or to State Ministry
Secretary Manuel de Aperregui, Florida, May 3, 1706, AGI 58-1-27/86,
L--"" Corcoles to the crown, September 30, 1706, AGI 58-1-27/98, 1. sC

1English-led heathen Indians fell upon the mission of Ayubale in Apalache
province on January 25, 1704, thus beginning the destruction of the
Spanish mission system. When the enemy withdrew, five Christian Indian
villages had been obliterated, and the inhabitants of two others went
away with the aggressor (Crown to the Council of the Indies, Madrid,
July 20, 1704, AGI 58-1-20/92, -+-f fC, mi7, enclosing
letters from Governor Zuniga dated March 23, 1704, and from several
friars in Apalache). The enemy entered the provincial headquarters at
San Luis on August 2, after the Spaniards had withdrawn to the village
of San Pedro in Timucua province (Governor Jose de Ziuiga of Florida
to the crown, St. Agustine, September 3, 1704, AGI 58-2-2/83 1/2, 4r-P
c,- mf. at Ca4tGeir~i7). The wrath of the English and their Indian
allies was next vented on the Timucuan villages of San Pedro and San
Mateo, which were reduced to ashes, and their chiefs burned alive
(Governse- J5 s-d Zuiiga e4-Fverd% to the crown, St. Augustine,
September 15, 1704, AGI 58-2-2/84 1/2, 1-" ffTC, 1 Q4 .r~l+ *
Stetson7). By May 12, 1705, the enemy had hkiaP raided the two
Timucuan villages still under Spanish protectionzand the environs of
St. Augustine. By October 31, the enemy had again appeared before the
same two villages and laid siege to one of them. The approach of a
joint Spanish and Christian-refugee Indian$ relief force succeeded in
scaring away an attack on the village at Salamototo, the ford at the
St. Johns River, but did not prevent the inhabitants there from leaving
the place anyway. On another occasion, the agigssors kidnapfed the
women and children of two refugee Indian villages located one and two
leagues south of St. Augustine, but they were headed off by the same
relief force, and in a hard-fought, bloody engagement wrested the
,quarry from the abductors, (Royal officials of Florida to the viceroy

F of New Spain, Florida, October 31, 1705, in Viceroy to the crown, June 6,
1706, AGI 58-2-7/2). By April 30, 1706, only one Indian village was
still protected by the Spaniards in Timucua; and the Spaniards had had
to fight to keep open the Salamototo ford, which had been captured
by 4te heathen Indians (Royal officials Q-he* to the crown,
Florida, April 30, 1706, AGI 58-1-27/87, 4-f-f/C, M. -t Q 7).
By evacuating later both the Timucuan village and the ford, the
SSpaniards in Florida became finally constricted to a bac h hatl in-
St. Augustine, bounded by the San Sebastian River and a line half a
mile north of the city.. Since 1704, twenty-nine missions had been
destroyed by the English and Indians. More recently, the relatively
high number of 26 soldiers had been killed in the last three months
(Royal officials e to the crown, Florida, August 13, 1706,
AGI 58-1-27/92, 1-6g*C, d6B Oa~i 7).

16Corcoles to the crown, September 30, 1706, AGI 58-1-27/98, 1. -

17bid., 1-2.
18The "first hornwork" consisted of three strong points: a sizable
fort next to the Indian village of Nombre de Dios, the gate of the
palisade, and the "cola" (tail) of the line. In 1712, these guard
posts were manned by 68 soldiers (Governor Francisco de Corcoles y
Martinez -a -~l d to the crown Florida, July 18, 1712, AGI 58-2-3/57,
46-#e.Stetson, I. a & lilj, 2, 29, 31, 34-35).
19Frani 6 Crcoles y 4MartI nEz f FlzC. to the crown,
) St. Augustine, April 13, 1716, AGI 58-1-30/57, 21. (NC, f aIr r
fiaia ), 8-17.

20Accountant Francisco Menendez Marques of Florida to the crown,
Florida, August 20, 1718, AGI .8-2-1/71, -L (Steto __

21The conception of the line of circumvallation as a defense, as i~ has
already been said, had originated in 1716. The request of June 10,
1720, for rebuilding it in masonry, referred to in the decree granting
the permission, sugg s, tat the construction of the earthwork was
ordered by Governor BenTiw% es (Crown to the governor of Florida, Buen
Retiro, April 8, 1721, AGI 68-2-4/31, --f /+ tetson, Cn.aa.7,
1-2). Benavides asserts positively that he executed the construction
(-rnsr ne -Amatonic + Benavides ef F:if' to the crown, St. Augustine,
April 24, 1722, AGI 58-2-4/35, 9-~f'/TC, JCf --. aoB-t]7, 1). The
decree approving the masonry reconstruction of the circumvallation line
provided that the work would be financed from comisos, or proceeds from
the sale of confiscated prohibited goods, collected in St. Augustine.
Even before receiving the approval, practically at the same time he
made the request, the governor began the rebuilding of the line in
masonry. In the account of the distribution of the subsidy for 1720,
Diego de Mena Salazar of Havana received 7,049 pesos owed to several
artisans "who worked in the stone wall which was begun for the protec-
tion of the city" (Governor and royal officials of Florida to the

crown, Florida, October 4, 1727, AGI 58-2-l/51, .4e-+ f~tetson, //-'
y ,ta'll, 26). Work began at the end of the line, on the south
Side of St. Augustine, by the shore of Matanzas Bay, on the walls and
curtains of San Francisco Redoubt. This task was given preference
over the reconstruction of the parish church and St. Francis Convent,
because it was more important for the security of the city, and because
there were not enough workers for both projects simultaneously
(Royal officials e~ eiri o the crown, Florida, July 15, 1722,
AGI 58-2-4/36, *4-V Z/tetson; mf. a-b-Ge E-j7, 1-2). Soon Benavides
doubted that the 13,254 pesos from comisos, and the 10,000 donated by
military personnel from salary arrears, would be sufficient for the
project unless the crown also appropriated an amount (Benavides to the
c7 crown, April 24, 1722, AGI 58-2-4/35, 3). Royal aid did not materialize.
In 1725, the money ran out, and only the AILI of Don Agustin
Guillermo de Fuentes, a St. Augustine resident of means, enabled work
to continue on the San Francisco masonry redoubt. For two whole months,
Don Agustin provided for the salaries of artisans in the total amount
of 1,047 pesos (Don Agustin Guillermo de Fuentes y Herrera to Governor
Antonio de Benavides of Florida, St. Augustine, April 29, 1734,
AGI 86-7-21/6, 5-fy/t6n,7, 11). For the time being, this was
the end of the masonry reconstruction of the line of circumvallation.
2The measurements hereon are U. S. equivalents of Spanish measurements.
For conversion, a Spanish toesa is equal to 5 1/2 U. S. feet approxi-
mately, and a Spanish pie measures 10.97 U. S. inches, or 11 (J. Villa-
sana Haggard, Handbook for Translators of Spanish Historical Documents
/ustin: 19417 92, 8U). Therefore,

27 1/2 feet . . . . . $ toesas
715 feet . . . . . 130 toesas
1,485 feet . . . . . 270 toesas
2,200 feet . . . ... 400 toesas
2 3/4 feet . . . . . 3 pies
6 1/2 feet . . . . . 7 pies
7 1/2 feet . . . . . 8 pies
23Antonio de Arredondo,"Plan de la Ciudad de San Agustin de la Florida
y sus Contornos, situada en la Altura de 29 grades y 50 minutes, 1t ,
iMay--15-A 1737, in Chatelain, op. cit., map 10.
24Antonio de Arredondo, Plano del Castillo de San Marcos de la Florida,' t
-Maye 1-de 1737, in Chatelain, op. cit., map 9. The remainder of the
circumvallation line girded the west and south sides of St. Augustine.
Most of this portion was a yucca-lined earthwork, beginning at Cubo
Line's Santo Domingo Redoubt, extending south and south-south-east for
3,575 feet (650 toesas), then running east for 478 1/2 feet (87 toesas),
and finally turning north for 71 1/2 feet (13 toesas) to its end. To
the west of St. Augustine, the line was rok~ by five redoubts--San
Jose, Santa Isabel, Rosario, Santo Cristo, and Sata Barbara. At the
point where this western barrier met the line on th south side of the
city, stood an unnamed redoubt, later Merihoe. Near e end of this

aA^(L ci-A^-Cii^^

southern line, at the Matanzas Bay shore, stood San Francisco fpdoubt.
Here was where the reconstruction of the line of circumvallation in
masonry had been started in 1720 and discontinued in 1725. Therefore,
San Francisco and the final 71 1/2-foot long portion of the line were
made of stone. The redoubt was lunette-shaped, and was described as
" "badly constructed." (Arredond o,Plan de la Ciuday .,/1737).

2The "first hornwork" may have been reconstructed as planned in 1716, / ti j
deteriorated again, and finally allowed to disappear, or it may not/ tN. d '
have been rebuilt at all and allowed to decay into disappearance. in u
At any rate, there is no indication of its existence in 1737 \ ,l
(Arredond ,*Plan de la Ciuda. .,"1737).

The "Modern" Cubo Line, 1738-1797
26Auxiliary Bishop of Cuba in Florida to the crown, Florida, August 31,
1736, AGI 58-2-14/123, Arg (NC, ~mf. aS, O il), 2.
27Chatelain, op. cit., 86.

2Governor Manuel de Montiano of Florida to Governor Juan Francisco de
Giemes y Horcasitas of Cuba, Florida, November 11, 1737, East Florida
Papers, Series 37, letter No. 2, 6-'(Library of Congress, Ese
a1 -hL4v.
Engineer Antonio de Arredondo accompanied Pedro Ruiz de Olano to
to St. Augustine, where they arrived iArApril 14, 1738 (Governor Juan
Francisco de Guemes y Horcasitas e#?-"0 to the Marquess de Torrenueva,
Havana, April 8, 1738, AGI 87-1-3/34, 4-Fif /Stetson, .mi-. -7,
1; Governor Manuel de Montiano e-i r to the Marquess de Torre-
nueva,, St. Augustine, May 28, 1738, AGI 86-5-25/h, 4.p4 /Stetson, mrvy
-at% a@i 2; and c-1---ra Mn- do Montiano e to
SF Giiemes b Ioroeoiaeobof.ub I Florida,
June 2, 1738, EFP 37/43, 44* /T, f.- t r -06i+a7, 73 v).

30GQove*eP ane Montiano ol sri. to iovernor .JTn Fr-ci: -d Giemes
S.-.evo..--ta of Gubt, Florida, October 24, 1739, EFP 37/173, 4 ff.
(LC, mRf at Caoti44 ), 211, reporting that all the arches in one side
of Castillo de San Marcos were finished and already in use. That the
side finished was the east side is shown by a previous communication,
which stated ". . six arched rooms have been finished and work is
proceeding on the seventh, which is the one next to the last. The
last one is where the powder is kept . ." (Montiano to Giemes, Florida,
August 16, 1739, EFP 37/15, 7 ff. /LC, mfat's Gaotilr m, 178v).
On May 20 (the 9t by the Julian calendar, which the English followed),
1740, General Oglethorpe crossed the St. Johns River from Fort George
Island, and encamped on the Spanish side, thus beginning operations
against St. Augustine (The St. Augustine Expedition of 1740--A Report
to the South Carolina General Assembly jColumbia: 195J/, 18).

32Engineer Pedro Ruiz de Olano to the crown, St. Augustine, August 8,
1740, in Crown to Engineer Pedro Ruiz de Olano, Madrid, March 30, iJ\bj
1741, AGI 87-3-12/20, .49 (Stetbon, mf, t Cnaisti ), 8. Though
the works described by Ruiz were in a letter written after the
British attack, it is presumed that the defenses mentioned were ( I '
finished before that event. Since Oglethorpe withdrew from the
St. Augustine peninsula on July 21 (The St. Augustine Expedition/ .
65, Appendix 121), the works referred to by Ruiz could not have leen' bdu t
completed between this date and the one when Ruiz wrote to the crown. '
33Ibid., 25, 26. b c40
34bid., 52.
3Ibid., 61, 62.

6Measurements hereon are U. S. equivalents of Spanish measurements.
A toesa is equivalent to 5 1/2 U. S. feet approximately, and a vara
is ei al to 33 U. S. inches (haggard, op. cit., 84, 85). Thus

2 3/ feet . . . ... 1 vara
8 1/2 feet . . . ... 2 varas
8 1/4 feet . ....... 3 varas
11 feet . . . . 4 varas
2,200 feet . . . .. 400 toesas
37Governor Manuel de Montiano and Treasurer Juan Esteban de Pefia of 'k4 0
Florida to the viceroy of New Spain, St. Augustine, March 26, 1743, Ojrp?
AGI 58-1-32/371, 49- f (NC, mf. at Ca-til-), 12-13. Additionally,
the Rosario Line had been reconstructed, but by 1749 there were com-- na-
plaints that the city did not have walls on any side, meaning that 4,
the circumvallation earthwork was not in good condition (Governor
Melchor de Navarrete of Florida to the cvown, St. Augustine, November 7,
1749, AQI 87-3-13/12, 11-i-fC te$Sen, ~-.f. at Gatil6/, 8-9). 9kerev-
AfterjihWtil the Spanish evacuation of Florida in 1763, work on the
additional defenses of St. Augustine brought them to the peak of their
development. The Hornabeque Line was under construction during
1746-48 (nGCvor;anr anuoel- Montiano C-& Fri+eWto the Marquess de la
Ensenada, St. Augustine, January 15, 1746, AGI 87-3-12/76, 4sdt
/Stetson, mf. at Co-_er27, 9, id, to id., St. Augustine, July 20,
1748, AGI 87-3-13/2, 4- /st n, -at C "etile 7, 37). In
1763, the Hornwork was described as an earthwork 13 3/4 feet high,
consisting of a bastion in the east on the bank of Hospital Creek,
t f~/,.' -anoher bastion in the mi ddle-af SL. A.t-in. -'a-peneni and a
half-bastion in the west on the bank of the San Sebastian. The gate
fe"" L ornwerk was in the middle of the curtain between the mi e4dcl vStY\ ~
and the half bastion$ (Castell6,/Plano del Presidio. .,"1763).
During the Seven Years' War there was a flurry of construction to_- (
strengthen the additional defenses. In 1761, e ~ io-lae/Rosario
Fedoubt was converted into a moated, semicircular masonry position, with
.- a barbette-type gun platform (Governor Lucas de Palacio of Florida


to Fray Julian de Arriaga, St. Augustine, July 15, 1761, AGI 86-6-6/25,
Steson, tranrzript at cGaiti-_7, 2). Possibly at the same
time, the redoubt at the angle formed by the west and south sides of
Rosario Line -- MeriTo -- was also reconstructed in masonry. In 1763,
Rosario Redoubt was described as a barbette type "modern" work with
no defense capability. Merifo also was a "modern" work, but its
terreplein was missing. The San Francisco masonry redoubt, by Matanaas
Bay shore, was referred to as an old, 11-foot-high barbette-type
position. Work must have been performed on San Francisco since 1725
for conversion to a barbette type emplacement. Since the other four
redoubts of Rosario Line were not described, it may be assumed that
they were rz deteriorated and without any role in the defense plan
in 1763 (Castello,"Plano del Presidio. .,'1763). The additional
defense constructed last appeared in 1762. A yucca-lined siege
defense work was built to connect Fort Mose in the east on the oank
of Macaris Creek with the San Sebastian River. The Fort Mose Line had
five redoubts, and its western end rested on a never-finished small
fort on pylons by the river's shore. This unfinished fort had intended
to cover.a ford across the San Sebastian which enabled enemy Indians
to reach the city limits of St. Augustine (Ibid.).

38Navarrete to the crown, November 7, 1749, AGI 87-3-13/12, 8-9.


044 "


39Castello6,Plano del Presidio!. .//1763.

rhu ed- oesas-.

Pablo Castell6, Plano del Castillo del Presidio de San Agustin de la
Florida, visto interior y exteriormente en el estado en que se hallaba
en 21 de Julio de 1763, cuando por orden de S. M. se entrego a la
Gran Bretafa/. ./,in Chatelain, op. cit., map 12.

The scale of Moncrief's map is in yards. Thus

7 1/2 feet . . . . 2 1/2 yards
15 feet . . . . yards
22 1/2 feet . . . . 7 1/2 yards
129 feet . . ....3 yards
405 feet . . . 135 yards
S2,595 feet . . . 865 yards

James Moncrief, /Plan of St. Augustine showing names of lot owners,
1764? (Public Record Office fLondon7, Colonial Office, Florida, 87.
~t----i ot .oLstat-catl.

SJuan Jose Eligio de la Puente, Plano de la Real Fuerza, Baluartes, y
Line de la Plaza de San Agustin de la Florida, con su Parroquial
Mayor, Convento e Iglesia de San Francisco: Casas y Solares de los
Vecinos/. ./,22_d encro-~ 1764. Photostat ef oemplote map at
St. Augustine Historioal Society. -

' _

\^AI--'l I t,

I )-6Charles L. Mowat, East Florida as a British Province 1763-1784
+(Berkeley: 1943), 107.

"GKovernor Patrick Tonyn of Zast Florida to Lord George Germain, St. Au-
gustine, December 22, 1779, Colonial Office Papers, class 5, volume 5$9,
letter No. 90, p. 561; Tonyn to Germain, March 21, 1781, CO 5/560/10,
p. 239.

Tonyn to General Sir William Howe, December 25, 1776, CO 5/557/17,
p. 371. The Cubo Line was repaired before the arrival of the 60th Regi-
ment, which took place in April 1776 (Mowat, op. cit., 108).

Estado en que se hallaba la plaza de San Agustin de la Florida el 29
de octubre de 1780,"EFP, Series 176, G-lh, document 50, p. 2; ihariano
de la Rocque,4Estado general 'qu manifiesta en el que se hallahalas
fortificaciones y edificios deV^le de esta Plaza y su provincial .
3) -an Aust4nl 9 o julio do 1789, EFP 170/A-1/13, p. 7.
7 By October 30, 1776, the work on the other two lines seems to have
been completed (Tonyn to Germain, October 30, 1776, CO 5/557/27, p. 22;
Tonyn to William Knox, November 1, 1776, CO 5/557/32?, p. 191; Tonyn
to Howe, December 25, 1776, CO 5/557/17, p. 371).

'/The scale of Purcell's map is in chains. A -strvyoer' chain equals
66 feet.) 6f 6

) 1/2 chain . . . . 33 feet
3 1/2 chains . . . 231 feet
$ 1/2 chains . . . . 363 feet
1 chains . . . .2,706 feet

J. Purcell, Surveyor,"A Plan of St. Augustine Town and its Environs I'
in East Florida (National Archives, Record Group No. 77, L-53; pho-
tostat at Castillo). The Purcell map does not include the Fort Mose
Line area. Fort Mose itself, a sod redoubt on marshy ground two
miles north of St. Augustine, had been dismantled in 1775 (Mowat,
op. cit., 26-27). 0
Purcell showed the barrier retrenchment, as the old Hornabeque Line
was then called, extending from Hospital Creek on the east to SWw/e-
bastian Creek on the west. The retrenchment't and thr=gae parapets seen to have had a scarp-revetment, backed by the earthwork,
and a firing step behind the parapet. A moat paralleled the three
bastions he two curtains, of the line, and partially the ravelin,
which protected the retrenchment gate, located between the middle and
western bastions. At the western angle formed by face and flank in
the eastern bastion, at the same two angles in the middle bastion, and
at the eastern angle of the western bastion, redoubts had been cons-
tructed within the face and +lanks of the bastions. The western
bastion was still a half bastion as in Spanish times, and slightly to
the rear of the eastern bastion was the hospital.
Purcell also showed the old Rosario Line as existing in more or less *

I substantial form from the Intrenchment (formerly Cubo Line) south to
the old Santo Cristo doubt. Beyond, to the south and then east to
Matanzas Bay, Rosario Line had disappeared, including Santa Barbara
and Merifo kedoubts and even the masonry ruins of old San Francisco.
Almost west of the Meriho site, however, a King's Redoubt had been
,built to protect a causeway in the marsh, leading out of St. Augustine,
to the ferry which crossed the ,AP4Sebastian Creek to the Smyrna road.
About 1/h mile south of King's ~ade&t-rwas Indian Redoubt on the bank
of that creek. Also, west of old Santo Cristo C;Ae4t, there was a
causeway in the marsh and on the west bank of SOi'Sebastian Creek,
called the new ferry.

Tonyn to Germain, December 22, 1779, CO 5/559/90, p. 561.

STonyn to General Sir Henry ClintoMay 6, 1780, CO 5/59/95, p. 599.
Tonyn to Germain, March 5 and 21, 1781, CO 5/559/109, p. 192, and
51560/110, p. 239.

-_Tonyn to Germain, July 30, 1781, CO 5/16o/11, p. 247.

Tonyn to Germain, November 30, 1781, CO 5/560/115, p. 283.

Tonyn to Germain, December 31, 1781, CO 5/560/118, p. 380.
S'A7ddress of the Upper House of Assembly to Governor Patrick Tonyn of
East Florida, in Tonyn to the Lord Commissioners of Trade and Planta-
| tions, February 14, 1782, CO 5/560/11, p. 348.

Two redoubts, King's and Indian, were already existing in 1777. Be-
ginning in 1781, the British added five more. These works were not
linked with one another by parapets, as the redoubts of old Rosario
Line had been, ut were within supporting distance of one another.
-- One of the new brks was located southeast of old Cubo Redoubt, apprex-
aM .SiZ ,aa yat-theond.--of-an-4mag-in aay-cexeti8oz of present Hypolita
Street. Continuing south, the next new redoubt was Wtte west of old
Santo Cristo, where th (177) newferry causeway began. The third new
work was>perhap -at thbend-of agnr- sie of present San
y--- Salvador Street. Then came King's and Indian redoubts. The fourth
new redoubt was located southeast of Indian, on the west bank of Maria
.Sanchez Creek. Finally, the fifth new redoubt wis o-t~ e nortlamae-
of the- feth, on the eastern side of Maria Sanchez Crebk,-to the
_ex-nse south of the city. Indian, the-fourth--and-the- fifth reubts.
fo-eed-a-a!tepegd-triannlIer,-.with-its-,,ver-tex- point-ing-- so5t3-(ira riano.-
de la Rocque, Fano general de la Plaza de San Agustin de la Florida y
sus inmediaciones. ., -de- '4ee-l-de 1791 fartografla de
e .." "l" Ultramar (OMadridi 1953), carpeta II, mar747). From their arrival
in St. Augustine in 178h to the end of 1791, the Spaniards had not
performed any major work on the.additional defenses, except construc-
tion of the tenaza (see notes 61 6). W iP.n .th Panno, dDcetyber-
-2j7-1791, showsvdefenses not present in 1763,vnot accounted for by
1.1v 17q,)4^ *s W^

construction. ese ~ 1 ndreferred to in English correspondence Iad /uLL
A e +'e d-nthi por-t-tt.h-^cnclusio ptht -the-^-gatree-p"re1se1t "l
.in .th- Pian2o w::p constructed during the British period.

iHelen H. Tanner, Zespedes in East Florida 173h-1790 (iiami/ 1963), 33.

YRocque, Estado general/. ./, 31-e julio e 1789, EFP 170/A-1l/13, p. 7.
Additionally, for Hornabeque Line, Rocque recommended the repair of the
moat walls there and the construction of a bridge, partly fixed and
partly draw. For the English-built line of redoubts, he would build
a sod parapet between Cubo doubtt and the one at the end of Hypolita
Street, then continue that parapet through five redoubts in that line
until reaching the last one at La Punta (extreme south end of St.
Augustine). He would edge the English-built line with an adequate
moat, and plant one or two lines of yucca on the glacis and at the
foot of the redoubts. Rocque believed that an attack over the San
Sebastian River marshes would be very difficult, and that these
measures would be sufficient if a sudden assault should take place.
For the Mose Line, he would rebuild the unfirn#hed fort of 1763 on
the bank of the San Sebastian, to control the road into St. Augustine, ,
and the earthwork across the peninsula to Mose area, and the asarong /w
housea of Mose itself, making its west side the most heavily fortified,
and throwing an earthwork around it, as it had had in its heyday.

council l of War, St. Augustine, December 31, 1790, EFP 277/0-1h/2,
pp. 5-10. The moat along the English-built line would be opened only
SIin case of war or availability of money, *bt.t he council would(f-irk o
the westernmost half-bastion of Hornabeque Line with Cubo redoubt, by
the construction of a tenaza (tenaille), and a1so cut off all the
,,,\i/'_ fords near the city, whi were Two Mile (western end of Mose Line), ao Td
west of the Hornabeque half-bastion and Cubo Redoubt,VLa Leche swamp, 4_(
~", k vl afd redoubt No. 2 v(4e-ng-lish I'-idia-of--177o)*. L -f
k b^ CLoar i i&A^ f.f()
Council of War, St. Augustine, January 13, 1791, EFP 277/0-14/2,
pp. 10-12.

Mariano de la Rocque, Relacion de los trabajos ejecutados en las
obras del Rey/ ', San Agustin, 31-de-diciem-e-e-l73l1, EF.P171/-_- ... 3
B-h1/76, p. 1. The work on the tenaza (tenaille) along the San Sebas-
Stian marsh, between the western half-bastion of Hornabeque Line and
Cubo Redoubt, must have gone on anyway, because on December 24, 1791,
that feature was in existence (Rocque, Piano genera/. ./, 1791
/cartograf{a. ., II, 7L7).

rPedro Diaz Berrio, Plano del Presidio de San Agustin en la Florida
Oriental con la entra.a de sus Barras y CaFos que lo circundan, J -- ,
f-dee nso do 1797 (Cartografia. ., II, 76, note 1).

0 MKariano de la Rocque,"Relacion de los reparos repree ejecutados
en las obraY . /,'San Agustin, 31_da dicia mbe-de 178h, EFP 170/
A-lh/316, listing all the repairs performed-bn royal property during


that year; during 1785, 1786, 1787, 1788, 1789, 1790, and 1791, EFP
170/A-14/297, 170/A-lh/245, 170/A-14/170, 170/A-14/80, 170/A-1k/32,
171/B-1L/66, and 171/B-14/76 respectively.

-3ha-Y;etityf-aube-f lIney l



iI k

* -.3-

EFP, Series 171, No. 199: Governor of East Florida to Diaz, Aug. 18, 1795.

EFP, Series 171, No. 251: Dias to White, Sept. 12, 1797; Series 171, No. 247:

.,Pedro 1az ,Berrio, jelacion que manifiesta las obras provista
. 1 I!L .. <' - ... . . 1 .. i ...
que se hha hecho 'n esta Plaza con motivo de. la invasion amenhaada

Sa ,,.i S A 1 .. -''.e ..
o v.' - .. /--.' ..

EFP, Series 171, No. 316: Governor of East Florida to )iaz, Oct. ., 1801;
r. 2 -, ,I,,2, "
, .p ,-! 1 .. -, ,c-. Cc ,l
171/ M7: DiW to h Ot. 1801;, 7/. ap de .
I/ i ; " ^ ^ l -, ' ; "' / "' i- -" *^ .
-Rmediog sad y D"tacion de Artil" ria para la phovincia n 4 & ,'.
a -,' i ', .- l o O: e a " '81 1 "* t 2..'
$,an A.ustlnAe la Fliorida.Oriental, pee, ai3, 1.82..
t' K i.;,. f, ., '. 1 { .;. '^.. . i, ; 1 -

NFP, 171/371:

11. ~i'lyir

EFP, 171/414:

Hits to

White, February 11, 1804, i. 6.
) i ,: i.ii,-,

Hiita to White, March 26, 1805, p. 1;
- i -.k,. |

3, )
, ** i *

EFP, 171/416: Hita to White, April 1, 1805.

I i c ,

i~~- /' ~ -

EFP, 277/1: Council of War, St. Augustine, Apr. 13, 1805.

Wqu 0I,1 2? '
EFP, 172/6: "Inventario del estado en que queda el-4dl b o 4e Mari Sauoh ..

St. Augustine, June 23, 1806; EFP, 172/7: ,6Inventario del Estado ;qu q~e, ;k


E\% &31P



- i

queda la Batdr e Soawi a...," St. Augustine, 16bruawy 16,

EPP 172/15: Hita to White, Nov. 2, 1807, p.l.
W:.l ^ l. / l) -t ; ...*, i
i; -

I~ ci(~

EFP, 277/1: Council of War, Feb. 4, 1808; EFP, 172/20: Hita to

IWh o, -ary 2, '808 l'FP, 27j/1, Co2uni of Wi ,, Feb 2 i8.
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Coppinger to Cortazar, Dec. 27, 1816
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