Group Title: Historic St. Augustine: Castillo de San Marcos National Monument
Title: Castillo de San Marcos
Full Citation
Permanent Link:
 Material Information
Title: Castillo de San Marcos National Monument
Series Title: Historic St. Augustine: Castillo de San Marcos National Monument
Physical Description: Brochure/pamphlet
Language: English
Physical Location:
Box: 8
Divider: Castillo de San Marcos National Monument
Folder: Castillo de San Marcos National Monument
Subject: Saint Augustine (Fla.)
Castillo de San Marcos National Monument (Saint Augustine, Fla.)
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida -- Saint Johns -- Saint Augustine
Coordinates: 29.897836 x -81.311491
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00095513
Volume ID: VID00005
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Full Text

S satilo de San Marcos
II*. I.., a l



Through much of the 1800's, the fort was
a military prison. In 1837, during the Semi-
nole War, the Indian leader, Wildcat, led an
escape from here; in later years several hun-
dred Indians from the Southwest were im-
prisoned at the Castillo. Confederate forces
occupied it briefly, but left before Federal
troops arrived in 1862. The last real military
use was as a prison during the Spanish-
American war (1898-99). In 1924, Castillo
de San Marcos was established as a National
Monument by Presidential proclamation un-
der the jurisdiction of the War Department.
In 1933, it was transferred to the National
Park Service.

About Your Visit

Included in Castillo de San Marcos Na-
tional Monument are the masonry fort, sur-
rounded by moat and outworks, and a city
gate that once formed part of the old town
wall. A small fee is charged for entrance to
the fort ramparts, rooms, and museum
exhibits, which are open daily from 8:30
a.m. to 5:30 p.m. Guide service is free.

History in Sound and Light

Each evening from December 1 through
Labor Day the story of Castillo de San Marcos
is presented with the aid of sound and light.
The voices of professional actors and ac-
tresses plus sound effects and dramatic light-
ing combine to bring the past to the present.
Admission is $1.50 plus tax for adults and
75 cents plus tax for children.






Castillo de San Marcos National Monu-
ment is administered by the National Park
Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. A
superintendent, whose address is Drawer
1431, St. Augustine, Fla., is in immediate
Created in 1849, the Department of the
Interior-America's Department of Natural
Resources-is concerned with the manage-
ment, conservation, and development of the
Nation's water, wildlife, mineral, forest, and
park and recreational resources. It also has
major responsibilities for Indian and Terri-
torial affairs.
As the Nation's principal conservation
agency, the Department works to assure that
nonrenewable resources are developed and
used wisely, that park and recreational re-
sources are conserved for the future, and
that renewable resources make their full con-
tribution to the progress, prosperity, and
security of the United States-now and in
the future.

Mission 66

Mission 66 is a program designed to be
completed by 1966 which will assure the
maximum protection of the scenic, scientific,
wilderness, and historic resources of the Na-
tional Park System in such ways as will make
them available for the use and enjoyment of
present and future generations.



Courtyard and ramp.

Old city gate.

Castillo de San Marcos

The well-preserved Spanish fortifications in Saint Augustine that played a major role
in the Spanish-English struggle for the Southeast (1650-1750).

When Spain conquered and colonized the
rich Caribbean country, this land of Florida,
being close to the route of the Spanish treas-
ure ships, was coveted by France and Eng-
land. Spain's power in Florida was cen-
tered at St. Augustine, and Castillo de San
Marcos was the symbol of that power.
The Americas slipped from Spain's grasp.
But the grim Castillo, battered and besieged,
still mirrors those days of pikeman and mus-
keteer. It is the real thing. Strong-stand-
ing walls, historically significant, bring the
past into the present, so that all may see-
and understand.
The Spanish Treasure Fleet
Castillo de San Marcos was the northern-
most outpost of a vast Spanish empire in the
New World. Today, for half the people
of this hemisphere Spanish is the mother
The Americas were discovered at just the
right time for the Spanish. After years of
fighting Moorish invaders, Spain was at last

a unified nation. When Columbus sailed
again in 1493, thousands of men were free to
follow him to fame and fortune. By 1574
there were some 200 towns in tropical Amer-
ica, exporting hides, hemp, sugar, gold, sil-
ver, and pearls.
By contrast, North America was a wilder-
ness. In 1561, King Philip forbade new tries
at colonizing it.
Why, then, did a French colony named
Fort Caroline, planted in Florida in 1564,
on the St. Johns River, change the course of
Like a menacing dagger, the Florida penin-
sula thrust toward the heart of Spain's wealth.
Richly loaded galleons sailed along the Flor-
ida coast in convoy for protection against
pirates. They followed wind and current in
a great circle route, from Spain westward to
the Caribbean, then from Havana, past Flor-
ida and eastward to home. To the Spanish,
Fort Caroline was a nest of pirates. So in
1565 they destroyed it. They established
their own colony-St. Augustine-making

The National Park System, of which this area is a unit, is dedicated to conserving
the scenic, scientific, and historic heritage of the United States for the benefit and
inspiration of its people.

Florida a haven rather than a threat. That
colony survived flood, fire, and famine, to
grow for a time into the capital of a vast
wilderness domain.

A Link in the Caribbean Defense Chain

Sir Francis Drake's raid upon St. Augus-
tine in 1586 was a sign of the times-Eng-
land's determination to destroy the Spanish
monopoly in the New World. No Spanish
ship or settlement was safe. Spain tightened
the convoys and built massive forts at key
harbors in the Caribbean.
St. Augustine, no wealthy seaport, had lit-
tle more than palisaded earthworks. Its real
protection were the Franciscan priests, pa-
tiently making converts among the Indians.
It was realized that natives friendly to Spain
would be unfriendly to Spain's enemies.
But in Virginia, the English gained a foot-
hold on the Spanish-claimed continent.

English traders, turning Indian enemies into
allies, crumbled the Spanish defense. Eng-
lish pirates again sacked St. Augustine in
The settlement of Charleston in 1670
brought the English still closer to Florida.
To build a permanent defense against
these enemies, Queen Mariana of Spain at
last ordered money sent from Mexico City.

Building the Fort

Construction of the Castillo began in 1672
and lasted until 1696, almost 25 years.
Walls 30 feet high and up to 12 feet thick
were built of a native shellstone called co-
quina (ko-KEE-na). Mortar was made from
shell lime. The labor crew, in addition to
the Spanish artisans, usually numbered about
100, mostly Indian draftees. Day wages
ranged from $3 for the engineer, to 121/2
cents plus rations for Indian labor.

The Castillo.

The Castillo was a good fort, and a hand-
some one. Its white-plastered walls stood
on the site of an old Indian midden (shell
heap), near the town and opposite the harbor
mouth, so that travelers by land or sea had
to pass under its guns. A symmetrical or
"regular" fort in the style developed by Italo-
Spanish engineers, it was well armed and
manned by a guard detail.

An Impregnable Fort in Its Day

Between 1650 and 1750 the Southeast was
in turmoil, and the Castillo was the hub
of the action. Spanish forays against the
Carolinas (in 1686 and 1706) and Georgia
(in 1742) began here. It was the target for
death-dealing raids by pirate, Indian, or Eng-
lishman in 1683, 1704, 1728, and 1743; it
was besieged in 1702 and 1740. Six serious
threats inside of 60 years!
The baptism of fire came in 1702, during
Queen Anne's War. South Carolina's Gov-
ernor James Moore with 500 men seized St.
Augustine and unsuccessfully besieged the fort

for 50 days. Before Moore left, he set fire to
the town. Later, the Spanish ringed the town
with strong earthworks to keep out raiders.
Moore also destroyed the Spanish missions
of Florida and carried off 1,400 Indians as
slaves. The missions never recovered, nor
did Spanish Florida. For now the French on
the Mississippi separated Florida from Mex-
ico. The English were pushing into the
Georgia country. While engineers were
modernizing the fort, building bombproof
rooms in 1738-39, hostile Indians were
ranging to the very walls. "You know the
terror men feel," wrote the Spanish governor,
"when they even hear the name of Florida."
The province was a powder keg. The
spark to set off the explosion came from an
English vessel off the coast.
The War of Jenkins' Ear

Spain allowed only Spanish trade with her
colonies. Many British ships were seized as
smugglers. One skipper claimed that Florida
Spaniards boarded his ship and cut off his

ear. The pickled ear, shown to Parliament,
decided Britain on war-the War of Jenkins'
The Founder of Georgia, James Ogle-
thorpe, swore to take St. Augustine or leave
his bones before its walls. From Fort Fred-
erica, Ga., he set out in 1740 with a Georgia-
Carolina attack force of 900 men and a fleet
of 13 vessels. Awaiting him at St. Augustine
were 4 swift galiots in the harbor, and 750
men under Col. Manuel de Montiano, the
While the British fleet blockaded the har-
bor to starve the Spaniards, English gunners
shelled the town, thinking to drive the popu-
lation into the fort, where their cries would
demoralize the defense. But as the Castillo
alarm bell rang, the 2,000 townspeople,
instead of fleeing to the fort, simply moved
out of range! There would be no refugees
to distract the soldier-defenders.
The fort suffered only slight damage. A
Spanish sortie destroyed a camp of Scotch
Highlanders. Oglethorpe gave up after the
defenders, desperate from hunger, fought

through the blockade to fetch food from
Two years later, a Spanish reprisal was
turned back near Georgia's Fort Frederica.
The War of Jenkins' Ear was a war of fail-
ures, both here and in the Caribbean. The
real decision was delayed until the Seven
Years' War (1755-62), wherein Britain
ousted France from North America and at
last gained Spanish Florida by treaty (1763).

Under Four Flags
The British period in Florida lasted only
20 years. Then another treaty turned Florida
back to Spain. During the interval, the
American Revolution broke out, and although
the Castillo was not in action, its British
prison held famous "rebels" such as Brig.
Gen. Christopher Gadsden, Lieutenant Gov-
ernor of South Carolina.
The second Spanish occupation of Florida
(1783-1821) was marked by border unrest
and an influx of Georgia and Carolina set-
tlers. Spain finally ceded the troublesome
territory to the United States.

The drawbridge and sally port.



al1Spanish Fortificalion
(no longer visible)
o 1/4

To A.b T':'r


COVER: The moat, bastion, and ravelin.

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