P.O. Box 1002
Saint Augustine, Florida
February 10, 1999
Jack Cubbedge, Assistant City Manager < / ,
City of St. Augustine 1990Y p
P.O. Box 210 ij '
St. Augustine, Florida 32085-0210 e
In the course of a project which we undertook in
1988 to assess the condition of municipal monuments
and make urgent repairs, we obtained a paint color
analysis for the Constitution Monument and the Gazebo.
Recently, in the course of moving our office, I came
across that report and thought it might be of some use
to you in your current work.
The original of the report, which includes color
sample notations, has been filed with the St.
Augustine Historical Society.
William R. Adams
Frank S. Welsh
Historic Paint Color Consultant
S 859 Lancaster Avenue Bryn Mawr Pennsylvania 19010 Telephone (215) 525 3564
March 22, 1989
William Adams, President
Historic Properties Associates, Inc.
P. O. Box 1002
St. Augustine, Florida 32085-1002
Enclosed is the report on the Constitution Monument and the
Gazebo of the Plaza de la Constitucion. I hope that the
analysis will provide you with the information that you were
seeking. We did the best we were able to do with the evidence
Please call if you have any questions.
Frank S. Welsh
FRANK K WELSH
HISTORIC PAINT COLOR CONSULTANT
859 LANCASTER AVE BRYN MAWR PENNSYLVANIA 19010 TEL.(215) 525-3564
MICROSCOPIC ANALYSIS TO DETERMINE AND EVALUATE THE NATURE AND COLORS OF THE
ORIGINAL SURFACE COATINGS
DATE: OCTOBER 31, 1988
1. BUILDING & DATE OF CONSTRUCTION: CONSTITUTION MONUMENT; 1813
THE GAZEBO; 1917
2. OWNER: CITY OF ST. AUGUSTINE
3. CLIENT: WILLIAM ADAMS, PRESIDENT
HISTORIC PROPERTIES ASSOCIATES, INC.
POST OFFICE BOX 1002
ST. AUGUSTINE, FL 32085-1002
4. SUBJECT: EXTERIOR FINISHES
5. SAMPLES TAKEN BY: WILLIAM ADAMS
6. DATE SAMPLES TAKEN: OCTOBER 6, 1988
7. DATE OF ANALYSIS & REPORT: OCTOBER 31, 1988
8. MICROSCOPIST: FRANK S. WELSH
9. LAYER DESCRIPTION: ANALYZE AND EVALUATE THE ORIGINAL FINISHES. MATCH
THE ORIGINAL COLORS TO THE MUNSELL COLOR SYSTEM.
-DESCRIBE ALL LATER FINISHES BY GENERAL COLOR NAME
10 COLOR DESCRIPTION:
THE COLOR NAMES ARE FROM THE NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS COLOR NAME
CHARTS WHICH ARE KEYED TO THE MUNSELL COLOR SYSTEM.
THE COLOR NOTATION IS THAT OF THE MUNSELL COLOR SYSTEM, WHICH
"IDENTIFIES COLOR IN TERMS OF THREE ATTRIBUTES: HUE, VALUE AND
CHROMA",. THE ORIGINAL COLOR OF THE PAINT ON THE SUBMITTED SAMPLES HAS
BEEN KEYED TO THIS SYSTEM OF COLOR DESCRIPTION. COLOR STANDARDS, WHICH ARE
"OPAQUE PIGMENTED FILMS ON CAST-COATED PAPER"2 IN MATTE OR GLOSSY
FINISH CAN BE OBTAINED FROM THE MUNSELL COLOR CO., 2441 NORTH CALVERT
STREET, BALTIMORE, MARYLAND, 21218. TELEPHONE: 301-243-2171.
1 & 2: THE MUNSELL BOOK OF COLOR.
PAINTPAMPHLETTM @ 1988 FRANK S. WELSH
PLAZA DE LA CONSTITUTION
Per i od
Sample # 1
Location: South side under molding (red)
1.Finish Graysh Yellowsh Pink (10 R 7.5/2) Whtwsh;Flat Orig?
2-16.Finishes Whites 19/20thc
NOTE: (10 R 7.5/2) is an estimated notation. The closest "stock" notations
are: 10 R 8/2 -50% and 10 R 7/2 -50%.
Sample # 2
Location: Southeast corner of east side under molding
1.Finish Medium Gray (N 4.75/) Whtwsh;Flat Orig?
2-16.Finishes Whites 19/20the
NOTE: (N 4.75/) is an estimated notation. The closest "stock" notations
are, N 5.0/ -50% and N 4.5/ -50%.
Sample # 3
Location: South side under molding (gray)
1.Finish Medium Gray (N 4.75/)
Or i g?
PLAZA DE LA CONSITUCION
Sample # 1
Location: South side masonry wall
1.Finish First layer on sample is masonry and paint from the 1950's.
Sample # 2
Location: East side inside beam
1.Prime White (5 Y 9/0.5) Oil 1917
2.Finish White- (5 Y 9/0.5) Oil;Gloss 1917
3-22.Finishes Whites, Yellowsh Whites, Yellow, Green, Brown 20the
NOTE: (5 Y 9/0.5) is an estimated notation. The closest "stock" notations
are: 5 Y 9/1 -50% and N 9.0/ -50%.
MUNSELL COLOR ORDER BLANK
Please supply the following in: Glossy 6r Matte __ Finish.
Sheets: Glossy 6" x 10" or Matte 8" x 11" at $18.00 each
Swatches: 3" x 5" at $6.25 each
File Swatches: 1-5/16" x 2" at $3.40 each
QUANTITY MUNSELL NOTATION PRICE EXTENSION
TOTAL (minimum order
SHIPPING & HANDLING
TELEPHONE: ( )
To order just return order blank to MUNSELL COLOR with your check or
money order for amount of goods plus $3.00 for shipping and handling,
$4.00 for Canada and Foreign shipments.
* Minimum order requirement is $25.00 plus shipping/handling
Macbeth A division
of Kollmorgen Corp.
2441 North Calvert Street
Baltimore, Maryland 21218
Expiration Date: 12-31-86
ESTIMATED MUNSELL NOTATIONS
1. When a set of parenthesis surrounds a Munsell Color notation
(Hue Value/Chroma) it is being designated as an estimated
notation. This means that the original color of the paint
film does not match exactly one of the regularly produced
(stock) color standards (samples) in the Munsell Color System.
The estimated notation in parenthesis (H V/C) falls somewhere
in between the closest regularly produced (stock) color standards.
These "stock" standards' notations are given as a final section
at the end of the layering descriptions for each room or space
sampled. The "stock" standards are the ones to order from
Munsell using the special order sheet enclosed. Do not spec-
ify the estimated notation in parenthesis. Specify only those
"stock" notations in the Estimated Munsell Notation section. The
estimated notation can be specially produced by Munsell if the
particular project requires it; however, it is costly. Request
a cost estimate if planning to order a specially produced color
from an estimated notation.
2. Following each of these standard notations there are percentages,
i.e. 50%. This tells the approximate percentage of that stan-
dard color within the estimated color. This will also help in
matching a paint to the estimated color.
EXAMPLE: A layering description within the report might read:
1.Prime Grayish Yellow (5 Y 7.5/2) Oil 1832
2.Finish Grayish Yellow (5 Y 7.5/2) Oil;Semi 1832
Estimated Munsell Notations
(5 Y 7.5/2) is an estimated notation. The closest- "stock"
notations are: 5 Y 7/2 50% and 5 Y 8/2 50%
Therefore in this example, the original color of the paint was
(5 Y 7.5/2). Order from Munsell Color Co. the two underlined
notations: 5 Y 7/2 and 5 Y 8/2. Mix 50% of the total quantity
of paint needed to match the 5 Y 7/2 color standard and mix the
other 50% needed to match the 5 Y 8/2 color standard. Combine
the two (50%) mixes to obtain 100% of the estimated color: (5 Y 7.5/2).
REPORT E, 1
of Color Notation
The system of color notation, developed by A. H. Munsell,
identifies color in terms of three attributes: hue, value and
chroma. This method of color notation arranges the three
attributes of color into orderly scales of equal visual steps;
the scales are used as dimensions or parameters for the
accurate specification and description of color under standard
conditions of illuminating and viewing.
The hue (H) notation of a color indicates its relation to a
visually equally-spaced scale of 100 hues. There are 10
major hues (5 principal and 5 intermediate) positioned ten
hue steps apart within this scale. The hue notation in
general use is based on the ten major hue names: Red,
Yellow-Red, Yellow, Green-Yellow, Green, Blue-Green, Blue,
Purple-Blue, Purple and Red-Purple.
Any one of several symbols may be used for the notation
of hue, as shown in Figure 1. Hue initials for the ten major
hue families, shown in the inner circle, may be used alone
for rough identification of hue. Numerals from 1 to 100,
as shown in the outer circle, may be used alone for statistical
records, cataloging and computer programming. The
combination of numerals with the hue initials is considered
the most descriptive form of the hue notation. This combina-
tion is shown between the inner and outer circles in Figure 1,
and this is the form used on the 40 constant hue charts
displayed in the MUNSELL BOOK OF COLOR.
The value (V) notation indicates the degree of lightness or
darkness of a color in relation to a neutral gray scale,
which extends from absolute black to absolute white.
The value symbol 0/ is used for absolute black; the symbol
10/ is used for absolute white. The symbol 5/ is used for
the middle gray and for all chromatic colors that appear
half-way in value between absolute black and absolute white.
Figs. 2 and 3.
The chroma (C) notation indicates the degree of departure
of a given hue from a neutral gray of the same value.
The scales of chroma extend from /0 for a neutral gray out to
/10, /12, /14, or farther, depending upon the strength
(saturation) of the sample to be evaluated. A color classified
popularly as "vermilion" might have a chroma as strong as
/12 or as vivid as /16, while another color of the same hue
and value, classified popularly as "rose," might have a
chroma as weak (grayed) as /4. Figs. 2 and 3.
The complete Munsell notation for a chromatic color
is written symbolically: H V/C. The complete notation for a
sample of "vermillion" might be 5R 5/14, while the notation
for a sample of "rose" might be 5R 5/4. When a finer
division is needed for any of the attributes, decimals are
used; for example: 2.8R 4.5/12.4.
The notation for a neutral (achromatic) color is written:
N V/. The notation for a sample of black, a very dark
neutral, might be N 1/; the notation for a sample of white,
a very light neutral, might be N 9/, while the notation for a
gray, visually half-way between these two, would be N 5/.
to S 'I ,o .
Figure 1 Related hue symbols arranged on 100 hue circuit
The chroma symbol /0 may be used in the notation for
neutral colors but it is customary to omit it. Blacks, grays
and whites of chroma weaker than /0.3 are customarily
notated as neutrals; if a more precise notation is required,
the form used is: N V/(H,C). In such cases, the symbol
for one of the ten major hues is used with the chroma; thus,
a light gray of a slightly yellowish appearance might have a
notation of N 8/(Y,0.2). It is perfectly correct, of course,
to use the regular H V/C form to describe all colors, using
N V/O for absolute neutrals.
The Munsell scales of hue, value and chroma can be
visualized in terms of a color solid, or color space.
The neutral value scale, graded in equal visual steps,
from black at the bottom to white at the top, forms the central
vertical axis. The hue scale is positioned in equal visual
steps around the neutral axis. Chroma scales radiate in
equal visual steps from the neutral axis outward to the
periphery of the color space. Figs. 2 and 3. Color space
as defined by the Munsell color solid is quite irregular,
roughly conforming to the shape dictated by absolute limits
of reflecting materials.
Hue, value and chroma scales
arranged in color space
The scales shown in Figures 1, 2 and 3 are intended to
illustrate the concept of three dimensional color space;
they are not limited to the notations shown. By the use of
decimals, each scale may be divided into increments
as small as may be required for the most accurate color
notation. The chroma scales may be extended to include
the chroma notation of all material samples. The value scale
is limited by the end points (absolute black and absolute
white); these are not achievable in material form. The hue
scale forms a closed circle.