0 ( Floppy disc included with this
S.W C item has been shelved separately.
r" Consult LUIS or ask circulation
staff for assistance.
August, 1986 Circular 737
A Microcomputer Program
for Wholesale Nurseries
MS-DOS Version 1
COMPUTER SERIES Library
J. Robert Strain University o F\orida
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
F6 3 tiv Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences / University of Florida / John T. WoesN, Dean
PLANTCST is a microcomputer version of the University of Florida Plant Cost
Estimator. It was adapted from the U of F mainframe program. Overhead nursery
costs and production area data are entered for calculating overhead costs per
square foot. To estimate costs of growing individual plants, known direct
costs plus time to grow and space required are entered. Users may route the
results either to the screen or the printer. Results include direct and over-
head cash costs, overhead non-cash costs and allowances including deprecia-
tion,.added costs for expected plant losses and a return on capital invested in
the operation, and total costs.
Key Words: Nursery plant costs, foliage, flowers, woody ornamental field
THE PLANTCST PACKAGE
PLANTCST is a microcomputer program intended for use by wholesale nursery
operators. It is written in Microsoft BASICA for an MS-DOS operating system.
It may be used either with or without a printer. The PLANTCST package consists
of this manual, a blank Form 13.3C Worksheet, and a five inch floppy disk.
The blank form 13.3C should be kept as a master for making copies as needed for
use with the PLANTCST program. If something should happen to it, a computer
version is included on the program disk as-noted below. The disk is a distri-
bution disk which contains the following:
an MS-DOS file to automatically boot the menu upon
start up. It can be altered to fit your needs with a
a menu program set to operate with PLANTCST and
PLANTDLT. It also can be unlocked to operate with the
U of F Nursery Business Analysis Programs.
the plant cost estimator program.
a program for deleting data sets from PLANTCST.DAT.
the data file. When shipped, it contains the data from
the latest Florida Nursery Business Analysis Program
averages. You may use it to store your own data also.
a text file containing a computer version of the Form
a text file containing a copy of the cover letter in-
cluded with the PLANTCST package.
a text file containing the disk label.
a text file containing a computer version of this
PLANTCST is distributed by University of Florida, Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences. For further information, contact IFAS Software Commu-
nication and Distribution, G-022 McCarty Hall, University of Florida, Gaines-
ville, FL 32611, phone (904) 392-7853.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i
THE PLANTCST PACKAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . i
LIST OF FIGURES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii
LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii
PRELIMINARY INFORMATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
INITIAL PREPARATION . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 2
DATA PREPARATION AND THE FORM 13.3C WORKSHEET. . . . . . . . 3
RUNNING THE PROGRAM. . . . .. . . . . . . . ... 6
Overview of the Program . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Step by Step Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
INTERPRETATION OF PLANT COST DATA. . . . . . . . . . .' 18
LIST OF FIGURES
1 Plant cost estimator computer data input form, PLANTCST.BAS
August, 1986 . . . . . . . . . . * *. . ... 4
2 Flow chart for PLANTCST.BAS, May, 1986 . . . . . . . 9
3 Screen of STRAINMN.BAS, the menu program for PLANTCST.BAS,
August, 1986 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4 Nursery data input screen, PLANTCST.BAS, August, 1986 . . . 11
5 Screen for data sets available to retrieve, PLANTCST.BAS,
August, 1986 . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 12
6 Screen for output of nursery cost per square foot data,
PLANTCST.BAS, August, 1986 . . .. . . . . . . 13
7 Screen for input of plant data, PLANTCST.BAS, August, 1986 . . 13
8 Screen for output of cost per plant data, PLANTCST.BAS,
August, 1986 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
9 Screen of the options menu, PLANTCST.BAS, August, 1986 . . . 15
10 Screen of the plant comparison table, PLANTCST.BAS, August, 1986 . 16
11 Screen for data sets available to delete, PLANTCST.BAS,
August, 1986 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
LIST OF TABLES
1 A guide for converting various sizes of nursery containers to square
feet of occupied space, August, 1986 . . . . . . . . 7
PLANTCST: A MICROCOMPUTER PROGRAM FOR WHOLESALE NURSERIES
J. Robert Strain
PLANTCST is an enhanced microcomputer adaptation in BASIC of an original
University of Florida Plant Cost Estimator Program in FORTRAN. The purpose of
the program is to assist nursery operators in estimating the costs of growing
individual plants. Nursery investment, overhead operating costs and growing
area data are entered for calculating overhead costs per square foot. Direct
plant costs and growing time and space data then allow estimation of costs per
plant. Total costs per plant consist of cash costs, additional non-cash costs
(such as depreciation) that should be covered, an allowance for expected plant
loss, and an extra allowance for a planned return on the investment in the nur-
With this data, nursery operators can compare crops and growing alternatives
for returns per plant and returns per square foot of growing area devoted to
the crop. They can price and re-price plants with more precision. They can
see if prices charged by competitors are satisfactory prices for their opera-
tion. If not, they may want to look at other production alternatives. Nursery
operators can estimate the effects of price reductions on their returns and
determine minimum prices needed to provide a return on investment, to cover
cash costs and allowances, or to return only cash costs.
J. ROBERT STRAIN is Professor and Extension Economist in the IFAS (Insti-
tute of Food and Agricultural Sciences) Food and Resource Economics Department,
University of Florida, Gainesville, 32611.
The disk you receive as a part of the PLANTCST package is only a DISTRIBU-
TION disk. Do not try to run this disk. You must supply two additional parts
before it can be used. You must supply an MS-DOS operating system suitable for
your machine, and you must supply the equivalent of BASICA. Make a working
copy containing all three of these parts following the instructions below.
Store the original distribution disk in a safe place in case you need to
replace the working copy. Also, you might consider storing a second "backup
copy" in another safe location.
Typical steps for making a working copy with an MS-DOS machine with two
disk drives are as follows (NOTE: when you see [ENTER], press the ENTER (or
1. Format a working copy disk with OPERATING SYSTEM.
*--Place your MS-DOS system disk in drive A and the disk to be for-
matted in drive B.
*--Type: FORMAT/S/V B: [ENTER] (format the disk in drive B with
operating system and verify the results.)
*--If your machine requires a procedure slightly different than the
one described in the previous line, use the procedure appropriate
for your machine.
2. Copy BASIC onto the newly formatted working disk.
*--Remove your operating system disk from drive A, replace it with a
disk containing the appropriate BASIC language (e.g. BASICA.EXE).
*--Your newly formatted working copy disk remains in drive B:
*--Transfer BASIC to your working copy. Use the appropriate name
for your BASIC. It might be BASICA.COM, BASICA.EXE, GWBASIC.COM,
GWBASIC.EXE and so on. If yours is not already named BASICA,
then rename it to BASICA when you transfer it. For example, if
yours is GWBASIC.EXE, then transfer it to the working copy disk
as follows: type COPY GWBASIC.EXE B:BASICA.EXE [ENTER].
3. Copy the contents of the distribution disk onto the newly formatted
working copy disk as follows:
*--Make sure a write protect tab is in place on your distribution
disk to keep you from accidentally erasing anything on it. Then
place it in drive A.
*--Type COPY *.* B:[ENTER] (copy all files onto the disk in drive B).
4. You now have a newly created working copy of PLANTCST.BAS. When ready
to proceed, place it in drive A and proceed with the program by typ-
ing: AUTOEXEC [ENTER] or by re-booting the machine
DATA PREPARATION AND THE FORM 13.3C WORKSHEET
Needed data should be collected and prepared before proceeding with the
program. PLANTCST was developed as a companion to the Florida Nursery Business
Analysis Program. Form 13.3C (Fig. 1) was designed for gathering and preparing
data for PLANTCST. Operating overhead data needed for page one of the PLANTCST
Form 13.3C Worksheet may be taken directly from the output of the Nursery Busi-
ness Analysis Program. Output of the Nursery Business Analysis Program may be
obtained through participation in the Florida Nursery Business Analysis Program
or through operation of a microcomputer program FOLAGNBA or WOODYNBA. Other-
wise, the user must obtain the needed data from nursery records.
Page two of Form 13.3C is for individual plant data. For each plant to' be
analyzed, prepare data on costs that can be assigned directly to a plant,
determine the growing time and space requirements for each plant, establish the
expected plant losses for each crop, and estimate expected selling price.
Begin the process by filling in page one as follows:
PEnter the number of years for which data will be entered. 1
2. Enter the number of years for which data will be entered.
2a. Enter the years for which data will be developed.
2b. Enter cash costs from the operating statement data (items 1-20). (Do
not include loan reduction payments or interest payments. A return to
all capital invested in the nursery is handled separately later on.)
DO NOT sum cash costs at this time.
2c. Enter non-cash costs (items 21-23) and sum the figures for each year
on line 2c.
2d. Enter average square feet of growing area for each year's data.
2e. Enter each year's figures for capital invested in the nursery. This
should include capital tied up in plant and supply inventories and in
3. Enter the rate of return you plan to earn on your investment in the
nursery. Presumably, you plan to earn more than you would receive for
the same investment in a savings account. Otherwise, why take the
risk of being in business.
PLANT COST ESTIMATOR COMPUTER DATA INPUT FORM
:Nursery : QdeJTRA( FlORIOA4 If ,AEAv .
1 NUMBER OF YEARS of data being entered. If all plants whose costs are being:
: analyzed are produced during the same business (accounting) year, enter 1.:
: If some plants are started in one year and started in a second year, enter:
: 2. If some plants are grown during any parts of three years, enter 3,.---:
: etc., up to a maximum of five years. Most nurseries need only 1 to 3.: 1:
: 2 Cost and growing area data will be requested for the number of years speci-:
: fied in number 1 above. List the most recent year first.
a) YEAR of data f /184 ____::
: 1) Operator salary/time value..: ,f1.3 ::
2) All other salaries/wages....: : : _
: 3) Seeds, cuttings, liners..... :-..... .. :
4) Growing containers ..........: _
: 5) Fuel for production heat....: 022 _____
6) Peat, sand, soil, shavings..: _____
7) Fertilizer & lime ...........: __o :
8) Pesticides & chemicals ......; h _____ ___
: 9) Packing boxes ...............: /_ 26 _
: 10) Other production supplies...: A 42r :
: 11) Facility maintenance ........: *9 :___
12) Equip operation/repairs..... 7 42 ___
: 13) Travel, trade shows .........: .8 : _____
14) Insurance................... _____
: 15) Telephone/answering service.: 4 _
: 16) Electricity.................: ..441.:_____ __
17) Taxes, licenses, bonds......: 4..
: 18) Advertising................. _
: 19) Rent: land/buildings ........: _93 __
20) Other cash expense..........: I 16 __
b) Total CASH costs...............: 2OS ______ __
21) Depreciation: mach/equip ....: /6 :: ::__
22) Depreciation: bldgs/wells...: /:&: 9 :: 1
23) Supply inventory decrease...: a : ::__
c) Total NON-CASH costs........... 4 ________ __
: d) SQ FT of growing area............: T,/_____:: ::
: e) OWNED CAPITAL involved.........: 4/1,^77/./1:: ___::
3 Planned RATE of return on investment .......................... :
Figure 1.--Plant cost estimator computer data input form, PLANTCST.BAS,
4 Individual PLANT data
: : : ::***YEAR ONE.*** ::***YEAR TWO*** :***YEAR THREE,**::PERCENT::PLANNED:
PLANT NAME :CONTAINER:ALLOCATED::SPAC-:GROW:SQ FT,::SPAC-:GROW:SQ FT::SPAC-:GROW:SQ FT:: PLANT ::SELLING:
: : SIZE : COSTS : INGS:TIME:TAKEN:: INGS:TIME:TAKEN:: INGS:TIHE:TAKEN:: LOSS :: PRICE
PoTY I., :: :10 : ". : ..
:i otiEPFOTHOS 3PoT :*SO f12S: I .5. : .-. .- .7 :24 2
:4- : :: : 3: :: : : :: :: :: ____
:1 : :JTA: _ _ : : : :_ : : : :_ : : : : : : *:
2 : : :: : : :: :: : : : :
: .. .. ..
_5____________::so a __I: Z*._ 6 ::_____
_6 &OLOa_______o ._"-- ---___ -__ __" ___ -- _ ____ ____
;2:V isu:3 7j4:: :---:: : :__: __ _.
:7 S ATHT O :4 :& :: : : :: : : :: .: :
_____T : : A :: : : : : :__: :____ _____: ::.:
_8 ro' 1:_ __:1:___ : ____*_ __'._---_____ ____1
:10_ ,* "* :.. .1 *. ._ .* ._
:11 :*________ :. : : : : : .____:____ .____
:16 : : :: : :: : : :: ____ :_ ,: :, ____
173 : : :: : : : : : :: : : ____
4 List all plants for which costs are to be estimated. Four sample
plants are already listed. List any additional plants that you wish
(program limit is 38 plants), and prepare their data as follows:
5. Identify and enter the allocated or direct costs associated with grow-
ing each of those plants.
6. Enter the number of spacings used for each plant for each year of the
7. Enter the time grown and the square feet of space required for each
plant. If more than one spacing per year is used during the growing
operation, list the time grown and the most common space required for
each spacing. (Table 1 lists common container sizes and the square
feet of space required when placed pot to pot. For wider than pot to
pot spacing, measure the distance between pot centers and calculate
the square feet required. Pots placed on 12 inch centers use 144
square inches, or one square foot. Other spacings in square inches
divided by 144 gives the square feet utilized.)
8. Enter for each plant the expected percent of plant loss during the
entire growing cycle.
9. Enter the expected selling price for each finished plant.
Return to page 1
10. Identify those costs that you can assign directly to individual
plants. For instance, with our sample plants, we listed costs for
cuttings (line 2b3 on Form 13.3C), pots (line 2b4 on Form 13.3C), and
soil (line 2b5). Mark out these and any other costs that you can
assign directly to individual plants. Then add the remainder to get
an unallocated cash cost total. These costs will then be assigned to
individual plants on the basis of the space they take and the time
they use it.
This completes the preparation of the worksheet prior to running the
RUNNING THE PROGRAM
Discussion of running the program is presented in two parts. The first is
a general overview of the program. Some of you will be ready to turn on the
machine and begin with the program after reading the overview. The second is a
step by step procedure for running the program.
Table 1.--A guide for converting various sizes of nursery containers to square
feet of occupied space, August, 1986.
: Container Square feet
:In propagating house or bed (with pots touching on all sides)
2 1/4 inch pot . . . . . . . . . 0.0352
2 3/8 inch pot . . . . . . . . . 0.0392
2 1/2 inch pot . . . . . . . . . 0.0434
: 3 inch pot . . . . . . . . . . 0.0625
4 inch pot . . . . . . . . . 0.1111
6 inch pot . . . . . . . . . . 0.2500
7 inch pot . . . . . . . . . . 0.3403
8 inch pot . . . . . . . . . 0.4444
liners in beds, not potted (depends on spacing) usually 0.1111
:In finishing areas (outdoors, saran sheds, etc) with "normal" spacing
Quart can . . . . . . . . . . 0.5000
6 inch pot . . . . . . . . . . 0.7500
7 inch pot . . . . . . . . . . 1
8 inch pot . . . . . . . . . . 1
10 inch or 12 inch pot . . . . . . . 2
1 gallon, can or plastic (also #10 can) . . . 1
2 gallon, can or plastic . . . . . . 2
3 gallon, can or plastic . . . . . . 2.5
: 4 gallon, can or plastic . . . . . .. 2.5
Egg can . . . . . . . . . . 2.5
5 gallon can . . . . . . . . . 3
6 gallon can . . . . . . . . . 4
7 or 7 1/2 gallon can . . . . . . . 5
Half bushel basket . . . . . . . . 6
10 gallon can . . . . . . . . . 6
12 gallon can . . . . . . . . . 7
15 gallon can . . . . . . . . . 8
20 gallon can . . . . . . . . . 10
One bushel basket . . . . . . . . 12
25 gallon can . . . . . . . . . 12 :
Tub or half barrel . . . . . . . . 15
: 30 gallon can . . . . . . . . . 15
40 gallon, banded concrete or metal . . . . 18
:Field grown plants : . . .. row width times spacing in the row
Overview of the program
PLANTCST proceeds as depicted in Fig. 2. The program has two sections.
The first is for entering nursery data. Nursery data must be entered into the
program and costs per square foot of growing area calculated before the second
section can be used. The number of data sets to enter depends upon the length
of the growing cycle of the plants being analyzed. Foliage plants started and
finished in the same year need only a data set for one year. Others growing in
parts of two or more years will need data sets for the additional years. The
program accommodates up to five years growing time. Data sets may be retrieved
from previously recorded data stored in PLANTCST.DAT, the data file, or they
may be entered from page 1 of the Form 13.3C Worksheet. Nursery data that is
entered may be saved for use again at a later time, and unwanted data sets can
be eliminated after leaving this program by using the PLANTDLT program.
The second section calculates costs for individual plants. The program
operator may choose to analyze foliage or potted flowering plants, container or
field grown woody plants, or any combination of these. Calculations may be
made for up to 38 plants (two comparison table screens). Additional plants may
be analyzed by starting the program over again.
The results show cash costs in the plant, additional non-cash allowances
that should be covered, adjustments in costs for expected plant loss-, and fur-
ther adjustments needed for acheiving the planned rate of return on investment.
The results may be routed either to the screen or to a printer. Finally, a
comparison of the results of the various plant calculations may be viewed (or
printed) in a plant comparison table.
Step by Step Procedure
Plants grown in a single year will be used to illustrate the step by step
operation of the PLANTCST program. For part one of the.program, you will be
asked to retrieve a previously recorded data set form PLANTCST.DAT, the same
data appearing on page one of Fig. 1. If you make no error, then, your results
should match the illustrations in this manual. The same applies to the second
part of the program where costs for individual plants are calculated. You will
be asked to use the individual plant data on page 2 of Fig. 1. Proceed as
option 0 **********************
************************ STRAIN MENU **
* ** OPENING SCREEN **
* option 1 **********************
* ********************** clear and re-set **
* ** enter name **
* option 2 *
AA A ** **
* * ** enter/ **
* * ** retrieve **
* * ** nursery data **
* * ** (up to 5 yrs) **
* * ** **
S* ** ** ** **
* * ** crt/prt **
* * ** cost/sq ft printout **
* * option 3 *******************************
* * ****************************
* * ********A****AA***************
* * ** plant data in **
: * A ********************************
* * ** **
SA A A ** crt/prt**
AAAA AA **
* * AAA ****A AA***AAA****AAAA
* * ** cost/plant printout **
AAA *** A*A***********************************
A AAA A*
: t* f *********************** ** *
* ********************** ** *
********************* OPTIONS ** *
************************** MENU ** *
** ** ** plant ** *
option 4 ** crt/prt ******* comparison ******
** ** ** table **
Figure 2.--Flow chart for PLANTCST.BAS, August, 1986.
01-Boot (start) the computer with the newly created working copy of the
PLANTCST program in drive A.
02-The AUTOEXEC program will begin. You will be requested to enter date
and time. Do so. (If your computer has a clock-calendar module
installed, you can pass over this section by pressing (ENTER] twice.
Later, you may want to use your word processor to alter the AUTOEXEC
file to suit your system.)
03-Next will be a display of the menu program (Fig. 3). Choices are (Fl)
to exit back to BASIC or DOS, (F6) to run PLANTCST or (F7) to run
PLANTDLT to delete a data set from the data file. (F2 thru F5 are
reserved for those who wish to operate the University of Florida Nur-
sery Business Analysis microcomputer programs from this same menu.)
Press F6 (function key number six) to run PLANTCST.
04-PLANTCST will load and the credits screen will appear. Press the
space bar (or any other key) when you are ready to continue.
05-You will be asked to enter your name. Do so. Then the date will
appear. Data saved during this session will be identified by this
06-You will be asked for the number of years of data to be used. For
this demonstration, press 1, even though the plants you normally grow
take longer than one year to finish. For this illustration, we are
only using plants that are finished within a year.
SS Menu courtesy Harold B. Martin Inc. SS
SS Florida Extension Service Software SS
Fl ..... QUIT, exit this menu back to BASIC or DOS
F6.....: PLANTCST : (Plant Cost Estimator Program).
F7..... Delete a PLANTCST data set (from F4)
Figure 3.--Screen of STRAINMN.BAS, the menu program for PLANTCST.BAS,
07-For year one,
you will be asked if you want to retrieve previously re-
Press Y for yes. You wish to retrieve data stored in
the data file.
08-You will be asked for the drive containing PLANTCST.DAT.
[ENTER] for drive A. (You may want to change it later,
time, the data file is on the same disk as the program in
Press A then
but at this
09-An array of available data sets will appear (Fig. 4). When you re-
ceive the disk, it will contain three data sets, one Central Florida
Foliage Nursery Business Analysis Average data set, one South Florida
Foliage Nursery Business Analysis Average data set, and one woody con-
tainer Nursery Business Analysis Average data set. For this demon-
stration, press 1 for the Central Florida foliage data.
10-The data will load and appear on the screen automatically as in Fig. 5.
11-You will be asked if the data are OK. Press N for no even if all are
OK. This shows you the method for changing data when the need arises.
For each item on the screen, type in a change if you want it changed.
Otherwise, just press [ENTER], and the data will be left as they were.
Proceed through the correction routine as often as needed to get all
the data the way you want them. However, be sure to end up with the
data unchanged. If you don't, your results from the remainder of this
demonstration will not be the same as illustrated in this manual.
When all is OK, press Y for yes.
12-You will be asked if you want to save these data.
Press N for no.
: : PLANT COST ESTIMATOR
The following DATA SETS are available for RETRIEVAL :
:Set # Year Date Time Entered by Cash Cost Capital Inv Rate:
: 0 RETURN without retrieving any data
: 1 1984 02-07-86 13:39:18 Strain/Cen Fol 409715.99 419667.71 12
: 2 1984 02-07-86 15:12:36 Strain/So Fol 752929.20 680888.73 12
: 3 1984 02-07-86 15:36:12 Strain/Woody 292260.00 499697.63 12
: Enter the NUMBER of the data set to be retrieved --> ?
Figure 4.--Screen for data available to retrieve, PLANTCST.BAS, August, 1986.
* PLANT COST ESTIMATOR
: PLANT COST ESTIMATOR
: Cost Per Square Foot
Year # 1 is .................. 1984
unallocated CASH costs were (or will be) $
unallocated NON-CASH costs were (will be) $
size of production AREA .... (in square feet)
average CAPITAL investment was (will be) $
planned RATE of return on investment is ... %
Are the above data OK
Figure 5.--Screen for nursery data input, PLANTCST.BAS, August,
You already have this data in the data file.
13-You will be asked if you want the data routed only to
also to the printer. Choose your preference.
14-The next screen (Fig. 6) shows costs per square foot:
and including planned return on investment.
The next section of the program utilizes the individual plant data from
page 2 of the worksheet. For this exercise, use only the data shown on the
15-You will be asked for the following:
-plant name up to 18 characters long,
-container size or type (up to 9 characters),
-allocated costs (costs such as pots and cuttings earlier identi-
fied as directly assignable to individual plants),
-expected percent of plant loss during the growing and selling op-
-expected selling price.
Enter the data as requested. For the first plant, the results should
be as shown in Fig. 7.
16-You will again be asked if the data are OK (as in Fig. 5). Press N
: : PLANT COST ESTIMATOR :
: : Cost Per Square Foot
Year # 1 is ....... 1984 DOLLARS
Unallocated CASH costs per square foot . . . 1984 4.40
: Unallocated NON-CASH costs per square foot . 1984 0.27
Total UNALLOCATED costs per square foot . . 1984 4.66
Added cost for a 12 percent RETURN on investment 1984 .54
Total ALL costs per square foot of growing area 1984 5.20
Strike any key to continue
Figure 6.--Screen for output of nursery cost per square foot PLANTCST.BAS,
: PLANT COST ESTIMATOR :
: : Cost Per Plant
Plant name (up to 18 letters)..... Golden Pothos
Growing container designation .........(size or type) 3"Pot
Allocated (direct) costs for this plant are ........$ 0.1465
The (expected) percent of plant LOSS is ............% 7.0
The (expected) selling price is .....................$ 0.22
Are the above data OK (Y/N) ???
Figure 7.--Screen for input of plant data, PLANTCST.BAS, August, 1986.
for no if you need to change anything. Otherwise, press Y for yes.
The correction process works the same as in the previous section.
17-Once you have OKed the data, you will be asked if growing time will be
entered in weeks or months. For the first three plants, press W for
growing time in weeks.
18-For year one, you will be asked for the number of spacings used in
growing the crop. For the first plant, press I for one spacing as
noted on the worksheet.
19-For each spacing specified, you will be asked for the square feet and
growing time required. Table 1 can be used as a guide. Note that for
three inch pots touching on all sides, the usual space requirement is
.0625 square feet. The growing time listed is 10 weeks. Enter these
two figures as requested.
20-When the square feet and growing time data have been entered, you will
be asked if the data are OK. Press N for no, so you can see how this
correction procedure differs from the previous ones. You must re-
enter the number of spacings in order to proceed. Once the number of
spacings have been re-entered, each previous entry for space require-
ments and growing time are displayed a line at a time. Type in a cor-
rection or just press [ENTER] for no change. You may repeat the cor-
rection process as often as needed to get all data correct. When all
is OK, then press Y for yes, and proceed.
21-If you had specified more than one year's data in part one of the pro-
gram, the program would continue to year two. In such cases for
plants that had no growing time in year two, enter a zero, then press
[ENTER]. Hence, having data loaded for more years than are needed for
a given plant causes no problem. For other plants, you may have grow-
ing cycles that extend for two or more years. This program accommo-
dates growing cycles up through five years, although very few nursery
operations grow plants longer than three years. Some field nurseries
may grow plants with a longer growing cycle than is provided by this
22-Again, you will be asked if data are to go to the screen only, or also
to the printer. Choose your preference.
23-The result (Fig. 8) shows cash costs, non-cash costs, adjusted cost
for expected plant losses, the additional cost for the planned return
on investment, and the difference between all costs and expected sel-
24-Press the space bar (or any other key) when ready to continue.
25-An options menu will appear (Fig. 9). You may choose to:
(0) Quit the session, return to the Strain menu.
(1) Start over again, re-run the program. This erases all prior
calculations and resets the program for a new session.
(2) Re-enter nursery data. This retains plant calculations made
so far, but allows different nursery data to be used in the
: : PLANT COST ESTIMATOR :
: : Cost Per Plant :
: Plant : Golden Pothos . . . . . . . container : 3"Pot
:Allocated (direct) cash cost per plant ........................ 0.15
: Unallocated CASH cost per plant ......................... 1984 0.05
Total CASH cost per plant ................................ 0.20
: Unallocated NON-CASH cost per plant ...................... 1984 0.00
: Cost adjustment for (expected) plant LOSSES .................... 0.01
: Plant cost adjusted for plant LOSS ....................... 0.21
: Cost adjustment for a 12 percent RETURN on investment ......... .01
: Total ALL costs and allowances per plant ...................... 0.22
DIFFERENCE between (expected) price and total all costs .......
Strike any key to continue
Figure 8.--Screen for output of cost per plant, PLANTCST.BAS, August, 1986.
: : PLANT COST ESTIMATOR
: : Options Menu
QUIT, return to the Strain menu .........
Start over again, RERUN the program .....
CHANGE or re-enter the NURSERY data .....
Calculate costs for another PLANT .....
View plant COMPARISON table ...........
Figure 9.--Screen of the options menu, PLANTCST.BAS, August, 1986.
(3) Calculate costs for another plant, and
(4) View the plant comparison table.
Press 3 to calculate costs for another plant. Then repeat the steps
15 through 23 for the next two plants on the worksheet (8"pothos bas-
ket and spath "Tasson").
26-This time, at the options menu, press 4 for viewing the plant compari-
27-The plant comparison table (Figure 10) identifies the plant and con-
tainer, and arrays the expected price, total growing costs, the
difference between costs and the expected selling price, and the an-
nual returns per square foot for crops of each plant compared. The
table will array all plants (foliage, woody or mixed) calculated
during a given session. It will not preserve an array of plants
calculated during previous sessions. But you can print out the
results for later viewing.
28-Press the space bar (or any other key) when you are ready to continue.
29-This takes you back to the options menu. If you would like to make
some calculations using your own nursery data applied to the plants
that you grow, press 2 to re-enter nursery data. Otherwise, skip to
30-Pressing 2 will return you to step 06 where you are asked to enter the
: PLANT COST ESTIMATOR
: : Plant Comparison Table
Plant Container --------Estimated/Plant-------- Net/Sq Ft
Name Size/Type Price Cost = Profit Per Year
1 Golden Pothos 3"Pot $ 0.22 $ 0.22 $ -0.00 $ -0.2685
: 2 Golden Pothos 8"Basket $ 3.10 $ 3.18 $ -0.08 $ -0.2336
3 Spath. "Tasson" 6"Pot $ 3.00 $ 2.55 $ 0.45 $ 1.3296
Strike any key to continue
Figure 10.--Screen of the plant comparison table, PLANTCST.BAS, August, 1986.
number of years data to be used. Do so.
31-You will then be asked to enter the following as indicated in Fig. 5:
-the data year (line 2a from page 1 of the Worksheet),
-unallocated cash costs (line 2b from page 1 of the Worksheet),
-unallocated non-cash costs (line 2c from page 1 of the Worksheet),
-growing area in square feet (line 2d from page 1),
-capital investment (line 2e from page 1 of the Worksheet),
-and planned rate of return (line 3 from page 1 of the Worksheet).
Do so as requested.
32-Continue as long as you wish, entering new nursery data, calculating
plant costs and comparing the various options in the plant comparison
table. Up to 38 plant calculations (two comparison table screens) may
be made at any one setting. After that, the program will be full and
will halt. You may print out the results of the plant comparison ta-
ble if you wish, but you can not calculate any more plant costs until
you press 1 at the options table to start over and re-run the program.
33-After all desired plant calculations have been made and you have re-
turned to the options menu, press 0 to exit the program and return to
the main menu.
34-Press F7 (function key number 7) for the data set deletion program.
Data sets available for deletion will be arrayed as in Fig. 11. If
you do not wish to keep the data set saved earlier in this exercise,
The following DATA SETS are available for DELETION.. :
:Set # Year Date Time Entered by: Cash Cost Capital Inv Rate:
: 1 1984 01-30-86 22:06:07 Strain/Cen Fol 409715.99 419667.71 12
: 2 1984 01-30-86 22:12:51 Strain/So Fol 752929.20 680888.73 12
: 3 1984 01-30-86 22:18:05 Strain/Woody 292260.00 456049.82 12
4 1985 02-20-86 12:35:14 Alan 342554.65 234665.75 18
To exit this routine WITHOUT deleting anything,
just press [ENTER]
Enter the NUMBER of the data set to be deleted --># ?
Figure 11.--Screen for data sets available to delete, PLANTCST.BAS,
press the number for that set and press [ENTER]. This will delete
that set. If you do not want to delete a data set, then just press
[ENTER] to exit the routine without deleting a data set.
This completes the step by step procedure through the program. Hopefully,
you will find it to be both a usable and a useful program.
INTERPRETATION OF PLANT COST DATA
First, the data shown above should NOT be considered as representing the
actual cost of producing golden pothos or Sapthiphyllum "Tasson". These data
are presented solely for purposes of illustrating the operation of the program.
Second, the costs calculated by the program are only estimates. These
costs average the variations between plants in cases where variations exist.
The results are most accurate for single crop nurseries. Here, variations be-
tween crops may be minor growing time may vary from one time of the year to
the next, or one crop may have a larger insect or disease control problem
(hence more expense) than the rest of the crops. These tend to get averaged
together in the plant cost estimator, but the discrepancies that result may not
be particularly large or important. When crops with wider variations are
grown, the averaging effect may be misleading. If the major variations can be
accounted for in the assignment of direct costs, the averaging effect for the
overhead costs may not seriously distort the results. For example, two crops
may differ considerably in costs of seeds, cuttings or liners. But these costs
may be fairly easily assigned directly to the individual plants. If the
remaining unallocated costs are similar, then the averaging effect of the pro-
gram would not seriously distort the resulting estimation of growing costs. On
the other hand, two plants with similar direct costs may differ widely in their
share of unallocated costs (costs not readily assigned directly to the plant).
In this case, the computer estimation of growing costs could be misleading and
distorted. An example might be two plants, one tender and grown only in an
expensive and heated greenhouse, while the other was cold hardy and grown
almost entirely on plastic in the open. Where these kinds of variations exist
between the plants grown in a given nursery, EXTREME CAUTION should be
exercised in interpreting the results of this computer program.
Third, the difference between the (expected) price of these plants and the
costs calculated by the program is not a profit or loss in an Internal Revenue
Service sense of the word. A plant that breaks even in this calculation, is
breaking even after contributing to a return to the operator and to the planned
return on investment. Any "profit" shown represents income in excess of the
plant's share of the operator's salary and share of a return on investment.
Conversely, small losses per plant and per square foot of growing area devoted
to that plant first means that the crop is not returning the full planned rate
of return on the investment in the nursery. Following up the cost per plant
printout (Fig. 8), larger losses mean adjustments for plant losses are not
covered, then non-cash costs and allowances are not covered, and finally, all
cash costs are not covered. This last level of loss is the one you should try
hardest to avoid.