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Bulletin 69 Correction

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Bulletin 69 Correction
Creator:
Copeland, Rick
Place of Publication:
Tallahassee, FL
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Florida Geological Survey
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English

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Subjects / Keywords:
Groundwater ( jstor )
Sodium ( jstor )
Rain ( jstor )
Water temperature ( jstor )
Water tables ( jstor )

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.

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Comments Regarding the Florida Geological Survey's Bulletin 69:
REGIONAL AND STATEWIDE TRENDS IN FLORIDA'S SPRING AND WELL GROUNDWATER QUALITY
(1991-2003)

Based on a review of Bulletin 69 in 2010, the Secretary of the Florida Department of Environmental
Protection requested a timely update of the Bulletin that would incorporate the most current statewide
information possible. Therefore, a revised publication of Bulletin 69 is scheduled for Spring, 2011 and
will cover an extended time span of 1991through 2008.

In addition, the authors regret that Bulletin 69 contained a number of minor errors, mostly in the tables.
The errors do not affect the overall interpretations presented in Bulletin 69. A listing of the corrections
is available upon request. Just click "Ask the Librarian" on the web page at
http://WWW.dep.state.fl.us/geology/publictosibayhm


Rick Copeland
Tallahassee, Florida
May 2010










Errata
Florida Geological Survey Bulletin No. 69
REGIONAL AND STATEWIDE TRENDS IN FLORIDA'S SPRING
AND WELL GROUNDWATER QUALITY (1991-2003)

Page
xix Third full paragraph last sentence, change "...potentially be e used..." to "...potentially be
used to..."
10 Third paragraph last sentence, change "Unfortunately, some pollutants not always...." to
"Unfortunately, some pollutants are not always..."
16 First full paragraph last sentence, change Appendix D to Appendix C.
21 Second paragraph, fourth line from bottom, change "...is statistically..." to "...it is
statistically..."
22 First full paragraph after last sentence, eliminate "Other analytes had"
29 Fourth paragraph last sentence, change "...agency has their ..." to "...agency has its..."
35 Third full paragraph first sentence, change "... and an upward trend..." to"...an upward trend..."
41 Second paragraph first sentence, change "Alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, sodium and
specific conductance...increased" to "Calcium, magnesium, and sodium increased..."
41 Third paragraph second sentence, change "...springs that exhibited and increase..." to
"...springs that exhibit an increase..."
41 Fourth paragraph third sentence, change "...all rock-matrix..."to "many rock-matrix..."
46 Third full paragraph first sentence, change "...10 of 14..." to "...11 of 15..."
51 First paragraph first sentence, change "Nutrients in the SRWMD..." to "During Sequence A,
nutrients in the SRWMD..."
51 Second paragraph third sentence, change "...not a standard..." to "...not a numeric standard..."
55 Second paragraph third sentence, change "...strontium increased in 10 springs and decreased in
one." to "...strontium increased in 10 springs and strontium decreased in one."
59 Fifth paragraph last sentence, change "... Sequence A..." to "... Sequence B..."
62 First full paragraph second sentence, change "...most frequent..." to "...a frequent..."
67 Second paragraph second sentence, change "...pH increased in one spring and decreased in
10..." to "...pH decreased in 10 springs."
71 First paragraph last sentence, change "Sodium and sulfate" to "Sodium, sulfate and
temperature..."
74 First paragraph third sentence, change "Temperature rose...(six increased..." to "Temperature
Rose...(seven increased..."
75 Figure 44, change "Both wells are confined..." to "Both wells are unconfined..."
77 First partial paragraph fifth sentence, change "... Sequence B...five decreased... Sequence C (two
increased..." to "...Sequence B...four increased... Sequence C (one increased..."
77 First partial paragraph seventh sentence, change "... A (seven increased... C (five increased" to
"... A (six increased...C(four increased..."
79 last paragraph, change "...six of 10..." to "...six of 11..."
81 Fourth full paragraph first sentence, change"... discussion has been..." to "...discussion was
often..."
Page










100 Second paragraph, first sentence, change "...specific conductance, sulfate,..." t o "...specific
conductance, sodium, sulfate..."
100 Second paragraph, third sentence, change "...the sign tests revealed that nitrate had an upward
trend while phosphorus, and phosphate showed decreasing trends." to "...the sign tests revealed
that phosphorus showed decreasing trends, while fluoride had and upward trend."
100 Third paragraph first sentence, change "...potassium, specific conductance..." to "potassium,
sodium, specific conductance..."
101 first paragraph seventh sentence, change "...magnesium, sodium and strontium..." to
magnesium and sodium..."
104 First paragraph third sentence, change "...trending in the other direction by greater than 50
Percent..." to "...trending in the other direction..."
104 First paragraph sixth sentence, change "...decreasing trends (minor) direction..." to"
...increasing trends (minor) direction..."
104 Change the entire second paragraph to:

Data from eight wells (six unconfined and two confined) in the NWFWMD were used.
For unconfined groundwater for Sequence A, sodium, sulfate, and temperature showed potential
evidence for upward trends, while pH, and water levels demonstrated potential evidence for
downward trends (Table 34). With only two wells tapping confined groundwater, potential
evidence for districtwide trends did not exist. For the combined (all) category (Table 35),
temperature had potential evidence for an upward trend, while water level had evidence for a
downward trend.


108 First paragraph second sentence, change "...combined category had potential..." to "...combined
category and pH for unconfined had potential..."
108 First paragraph fourth sentence, change "...pH..." to "to "...pH and SC-f..."
108 First paragraph fifth sentence, change "unconfined groundwater" to "...combined groundwater"
120 Second paragraph third sentence, change "For combined groundwater, calcium, temperature,
turbidity..." to "For combined groundwater, calcium, turbidity..."
120 Second paragraph fourth sentence, change "...less than 0.02, pH..." to "...less than 0.02, pH,
turbidity..."
120 Third paragraph first sentence, change "... trends in calcium and several..." to "...trends in
several..."
120 Third paragraph third sentence, change entire sentence to, "Phosphorous displayed a strong
downward trend while fluoride had a strong upward trend during Sequence B."
120 Third paragraph fourth and fifth sentences, delete both sentences.
122 First full paragraph fourth sentence, change "...calcium, magnesium, sodium, and strontium..."
to "...calcium, magnesium, and sodium..."
123 Table 65 last line, delete "Sr 1"
161 First partial paragraph, last phrase, change the word dependantt" to "dependent."
162 Second paragraph, fourth sentence, change "...SRJWMD..." to "...SJRWMD."
163 First full paragraph third sentence, change "...coastal spring" to "...coastal springs..."

































*Light gray indicates rock and saline-related indicators while dark gray shows common nutrient analytes.

Table 19. SJRWMD Districtwide Trends Based on Sin Tests, Suence C.
Analyte + -Trend Direction P-Value
Flow 0 8 Down 0.008
pH 10 0 Up 0.001
F 7 0 Up 0.008

Table 29. Statewide Trends Based on Sign Tests for 57 Springs, Sequence B (1991-1997)
Analyte + Trend Direction P-Value
P 0 16 Down <0.001
F 12 0 Up 0.001

Table 30. Statewide Trends Based on Sin Tests for 57 Sprns Suence C (1998-2003).
Analyte + -Trend Direction P-Value
Alk 27 2 Up <0.001
Ca 23 1 Up <0.001
Cl 24 6 Up 0.001
F 16 0 UP <0.001
Flow 0 20 Down <0.001
K 23 1 Up <0.001
Mg 28 1 Up <0.001
Na 28 1 Up <0.001
SC* 20 5 Up 0.004
SO4 21 6 Up 0.003
Sr 22 1 Up <0.001
TDS 10 2 Up 0.019
TKN 10 2 Up 0.020
TOC 2 15 Down 0.001
*F Specific conductance SWFW1VD and SJRWMD measured specific conductance (field); SRWMD
measured specific conductivity (lab).


Table 1. Analyte Groups











Table 31. Statewide Trends in at Least Two WMDs, Sequence A (1991-2003).
(Districtwide in at least two WMDs and signfcn in at least two spigin three WMDs.)
Analyte + -Sig in WMD Trend Direction P-Value
Ca 31 2 SR, SJ, SW Up <0.001
Mg 32 2 SR, SW Up <0.001
Na 30 4 SR, SW Up <0.001
Sr 27 1 SJ, SW UP <0.001
SR = SRWMD, SJ = SJRWMD, SW = SWFWMD

Table 32. Statewide Trends in at Least Two WMDs, Sequence C (1998-2003).
(Districtwide in at least two WMDs and signfcn in at least two srnsin three WMDs.)
Analyte + -Sig in WMD Trend Direction P-Value
Flow 0 19 SR, SJ Down <0.001
Ca 23 1 SR, SW Up <0.001
Mg 28 1 SR, SW Up <0.001
Na 28 1 SR, SW Up <0.001
SR = SRWMD, SJ = SJRWMD, SW = SWFWMD

Table 35. Potential NWFWMD Districtwide Trends, Sequence A. (Note small sample size.)
Confined or
Analyte Unconfined Direction Comments
Na Unconfined Up Lowering WL may be cause of slight increase in saline
analytes.
pH Unconfined Down Lowering WL may be cause of decreased pH
SO4 Unconfined Up Lowering WL may be cause of slight increase in saline
analytes.
Temp Uncon, All Up Increase in air temperature
WL(msl) Uncon, All Down Decrease in rainfall.


Table 37. Potential NWFWMD Districtwide Trends, Sequence B. (Note small sample size.)
Confined or
Analyte Unconfined Direction Comments
Na Unconfined Up Lowering WL may be cause of slight increase in saline
analytes.
SC-f Uncon, All Up Lowering WL may be cause of slight increase in saline
analytes.
WL Uncon, All Down Decrease in rainfall.

Table 39. Potential NWFMD Districtwide Trends, Sequence C. (Note small sample size.)
Confined or
Analyte Unconfined Direction Comments
pH Uncon, All Down Possibly higher mixture of younger recharge water near
well screen during low water level times.











Table 41. Potential SRWMD Districtwide Trends, Sequence A.
Confined or
Analyte Unconfined Direction Comments
pH All Down High mixture of young, recharge water near well screen
during drought.
Turb(lab) All Down Not sure of reason.
WL(msl) Uncon, All Down Less rainfall, less recharge, and more pumping of GW.


Table 43. Potential SRWMD Districtwide Trends, Sequence B.
Confined or
Analyte Unconfined Direction Comments
pH All Down Possibly higher mixture of younger, recharge water near well
screen during low water level times.
SC-f All Down Not sure of reason.



Table 45. Potential SRWMD Districtwide Trends, Sequence C.
Confined or
Analyte Unconfined Direction Comments
F All Up Not sure of reason.
SC(field) All Up Less rainfall, less dilute recharge water
Temp Uncon, All Up Air temperature in WMD increased. Water temperature may
be related.
WL(msl) All Down Less rainfall, less recharge, and more pumping of GW.

Table 57. Potential SWFWMD Districtwide Trends, Sequence C.
Confined or
Analyte Unconfined Direction Comments
SC(field) All Up Less rainfall, less dilute recharge water
WL(msl) All Down Less rainfall, less recharge, and more pumping of GW.










Table 63. Statewide Spring-water Quality Summary for Rock and Saline Indicators.
(Only indicators displaying strong significant trends (P-Value < 0.02)
Sequence A (1991 2003)
Analyte Trend Direction P-Value
Flow Down 0.006
Alk Up <0.001
Ca Up <0.001
Cl Up <0.001
F Up <0.001
K Up 0.001
Mg Up <0.001
Na Up <0.001
SC Up 0.004
Sr Up <0.001
SO4 Up 0.001
TDS Up <0.001
Sequence B (1991-1997)
P Down <0.001
F Up 0.001
Sequence C (1998-2003)
Flow Down <0.001
Alk Up <0.001
Ca Up <0.001
Cl Up 0.001
F Up <0.001
K Up <0.001
Mg Up <0.001
Na Up <0.001
SC Up 0.005
Sr Up <0.001
SO4 Up 0.003
TDS Up 0.019




Full Text

PAGE 1

Comments Regarding the Florida Geological Survey’s Bulletin 69: REGIONAL AND STATEWIDE TRENDS IN FLORIDA’S SPRING AND WELL GROUNDWATER QUALITY (1991 2003) Based on a review of Bulletin 69 in 2010, the Secretary of the Florida Department of Environmental Protection requested a timely update of the Bulletin that would incorporate the most current statewide information possible. Therefore, a revised publication of Bulletin 69 is scheduled for Spring, 2011 and will cover an extended time span of 1991 through 2008. In addition, the authors regret that Bulletin 69 contained a number of minor errors, mostly in the tables. The errors do not affect the overall interpretations presented in Bulletin 69. A listing of the corrections is available upon request. Just click “Ask the Librarian” on the web page at http://WWW.dep.state.fl.us/geology/publications/library.htm. Rick Copeland Tallahassee, Florida May 2010

PAGE 2

Errata Florida Geological Survey Bulletin No. 69 REGIONAL AND STATEWIDE TRENDS IN FLORIDA’S SPRING AND WELL GROUNDWATER QUALITY (1991-2003) Page xix Third full paragraph last sentence, change “…potentially be e used…” to “…potentially be used to…” 10 Third paragraph last sentence, change “Unf ortunately, some pollutants not always….” to “Unfortunately, some pollutants are not always…” 16 First full paragraph last sentence, change Appendix D to Appendix C. 21 Second paragraph, fourth line from bo ttom, change “…is statistically…” to “… it is statistically…” 22 First full paragraph after last sentence, eliminate “Other analytes had” 29 Fourth paragraph last sentence, change “…agen cy has their …” to “…agency has its…” 35 Third full paragraph first sentence, change “… and an upward trend…” to”…an upward trend…” 41 Second paragraph first sentence, change “Alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, sodium and specific conductance…increased” to “Calcium, magnesium, and sodium increased…” 41 Third paragraph second sentence, change “…springs that exhibited and increase…” to “…springs that exhibit an increase…” 41 Fourth paragraph third sentence, change “...all rock-matrix…”to “many rock-matrix…” 46 Third full paragraph first sentence, change “…10 of 14…” to “…11 of 15…” 51 First paragraph first sentence, change “Nutri ents in the SRWMD…” to “During Sequence A, nutrients in the SRWMD…” 51 Second paragraph third sentence, change “…not a standard…” to “…not a numeric standard…” 55 Second paragraph third senten ce, change “…strontium increased in 10 springs and decreased in one.” to “…strontium increased in 10 springs and strontium decreased in one.” 59 Fifth paragraph last sentence, change “…Sequence A…” to “…Sequence B…” 62 First full paragraph second sentence, cha nge “…most frequent…” to “…a frequent…” 67 Second paragraph second sentence, change “… pH increased in one spring and decreased in 10…” to “…pH decreased in 10 springs.” 71 First paragraph last sentence, change “Sodium and sulfate” to “Sodium, sulfate and temperature…” 74 First paragraph third sentence, change “Temperature rose…(six increased…” to “Temperature Rose…(seven increased…” 75 Figure 44, change “Both wells are c onfined…” to “Both wells are unconfined…” 77 First partial paragraph fifth sentence, cha nge “…Sequence B…five decreased…Sequence C (two increased…” to “…Sequence B…four in creased…Sequence C (one increased…” 77 First partial paragraph seventh sentence, ch ange “…A (seven increased…C (five increased” to “… A (six increased…C(four increased…” 79 last paragraph, change “…six of 10…” to “…six of 11…” 81 Fourth full paragraph first sentence, cha nge“…discussion has been…” to “…discussion was often…” Page

PAGE 3

100 Second paragraph, first sentence, change “… specific conductance, sulf ate,…” t o “…specific conductance, sodium, sulfate…” 100 Second paragraph, third sentence, change “…th e sign tests revealed that nitrate had an upward trend while phosphorus, and phospha te showed decreasing trends.” to “…the sign tests revealed that phosphorus showed decreasing trends, while fluoride had and upward trend.” 100 Third paragraph first sentence, change “…potassium, specific conductance…” to “potassium, sodium, specific conductance…” 101 first paragraph seventh sentence, change “…magnesium, sodium and strontium…” to magnesium and sodium…” 104 First paragraph third sentence, change “…tre nding in the other direction by greater than 50 Percent…” to “…trending in the other direction…” 104 First paragraph sixth sentence, change “…decreasing trends (minor) direction…” to” …increasing trends (minor) direction…” 104 Change the entire second paragraph to: Data from eight wells (six unconfined and tw o confined) in the NWFWMD were used. For unconfined groundwater for Sequence A, sodium , sulfate, and temperature showed potential evidence for upward trends, while pH, and water levels demonstrated potential evidence for downward trends (Table 34). With only two wells tapping confined groundwater, potential evidence for districtwide trends did not exist. For the combined (all) category (Table 35), temperature had potential evidence for an upward trend, while water level had evidence for a downward trend. 108 First paragraph second sentence, change “…co mbined category had potential…” to “…combined category and pH for unconfined had potential…” 108 First paragraph fourth sentence, cha nge “…pH…” to “to “…pH and SC-f…” 108 First paragraph fifth sentence, change “unconfined groundwater” to “…combined groundwater” 120 Second paragraph third sentence, change “For combined groundwater, calcium, temperature, turbidity…” to “For combined groundwater, calcium, turbidity…” 120 Second paragraph fourth sente nce, change “…less than 0.02, pH…” to “…less than 0.02, pH, turbidity…” 120 Third paragraph first sentence, change “… tre nds in calcium and several…” to “…trends in several…” 120 Third paragraph third sentence, change entir e sentence to, “Phosphorous displayed a strong downward trend while fluoride had a st rong upward trend during Sequence B.” 120 Third paragraph fourth and fift h sentences, delete both sentences. 122 First full paragraph fourth sentence, change “…calcium, magnesium, sodium, and strontium…” to “…calcium, magnesium, and sodium…” 123 Table 65 last line, delete “Sr ” 161 First partial paragraph, last phrase, cha nge the word “dependant” to “dependent.” 162 Second paragraph, fourth sentence, change “…SRJWMD…” to “…SJRWMD…” 163 First full paragraph third sentence, change “…coastal spring” to “…coastal springs…”

PAGE 4

Table 1. Analyte Groups Field Rock-Matrix (Rock)* Saline or saltwater Nutrient Other Discharge Alk Ca Ca and Mg TSS DO Ca Cl K Turb pH F K N TOC SC Fe Na NH3 and NH4 Temp K SC NO3 or NO3 + NO2 WL(msl) or Stage Mg SO4 PO4 and P PO4 and P TDS SO4 pH WL(msl) or Stage TKN SC TOC SO4 Sr *Light gray indicates rock and saline-related indicators while dark gray shows common nutrient analytes. Table 19. SJRWMD District wide Trends Based on Sign Tests, Sequence C. Analyte + Trend Direction P-Value Flow 0 8 Down 0.008 pH 10 0 Up 0.001 F 7 0 Up 0.008 Table 29. Statewide Trends Based on Sign Tests for 57 Springs, Sequence B (1991-1997). Analyte + Trend Direction P-Value P 0 16 Down <0.001 F 12 0 Up 0.001 Table 30. Statewide Trends Based on Sign Tests for 57 Springs, Sequence C (1998-2003). Analyte + Trend Direction P-Value Alk 27 2 Up <0.001 Ca 23 1 Up <0.001 Cl 24 6 Up 0.001 F 16 0 UP <0.001 Flow 0 20 Down <0.001 K 23 1 Up <0.001 Mg 28 1 Up <0.001 Na 28 1 Up <0.001 SC* 20 5 Up 0.004 SO4 21 6 Up 0.003 Sr 22 1 Up <0.001 TDS 10 2 Up 0.019 TKN 10 2 Up 0.020 TOC 2 15 Down 0.001 * Specific conductance SWFWMD and SJRWMD measured specific conductance (field); SRWMD measured specific conductivity (lab).

PAGE 5

Table 31. Statew ide Trends in at Least Two WMDs, Sequence A (1991-2003). (Districtwide in at least two WMDs and significant in at least two spring in three WMDs.) Analyte + Sig in WMD Trend Direction P-Value Ca 31 2 SR, SJ, SW Up <0.001 Mg 32 2 SR, SW Up <0.001 Na 30 4 SR, SW Up <0.001 Sr 27 1 SJ, SW UP <0.001 SR = SRWMD, SJ = SJRWMD, SW = SWFWMD Table 32. Statewide Trends in at Least Two WMDs, Sequence C (1998-2003). (Districtwide in at least two WMDs and significant in at leas t two springs in three WMDs.) Analyte + Sig in WMD Trend Direction P-Value Flow 0 19 SR, SJ Down <0.001 Ca 23 1 SR, SW Up <0.001 Mg 28 1 SR, SW Up <0.001 Na 28 1 SR, SW Up <0.001 SR = SRWMD, SJ = SJRWMD, SW = SWFWMD Table 35. Potential NWFWMD Districtwide Trends, Sequence A. (Note small sample size.) Analyte Confined or Unconfined Direction Comments Na Unconfined Up Lowering WL may be cause of slight increase in saline analytes. pH Unconfined Down Lowering WL ma y be cause of decreased pH SO4 Unconfined Up Lowering WL may be cause of slight increase in saline analytes. Temp Uncon, All Up Increase in air temperature WL(msl) Uncon, All Down Decrease in rainfall. Table 37. Potential NWFWMD Districtwide Trends, Sequence B. (Note small sample size.) Analyte Confined or Unconfined Direction Comments Na Unconfined Up Lowering WL may be cause of slight increase in saline analytes. SC-f Uncon, All Up Lowering WL may be cause of slight increase in saline analytes. WL Uncon, All Down Decrease in rainfall. Table 39. Potential NWFMD Districtwide Trends, Sequence C. (Note small sample size.) Analyte Confined or Unconfined Direction Comments pH Uncon, All Down Possibly higher mixture of younger recharge water near well screen during low water level times.

PAGE 6

Table 41. Potential SRWMD Districtwide Trends, Sequence A. Analyte Confined or Unconfined Direction Comments pH All Down High mixture of young, recharge water near well screen during drought. Turb(lab) All Down Not sure of reason. WL(msl) Uncon, All Down Less rainfall, less recharge, and more pumping of GW. Table 43. Potential SRWMD Districtwide Trends, Sequence B. Analyte Confined or Unconfined Direction Comments pH All Down Possibly higher mixture of younger, recharge water near well screen during low water level times. SC-f All Down Not sure of reason. Table 45. Potential SRWMD Districtwide Trends, Sequence C. Analyte Confined or Unconfined Direction Comments F All Up Not sure of reason. SC(field) All Up Less rainfall, less dilute recharge water Temp Uncon, All Up Air temperature in WMD increased. Water temperature may be related. WL(msl) All Down Less rainfall, less recharge, and more pumping of GW. Table 57. Potential SWFWMD Districtwide Trends, Sequence C. Analyte Confined or Unconfined Direction Comments SC(field) All Up Less rainfall, less dilute recharge water WL(msl) All Down Less rainfall, less recharge, and more pumping of GW.

PAGE 7

Table 63. Statewide Spring-water Qu ality Summary for Rock and Saline Indicators. (Only indicators displaying strong significant trends (P-Value < 0.02) Sequence A (1991 2003) Analyte Trend Direction P-Value Flow Down 0.006 Alk Up <0.001 Ca Up <0.001 Cl Up <0.001 F Up <0.001 K Up 0.001 Mg Up <0.001 Na Up <0.001 SC Up 0.004 Sr Up <0.001 SO4 Up 0.001 TDS Up <0.001 Sequence B (1991-1997) P Down <0.001 F Up 0.001 Sequence C (1998-2003) Flow Down <0.001 Alk Up <0.001 Ca Up <0.001 Cl Up 0.001 F Up <0.001 K Up <0.001 Mg Up <0.001 Na Up <0.001 SC Up 0.005 Sr Up <0.001 SO4 Up 0.003 TDS Up 0.019