Front Cover
 Back Matter
 Back Cover

Courier (English)
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00095067/00093
 Material Information
Title: Courier (English)
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Publisher: Hegel Goutier
Place of Publication: Brussels, Belgium
Publication Date: 09-2010
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UF00095067:00093

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Back Matter
        Back Matter
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text


iU r ler
The magazine ol Alrica Caribbean Pacilic & European Union cooperation and relations



/ /

- vdas.eu OUMMIT
'^ eudtdays.eu J!rEMSmo1' In' Li"T



S.. ....


' ' ' I: I:' -' II ': ':' II I I' I I n I~:~


Table of Contents


Editorial Board
Mohamed Ibn Chambas, Secretary General
Secretariat of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States

Fokion Fotiadis, Director General of DG Development
European Commission

Core staff
Hegel Goutier

Marie-Martine Buckens (Deputy Editor-in-chief)
Debra Percival

Editorial Assistant
Okechukwu Umelo

Production Assistant
Telm Borras

Contributed to this issue
Philip Adekunle, Eric Andriantsalonina, Sandra Federici, Erica Gonzalez,Yemisi Kuku,
Anne-Marie Mouradian, Andrea Marchesini Reggiani, Francesca Theosmy.

Project Manager
Gerda Van Biervliet

Artistic Coordination
Gregorie Desmons

Graphic Conception
Loic Gaume

Public Relations
Andrea Marchesini Reggiani

Viva Xpress Logistics ww.vxlnet.be

Photo Agency
Reporters ww.reporters.be

Street in Tanzania.
@ Mane-Martine Buckens

The Courier
45, Rue de Treves
1040 Brussels
Belgium (EU)
www.acp eucourier.info
Tel: +32 2 2345061
Fax: +32 2 280 1912

Published every two months in English, French, Spanish and Portuguese

For information on subscription,
Go to our website www.acp-eucourier.info or contact info@acp-eucourierinfo

Publisher responsible
Hegel Goutier

Gopa-Cartermill -Grand Angle Lai-momo

The views expressed are those of the authors and do not represent the official view of the
EC nor of the ACP countries.

The consortium and the editorial staff decline all responsibility for the articles written by
external contributors.

Jean-Pierre Ezin: We must be in the driving seat
of the eight AU-EU partnerships 4

Andris Pielbags: A new era in EU relations with Africa 6

Mgr Louis Portella-Mbuyu, Bishop of Congo-Brazzaville:
It is time to put an end to the 'resource curse' in Africa 8


Migration and Urban Planning

Migration and urbanisation: Dreams and Nightmares 16
Professional intra-ACP migration is a priority 17
Money, Information, Brains and Arts 18
ACP Human Mobility Report 2011 Highlights Policy
Challenges 19
Solutions for shanty towns: awareness raising is worth
more than money 20
Unending Urbanisation in Lagos, Nigeria 21
Zanzibar: migration crossroads 22
The transformative effect of the Haitian Diaspora 23
Migration hotspots in the Pacific 25

Flanders (Belgium)
Flanders, Belgium. A long history of a marriage of
convenience 26
The Flemish Economy: Small is Beautiful 29
Belgium: Hopes for and shadows over its future 30





Flanders: an NGO for Development
Cities of Flanders: Flat country with peaks of beauty
Culture: Things are moving in Flanders
Filming the Heart of Flanders

The forgotten people of Kagera

Raoul Peck, Haitian director, screenwriter and producer

The EU-ACP Climate Alliance

The European External Service: what impact on
development policy?
Third Africa-EU Summit Convenes in Libya
Taking Africa-EU space cooperation to new heights
Putting Agora at the centre of the global village
Goodbye to the Netherlands Antilles
UNESCO International Literacy Day

Seychelles meets the fish quality challenge

Tanzania: caught between resistance to change and
'Mwalimu', the national and international icon
A new common market, unique for Africa, of 130M people
With such potential Tanzania could do so much better
Significant budget support to fight poverty
Breaking the vicious circle of disability/poverty
The power to decide
Water, the sustainable development challenge in Zanzibar
The Tanzanians' nightmare
Cultural cauldron

Urban Camouflage: Exploring the Origins
of an Art Project
African Photography in Ulm: An exhibition not
to be missed

Fruitful entry to Europe?





cultural centre promoting artists from countries in Euro-
pe, Africa, the Caribbean and the Pacific and cultural
exchanges between communities through performance
arts, music, cinema, to the holding of conferences. It is a
meeting place for Belgians, immigrants of diverse origins
and European officials.

Espace Senghor
Centre cultural d'Etterbeek
Brussels, Belgium





Bukoba, Tanzania. a MarneMartine Buckens



The Sorrow of the Powerful

So become powerful
is the best way to
fight poverty." Those
"were the words of an
African Union commissioner in the
'Profile' section of this issue, echo-
ing the views of another defender of
human rights, Mgr Louis Portella-
Mbuyu, our interviewee in 'To the
Point' who believes that the roots of
poverty and war in Africa are to be
found "in the corporative corridors of
the economy and around the mining
shafts... far from always being linked
to ethnic conflicts". It is these fac-
tors that bleed tax revenues up to a
thousand billion dollars each year, a
figure which is greater than the total
of development aid worldwide.

There is no shortage of resources in
poor countries, but it is essential, how-
ever, that the curtain finally be drawn
over what the Synod of Bishops for
Africa calls "the curse of resources"
on the continent. Heed has been paid
to this in the parliaments of Europe
and the United States, which are now
pressing for transparency in the min-
ing industries operated by the North in
the South, where the estimated figures
for tax evasion amount to hundreds
of billion euros a year, a figure which
would ensure the attainment of a sig-
nificant number of the Millennium
Development Goals.

The European Commission has just
released an extra billion euros to help
the most disadvantaged developing
countries attain these MDGs. Like the
European Parliament, the Commission
is in favour of a tax on financial trans-
actions that could contribute up to
f100bn a year to development for the
poorest countries. The results of a
recent poll suggest that the citizens
of the European Union are more and
more united in support of those who
are less well off, with almost two out
of every three people supporting an
increase in development aid. In some
sense, it is clear that these figures sig-
nal the end of 'Aid Fatigue'. There is
no doubt that concern and compas-
sion for developing countries have
strengthened in recent times, as has
the sorrow caused by the pillaging of
their resources.

The dossier on 'Migration and Urban
Planning' also reveals a mixture of
light and shadows, but the overall view
that emerges is that there has perhaps
been too much attention paid to the
latter, to the detriment of the former.
A long-term evaluation of the results
of migration would generally focus
on progress and not on the oft-feared
barbarity. More than being a question
of resources, it is an awareness of the
situation of migrants which would be
help to ensure that the great opportu-
nities of migration are not missed. The
report on 'ACP Countries' focuses on
the positives of migration in Tanzania,
including Zanzibar, the perfect exam-
ple of this phenomenon.

The report on a European Region, on
the other hand, is devoted to Flanders,
in Belgium, the country which cur-
rently holds the rotating presidency
of the EU and the provider of the
first President of the Union, chosen
by the Parliament and Heads of State
or Government. And since Belgium
currently holds the presidency, it falls
to it to host this year's DevDays event
taking place in Brussels from 6 to 7
December. Flanders is a region that
is both very well known, and of which
little is known. At this moment in time,
when Belgium is going through dif-
ficult times which sadden those who
love it, it has been good to look more
closely at this land of art and progress,
where an abundance of inventiveness
characterises all its constituent parts.
Poor countries benefit from wide-
spread concern when they go through
a difficult political moment, and many
other nations come to their side to pro-
vide help and offer advice. It is clear
that there can be no interference in
the internal politics of a country with
a solid democracy, but, even then, a
Belgian friend expressed his sorrow
that "no one intervened -not to say
what to do but out of sympathy, to
help to find a solution". There are
two beautiful Belgian novels which
explore this panorama: 'The Sorrow of
Belgium' by Hugo Claus, and 'A Royal
Peace' by Pierre Mertens.

Hegel Goutier
Editor in chief


Lead-up up to tho e third Africa-EU Summit*

JIeaPriPeie IrF. E 1ri, i. '. ii iiii .:sioner for Human Resources,
I. I I- I l 1,1' 11 I I ,

"\'We IViust be in the driving seat

of the eight AU-EU partnerships"

Jean Pierre Ezin. Michael Tsegaye

Debra Percival

Jean Pierre Onvehoun
Ezin is the African
Union's (AU)
Commissioner for
Human Resources,
Science and Technology,
one of 10 Commissioners
representing the 53 AU
member states. A mathematics
professor, he told us about his
wish list in the policy areas
for which he's responsible
under the second action
plan (2011-2013) of the EU's
Africa Strategy, which has
eight sector partnerships. The
action plan will be discussed
by AU-EU partners at their
upcoming Summit in Tripoli,
Libya on 29-30 November.

The Courier caught up with
Commissioner Ezin at a
seminar mid-September in
Brussels on Space and the
African citizen organised by
the EU's Belgian presidency
(see separate article in this
issue). With the Millennium
Development Goal (MDG)
of halving poverty by 2015 a

shared global concern, how
does support for science
and technology contribute
to improving the lives of the
poorest? "Becoming wealthy
is the best way of combating
poverty and the best way
of becoming wealthy is
through accessing science and
technology and knowledge",
Ezin told us. Despite other
partners such as China, Brazil
and India now courting the
African continent, Ezin says,
"Europe is the partner we
know best and who knows
us best, but we want a more
effective cooperation. We are
anxious to see results beyond
words in Tripoli".

Particularly close to the
heart of Commissioner
Ezin is the setting
up of a Pan African
University of Science
and Technology

The first Action Plan (2008-
2010) for the partnership
he looks after, Science,
Technology and Information,

has had many results. They
include a programme of grants
to EU scientific research
bodies to look at health-related
and other issues with African
partners (a new programme
solely for African scientific
entities is to be announced at
the upcoming Summit), prizes
for African scientists who
have excelled and the launch
of Africa-Connect, extending
the EU's own GEANT
network to Africa, a dedicated
website for African researchers
to get in touch and share
data with fellow scientists
throughout the world. The
first action plan has also
increased capacity within the
AU's Science and Technology


Ezin says, however, that
cooperation in space which
includes satellite monitoring
of Africa to study climate
change, environment
degradation or security has
not fully taken off although
the feasibility of the extension
of the EU's own Global
Monitoring for Environment

and Security (GMES) system
to the African continent has
been looked at. "We have
to move a step further to
scale up our international
co-operation, where Africa
will become an equal
player through acquiring or
exploiting space capabilities",
Ezin told us. He added:
"GMES was conceived for
Europe. In the new strategy
to be adopted at Tripoli, we
want to reach an agreement
with the Europeans on the
content of a new GMES
plan". The possible extension
of another EU satellite, the
European Geostationary
Navigation Overlay (EGNOS)
to sub-Saharan Africa is also
likely to come up in Tripoli
(see article in The Courier
issue 17). EGNOS improves
the navigation of airlines
and other transportation.
Ezin stressed, however, the
AU's concern across all eight
partnerships that Africa must
be at the steering wheel of new
projects. He would like to see
a space agency for Africa.

Particularly close to the heart
of Commissioner Ezin is the

Eumetsat shares data with Africa. One of the first seasonal squall lines, moving steadily
west along the coast from Nigeria to Liberia, 15 February 2010.

setting up of a Pan African
University of Science and
Technology. He wants to
raise donor interest in putting
in place a core campus
with satellite institutes in
each African region. He's
hoping for the EU's political
commitment to the project
in Tripoli: "Once it is given,

we will find ways to jointly
finance this", he told us.

For more on the EU's partnership
on Science, Technology and
Information Society see www.acp-

* See also pages 6 & 41


A new era in EU relations with Africa

Africa-EU Summit (Tripoli, Libya 29-30 November 2010)*

On the eve of the third Africa-European Union (EU) Summit in Tripoli, the EU's Commissioner for Development, Andris Pielbags
speaks to The Courier about the new AU-EU strategy put on place over the last three years by the two parties and also
reminds us of the upcoming EU DevDays event and the main message from the Millennium Development Goals summit. He
highlights the importance of the Tripoli Summit to address the adaptation of the strategy to meet crucial challenges relating
to peace in conflict zones and tackling climate change.

Interview by Hegel Goutier

there been in the AU-EU
strategy. Will there rather
be a revolution in the
strategy at the summit?

For three years now, since the Africa-EU
Summit in Lisbon, our two continents
have been working as truly equal part-
ners in a relationship that has moved
beyond the donor-recipient model.
The eight thematic partnerships have
been launched and implementation is
on-going. The cooperation between

the two Commissions, the EU and the
African Union (AU), is close and based
on open dialogue. The two colleges of
Commissioners already meet regularly
which gives impetus to our joint actions.
We notably met ahead of the UN Summit
on the MDGs to discuss common mes-
sages and priorities. The upcoming
Africa-EU Summit gathering Heads of
States of the two continents in November
will consolidate this strategic partnership.
Such political meetings at the highest
level show we have entered a new era in
our relations with Africa.

During this Summit, we will discuss how
to adapt our joint strategy to our cur-
rent common challenges: ensure peace

and stability, tackle climate change, and
promote growth. That is why European
and African leaders will focus on one
main theme: growth, investment and job
creation. We all know that aid alone is not
enough to ensure development. A one
per cent increase in GDP will be worth
more than a ten per cent increase in aid.
I expect concrete ideas to emerge from
this meeting on how we can achieve more
and inclusive growth to the benefit of
both continents. We should, for example,
see how to expand trade and investment,
how to ensure mobilisation of domestic
resources, but also how best to help Africa
to utilise its natural resources to move
towards the renewable energy revolution.
A new action plan will be adopted that



covers the period 2011-2013. It should
include concrete targets for each of the 8
thematic partnerships and focus on where
we can improve our cooperation.

Some consider that European coun-
tries or the EU are only belatedly dis-
covering the draw of the AU already
having been surpassed by emerging
countries such as China and Brazil.
What's your view?

This is quite exaggerated. Our political
and economic ties with Africa date back to
more than 50 years. The EU still remains
Africa's largest trade partner, and is by
far the biggest donor to African coun-
tries and regional organizations. Take
a look back: the European Community
cooperation policy started at the crea-
tion of the European institutions. Since
then, we have established close and wide-
ranging relations between Europe and the
African countries and our cooperation is
still growing; not only in development aid
but also in trade, the environment and
many other areas.

That being said, I am pleased to see that
so called South-South cooperation is
growing. This plays in favour of global
growth. Southern countries' investments
in Africa are complementary to our aid,
not against us. Of course there are still
obstacles that the EU can help to over-
come. It is estimated that over 60 per
cent of customs taxes paid in the world
are paid by developing countries to other
developing countries. We want to help
our partners to remove such barriers. But
the emergence of Southern countries in
Africa is definitely good news.

Development Days:
Unparalleled development

For you, what's the importance of the
DevDays event?

European Development Days are the
flagship of our communication efforts
to raise awareness of our policy and

actions. It is Europe's foremost plat-
form for forward-looking and candid
exchange of ideas on international
affairs and development cooperation.
It is a unique gathering where Europeans
meet people from developing nations
to shape tomorrow's policy and build a
new consensus which would go beyond
institutional bias.

European Development Days will remain
a key moment of both political dialogue

Andris Piebalgs paid his first visit to Rwanda in September.

ers committed themselves to achieve the
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
and reduce poverty in the world. We will
not abandon the most vulnerable people
on the planet. Leaders also recognized that
both developed and developing countries
were responsible in making the MDGs a
success. Donors promised to stick to their
commitments, while developing countries
would take ownership of their national
strategies for development.

and celebration of developing countries' In this respect, the European Commission
culture through con- offered an extra lbn
certs and exhibitions. European andAfrican for the most off-track
Every year more and leaders will focus on one and most committed
more people par- main theme: growth, countries to support
ticipate in European investmentandjob creation their achievement
Development Days. of the MDGs. The
This year, for example, will be an political will and declarations are made.
unmatched opportunity to gather valu- Now, the time has come to turn the
able feedback on the consultations on Millennium Development "Goals" into
EU development policies to be launched "Realities" and turn our commitments
in the autumn. into actions.

Millennium Development

What is the main message from the
recent New York MDG Summit?

The message is very clear: world lead-

* See also pages 4 & 41


"It is time to put an end to the

'resource curse' in Africa"

Bishop of Congo-Brazzaville and champion of human rights Mgr Louis Portella-
Mbuyu has been campaigning for over a decade for a fair distribution of the revenue
of mining and oil multinationals in Africa. The Courier spoke to him in Brussels on
15 September on the fringes of a European Parliament debate.

Marie-Martine Buckens

star guest in the debate
organised by MEPs Charles
Goerens (ADLE), Eva Joly
(Greens) and Sirpa Pietikiinen (EPP) on
'The transparency of extractive indus-
tries'. The Bishop of Congo-Brazzaville
was at the European Parliament as head
of a delegation from the Symposium of
Episcopal Conferences of Africa and

Madagascar (SECAM) that, with the
support of the CIDSE -an alliance of
international Catholic development agen-
cies had just completed a tour of several
European capitals.
What is your message?
Less than a week before international
donors meet in New York to assess progress
towards the Millennium Development
Goals (MDGs), we wanted to seize the
initiative and remind the European bod-
ies that the 'resource curse' in Africa is
not inevitable. Africa, as we said back in

1994, is a "continent saturated with prob-
lems". Today this reality has changed lit-
tle. There is still war, poverty, sometimes
destitution. After the Synod, Africa's
bishops took up clear positions on key
issues such as natural resources, access
to land and water, and the eradication
of poverty. After our plenary meeting we
decided at the end of July to take concrete
steps. On the eve of the MDG summit,
we decided to clarify what are the urgent
issues for Africa.

"Far from always being linked to eth-
nic issues, it is in the corridors of the


economy and around the mining shafts as 2002. We sent a message to our lead-
that one must look for the reasons for ers at the time: "There is a transparency
war and poverty", it was stated at the problem, think of our future genera-
2009 Synod. The bishops then made a tions." We encountered a lot of reluc-

ringing callfor inter-
national legislation to The lack ol
be adopted that would African count
oblige multination- capital flows fr
als, who exploit the industries re
continent's natural
resources, to respect year, twice
African land and to develop
promote the devel- (Bernard Pir
opment of popula- General of t
tions. Known for your
outspokenness, and Ci
despite three assassi-
nation attempts, you are continuing to
demand transparency in the extractive
industries. What is the situation today?

The heads of state gathered in New York
will try and find the funds needed to
achieve the MDGs. Yet for Africa there
exists a major financial reservoir. Officials,
in the North and South, must understand
that until they stem the leaks Africa will
continue to lose more than a trillion euros
every year due to tax evasion and uncol-
lected revenue. European legislation could
help collect this tax revenue that far exceeds
the amount of public development aid.

In my country, Congo-Brazzaville, we
were very aware of the oil issue as early

f tax revenue in
ries due to illegal
,om the extractive
presents, every
the volume of
iment aid."
laud, Secretary
he French NGO

tance, aggression
even. Subsequently,
I led a delegation
in France, with
officials from the
Protestant Church,
to meet with poli-
ticians and direc-
tors of Total, the oil
company that oper-
ates in our country.
In 2003 we met
officials from the

European Commission's Development
Directorate-General. Our campaign
'Publish what you pay', which is part of
the Extractive Industries Transparency
Initiative (see Box), achieved a certain
success even if we still have much to

Speaking this evening, Eva Joly
stressed that the real problem is not
technical but political, while repeat-
ing that in mining countries such
as Tanzania, Zambia or Malawi the
mining companies "operate and leave
nothing in the country". For his part,
Charles Goerens stressed the "over-
whelming responsibility of Europe,
shared by African presidents" in doing

nothing to promote the private sector
on the African continent. What do you
think of this?

The fight against the flight of capital and
corruption is an important one because
Africa has abundant wealth. But today
it is chaos that reigns. Poverty and vio-
lence have reached such a level that they
threaten the security of the entire world.
I believe that civil society can do a lot. It
is starting to emerge everywhere in the
world and can get states to shift. I believe
that Africa's development will come from
civil society. It will come from the base,
not from the top.

The Extractive Industries Transparen-
cy Initiative (EITI), launched in 2002,
took the form of a voluntary framework
within which governments agree to dis-
close revenue from state-owned oil, gas
and mining concerns, coupled with a
parallel disclosure by mining companies
of payments made to governments in
the form of premiums, taxes or in kind.
Thirty countries, developing countries
above all, are in the process of im-
plementing the EITI. In 2007, Norway
became the first developed country
to implement the EITI. The US House
of Representatives is also looking at
the Extractive Industry Transparency
Disclosure Act, which would impose
implementation of the EITI in the US.
This act would also support demands
for disclosure in the case of companies
listed on the US Stock Exchange. Also,
the US Congress recently passed the
Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and
Consumer Protection Act, which con-
tains a provision demanding that mining,
gas and oil companies registered with
the US Securities and Exchange Com-
mission should reveal how much they
pay to foreign governments and to the
US Government. Similarly, the European
Parliament has amended the 'Transpa-
rency' Directive (TOD) to invite "Mem-
ber States to promote the disclosure of
payments by the extractive company to
governments listed on European stock

The SECAM delegation to Europe, September 2010. CIDSE


Round up

Filling the development

financing gap

Commission President offers additional funds for MDGs

to those ACP countries most in need

billion Euros -emanating
from presently unallocated
EDF funds -will be put
towards achieving the Millennium
Development Goals (MDGs), the
European Commission's President,
Jose Manuel Barroso, told European
Parliamentarians in Strasbourg on 7
September in his 'State of the Union'
address. "Being open to the world
also means standing side by side with
developing countries, especially with
Africa", he said. Meanwhile, the
European Commission is drawing up
a 'non-paper' on Innovative Financing
for Development which was to be tabled
to EU Development Ministers on 22
October and EU Foreign Ministers
of 15 November. One of the ideas it
explores to fill a development finan-
cing gap it puts at an annual e100bn,
is a tax on financial transactions. Elise
Ford, Head of Oxfam's EU office, says:
"A Financial Transaction Tax (FTT)
would raise hundreds of billions of
Euros to protect poor people in Europe
and developing countries and tackle

climate change." At a rate of 0.05 per
cent, the Brussels-based European Non
Governmental Organisation umbre-
lla, the Confederation for Relief and
Development (CONCORD) estimates
that an FTT could yield an additio-
nal e400bn annually for development
financing. French President, Nicolas
Sarkozy has said that the FTT will be
one of the key priorities when it takes
over the respective presidencies of both
the G8 and the G20 in 2011.

The EU initiative comes in the wake of
the 14 June 2010 EU Foreign Affairs
Council which decided that the EU
should, "seriously consider proposals
for innovative financing mechanisms
with significant revenue potential, with
a view to ensuring predictable financing
for sustaining development, especially
towards the poorest and most vulnerable
countries". Nine EU member states are
also members of the Leading Group of
61 North and South Countries set up
in 2006 with international institutions
and NGOs to look at ways of raising
additional development financing.


EU's 2010 Donor Atlas

Easy to read maps and graphs in the
European Union's (EU) 2010 donor At-
las are a quick way of discovering how
much development funding is given by
the EU and its 27 member states and
where it's going. Comparisons are made
with other donor partners and details
are provided on private aid flows to de-
veloping nations, such as remittances,
all in map form. Full of facts, the aim
of the Atlas is greater harmonisation
and coordination of the EU's develo-
pment policies with Member States.

Log on to: http://development.donoratlas.


Ron up

Summit of the French-speaking nations

A search for solutions to some thorny issues

Meeting with Abdou Diouf,
Secretary-General of the Francophonie

H. G.

On the eve of the Summit of
the French-speaking World
(Montreux, Switzerland,
22-24 October 2010), the
General Secretary of the Francophonie
(International Organisation of the
French-speaking World), Abdou Diouf
spoke to The Courier on such as the
weakening role of the French language
in international spheres and the demo-
cratic deficit in certain member states.

In geopolitical terms, what results
do you hope for from the Montreux

The International Organisation of the
French-speaking World (OIF) num-
bers 70 states and governments or more

than a third of the United Nations.
Among these are 15 member states of
the European Union and two G8 coun-
tries. When the heads of state of these
countries meet up, the political impact
is not to be underestimated! Two years
ago, at the last summit which took place
in Quebec, the French-speaking world
was the first North-South forum to take
up a position on the financial crisis.

What plans do you have to mitigate
the decline of French in European
institutions, for example?

It is true that multilingualism enshri-
ned in the regulations of European ins-
titutions, is in decline. This is why the
French-speaking nations have respon-
ded against the move towards monolin-
gualism in international organizations.
OIF foreign ministers have signed a

'Vademecum' (manual) that commits
the officials and diplomats of our coun-
tries to use French whenever there is
no provision for the national language.
Each year, some 12,000 experts from
OIF states and governments receive
training in the use of French for pro-
fessional purposes, either in Brussels
or in their own capital.

Do you have anything to say about
poor political government in cer-
tain OIF countries, particularly in

In many African states, the state of law
is being consolidated. The last decade
has seen some quite notable changes
in political power. One-party states
have disappeared, the media is free,
and civil society plays a more and more
active role. However, there is a trend for
military officers to enter the political
scene. This worries me, because the
root causes are often poor government
or a lack of respect for the state of law.
It is absolutely vital that we deal with
crisis situations before it is too late.

The OIF seems to be making the
reconstruction of Haiti a shop win-
dow for the promotion of its values.
Do you agree?

Absolutely! The OIF feels that its most
pressing duty is to work alongside the
Haitian people in the physical, mate-
rial and moral reconstruction of the
country. The French-speaking world
will always be indebted to Haiti. It's
thanks to Haiti that French was retai-
ned, by just one vote, as an official and
working language of the United Nations
at the time of the Bretton Woods agree-
ments. This country is also reviving the
use of the French language in North
America and keeps Creole culture alive.
French-speaking nations have com-
mitted themselves to working together
with the Haitian authorities. Our action
plan involves the Haitian population as
much as possible.

Abdou Diouf, Secretary-General of the Francophonie. Courtesy ofoIF




has to deliver

in Haiti

Secretary-General of the African,
Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) group,
Mohamed Ibn Chambas stressed the
need for quick delivery of support to
Haiti during a visit to the country from
28 August to 6 September, with the co-
chairs of the ACP-EU Joint Parliamentary
Assembly (JPA).


Dr. Chambas told The Courier
he "was deeply touched by the
extent of devastation caused by
the earthquake. On the other
hand, one also gets quite impressed by the
resilience of the ordinary people who have
been able to demonstrate strong human
feelings and determination to move on with
their lives. I also come away from Haiti
hoping that the international community,
which has shown tremendous goodwill,
will deliver quickly on its promises so we
can begin to rebuild Haiti, not recons-
truct the old one, which was unsatisfactory,
as many Haitians say. They want a new
departure that enables them to address the
urgent needs for education, health, social
and economic infrastructure, institutions
and capacity, and to make Haiti one of the
countries we all want to be proud of. Do
not forget that for many Africans that is
significant. Haiti is a country of people of
African descent, the country of Toussaint
Louverture, which was the first to gain its
independence in the Western hemisphere".

;I .6,

ICP group Secretary-General Mohamed Ibn Chambas (first from right), David Boyd, European Conservatives and
Reformist's Group political advisor (centre) and James Nicholson, Vice -president of the JPA, on their way to an

Do you have concerns about the deli-
very of the international community's
aidpledges, including those of, I/, i, a, i

Yes. There are a lot of pledges but delivery
is often slow and sometimes pledges are
never redeemed. In the particular case of
Haiti, there is on the one hand satisfaction
that the situation has very quickly impro-
ved for those in the camps. But substantive
works have to be done. We just hope that
the international community will remain
engaged and not move on to the next crisis
as has sometimes happened in the past.

As for the African countries, what they
pledged was delivered cash. This was the
case with Nigeria, Ghana, Equatorial
Guinea, South Africa and others. During
the JPA mission, the special envoy of
President Wade of Senegal, Minister

education project in Mirebalais, Haiti.

Amadou Tidiane Ba, discussed offe-
ring scholarships to students. I was very
pleased that Africa has responded in this
concrete way.

The ACP Secretary General, Mohamed
Ibn Chambas was recently honored by
the German Africa award 2010 for his
outstanding effort for peace, stability
and regional integration" when he was
serving as Executive Secretary and pre-
sident of ECOWAS. The German Afri-
ca foundation is an organisation with
members from all political parties in the
German Federal Parliament.

Cotonou Agreement Revised

Emphasis on trade and aid policy

The Cotonou Agreement that has
governed relations between the
African, Caribbean and Pacific
(ACP) Group of Sates and the

European Union for 20 years (1990-2010)
came up for its second five-yearly review
in June. The amendments principally
concern changes in relations between
the two parties in the fields of trade and
development aid policy.

The revised text of the Cotonou
Agreement was signed, respectively, by
Spanish Secretary of State for Cooperation
Soraya Rodriguez and Development
Commissioner Andris Pielbags for the
European Union, and by ACP Council

President Paul Bunduku-Latha, the
Gabonese Deputy Minister for Economic
Planning, Trade, Industry and Tourism,
for the ACP. The revised agreement pro-
vides for a stepping up of the fight against
the proliferation of small arms and against
threats to security such as organised crime
and trafficking of human beings, drugs
and arms. It also foresees more assistance
to ACP countries facing climate change
issues, as well as additional support for
the aquaculture and fisheries sector and
in the fight against HIV and AIDS.


Roiu u

Ron up

Why Lula has good reason to

love Africa

Africa has been central to the South-South strategy advocated by President Lula
- full name Luiz Ignacio Lula da Silva during his eight years as Brazil's leader.
For reasons of solidarity, but also, and above all, due to geopolitical and economic


B B razil will never be able to
repay its historical debt to
the continent", Lula has
"stated repeatedly during
his many trips to Africa. He has made ten
in all, taking in 20 countries, which is a
record within the BRIC, the group of the
world's four major emerging powers. This
places him just ahead of Chinese leader
Hu Jintao and far ahead of the Russian

The limits of solidarity

Africa also sees in Brazil an interlocutor
disposed to defend its interests when
faced with those of the West in the in-
ternational arena. "Brazil should have
a permanent seat on the UN Security
Council", declared Petro Pires, President
of Cape Verde, expressing a wish shared
by many African leaders. In May, Brazil
finally won its battle against the United
States, who agreed to pay an annual
amount of over 145 million dollars, the
amount the WTO considered to be equi-
valent to the loss of revenue suffered by
Brazil's cotton producers due to US Go-
vernment aid to its domestic producers.
The African cotton producing countries,
who instigated third party proceedings in
the case, risk being the losers. "After the
Americans and Europeans, it is now the
Brazilians who are going to benefit from
aid", complained one Malian producer.
Although Brasilia has promised to use
part of the financing to support African
and Haitian producers, the details re-
main vague.

and Indian leaders. It is also true that
Brazil remains a minor player in Africa,
especially when compared with China.

The Brazilian president will be lea-
ving office this year as the Brazilian
Constitution prohibits a third consecutive
mandate. In July he made his farewell trip
to six African countries, stressing that
Brazil -in 1888 one of the last countries
to have abolished slavery -is the second
largest black country in the world, after
Nigeria, with 76 million Afro-Brazilians.
That represents half of Brazil's population.

Trade has increased from
6 to 24 billion US dollars
in eight years

After highlighting this cultural link,
President Lula, travelling as usual with
an impressive delegation of businessmen,
attended some judiciously selected

meetings. In Cape Verde he attended
the summit of Brazil and the 15 member
countries of the Economic Community
of West African States (ECOWAS). In
South Africa he stressed the importance
of new free trade agreements between the
Mercosur (Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay
and Uruguay) and the SACU (South
Africa, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia
and Swaziland). A year previously,
Apex-Brazil, the agency that promotes
Brazilian exports, opened two major
business centres in Africa. The trade
has followed: up from $US6 to 24 billion
in eight years.

The list of Brazilian interests in Africa
is long: from Petrobras, the Brazilian oil
company with interests in the black gold
of Angola and Nigeria (a third of trade is
now with this oil giant), Vale, the Brazilian
mining giant, to the agro-industries that
are ready to set up ethanol factories, as is
the case in Ghana and Angola.

Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva at the opening of the Brazil-Africa Dialogue on Food Security.



4r _, l nlll

DsI e

EU public gives big 'yes' to

development aid

(EU) citizens say that aid for
developing countries is very
important or fairly important,
according to the EU's 'Eurobarometer'
poll on 'Europeans, development aid and
the Millennium Development Goals'. It
canvassed 26,500 EU citizens across all
27 EU Member States in June 2010.

EU officials say that its poll points to
growing support by EU citizens for deve-
lopment aid with 45 per cent now saying
that development aid is "very important"
compared to just 30 per cent back in June

It also records a narrowing gap in support
for development between the original 15
EU states whose citizens have traditiona-
lly been more supportive of development
aid and the 12 EU 'newcomer' states,
although there is still a marked divide. The
citizens of Sweden (96 per cent), Ireland
(95 per cent), Denmark (94 per cent),
Finland (94 per cent), Luxembourg (93
per cent) and the United Kingdom still
show the most support whereas those in
EU newcomers, Slovenia, Estonia and
Bulgaria, are least supportive. Overall,
64 per cent of EU citizens would like to
see development aid increased.

To view the full report: http://ec.europa.

SBSIP / Reporters

Surge to promote renewable energy

in Eastern Caribbean

The small island states of the Eastern Caribbean are seeking to increase the use
of renewable energies such as geothermal energy and wind power to boost their
economies and tackle climate change.

from the Eastern Caribbean
(Antigua, St. Lucia, St.
Vincent and the Grenadines,
Dominica, St.Lucia, St.Kitts and Nevis
and Grenada) recently met with European
Union (EU) institutions in Brussels mid-
September to explore future cooperation
with donors in the field. They included
St.Lucia's Energy Minister, Richard
Frederick and his counterpart in St Kitts
and Nevis, Earl Asim Mardin.

Geothermal energy and wind power
both have big potential given that many
of the islands are volcanic and exposed
to wind. "The Organisation of Eastern
Caribbean States (OECS) is trying to
focus on energy diversification to jump
start the economies. Using renewables is
one way of pushing the economies forward
whilst tackling the very, very important
climate change issue", said an official of
the Embassy of the OECS* in Brussels.

EU Energy Facility

The EU is financing a project to build up
the capacity of different stakeholders in

the renewable energy sector in the whole
Caribbean funded by the EU's Energy
Facility for African, Caribbean and Pacific
(ACP) states.

Meeting with the Eastern Caribbean dele-
gation, Guus Heim, Head of the West
Africa, Sahel and Caribbean Division
at the Luxembourg-based European
Investment Bank (EIB) said that the
EIB was considering financing consul-

ting services to look at the feasibility
and environmental impact of a subma-
rine interconnection between Dominica
and Martinique and Guadeloupe to
allow Dominica to exploit its potential
geothermal power supplies in the future.
He added that the EIB had advanced con-
tacts with promoters of wind projects in
St. Lucia, Jamaica and the Dominican
Republic and waste to energy projects
in Jamaica, Barbados and the Bahamas.

Find out about the Caribbean Information
Platform on Renewable Energy: www.cipore.org

*Members of the Organisation of Eastern
Caribbean States (OECS) are: Antigua &
Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat,
St.Kitts and Nevis, St.Lucia and St.Vincent and
the Grenadines.

Many Eastern Caribbean islands are volcanic with geothermal potential. Montserrat a MPercval


'AIDS 2010' Conference, 18-23 July, Vienna, Austria

"Rights here, right now"

Okechukwu Umelo

n 2008, some 33.4 million people
worldwide were living with HIV.
Sixty-seven per cent of those living
with HIV and 91 per cent of new
infections among children were in sub-
Saharan Africa (AIDS Epidemic Update
2009 [UNAIDS/WHO]).Though there
has been progress in fighting HIV/AIDS,
the statistics prove that much more must
be done.

Under the theme 'rights here, right now',
the biennial 2010 International AIDS con-
ference focused on protecting and promo-
ting human rights to combat HIV/AIDS.
Organised by the International AIDS
Society, 18-23 July in Vienna Austria, it
gathered 19,300 scientists, practitioners,
advocates and world leaders from 193

"I commend those leaders who have recog-
nised that denial of treatment is a denial of
the human right to life", said Archbishop
Desmond Tutu in a video address at the
closing ceremony.

Universal access to HIV prevention, care,
treatment and support, strengthening the
use ofevidenced-based interventions, sus-
tained financing and progress in finding a
cure were other conference themes.

The Vienna Declaration, calling for more
rational and scientifically sound drug poli-

cies to strengthen HIV prevention for drug
users had been signed by more than 12,725
people by the conference's close. Moreover,
global leaders were called to commit at least
$US20bn (14.5bn) for the period 2011-
2013 to the Global Fund to Fight AIDS,
Tuberculosis and Malaria. The eventual
commitment of$US11.7bn (8.5bn) made
at the Fund's 5 October replenishment
meeting fell short of this call. However, the
European Commission pledged to scale up
its contribution from e100M during 2008-
2010 to 330M over the next three years.

For more information: www.aids2010.org

An HIV-infected woman takes her pills at a refugee camp near Gulu, Uganda. Reporters/DPA

EU-South Africa summit

Education at the core of

strengthened cooperation

in Brussels on September 28,
2010 saw the signing of a
sizeable cooperation agree-
ment, the "Primary Education Sector
Policy Support Programme" between
the two parties in the presence of South
Africa's president Jacob Zuma. The
EU was represented by President of
the European Council, Herman van
Rompuy and President of the European
Commission, Jose Manuel Barroso.

The emphasis placed on all levels of edu-
cation during the meeting is in line with
the South African government's priori-
ties. South Africa and the EU also agreed
to strengthen cooperation in many other
fields from economic matters to space
research and a mutual agreement on visa
exemptions. Additionally, they agreed
on their priorities for the EU-Africa

summit taking place 29-30 November
2010 in Libya.

In his statement to the press, President
Zuma stressed that both sides "share the
objective to conclude, by the end of the

year, a final Agreement that will enhance
trade and economic relations between
the EU and SADC (Southern African
Development Community) Economic
Partnership Agreement (EPA) countries".

Jacob Zuma, Herman van Rompuy and Jose Manuel Barroso. The Council of the European Union



and urbanization

Dreams and nightmares

living in urban areas than
rural communities, predicts the
United Nations' HABITAT, the
body which analyses human settlement.
Rapid urbanisation creates stresses such
as deplorable living conditions but also a
tremendous opportunity for growth, says
Ann Pawliczko, Emerging Population
Issues Advisor for the United Nations
Population Fund. In the following pages,
The Courier signals how urbanisation
is creating strains on cities across the
African, Caribbean and Pacific regions
but also fostering economic growth.
The newly-created ACP Observatory
on Migration has been set up to perma-
nently monitor the migration trends of
ACP citizens.

The most popular destinations of sub-
Saharan African migrants are other cities
in Africa where they seek better jobs

and living conditions such as Abidjan,
Libreville, Douala, Lagos, Nairobi,
Johannesburg, as well as the United
States and United Kingdom, says Philippe
Bocquier Professor of Demographics at
Belgium's Universite de Louvain (UCL).
People also migrate from conflict zones:
Somalis and the Sudanese to Kenya,
Zimbabweans to South Africa, Congolese
(DRC), Rwandans and Burundians to
Tanzania, Liberians and Sierra Leoneans
to Cote d'Ivoire and Guineans to Senegal.
Better-educated Congolese and Somali
migrants have also migrated further afield
to South Africa.

It is not migration itself that create slums
but rather the organisation of the labour
market, argues Bocquier. Young workers
from rural areas often migrate with their
families making shelters out of wood and
metal, living in unsanitary conditions and
without land rights. "The rapid growth
of certain cities makes the provision of
urban services more difficult in the short
term", says Bruno Schoumaker, fellow
Professor at UCL.

"A policy solely orientated towards con-
trolling domestic influxes or international
influxes would not be ethical (shouldn't
international freedom of movement be
recognized as a human right?)", asks
Bocquier. He adds: "If there must be a
plan, it is to accompany migration rather
than limiting or restricting it".

Agrees Pawliczko: "No country in the
industrial age has ever achieved signi-
ficant economic growth without urba-
nisation". She stresses the positives of
migration: "The greater concentration of
people has the potential to make health
care, transport, education and other
social goods more accessible, efficient
and affordable".

She adds: "Cities provide women and
young people with greater opportuni-
ties to escape traditional restrictions and
practices, form social support networks,
exchange information and new ideas, and
organise to bring about change. The con-
centration of people in urban areas can
relieve pressure on natural habitats and
biodiversity". But she stresses the need
for good governance in cities to provide
services. "Forward-looking action will
be required from national and municipal
governments, international organizations
and civil society", she says, "to unleash
the potential of cities".

The full interviews with Ann Pawlickzo,
Philippe Bocquier and Bruno Schoumaker
can be viewed on The Courier's website:
www. acp-eucourier.info


Interview with Laurent de Bceck, director of the ACP Observatory on Migration in Brussels

"Professional intra-ACP

migration is a priority"


The Belgian Laurent de Boeck
has been with the International
Organisation for Migration
(IOM) for 14 years now. His
early years were devoted to reconstruc-
tion in countries in post-conflict situa-
tions such as Rwanda and Kosovo, or
those recovering from a natural disaster,
such as Indonesia and Haiti. "My job
was to fill the void between emergency
action and long-term development", he
explains. "More recently, before being
appointed Observatory Director, I was
the IOM's deputy representative for West
and Central Africa, a region made up
of 23 countries. The field of work was
vast, ranging from international to inter-
nal immigration and including the fight
against illegal immigration, the promotion
of migrant workers, climate change and
the link between migration and health."

From all the migratory flows, Laurent
de Back singles out one, "the one
that requires the implementation of
the appropriate policies as a priority"
at national, regional and continental
level: professional migration. "This is
especially true in Africa," continues the
Observatory Director, "where the pres-
sure generated by these flows is unfor-
tunately linked to the inability of states
to know which policies to implement."


This migration, with the most signi-
ficant flows being recorded within
the same country as well as between
neighboring countries, is the result of
populations leaving behind rural set-
tings for major urban centres. "More
than 60 per cent of these migrants are
under 35. They are dynamic and the
migration is purely economic in nature."
As they take jobs otherwise filled by

non-migratory locals, friction is inevita-
ble. "There are many examples of these
migrants being evicted by force; a year
ago the Gabonese authorities expelled
Malians," stresses Laurent de Beck.
"Even in Mauritania, a country known
for its tolerance in welcoming migrants,
the population is beginning to oppose
this open-door policy in the face of the
influx of migrants en route to Europe."

However, like other experts, Laurent
de Back is keen to point out that most
migration is a developing country phe-
nomenon. "The number of Tanzanians

migrating to Uganda far exceeds those
heading for Europe. And they bring a
lot of money back into their country."
It is a phenomenon that could equal if
not exceed the money repatriated by the
African Diaspora living in the North.
"Hence the importance of further stu-
dies on this phenomenon", adds the

The intra-ACP brain drain

While the ACP countries as a whole
oppose the European Union's desire to
favour the immigration of highly skilled


Migration a. d U.rba Pahnoin sjier

I e Mgai a,. o o. P.l

individuals from the developing world
(the famous 'Blue Card'), many coun-
tries within the ACP group are facing
the same brain drain. "The migration
is principally intellectual", confirms
Laurent de Beck. "Even the migration
from rural communities to the towns
primarily involves the most highly ski-
lled workers." Also, the most reputed
universities, such as Dar-es-Salaam
in Tanzania, Kinshasa in the DRC, or
those in Kenya or Senegal, attract huge
numbers of students from throughout
the continent. "The foreign student
population studying in Dakar in Senegal
is very large and, when they graduate,
they often stay there. That represents a
loss for the country of origin."

Lever of attraction is insufficient." He pre-
fers to focus on a necessary reform of
Does this influx of mainly young health, security and transport policy in
migrants to the towns risk creating the major cities, again citing Dakar as
unmanageable an example: "The lack
megalopolises? "Migration could be used of safety is increasin-
"Even if urbanisa- as a lever to improve social gly noticeable and the
tion is growing in services" local people associate
Africa, it remains this with the influx of
one of the lowest in the world. I do Nigerians and Burkinans, for example.
not believe the next decade will bring But the investments are not materiali-
extreme urbanisation of the kind we sing. Access to water and electricity is
have seen in the Caribbean", says becoming increasingly scarce. Yet this
Laurent de Beck. "Although Africa's migration has the potential to act as a
population is expected to grow by almost lever to improve social services." So
80 million over this period, I do not find what is it that's lacking? "Essentially the
this to be excessive." As for the growth need to plan and improved orientation
of small towns in rural areas, Laurent of policies" the Observatory Director
de Beck is not convinced: "The force believes.

Money, Information, Brains and Arts


Pacific (ACP) Secretariat is
about to launch its first Human
Mobility Report in 2011
(HMR2011), which for the first time
provides consolidated data on intra-ACP
migration using the latest findings from
the UK's Sussex University Development
Research Centre.

ACP countries' international mobility is
linked to proximity and remains a regio-
nal phenomenon, underlines Andrea
Gallina, Migration and Development
expert at the ACP Secretariat. About 70
per cent of Sub-Saharan migrants move
within a short distance, whereas only 16
per cent (about 2.8 million) move to the
EU-27 plus Norway and Switzerland,
and another 5 per cent to North America.
Sub-Saharan African migrants in the EU
are less than the migrants from Northern
Africa, despite having more than twice
their population. Three-fourths of Pacific
Island migrants move to Australia, New
Zealand and the United States, and 85
per cent of Caribbean migrants move to
North America. As a whole, ACP residents
in the OECD (Organisation for Economic
Co-operation and Development) coun-

tries are only 9 per cent of all foreign born
residents. There are also important flows
of ACP migrants to non-ACP southern
destinations around the globe mainly in
Asia a phenomenon that deserves further
research. Besides the statistics, HMR2011
introduces a capability-based approach to
the study of the linkage between migration

and human development by analysing
four main migrants' resources, namely
economic, social, human, and cultural
capital. The analysis oftrends, bottlenecks
and potentials in their mobilisation and
utilisation point to areas for policy inter-
vention to stimulate their positive linkage
with development.

SReporters / Photononstop


ACP Human Mobility Report 2011

Highlights Policy Challenges

The ACP Human Mobility Report 2011
highlights five key policy challenges for
governments and regional organizations
in ACP countries.


Gallina, Migration and
Development expert at the
ACP Secretariat, is the rather
weak statistical information available on
flows and stocks: "difficulties in calcula-
ting undocumented migrants, the lack of
surveys allowing for comparative analysis
during the periods between censuses, a
lack of coordination of data collection
methods in sending and receiving coun-
tries, selective collection of country data,
etc., significantly undermine policy deve-
lopment in this area".

The second key challenge is to elimi-
nate obstacles to free, regulated and
secure mobility. "Circular migration,
explains Gallina, can contribute to pro-
moting social cohesion and protection
for migrants, but to make it effective,
measures securing residence status, for
example dual citizenship and permanent
or multi-annual residence permits, should
be promoted, especially in view of rever-
sing the brain drain".

Climate migrants

The third key challenge is environmenta-
lly induced mobility. Understanding and
predicting climate change and related
human mobility is extremely difficult:
estimates range between 50 million 'envi-
ronmental migrants' by 2010 to as many
as 1 billion people in 2050, depending on
the calculations. Indeed, despite being
the least responsible for greenhouse gas
emissions, ACP countries will be the most
affected by climate change. In the Pacific,
most of the small island states have very
low elevations, and therefore are already
suffering from repeated floods and cyclo-
nes. Forced displacements are widespread
in Vanuatu, Kiribati, Papua-New Guinea
and Tuvalu according to the report. In
Sub-Saharan African countries, Gallina

uiLpIdcu VIIIdylI UIIUn I a LIU dL LUIlydlld VIIIdY UII LIIu IIldIIU Ul MIllu d, vadIuadu lulaldlu. reporters /A

further explains, it is estimated that land
degradation is causing a 3 per cent annual
loss in agriculture's contribution to the
GDP and by 2020 water problems could
impact as many as 75-250 million people.
In the Caribbean, half of the population
lives within 1.5 km of the shoreline, and
major infrastructure and economic acti-
vities are located in coastal areas.

"Governments often insist upon
stronger protection for their
migrant workers when they
reach wealthy destinations, but
fail to provide protection for
migrant workers living in their

The fourth key challenge is to integrate
human mobility into national develo-
pment policies and poverty reduction
plans. Available ACP Poverty Reduction
Strategy Papers (39 out of 79 countries)
take account of both internal and inter-
national mobility as a development factor,

yet translating analysis and proposals
into policy and actual commitments
remains a limited option for stretched

Finally, underlines the expert, "the fifth
key policy challenge is to assure social
inclusion, respect and protection of
migrants in ACP Countries. This is pro-
bably the most complex challenge to be
addressed because it requires a radical
shift in the way migration and mobility
are perceived by public opinion and policy
makers in ACP countries. Governments
often insist upon stronger protection for
their migrant workers when they reach
wealthy destinations, but fail to provide
protection for migrant workers living in
their countries. Xenophobic attitudes are
indeed widespread in ACP countries,
and only by bringing the importance
of cultural diversity for innovation and
growth to the forefront and emphasising
the actual contribution of migrant labour
to local economies, can a major reform of
migration laws and welfare systems be


Migration a. d U.rba Pahnoi ojsier

I er Mgai . oa. P-

EU Project

Solutions for shanty towns: awareness raising

is worth more than money

A European Commission-funded pro-
ject studying the dynamics of migra-
tion and town planning, implemented
by UN-HABITAT, is underway in about
thirty ACP countries. It is examining the
planning characteristics of cities in which
shanty towns have developed and is set-
ting up action plans for improvements in
their inhabitants' living conditions. One
of the first conclusions to be drawn is
that any solution to the problem may
lie more in awareness raising than in
financial resources.

Eduardo Sorribes-Manzana is in
charge of this dossier in the unit
of the European Commission at
DG Development dealing with
the role of town planning in economic
development. The same unit is involved
with a broad range of activities ranging
from town planning to space technology
and the information society, from climate
study to the prevention of drought and
security. "Regarding town planning as
such, the Commission is only involved
in one major project with the African
Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) Group of
States. But it is an important one, as most
of these countries have to manage shanty
towns. The Commission is of course in
charge of in-depth planning in areas like
water, public hygiene, energy and trans-
port, and the problem of town planning is
very much connected to these."

The project being implemented by
UN-HABITAT and financed by the EU,
the 'Participatory Slum Upgrading and

Train line towards Uganda, crossing shanty town. REA/Reporters

Prevention Programme', was based on a
request from the Secretariat of the ACP
and has a budget of some 5M. Launched
in April 2008 and projected to end in
March 2011, it has two phases: the com-
pilation of the town-planning profile of cer-
tain cities, and the formulation of an action
plan for the future. Sixty-three cities from
30 countries are involved, of which 18 have
taken part in Phase 1*, and an additional
12 more in Phase 2**, the characteristics
of which had already been established in
the course of a previous project.

One of project's goals is to strengthen the
know-how of the political authorities and
of a variety of local, national and regional
stakeholders in the town planning process,
and specifically to focus on questions of
governance, management and the imple-
mentation of pilot projects to study the
conditions in which people settle in shanty
towns or similar.

Awareness raising

"This is not a question of money but of
awareness-raising. We know that there are
issues with migration to the big cities, and
if it is possible to foresee these movements
and direct them, albeit only to plan the
locations of future schools or hospitals,
sites for drinking water standpipes or public
transport facilities, then the situation is
greatly improved. This realisation concerns
not only the authorities in ACP countries,
but all stakeholders and donors, including
the colleagues in the Commission who,
even if they are obliged to concentrate on
priority areas for European aid, can find
a way to include the shanty town ques-
tion in the projects that they manage", says
Eduardo Sorribes-Manzana. He concludes
that greater coordination between the
Commission and member states in this
field is desirable.

After consultation between the Secretariat
of the ACP and the European Commission
and on completion of the present project,
the launch of a new and wider-ranging
town planning project is believed to be in
the pipeline.

* Burundi, Cape Verde, Republic of Congo,
Cote d'Ivoire, Gambia, Madagascar, Malawi,
Mali, Mauritius, Nigeria, Uganda; Haiti,
Jamaica, Antigua and Barbuda, Trinidad and
Tobago; Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Solomon

** Burkina Faso, Cameroon, D.R. Congo,
Eritrea, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Mozambique,
Niger, Senegal, Tanzania, Zambia.


Unending Urbanisation

in Lagos, Nigeria

The fastest growing city in Africa

The second most populous city in Africa (after Cairo)* and the third on Earth, Lagos
is a magnet for migrants from throughout West Africa, say the authors of this piece
from the Nigerian forum, Village Voice.

Yemisi Kuku and Philip Adekunle

country and all over Africa
come to Lagos to search for
work and to take advantage
of better opportunities, most of whom are
from rural and urban regions in other parts
of Nigeria. With its current population
of 15M expected to expand to 24M by
2015, housing and infrastructure are a
huge government challenge.

Lagos also draws migrants from all over
world, although data on both legal and
illegal flows is lacking. Most are from West
Africa -notably from Chad and Niger,
Togo and Benin. While a few achieve the
dream, most Lagos residents are living the
nightmare. Immigrants dream of the luxu-
ries of Lekki and Victoria Island, but most

While a few achieve the dream,
most Lagos residents are living
the nightmare.

end up in the slums ofMushin, Ajegunle,
and Makoko. Many newcomers often live
in illegal structures and in fear of eviction.
Adding to the housing nightmare there
are many other infrastructural issues that
arise when an extra 600,000 people a year
migrate to an area of land which supported
300,000 in 1950. Lagos residents have to
cope with some of the worst traffic in the
world, massive environmental pollution,
water scarcity, intermittent electricity, poor
sanitation, overstressed roads, and poorly
equipped hospitals and schools, particu-
larly in the less affluent areas.

Government efforts

The current civilian government appears
to be making concerted efforts to turn
things around. A few years ago, the state
government implemented a pilot Bus Rapid
Transit (BRT) scheme, which has been a
major success, and is due for expansion to
other areas of the state.** There are also
plans to develop a light rail system*** and
ferry services****, which are all part of

the "intermodel transportation system",
designed to combat vehicle congestion.

The Eko Atlantic project is another scheme
that is expected to improve access to hous-
ing and jobs. Shaped on a similar project in
Dubai, it involves reclaiming about 8km2 of
land from the ocean to create a modern city
with residential, commercial, and finan-
cial developments as well as tourist attrac-
tions*****. There are also several ongoing
road construction projects and plans for
independent power plants to improve the
provision of electricity, among several other
infrastructural developments.

But the city cannot continue to absorb
over half a million new residents every
year without eventually ending up in crisis.
There must be efforts to develop other
areas of Nigeria, particularly rural ones.
Priority should be given to infrastructure
development that supports agriculture.
Once people are convinced that they can
achieve a decent standard of living where
they are, they will be less inclined to move
to Lagos.


* UN Habitat, 2008
** http://allafrica.com/stories/201001040624.
*** http://thenationonlineng.net/web2/
**** http://www.punchng.com/Articl.
***** http://www.dredgingtoday.

People and motorists move along Nnamdi Azikiwe street, Lagos, Nigeria. Reporters


Migration andU.rban. Phln DJosr

DIO ,ie a ig ion .n a lai

In tne streets or stone IOWn. (Mare-MartineRiuckens


migration crossroads


Arriving by sea, the traveller who
disembarks at the port of Stone
Town in Zanzibar will at first
see no more than the vestiges of
the heavy ramparts and towers left by the
Westerners, in this case the Portuguese.
It is only on entering the old town that he
will discover the often refined elements
left by the first occupants.

Zanzibar's Stone Town is a wonderful
example of a Swahili coastal trading
town in East Africa. It is like being in
the medina of a North African town.
Given the major role played by Islam in
pre-colonial urbanisation, as early as the
7th century, this is hardly surprising. But
Stone Town in the Zanzibar Archipelago
is much more than that. At each street
corner there are details -balconies and the
sculpted doors of which the Zanzibars are
so proud -bearing material witness to the
fusion of disparate elements from African,

Arab, Indian and European cultures over
more than a thousand years.

Although the first to arrive on the island
were the Shirazian Persians -of which
Freddie Mercury, late singer with the
British rock band Queen, is an illustrious

descendant! -it was the Sultan of Oman
who, attracted by the prosperity of its tra-
ding posts, decided to establish his capital
and his court there in 1831, remaining
until 1856. On his death, the Germans,
British and French competed to impose
their protectorates. Today the Omanians
of Zanzibar who have returned home still
retain African features and speak Swahili.


The heavy sculpted doors are another
witness to this shared past. The Arabs of
antiquity regarded the door as the most
important element in any house, and
imported them at great cost from Oman. A
typical entrance consists of a double door
in teak imported from India with meti-
culous decoration. The rectangular Arab
doors can be easily distinguished from the
Indian doors with their arches and heavy
copper nails, used as a protection against
elephants in their country of origin.

This rich patrimony was almost lost
following the Marxist revolution of 1964.
No more than a decade ago it remained a
ghost town. Thanks to UNESCO, which
classed the town as a world heritage site,
and the Aga Khan foundation for cul-
ture, it is now gradually being reborn
and restored to its status of 'pearl of the
Indian Ocean'.

But Zanzibar is also of great symbolic
importance. As East Africa's principal
port for the slave trade it was also the
base for its opponents, such as David
Livingstone, who campaigned from there.

Off the tourist track, Stone Town today
remains a poor town with most of its
activities focused on tourism. With some
notable exceptions, however. Such as the
vitality of its market and, above all, the
Zanzibar International Film Festival
(ZIFF) that, every year, shows the very
best in African films and music.

See also country report on Tanzania.

MarneMartine Buckens


The transformative effect

of the Haitian Diaspora

Following the 12 January earthquake an unknown number of Haitians left the country. They swelled an already sizeable
Diaspora of 2.5M people who contribute 25 per cent of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). It is a contribution to the Haitian
economy based on links between migrants and their origins. These links with the mother country in turn influence internal
population movements and the transformation of towns.

A woman, carrying a basket containing mango, walks in Telele market in Port-au-Prince. CAP/Reporters

Francesca ThBosmy

bers 2.5M people, according
to the geographer Jean Marie
Theodat. Statistics on the
number of Haitian emigrants neverthe-
less vary due to the uncertain number of
undocumented migrants.
This Haitian community is distributed
principally in North America but also in
metropolitan France and the Overseas
Territories, the Netherlands Antilles

(Suriname sometimes serves as a transit
to French Guyana) and the Bahamas.
It was during the Duvalier dictatorship
(1957-1986) that Haitian emigration
really took off. During the 1950s and
1960s the first to leave were intellectuals
and members of the middle classes who
opposed the regime. They integrated
successfully in their host countries where
they sometimes regained their middle
class status.
During the next two decades they were
followed by a second wave drawn from
rural environments. This emigration has


I BMigrton nd, Urban Planin i e"r7

Io.-ie a M igra t io a -n -ni

Woman cutting meat with a machete at a market in Port au Prince. DPA/Reporters

more economic motivations and conti-
nues to this day. Greater in number, these
migrants tend to be less integrated, most
of them being unable to read or write.
US immigration authorities estimate that
55,000 illegal migrants landed in Florida
between 1972 and 1981.


Rejected by host countries such as the
Dominican Republic or the Turks and
Caicos Islands, as well as by the Haitian
Government that

denies them all civil
and political rights,
this community pro-
vides considerable

Theodat believes that Haitian emigration
also has an effect on urbanisation due to
the links migrants retain with their region
of origin. External financial support for
families causes changes "to the way of life
in the towns". Haitian emigration gene-
rates "spatial mobility" and transforms
the towns physically as the beneficiaries
of this money move there in search of
better living conditions

These money transfers "generate family
clusters that are essentially concentrated
in the towns where the

External financial support services are found that
for families causes changes can be purchased with
the money received",
"to the way of life in the towns stresses Theodat. This

support to their fami-
lies in Haiti. One Haitian Government
official estimated money transfers by
migrants following the 12 January disaster
at just over $USlbn, the equivalent of what
is normally transferred in an entire year.

The International Fund for Agricultural
Development (IFAD) reports that Haitian
families often receive monthly aid, 90 per
cent of which is used for household expen-
ses. This transfer of funds by migrants thus
pays for services such as education, housing
or the medical care that is concentrated
in the towns, mainly in Port-au-Prince.

is most evident in the
north-west of the country; a region nic-
knamed the Far West due to the very low
living standards compared with the rest of
the country and the permanent food inse-
curity. Yet 60 per cent of Haitian migrants
living in South Florida and the Bahamas
originate from this region. "People from
Port de Paix (main town in the north-
west) or even Chansolme (10 km from
Port de Paix) who have family abroad
send their children to schools in Port-
au-Prince and later pay for a university
education in the Dominican Republic,
Cuba or sometimes the United States",

explains Renaud Cardichon, originally
from Chansolme.

Nouveau riche effect

Apart from the effects on social mobility,
the transfers have an effect on infras-
tructure and facilities, says Theodat.
"There is often a nouveau riche effect",
with migrants buying the most opulent
homes. The Diaspora also finances com-
munity projects such as the building of
clinics and roads in their home town. As
a result, "there is a presence that can be
read geographically on the landscape",
he observes.

The money transfers also help finance
the informal sector -Haiti's biggest sec-
tor -and cause a growth in spontaneous
markets in urban environments.

"Most of the peanut sellers in the streets
of Jacmel come from Bainet (located about
20 km from Jacmel)", says Andrenor
Jacques, a native of Bainet. Most of
Bainet's inhabitants emigrate seasona-
lly to the Dominican Republic to find
work, or to Curacao for longer periods.
"Some of them spend up to 10 years in
Curacao waiting to get their papers in
order. The sellers find a market there for
their products grown locally and return
to Bainet with items such as watches that
they then sell."

The towns continue to grow because they
have certain services that have spread
from the capital such as money transfer
bureaus, the branches of private banks
and clinics. These services remain limited
nonetheless and it is in Port-au-Prince
where everything remains centralised.

According to the geographer Georges
Anglade*, three spatial structures have
dominated the country in the course of its
history. First the division (1664 to 1803)
under the colonial system of plantations,
then regionalisation (1804 to 1915) and
finally centralisation around the capital
(1915 to the present).

Crises such as the embargo imposed by
the United States in 1993 following the
military coup in 1991 and disasters such
as the 12 January earthquake sometimes
reverse the trend for centralisation tem-
porarily, by causing the inhabitants of
urban areas to return to the countryside.

*Georges Anglade, a famous geographer and
his wife disappeared during the earthquake
in Haiti on 12 January 2010.


Migration hotspots

in the Pacific

Migration to towns brings risks and benefits in equal measures to Pacific islands

urban areas from the outer
to the main islands in the
Pacific are largely young peo-
ple in search of employment. "The net
effect of this is overcrowding, as land is
in limited supply in many Pacific Island
countries. Increasingly there is slum
development along the urban fringes",
says Eduard Jongstra, who is the Fiji-
based technical advisor for the United
Nations Population Fund (UNFPA).
He adds: "Many of these areas are at
high risk of being impacted by natural
disasters. The rapid growth of some
urban centres also places great strain
on service delivery, notably with regard
to health services and schools".

The lack of reliable data adds to the
difficulties of projecting urban growth,
he says, but there are positives. "It is
generally recognized that without the
growth of towns, the economic perfor-

mance of many Pacific Island countries
would have been less than it has been",
says Jongstra.

Suva, Fiji

highly vulnerable to flooding and even
under normal conditions are unhealthy
environments, more so because of a
lack of sewerage and waste disposal
facilities", he says.

A highly sensitive political case is the Regional action on urban planning
slum formation at urban fringes in has already begun. Pacific Islands
Suva, Fiji. "It is partly the result of Forum leaders endorsed a Pacific
eviction of Indo- Urban Agenda in
Fijian farmers 2005. At a further
whose land leases Slum areas in Tuvalu are regional workshop
were not renewed highly vulnerable to flooding of Pacific planners
(due to fear by convened by the
native Fijian land- Planning Institute of
owners that they might lose their rights Australia, AusAID and UN-HABITAT
to the land). Many had been working in October 2007, the Pacific Urban
those lands for several generations and Agenda was refined to a Regional
lost everything", says Jongstra. Action Framework which identified ten
areas to implement the Pacific Urban
And urban slums in Funafuti, the tiny Agenda and three high priority areas
capital of Tuvalu have sprung up due to for implementation within five years
an absence of planning. "In both cases (for details see: http://www.unescap.
the slums are on marginal lands that org/epoc/R3 PacificUrbanAgenda.
were never considered suitable for habi- asp).
station: on the banks of rivers and on
the fringes of swamps. These areas are

Overseas migration threatens
islands' existence

The Cook Islands, Tuvalu, Tokelau and
Niue all face falling populations as citizens
move away to larger developed countries
such as the United States, Australia and
New Zealand.

Nearly all Pacific countries increasingly
rely on remittances from citizens who
have emigrated, notably Samoa, Tonga
and the Federated States of Micronesia
(FSM). "Migration tends to take away the
most productive citizens and causes pro-
blems for sustainable national develop-
ment efforts; second, because reliance on
remittances makes the Pacific countries
extra vulnerable, as is currently being
experienced when remittances dropped
dramatically due to the impact of the
Global Economic Crisis", says Jongstra.

-unatuti, I uvalu. Hegel Goutler


^ Mligraion Ub a PH lannin Di er

Flanders, Belgium. A long story

of a marriage of convenience

How many people know that the first
to reign over 'the empire on which the
sun never sets' was both Belgian and
Flemish, one Charles the Vth? As were
Ambiorix, leader of the Gaul resistance
and Godfrey of Bouillon, leader of the
first crusade to Jerusalem, before him. In
times when Belgium did not yet exist as
a nation, its people were already making
a major impact on the history of Europe.

A people respected and sometimes
feared, as Caesar himself said:
"Of all the peoples of Gaul, the
elgians are the bravest". Aesar
conquered the Belgians, a people of Celtic
origin, in the year 57 AD. The Eburons, the
people of'Belgian Gaul' led by the valiant
Ambiorix, launched a desperately fierce
attack on the occupier in the year 60. They
remained glorious in their defeat. During
the Roman period from the 1st to the 3rd
century, two towns in the region were of
major importance: Tongres (Tongeren in
Dutch) and Tournai (Doornik). Today
they remain towns of great beauty, rich in
artistic and archaeological heritage.

Tournai was invaded by the Frankish
Barbarians in the 5th century. After their
king converted to Christianity, Tournai
became a cathedral town. In the mid-ninth
century, Flanders became a 'comte' ruled
by Baudouin 'Bras-de-Fer' (which means
'strong arms'), while southern Belgium
became part of a kingdom that a century
later fell under the control of the Holy
Roman Empire. Flanders went on to con-
quer more and more land, in particular from
the latter at a time when its count was a vas-
sal of both the empire and the French king.
An economic, technological
and political revolution driven
by weaving
The 12th and 13th centuries brought
flourishing trade and emancipation to


the Flemish towns. Wool weaving was the
principal driver of economic, technological
and political change. It was also a source
of freedom as the new wealth possessed
by a class of craftsmen and merchants led
to a sharing of influence, if not of power,
between the trade guilds and nobility. The
municipalities acquired their autonomy
and the trades were involved in govern-
ing them. This new balance is symbolised
in the city squares constructed in these
towns. 'Groote market the Flemish word
for these squares, meaning 'market square',
and their architecture reflects this new
balance of powers. Clustered around the
'Prince's House', or King's house, one
finds, together with the belfry of the town
hall, the various guildhouses. The clients
of these rich merchants came principally
from England or the Germanic Empire.

A golden victory against France
celebrated every year seven cen-
turies later

While the people of Flanders thus looked
to England and the Germanic Empire,
the nobility had ties with France. A clash
was inevitable. Despite the support of
England's King John and of the German
Emperor, Otto IV, an attack by King Philip
Augustus of France in 1214 proved suc-
cessful. Flanders was officially annexed
to France in 1300, but on 11 July 1302 the
Flemings regained their autonomy with
their victory over the troops of Philip the
Fair at the Battle of the Golden Spurs (De
Slag der gulden Sporen). Today this date is
celebrated by the Flemish as their national
day and every Flemish child is familiar with
the details of the battle. This is a pivotal
moment and one to be remembered when
seeking to understand the divides between
the Flemish and Walloon communities in
modern-day Belgium.

Flanders was caught up in the torment of
the Hundred Years War between France
and England that began in 1337. As a
result of marriages
between principali- The Belgian s
ties, it passed succes- prosperous th
sively to the Duchy of prosperous
Burgundy and then to half of the 19tl
the Habsburg Empire, the second Eu
one of the heirs to its after England
Low Countries branch
being Charles V, born industrial
in Ghent, and a French
and Dutch speaker who only learned
Spanish as an adolescent. He became sov-
ereign of the Low Countries in 1515, while
continuing to hold the title of Charles I of
Spain. In 1519 he became, as Charles V,
Holy Roman Emperor. Most of his advi-
sors in this role came from the area that is
today Flanders. In 1548, he established his
capital in Brussels from where he set about
expanding the Low Countries.

In 1555, Charles V abdicated from the



Belgian parliament, Brussels. aReporters

throne of the Low Countries, and thus
of his native Flanders, in favour of his
son Philip II. The latter did not show the
same compassion for these regions and
put down Protestant
'ate proved so rebellions, especially
in northern Flanders
t bythelatter (today southern
century, it was Netherlands). This
opean country, culminatedintheLow
to undergo an Countries being split,
with the Calvinists
revolution in the north and the
Catholics in the south,
or the Spanish Netherlands (more or less
Belgium plus the French region of Artois
and Luxembourg)

Raison d'Etats

In 1795, the Brabant Revolution broke out.
Brabant was the region around Brussels
within what was still known as the Spanish
Netherlands, although now part of the Holy
Roman Empire. The word 'Belgian' reap-
peared as the insurgents proclaimed the

creation of a United States of Belgium. In
1795 the territory was invaded by France.
After Napoleon's defeat at Waterloo the
Congress of Vienna brought together
the Northern Netherlands, the Spanish
Netherlands and Luxembourg. In 1830,
Belgium had its anti-Dutch and anti-Prot-
estant revolution and proclaimed its inde-
pendence. The riots outside the prince's
palace in Brussels lasted no more than a
few days. They were the work principally
of the French-speaking nobility and haute
bourgeoisie, primarily from the south of
the country. At the geopolitical level, the
independence supported if not orchestrated
by England, Germany and France was a
compromise enabling each of the three to
acquire a share of the pie.

The creation of the new state was prom-
ulgated in 1831, it now remaining for the
country to find a king. Again a compro-
mise was found, this time between the
Liberals and the Catholics, principal play-
ers in the revolution. The chosen king
came from Germany, the Prince of Saxe-


Coburg. He was crowned Leopold I. The Rwanda-Urundi. Belgium was occupied by
Belgian state proved so prosperous that German forces during the Second World
by the latter half of the 19th century it War. Flemish nationalists responded to
was the second European country, after the siren call of the Reich that promised
England, to undergo an industrial revo- to respect their culture. Subsequently, the
lution. Its epicentre was Wallonia, and it condemnation of those viewed by some
drained a large part of as collaborators and
the cheap workforce by others as nation-
from Flanders as large The prevailing climate lists was to poison
sections of the poor remains one of uncertainty: Belgium's political life.
Flemish population the sorrow of the Belgians", to
migrated to the south orro oAt the same time,
of the country. Social Belgium played an
prejudices against by Hugo Claus important interna-

these migrants and
cultural prejudices
against the Flemish language soon became
an open wound and fixation for the politi-

In 1884, the Congo became the private
property of the Belgian King Leopold II,
until it was ceded to Belgium in 1908 fol-
lowing international protest, led principally
by the British Parliament, at the poor treat-
ment inflicted on the local population.
The colonialists were both Flemings and
Walloons, although most ofthe big compa-
nies belonged to the French-speakers with
French being the language ofcolonisation.

After the First World War, by way of com-
pensation, Belgium inherited in 1918 three
German regions and the German colony of

tional role and became
an example of political
and social democracy. It was a founding
member of the Benelux Economic Union
(with the Netherlands and Luxembourg)
and the United Nations. Meanwhile, in
1948 women were granted the vote and
a generous Belgian social security system
was established. It later became a founding
member of the European Coal and Steel
Community (ECSC), the predecessor of
the European Union.

Flanders, by far the most populous region,
started to catchup economically. In 1960,
its GDP equalled that ofWallonia. A series
of institutional reforms were introduced
after 1970 that culminated in Belgium
becoming a federal state in the early 1990s,
with three regions: Flanders, Wallonia and

the Brussels-Capital Region. The latter,
although lying inside Flanders, is pre-
dominantly French-speaking. Three com-
munities were also created: the Flemish,
French-speaking and German-speaking
communities (eastern cantons). Each com-
munity and region has its own parliament,
with the Flemish deciding to combine the
political institutions of the community
and region.

The sorrow of the Belgians

Nationalism is favoured by an electoral
system that provides for no election at the
national level. A Fleming is not able to
vote for a Walloon, for example. Only the
people of Brussels have that choice. The
system does not foster moderation. The
political upheaval that resulted from the
13 June 2010 elections, which brought
victory for a Flemish party committed to
an independent Flanders, was of major
magnitude. The prevailing climate remains
one of uncertainty: "The sorrow of the
Belgians", to borrow the title of a novel by
Hugo Claus. But this does not mean the
end of a little country that has had such
a major impact on contemporary history.
Belgium is a country of compromises; of
that Belgians from all parts of the coun-
try remain convinced. There will be no
divorce. If there ever were one, it would
be amicable.

'The Battle of the Golden Spurs' (Bataille des eperons d'or). Today, this date is celebrated by the Flemish as their national day. Reporters


The Flemish

Economy: Small

is Beautiful


Paul De Grauw is a professor of
International Economics at the
University of Leuven, and director
of the "Money, macro and inter-
national finance research' department of
CESifo (Institute for Economic Research)
at the University of Munich. He has taught
at several universities in Europe and the
United States, and has been cited as one
of the few economists to have foreseen the
world financial crisis. He is also a former
MP and senator in the Belgian parliament.
His analysis for The Courier of the financial
situation of Flanders follows.

PDG The Flemish economy has been a
high performer since the Second World

Paul De Grauw. Hegel Goutler

Ann Demeulemeester, Spring/Summer 2010 fashion show. Flanders has a traditional textiles sector. c abaca/Reporters

War. Though it has suffered a recent
decline, the gulf between it and Wallonia
remains, and this can be seen in the unem-
ployment figures: between six and seven
per cent on one hand, and 15 per cent on
the other. Flanders has recently under-
gone a process of de-industrialisation
because of the arrival of new producers
in the world market, and the increase in
productivity brought with it a large num-
ber of redundancies. The present period
is one of convergence between the two
regions, and the service-oriented economy
of Brussels is a case apart, because of the
presence of the federal administration
and the European institutions which are
so important there.

HG- What is at the root of the advanced
economic development of Flanders?

The late arrival ofindustrialisation favou-
red the setting up of new industries, and
this was facilitated by the harbour at
Antwerp, because of which the area was
in a strategic position. On the other hand,
the absence of large companies meant a
lack of powerful, antagonistic unions, in
contrast to the case in Wallonia. The size of
the businesses is therefore important in this
sense, as these small and medium-sized
companies made social dialogue easier.

To all these factors must be added the
educational level in Flanders, one of the
highest in the world, and specifically the
knowledge of languages. All Flemish
young people speak three or four lan-
guages, and not only are the languages

themselves studied, but curriculum sub-
jects are also taught in different languages.

What are Flanders' strong points

The problems began in the 1970s, in the
large companies, to be precise. The auto-
mobile industry practically disappeared,
and a process of reconversion took place,
focusing on high technology. The tradi-
tional textiles sector, for example, which
is specialised in carpet production, is very
competitive, and another specialisation,
the manufacture of machine tools, has
also been reinforced.

Certain businesses have relocated part
of their production, but the sectors with
very high added value have remained.
This is the case, for example, at Bekaert,
specialists in metal products, and also in
the performance of the Flemish chemical
and pharmaceutical industries, in which
Janssen Pharmaceuticals is a worldwide
name. What all these have in common is
their comparatively small size. In Flanders
there is a preference for what is small.

Would an independent Flanders pros-

The model that enjoyed such success in
Flanders was one that was based on ope-
ning up. Nevertheless, if Belgium is split
up, Flanders would be viable, in spite of
the high costs of separation. It is the size
of Denmark. That does not mean that I
am in favour of this.


Belgium: Hopes for and

shadows over its future

Interview with Wouter Van Besien, Chair of the Green Party and
participant in negotiations on the future of the country

Since the elections of 13 June 2010 in Belgium, the leaders of seven parties have been
negotiating, so far unsuccessfully, to form a government that will have to carry out a
profound overhaul of the country's institutions, with a further advance of federalism. This
will perhaps lead in the long-term to the independence of Flanders desired by the Flemish
nationalist party, the winner of the elections. The leader of the Greens, Wouter Van Besien,
is opposed, but not necessarily for nationalistic reasons!

H.G. Belang (Flemish Interest), an anti-immi-
grant party on the extreme right, has 12.3
per cent. These two therefore add up to
almost 45 per cent in Flanders. This is
V an Besien's priorities are in partly because the N-VA has a charis-
fact the fight against poverty matic leader in Bart De Wever. I don't
in Belgium a wealthy country, believe that so many Flemish people want
but where the independence of
15 per cent of the Flanders. The prob-
population lives below It is more difficult to divide lem i in each commu-
the European poverty Belgium than to keep it united nity, no one has the
threshold. An anti- slightest idea about
pollution campaign, what is going on in
promotion of renewable energy, and a the other. They do not have the same
readjustment of tax collection more education, or the same media.
derived from capital than income are the
Greens' other priorities. "Even in the Are you optimistic about Belgium's
context of institutional negotiations, we future?
have managed to put a few 'green ideas' on
the table; take regional financing, we've Yes, if only because it is more difficult
stressed the need to link the resources to divide Belgium than to keep it united.
allocation to the regions to a reduction
of their carbon emissions."

The (French-speaking) Socialist Party,
the second winner of the June 13 elections,
along with its Flemish alter ego the SP.A
(Socialistische Partij Anders) and the two ... ..
ecologist parties, are against calling into
question the solidarity between regions,
saying that this "must be the prerogative
of the highest level of the State", says
Van Besien.

What about the positions of the other
parties involved in negotiations ?

On the left you have the Greens, Ecolo,
the PS, and the SP.A, and then there is
the N-VA, on the far right, and the two
Christian parties, the CD&V (Christian
Democrat & Vlaams) and the CDH
(Humanist Democratic Centre), occupy
the ground between the two. Nationalism
is on the increase in Flanders, where the
N-VA have about 30 per cent of the vote,
and the other separatist party, the Vlaams

Even the N-VA says that it does not want
the country's separation, but argues that
with an ever-increasing transfer of power
to the regions and to Europe, the Belgian
nation will wither and disappear by itself.

I don't romanticise about an eternal
Belgium. The thing is that, as far as
social policy goes, safety in numbers is
better. If this could be established on a
Europe-wide scale, even better. There
are not many people who can say "I am
truly Belgian". With our history and the
successive waves of immigration, it's a
multicultural society. The old notion of
a nation, a State, a culture shared by all
is a thing of the past forever.

Wouter Van Besien (1st left) and Bart De Wever, the leader of the N-VA, and other Flemish politicians at a IV show
one week before the 13 June 2010 elections. 0 Reporters


Flanders: an NGO for Development

An awareness-raising model:

the creation of a network


T he numbers 11.11.11 are as well
known in Belgium, and espe-
cially in Flanders, as a nursery
rhyme. This is the name of the
umbrella organisation for Flemish NGOs
working for cooperation between North
and South. When it was set up in 1966,
11.11.11 was an all-Belgian group, but
the process of federalisation occurred
in the NGO too, with a split into two,
the French-speaking wing taking with
the name CNCD 11.11.11, known to the
public as CNCD, and the Flemish wing
using the original name.

The history of 11.11.11 is a simple one.
The original organisation was created on
November 11, 1966 at 11 a.m. in mem-
ory of the armistice of the First World
War on November 11, 1918. Bogdan
Vandenberghe, General Secretary of
11.11.11, told The Courier that after the
Second World War, humanists of all
political and religious persuasions were

convinced that the seeds of danger were
to be found, not only in war itself, but also
in hunger in the countries of the South,
and that cooperation was the way to deal
with the issue.

In Flanders today, 11.11.11 has 100 mem-
ber associations, including around forty
non-governmental development organisa-
tions and all the trade unions, but above
all 20,000 independent volunteer groups
active in 300 towns, almost everywhere
in Flanders. In 2009, 5.8M was col-
lected, of which more than half goes to
projects run by member NGOs such as
Oxfam, Pax Christi, Broederlijk Delen
or Vredeseilanden ('Peace Islands' set up
by Father Dominique Pire, winner of the
Nobel Peace Prize in 1958).

"But the collection of funds for develop-
ment projects", insists Vandenberghe, "is
only part of our role, which is fundamen-
tally one of, informing against wrongdo-
ings, raising awareness and financing.
There is a lot of awareness raising done in
schools. Each year we focus on a theme,
and this year it was the Millennium
Development Goals".

"11.11.11 is active in nine countries
of the South, including three African
nations, Rwanda, Burundi and Congo
(DRC). In the latter, it has supported the
recently-murdered Floribert Chebuya's
'The Voice of the Voiceless' and OCEAN
(Collective of Ecologists and Friends of
Nature). In Rwanda, one of its partners
is the Association of Women Lawyers."

Bogdan Vendenberghe, General Secretary of 11.11.11.
Hegel Goutler


brugge. Reporters

Just as in Belgium, the federal regions also
have their own development policies, but
with greatly reduced means. In Belgium
this amounts to 1.5bn a year from the
Belgian federal government and C50M
from Flanders itself. "What is important",
stresses the General Secretary of 11.11.11,
"is that Belgium has made a remarkable
effort in recent years. In 2009, 0.55 per
cent of GNP was spent on development
aid, and in 2010 this figure will reach a
fraction under the 0.7 per cent to which
European countries committed them-

So is Vandenberghe happy? "There is a
downside too. The government wants to
include in this aid figure the abolition of
debt -which comes to more than 400M
for Congo alone -and assistance for stu-
dents from the South studying in Belgium,
which knocks this 0.7 per cent down to
about 0.65 per cent. We are asking them
to adjust this amount."

Flemish model of pragmatism:
A Magazine

MO, meaning 'global magazine' is a
monthly magazine focusing on deve-
lopment, with a print run of 120,000.
Its website receives 70,000 visitors per
month. In addition, MO organises nume-
rous conferences which are attended by,
on average, 400 participants. It is often
quoted by the mainstream press.

Its originality lies in the collaboration bet-
ween NGOs, the private press, private
businesses and the Flemish and federal
governments, which led to its establis-
hment in 2003. Until then, all the major
Flemish NGOs had produced a single

publication. Gie Goris, Editor-in-chief
of MO shares the following: "Roularta
Media Group agreed to distribute MO
as a monthly supplement of Knack, the
most widely distributed news weekly in
Flanders, without giving up any of the
editorial or organisational autonomy of
MO. The win-win was that the Knack
subscription became richer in its offer,
at no extra cost; MO won an immediate
free distribution of 110,000 copies; and
the same amount of government sub-
sidies that went to the previous NGO
publication now support a contemporary
magazine with ten times the readership."


Cities of Flanders

Flat country with peaks of beauty

"The flat country which is mine

with cathedrals as its only peaks"

plat pays' (The flat country)
by Jacques Brel, conside-
red a francophone Fleming,
ring true. The cities of Flanders pro-
vide this landscape with relief through
their beauty and originality. There is,
of course, the North Sea, "with infinite
mists to come," another line from Brel.
But it's the cities, creating height with
their cathedrals, their belfries and other
masterpieces, which characterise the
landscape. Passing through them, the
beauty of the rivers and canals borders
on the sublime. The Scheldt which flirts
with Antwerp. The canals of Bruges.

And then a passion for its beautiful cities
begins to develop. Strolling along the pro-
menade, the tanned complexions of beau-
tiful Flemish women is perhaps the legacy
of the historic link between Flanders and
the Kingdom of Spain.

Without exaggerating

The beauty of Bruges, known as the
'Venice of the North', with the way

the light plays on the canals at night.
Ghent; just as beautiful and certainly
more authentic, not the postcard that
is Bruges with its tourists. Here it's the
people of the city themselves who charm
the visitor. Make sure you don't miss
the Ghent Festival (Gentse Feesten)
week. Or the wealth of Antwerp, with
its diamonds and its station; a master-
piece representing the myriad of archi-
tectural wonders to be found in the
city. And with Veurne you will amaze
your friends; few people know about
it. All the better to enjoy its intimate
beauty. It's like a lovely smaller version
of Bruges, just for you to enjoy.

And then there's Tongeren, a Roman town
with a rich history; a living museum of
beauty. Don't forget Leuven, which has
been a young and trendy university town
throughout the centuries. Mechelen,
Kortrijk and Hasselt, are all glorious and
attractive. Even little Geraardsbergen, a
favourite spot for those infatuated with
beautiful clothing ... And then on the
North Sea coast, there's well-heeled
Ostend, sophisticated Knokke and reser-
ved Blankenberge.

Ghent, the Graslei. Reporters/Photononstop


Jan Goossens directeur KVS. 0 Hegel Goutier

Things z



All that is most dazzli
fields of theatre, mo
reography, and mu
up in KVS the Flen
Theatre in Brussels -along witt
bitions and the most avant-garde
experiences of creation. The m:
the venue, Jan Goossens, talks t
this legendary space and about t
heart of culture in Flanders.

In comparison with the audacity
tiveness of its programming,
of this venue, the Koninklijke
Schouwburg (Flemish Royal

might appear starchy and solemn, were it
not shortened to the more catchy acronym
Culture KVS. Often this is the Brussels venue that
is most open to young artists of African
origin, as was the case a few years ago with
the collective multimedia show Green Light,
on the theme of'Being an African Artist',
are which will live long in our memories.


In It all began at the end of the 1990s. Owing
to the restoration of its superb neo-clas-
sical home, the theatre had to move to a
working-class area where 50 per cent of
rS the population was of immigrant origin.
The theatre's usual audience deserted it,
and yet its programming was not in sync
either with the neighbourhood or with the
cultural revival of Flanders. In the words of
Goossens, who became the artistic director
during this time, "we had to rethink our
repertoire to take account of the cosmo-
politan character of Brussels, and to invite
in non-Flemish artists. So we began wor-
king with young people of foreign origin,
ing in the and the creation of the work Gembloux, by
dern cho- Sam Touzani and Well Hamidou, was to
sic meets become a symbol of this collaboration".
ish Royal
Sthe exhi- The KVS then decided to move away from
collective the model of director and resident company
an behind and adopted the fashionable tendency in
ous about Flanders, that of collectively-produced
he beating works. At the same time, there was the
explosion on the scene of a whole band
of young Flemish choreographers who
and inven- were soon to become major players on the
the name world contemporary dance scene, such
Vlaamse as Anne Teresa De Keersmaeker, Wim
Theatre) Vandekeybus, Alain Platel, Ian Lauwens,

and the Moroccan-Flemish dancer and
choreographer, Sidi Larbi Cherkawi, with
his company 'Ice Man', or even directors
like Luk Perceval. All this encouraged the
Flemish government to invest in cultural

Conquest of the English-
speaking world

"A third factor", adds the director of the
KVS, "which contributed to this dynamic
scene is that we did not have a Moliere,
Goethe, or Shakespeare who our artists
had to live up to. This gave people like
Luk Perceval the freedom to work with
classical pieces with no need to pay their
respect or show deference".

And what is hot today? In the world of
rock and pop, there is Deus, Daan or the
Dewaele brothers in the form of their duo
'2 many DJs', and in jazz there is a whole
gamut of big names, such as Chris Defoort.
All of these have enjoyed great success in
the English-speaking world while remaining
little known in the francophone one, apart
from exceptions like Axelle Red or Arno.

And, of course, there is fashion, too,
where around twenty years ago Dirk
Bikkembergs, Ann Demeulemeester,
Dries Van Noten, Dirk Van Saene, Walter
Van Beirendonck and Marina Yee (the
'Antwerp Six', as they are known in the
English press) emerged fresh from the
Antwerp Academy, and have since been
followed by others. They are neverthe-
less still the darlings of the sophisticated
clientele of the catwalks of France, Italy
and beyond.


KVS, the classical building. 0 Hegel Goutler

Filming the Heart of Flanders

Carnival in Flanders

A number of great films from cinema's
golden years provide a fine description
of old and contemporary Flanders, and
those we shall look at here have a com-
mon characteristic: they are inspired by
the great Flemish painters. Each one is
a gem, and fortunately all are available
on DVD.


' ^T he Abyss' ('L'Oeuvre au
Noir') by the Belgian direc-
tor Andre Delvaux (1987),
.'tells the story of the return
ofZenon, a persecuted alchemist and phi-
losopher to his home town, the 16th cen-
tury Bruges ending up being condemned
and executed. It stars Gian Maria Volonte,
Samy Frey and Anna Karina, Inspired by
a novel by Marguerite Yourcenar, the film
is about the Europe where Zenon plied
his trade, and above all about Flanders,
where the works of the great painters are
a backdrop to the screenplay, whether
Rembrandt's chiaroscuro, snowy lands-
capes in the style of Jan Bruegel the Elder,
or the atmospheres created by contem-
porary artists, such as Leon Spilliaert's
North Seas.


'Carnival in Flanders' ('La Kermesse
Heroique'), or 'Die klugen Frauen'
(1935), by Jacques Feyder (a Belgian
film director naturalised in France),
with the assistance of Marcel Carne,
is a masterpiece among cinematic mas-
terpieces. It features Francoise Rosay,
Louis Jouvet, Andre Alerme and Jean
Murat. The French version won, among
other awards, the Grand Prix of French
cinema and the Prize for production at
the Venice Biennial of 1936, while in
the same year French critics awarded
the German version two Oscars and the
Grand Prix for international cinema.
This film is also one of those censored
or blacklisted for longest, first in France
before the war, where it was accused of
showing a world similar to the one desi-
red by Hitler, and then by the Nazis for
its praise for the resistance of the people.

Even after the war, it was long banned
by Flemish nationalists for insulting the

The film is a satire on the Flanders of
1616, where the burgmesters (mayors)
were too stuffed with food to fight against
a Spanish invasion, at which point their
wives took matters into their own hands,
facing the enemy themselves, and even
triumphing with the only arms they had,
their charms, and thus saving Flanders
from destruction. The story takes place
in the lifetime of Jan Brueghel, in order
to, as confessed by the director himself,
pay a unique homage to the creativity
of Flanders, with the landscapes which
inspired the Flemish painters. It has been
much misunderstood.

Another marvel, less well known than this
but equally exceptional, is 'The Daughters
of Darkness', by Flemish director Harry
Kiumel (1971), and starring Delphine
Seyrig, Danielle Quimet and John Karlen.
It is set in Ostend, where much of the film
was shot, although parts were made in
Brussels, Bruges and Meise. The mists of
the North Sea are present and the atmos-
phere of the flat lands depicted by con-
temporary Flemish painters, like Spilliaert
once more, or James Ensor, or Permeke. It
is a film of beautiful images which relies
on a poetry as subtle as Bruges to tell
the story of a modern woman. She is a
vampire but is quite believable: she could
have been a top model, or a singer. It is a
sensual, moving film and convinces the
viewer. Belgium, Flanders, surrealism!

Extras on the shooting of the film of Jacques Feyder "La Kermesse heroique". France, 1935. o Reporters


The forgotten people of Kagera

Far from the major economic and tourist routes, the Kagera region alongside Lake
Victoria, in north-west Tanzania, is now slowly but surely recovering from its wounds.
Thanks in part to the action of local people and to NGOs such as Partage-Tanzania.

and primary schools", continues Alfred
Minani. There are now 21 centres, inclu-
ding clinics providing advice on nutrition
and health care, as well as day centres
for the orphans. As the icing on the cake:
the teaching is based on the Montessori
method, which puts the emphasis on
developing initiative.

Infant mortality in the region is
one third the national average.

"Children suffering from malnutrition
require a lot of attention. A child is often
four years old before being able to walk
and six before starting to speak." With
regard to health care, the centres have
a laboratory enabling them to diagnose
diseases such as parasitosis. "Our budget
for combating malaria is continually being
reduced", adds Minani. "This is proof
that malaria has been almost eradicated,
or at any rate controlled. Incidence of
the disease in Kagera is well below the
national average." The results achieved
by Partage-Tanzania also have broader
significance: among the 4,000 orphans
in their care the mortality rate (2006
figures) is about one third the national
infant mortality rate and a quarter of the
regional rate.

Big-hearted Kiroyera Tours

William Rutta brings his .
and good nature to running his travel
agency in central Bukoba. In addition
to the 'traditional' safaris to the neigh-
bouring Ngorongoro and re-
serves or further afield, the agency also
helps promote awareness of the local
Haya culture and co-finances support
projects, such as Budap for disabled
people (www.budap.org). In 2006 it was
the recipient of the Zeze Award from the
Tanzanian Cultural Fund for its work.


In 1989, Philippe Krynen, a French
pilot visiting Kagera, discovered a
devastated region. The result, most
certainly, of the disastrous state of
the Tanzanian economy since the late
1970s, but also of the 1977 war against Idi
Amin Dada's Uganda that had ravaged the
region. The Frenchman decided to stay
and set up a wide-ranging development
aid programme, known as the Victoria
programme, to help orphans and their
families. The NGO Partage-Tanzania
was born. At the time the region was
regarded as the epicentre of Tanzania's
AIDS epidemic and children who had lost
their parents were commonly referred to
as "AIDS orphans". That most certainly

was not true of them all. The generally
pitiful state of health in the region was also
responsible for this sorry state of affairs.
Malaria and tuberculosis remained the
principal causes of death. Malnutrition,
attributable to the region's extreme
poverty, was another major problem.

Such was the disheartening situation
that the French NGO set about com-
bating. "At present", explains Alfred
Minani, Krynen's right-hand man, "the
programme employs a staff of 300. Our
aim is to give the orphans what their
parents would have given them: care,
food and education". The NGO's main
offices are in Bukoba, the region's port
and principal town, but it is active mainly
in rural Kagera. "We have not only ope-
ned technical schools, in which the area
was desperately lacking, but also nursery

William Rutta with members of BUDAP crossing the border
between Tanzania and Uganda. KiroyeraTours


A Day in the Life of Raoul Peck, the Haitian director, screenwriter and producer

Preview of Moloch Tropical at

the 'Visionary Africa' festival,

BOZAR, Brussels

11 September 2010 was a big day for
Raoul Peck. The preview of the last full-
length feature film that he directed and
produced, Moloch Tropical, took place
in Brussels as part of the prestigious
Visionary Africa festival following its
showing the previous evening on the
Franco-Belgian-German cultural TV sta-
tion Arte, the co-producer. It was entirely
shot in Haiti in and around the famous
citadel Henry Christophe*, a UNESCO
World Heritage Site.

Behind the scenes: Behind the scenes, 'Moloch Tropical'.
SMarie BaronneVelvet Film

The Brussels Centre for Fine
Arts, BOZAR, laid out the
red carpet for the Haitian film
director. The Haitian embassy
in Brussels had also spared no expense to
welcome the Caribbean director. As well
as being a homage to the film director, this
also paid tribute to the former Haitian
Minister of Culture, a post occupied by
Peck for 18 months in 1996 and 1997,
after the return to power of Aristide and
under the first presidency of Rene Preval,
enough time to realise the anti-democratic
tendencies of the system, and to resign.
For this short political career, Peck had
abandoned his post as a teacher of film-
making and screenwriting at New York


University. He was to write about this
experience in his work Monsieur le Ministre
... Jusqu'au bout de la patience.

Raoul Peck left his native land in 1961
as an adolescent, with his parents fleeing
the Duvalier dictatorship to go to work
in Africa. From Congo he would go to
France to complete his secondary educa-
tion and from there to Berlin. In Europe,
he was militant with the left.

After pursuing economic engineering
studies in Germany, and some work
experience as a jour-
nalist for publications My modest
as prestigious as Die
Welt, Peck decided to to deconstr
become a film direc- known as po
tor, and went back to to reduce it
his studies at West
Berlin's Academy of expression ar
Film and Television, human c
focusing on photog-
raphy and filmmaking. There he made
a number of films as a student, of which
one, Leugt, stands out.

The Wings of Desire

In Berlin, he was in his element, and
he came to spend time with Kieslowski
who was to be his teacher along with
Agnieska Holland and Wim Wenders.
When the latter filmed his great master-
piece, The Wings of Desire (Der Himmel
aber Berlin), in 1987, it was Raoul Peck
who spent every evening translating from
German into French a jumble of hand-
written notes scribbled down rapidly by
Wenders and his co-screenplayer Peter
Hancke, who worked without a formal
script, passing these on to the French
production team. This gave rise to philo-
sophic thoughts and flights of poetic
fancy which probably threw the former
off course. Peck was to speak of Berlin,
his adopted city, as well as of his experi-
ence as a minister in a jewel of a film,
Dear Catherine.

A few weeks after working for Wim
Wenders, Peck made the film Haitian
Corner in New York. The film has been
shown at 25 festivals, obtaining distinc-
tions such as a special mention at the
Locarno Festival, and was shown on
national TV in France and Germany. A
masterpiece at the first attempt.



No longer would any of the 15 or so films
made by Peck go unnoticed. After Haitian
Corner came Lumumba, Death of a Prophet,
in principle a documentary -but more of
a docu-fiction in the form of a political
thriller set against the backdrop of his
childhood in Congo -in which he carries
out a detailed investigation to discover
those behind the assassination of the
Congolese hero Patrice Lumumba. The
film pays homage to his then recently-
deceased mother. A major intellectual
weekly in France enthused that Peck had
revolutionised the art of the documentary.

aim is to try Nine years later, in
2000, his full-length
'Ct this entity feature Lumumba
ver and to try completed the docu-
o its simplest mentary, the second
score of the same
d to its strictly musical canon. This
dimension time, too, there
was gushing praise.
L'annee du cinema considered that "there
is a Shakespearean dimension" to the
narrative, and Lumumba became a classic
in a number of film theatres throughout
the world.

France's biggest TV channel entrusted a
film on the Villemin affair, a child mur-
der which had traumatised the country,
to Raoul Peck. His film on this difficult
subject was met with universal approval
in France. Quite a challenge... in this

Moloch Tropical, poetry and a
deconstruction of power

Raoul Peck spoke to The Courier, which
accompanied him for a day in Brussels,
about Moloch Tropical, his latest film and
about his cinema.

"It is more of a satirical chronicle, a
report, an almost Shakespearean look at
power, taking on in a strong and concen-
trated way the events of the last 40 years,
using Haiti as an example."

But for all that, Haiti is not the sole focus
of this sardonic eye. "The film recounts
the final days of a legal power which is
rightly far removed from the cliches of
dictatorships, to make us face up to demo-
cratically elected leaders who neverthe-
less, through a complex mix of twists of

fate, turn into characters who exercise
power in an arbitrary manner. One such
personality is Berlusconi in Italy, but Bush
also displayed such traits in his escapades
on the eve of the war against Iraq. My
modest aim is to try to deconstruct this
entity known as power and to try to reduce
it to its simplest expression and to its
strictly human dimension.

"Haiti's former president Aristide was
the initial inspiration. Someone who held
as gospel the love of his neighbour, the
defence of the poorest and most margin-
alised, someone you thought you could
have confidence in. But he dealt a final
blow of disappointment. I was quick to
distance myself analytically; the character
in Moloch Tropical goes beyond this single

On the very beautiful character of
Moloch's child, Peck says: "In each of
my films, what I try to capture is the real-
ity, and it is not simply about brutality,
violence and abuse. It is full of poetry too,
full of innocence, and it is this that we
must soak ourselves in. Otherwise, there
will no longer be any reason to carry on


*also named Citadel Laferriere

Pose Mooh op .aa

Poster, 'Moloch Tropical'. Mane Baronne/Velvet Film


I Zoo

The EU-ACP Climate Alliance

Three years after its launch, the initia-
tive on a Global Climate Change Alliance
(GCCA) between the European Union and
poor developing countries most vulner-
able to climate change is on track.

up cooperation and dialo-
gue between the EU and the
developing countries that
are hit earliest and hardest by climate
change and have the least capacity to
react. These are typically the Least
Developed Countries (LDCs) and
Small Island Developing States (SIDS),
i.e. more than seventy countries. The
Alliance is based on two pillars:

First, an enhanced dialogue on climate
change. The results of the dialogue
will feed into the discussions on the
post-2012 climate agreement under the

UN Framework Convention on Climate
Change (UNFCCC). The idea is to
support the convergence of visions bet-
ween Europe and the most vulnerable
developing countries on the shape of
a new climate agreement. The GCCA
dialogues resulted in Joint Declarations
on climate change respectively bet-
ween the EU and the Caribbean (in
March 2008), the Pacific (October
2008) and Africa (November 2008). A
Joint ACP-EU Declaration was adopted
in May 2009 and a Joint Declaration
between the EU and Asian LDCs was
signed in May 2010.


Our Planet

Second, financial support for adap-
tation and, where beneficial for the
achievement of poverty reduction aims,
for mitigation measures. Five priority
areas are foreseen:

- Supporting adaptation to the effects
of climate change: adaptation, par-
ticularly in the water and agricul-
ture sectors. This will build on the
National Adaptation Programmes of
Action (NAPAs).

- Reducing Emissions from
Deforestation and Degradation
(REDD): for LDCs, more than 60 per
cent of their emissions originate from
land-use change, primarily deforesta-
tion. The GCCA will support innova-
tive solutions to avoid deforestation
and builds on existing initiatives to
combat illegal logging such as Forest
Law Enforcement Governance and
Trade (FLEGT).

- Enhancing participation in the glo-
bal carbon market; so far the poo-
rest countries have attracted very
few Clean Development Mechanism
investors. By building capacities, the
GCCA promotes a more equitable
geographic distribution of CDM pro-

- Promoting Disaster Risk Reduction:
over the past decades, there has been
an increase of natural disasters linked
to extreme weather events, resulting
from climate change. The GCCA will
assist the most disaster prone coun-

tries in building their capacities to efforts such as the World Bank's Pilot
prepare for, mitigate and prevent the Programme for Climate Resilience.
risk of natural disasters.

- Integrating climate change into
poverty reduction efforts. Climate
change affects many sectors and needs
to be 'mainstreamed' into poverty
reduction strategies.

In July 2008, the European Commission
identified four pilot countries to start
up activities under
the GCCA: Vanuatu,
Maldives, Cambodia By building
and Tanzania. Eleven the Allianc
more countries were more equita
selected for GCCA
cooperation under dist
2009-2010 budgets: of Clean L
Bangladesh, Belize, Mechani
Guyana, Jamaica,
Mali, Madagascar,
Mauritius, Mozambique, Rwanda,
Senegal and Seychelles. The additional
resources under the 2010 budget made
it possible to identify more countries:
Ethiopia, Nepal, Solomon Islands and
nine Pacific Small Island States as a

Other countries within the overall tar-
get group of the GCCA will be added,
depending on availability of resources
in the coming period. For the selec-
ted countries, special attention will
be paid to set up innovative ways to
deal with climate change, for example
through budget support. Regular coor-
dination takes place with comparable



In addition to the country actions, there
is also a regional level GCCA support
using intra-ACP funding under the
10th EDF (40M). Regional support in
the Caribbean will be via the Caribbean
Climate Change Centre in Belize
(8M). In the Pacific, it will comprise
adaptation priorities involving the
University of the South Pacific (8M).
At the Pan-African
level, GCCA sup-
capacities, port takes place in
Promotes a the context of the
le geographic Africa-EU Strategic
Partnership no.
bution 6 on climate
development change. This will
m projects contribute to the
flagship initiative
that comprises the new African Climate
Change Centre based in Addis Ababa
in particular to improve links between
weather data and policy response. In
addition, it will support sub-regional
climate work in West Africa (with
CILSS / ECOWAS) and in Eastern
and Southern Africa (with COMESA).
These regional actions focus on specific
African interests such as agriculture
adaptation and participating in the
carbon market.

Further information can be found at the
site: www.gcca.eu.

The Commission provided E95M ad- start contribution within the Copenhagen EU Member States to contribute resources
ditional funds for the GCCA under the Agreement. Fast start actions are pre- to the GCCA. Sweden, Czech Republic
Environment and Natural Resources pared involving Ethiopia, Nepal and the and Cyprus are contributing E4.4M, 0E.2M
Thematic Programme (ENRTP) over the smaller Pacific Island States. Under the and 1.8 M respectively. Other Member
budget period 2008-2010. This includes 10th EDF intra-ACP programme, E40M States expressed interest to support the
an additional E25M underthe 2010 budg- was decided in 2009 for GCCA regional GCCA.
et corresponding to half of the EC's fast action. The Commission appealed to the

Some specific GCCA cooperation activities

- Vanuatu (E3.2M): The first component Programme of Action (NAPA) focusing Senegal (E4M): Focused on combating
will support the capacity development on sustainable land management. The coastal erosion.
of the Climate Change Unit at the De- specific objective is to contribute to land Mauritius (E3M): Budget support to con-
partment of Meteorology. The second registration, which is a pre-condition for tribute to Maurice lie Durable imitative.
component will focus on improved farm- climate adaptation.. Guyana (E4.2M): To strengthen sea de-
ing and water management practices, Tanzania (E2.2M): Support to setting fences and mangrove replanting.
and actions to avoid settlements in flood up Ecovillages with community actions Jamaica (E4.1M): To reduce disaster risk
prone areas. in natural resources management and and restore coastal ecosystems.
- Rwanda (E4.5M): The overall objective renewable energy (complementing EDF
is to support the National Adaptation work on renewable energy).


The European External Service:

what impact on development policy?

Anne-Marie Mouradian

t took fierce negotiations between
EU High Representative Catherine
Ashton, the Commission, the Council
and the European Parliament to
reach an agreement on setting up the
future European External Action Service

The new service will bring together, in
Brussels and at the 136 delegations world-
wide, staff drawn from the Commission,
the foreign policy departments of the
Council Secretariat, EU political and mili-
tary structures and the Member States.
An initial group of new ambassadors
was appointed in September in 29 third
countries, including 12 African countries
and Haiti.* Prior to the Treaty of Lisbon
becoming law, it was the Commission that
appointed the staff of its delegations, which
are now known as 'EU delegations' under
the authority of the High Representative.

This newly created 'single window' for
managing relations with all partner coun-
tries is designed to strengthen the EU's
coherence and effectiveness in the inter-
national arena. It has also given rise to
certain fears. Fears of development aid
becoming an instrument of foreign policy
and incorporated within the EEAS and
also of the intergovernmental approach

gaining precedence at the expense of the
Community method. These concerns now
seem to have been allayed, at least in part.

A compromise was reached for the pro-
gramming of European external aid that
the Commission and Parliament did not
want to entrust to the EEAS, believing
this would weaken the Commission and
effectively compromise the independ-
ence of European development policy.
The authority of the Commission and
of Commissioner Piebalgs' services over
development policy programming cycles
was therefore reaffirmed.

The EEAS will be responsible for matters
of policy and strategy, with geographical
desks divided between five directorate-gen-
erals. Africa, distinct from the ACP Group,
will have its own directorate charged with
Africa-EU strategy. Services destined to
form the EEAS are already preparing a
paper on the Horn of Africa.

In keeping with this approach, ques-
tions of strategy relating to the European
Development Fund will be handled by
the External Service while programming
preparation and implementation will be
managed by the services of Commissioner
Piebalgs, who will be responsible for ACP
relations on a day-to-day basis.

MEP Charles Goerens, Liberal group
coordinator of the European Parliament's

Development Committee, believes there is
"a real risk of a loss of unity in the decision-
making process. But I cannot believe that
the Commission's power to propose will
be compromised by the External Service."

At Catherine Ashton's department they
seek to be reassuring: "Questions of
strategy will be the subject of dialogue
between the High Representative and
Commissioner Piebalgs."

NGOs such as CIDSE, International
Development for Development and
Solidarity, take the view that: "We must
wait and see how things fall into place."

The process is in its very early stages and
many questions remain, including ones
regarding the future of the Development
Directorate-General (DG DEV). It is
agreed that the DEV desk officers will leave
to join the External Service. But will they
be joined by others? MEP Charles Goerens
warns against "any risk of dismantling this
brilliant DG that has marked the history
of the EU's external relations".

* EU ambassadors have been appointed in the
following ACP countries: Angola, Botswana,
Burundi, Chad, Gabon, Guinea Bissau, Haiti,
Mozambique, Namibia, Uganda, Papua New
Guinea, Senegal, South Africa, Uganda and


AU- Interacion

Third Africa-EU Summit

Convenes in Libya

Second Action Plan on table


The third Africa-EU Summit*
to be held in Tripoli, Libya
on the 29 and 30 November
will be an opportunity for the
European Union (EU) and African Union
(AU) to take stock of progress to date in
the implementation of the Joint African
EU Strategy put in place in December
2007 and its first Action Plan. The Second
Action Plan (2011-2013), due to be adopted
at the Summit, is designed to meet a series
of new challenges and govern future coop-

"The Europe-Africa partnership is dif-
ferent from the other partnerships that
the EU and AU have around the world,"
explains Klaus Rudischhauser, Director
of relations with the African, Caribbean
and Pacific (ACP) States at the European
Commission's Directorate-General for
Development. "European and African
Leaders have put into place an innova-
tive partnership that translates into very
concrete actions our common priorities."
He explains that the innovative aspect of
this unique partnership has to do with its
inclusive nature: one that is not limited
to the two continental organizations but
also includes their member countries, civil
society, the private sector, parliaments, etc.
In this relationship, African and the EU
are equal partners, who openly discuss not
only development and African matters, but
also address global issues and European


"We have made good progress in the eight
thematic partnerships of the Joint Strategy.

Iripoll, LIDya. AP/Reporters

Some partnerships are, however, moving
faster than others due to their own nature.
For example, the Peace and Security part-
nership is enabling the EU to support the
Africa Peace and Security Architecture
and strengthening the capacities of the
AU to plan and conduct peacekeeping mis-
sions. This is progressing relatively well",
explains Rudischhauser.

This is also the case of the partnerships on
energy, climate change, science, technol-
ogy and space. In the framework of the
energy partnership, a first high-level meet-
ing of the energy partnership took place in
Vienna on 14 and 15 September, gathering
European and African representatives who
pledged to develop access to modern and
sustainable energy for at least 100 million

more Africans by 2020. The meeting also
launched an ambitious Renewable Energy
Cooperation Programme which will con-
tribute to the African renewable energy
targets for 2020.

Flagship projects

At the Tripoli Summit, the AU plans to
announce flagship infrastructure projects,
one in each of five African regions, add-
ing to a long list of actions in progress.
Under the governance partnership, EU
and AU officials already meet twice a
year to discuss human rights. Ahead of
the upcoming Summit they expect to
launch an Africa-EU platform to discuss
governance issues. On the climate change
front, Klaus Rudischhauser says he expects


'Vteradi ^nS AU-EU

headway in Libya on the delivery in Africa
of climate financing commitments, feed-
ing into the Climate change conference in
Cancun, Mexico from 29 November to 10
December. In the context of the Migration,
Mobility and Employment partnership,
an African Remittances Institute will be
launched. It will aim to strengthen the
capacities of African governments, banks,
remittance senders and recipients, private
sector and other stakeholders, in view of
better using remittances as development
tools for poverty reduction.

Sufficient human and financial resources
are obviously essential if the partnership
is to be implemented effectively, says Mr.
Rudischhauser. Against a background of
global economic crisis, the Tripoli Summit
will look at how these resources can be
further strengthened. African states cur-
rently have very limited national budgets
and revenue. Central to these discussions,
he explains, will be the crucial aspects of
how African economies can better attract
foreign direct investment, the need to
create better linkages between aid and
investment, and the necessary conditions
to expand trade and to promote job crea-
tion on both sides of the continent. He adds
that it is thus very timely that the Summit
will be devoted to the theme: "Investment,
economic growth and job creation".

* See also pages 4 & 6

More information: www.africa-eu-partnership.

The European Commission is preparing
a series of documents, some of them
relating directly to the Africa-European
Union Summit. In particular, its commu-
nication on 'Relations between Europe
and Africa' will fuel the debate in Tripoli.

Two other Green Papers being prepa-
red, one on development policy and the
other on budgetary support, do not relate
directly to the summit but should encou-
rage public debate on these subjects.

IripOll, LIDya. AP/Reporters

The Africa European Union Strategic
Partnership is a key stage in the dialo-
gue and cooperation that has bound the
two continents since the first summit of
heads of state and government, in Cairo
in 2000. It makes the African Union a
privileged partner of the EU and consi-
ders Africa as a whole by going beyond
the array of instruments and agreements
that exist with individual regions (Coto-
nou Agreement and EU-South Africa
Agreement for Sub-Saharan Africa;
Euro-Mediterranean Partnership and
Neighborhood Policy for North Africa).

The second Africa-EU summit, which
met in Lisbon in December 2007, adop-
ted a joint strategy and first action plan
(2008-2010) with the aim of fostering clo-
ser relations and confronting together a
series of new global challenges through

eight distinct thematic partnerships:

1) Peace and security
2) Economic governance and human
3) Trade, regional integration and infras-
4) The Millennium Development Goals
5) Energy
6) Climate change
7) Migration, mobility and employment
8) Science, information society and space

The third Africa-EU Summit, to be held
in Tripoli (Libya) on 29 and 30 November
2010, will assess the initial results and
launch the second action plan (2011-



Africa-EU 'V era^ti^ n H

Taking Africa-EU space

cooperation to new heights

The future of space cooperation between the European Union (EU) and the African
continent was explored at a 'Space for the African citizen' event in Brussels on 16
September hosted by the EU's current Belgian presidency.

D.P. for Africa (UNECA): "This continent
needs its own observation system dedi-
cated to the African continent".

Minister for Small and Medium
Enterprises, the Self-Employed,
Agriculture and Science Policy,
explained that cooperation in space
giving access to satellite data was all
about managing resources for sustaina-
ble development. It could help African
nations improve their ability to provide
food and water security and health care,
and provide early warning of disasters
enabling quick responses to emergencies.

Space comes under the 8th partnership
of the EU's Africa Strategy together with
Science and Information Society. "We
have to move a step further to scale up
our international cooperation, where
Africa will become an equal player
through acquiring or exploiting space
capabilities", said EU Commissioner for
Science and Space, Jean Pierre Ezin. He
would like to see international support
for an African Space Agency.

Some countries on the African continent
have already built up their own space-
related capabilities and programmes:
South Africa, Egypt and Nigeria. Others
have bilateral space projects with private
entities or international governments.
Meteorological data from the European
Organisation for the Exploitation of
Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT)
is also currently shared with African

"Various space projects in different areas
have been developed for Africa but very
few are sustainable beyond the pilot
phase. This is due to the fact that often
the local community of the end users
is not involved from the beginning and
does not have the feeling of ownership",
reads a newly released study, European-
African Partnership in Satellite Applications
for Sustainable Development (www.espi.
or.at), drawn up by the European
Space Policy Institute (ESPI). Said
Andre Nonguierma, Senior Officer for
Information Systems at the Information,
Science and Technology Division of the
United Nations Economic Commission

EU Action Plan

Space is expected to be at the heart
of the next Action Plan from 2011 to
2013 for the implementation of the
Africa-EU strategy. "At the request of
the ACP Group of states a 20M project
will be identified later
this month (October
2010) as the 10th Africa wa
EDF Intra-ACP con- Space
tribution to the imple-
mentation of GMES
(Global Monitoring for Environment
and Security) in Africa", says Francesco
Affinito, European Commission Focal
Point at DG development for partnership
8 (Science and Technology). He adds: "A
further 4.5M will be drawn from the pro-


posed 9M 'Support to the Air Transport
Sector in Africa' project to finance pre-
parations for the expected deployment of
the European Geostationary Navigation
Overlay Service (EGNOS) in Africa",
says Francesco Affinito, European
Commission Focal Point at DG
Development for partnership 8 (Science
and Technology).The EU's GMES,
currently under development, aims to
provide data for monitoring of the envi-
ronment and supporting civil security.
Under the EU's European Development
Fund (EDF), a 48-month project,
African Monitoring of Environment for
Sustainable Development (AMESD),
started in 2007. This is already giving
African nations
access to Earth
its its own Observation (EO)
Agency technologies and
data for environ-
mental and climate
monitoring. The development of EGNOS
in Africa will improve satellite navigation
services to the continent, especially for

For more see: GMES.info

Satellite images capture deforestation in Madagascar. Image
on top taken in 1972. Image on bottom taken in 2001.
EC Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy


l ,n t P arl a.mna .Coope-a .

Putting Agora at the centre

of the global village

Africa's current wave of elections is being financially supported by international
donors, the EU first and foremost, as well as by the presence of many interna-
tional observers. But what happens after the elections if parliaments are unable
to exercise their authority to govern and to inform? The Agora website is trying to
make up for any shortcomings.


I f you look at northern Niger,
northern Mali and Chad, you
see events that set the govern-
ments against those who have
rebelled against it. The government is
therefore virtually disqualified from
mediating from the outset, whereas parlia-
ment, when it is credible and responsible,
is in a position to act", Ibrahim Yacouba,
member of the National Advisory Council
set up by Niger's military junta to oversee
the country's return to the rule of law,
declared recently. "Credible and respon-
sible": this could not be said of Niger's
Parliament when the country was hit by
the food crisis in 2005. "Civil society",
adds Yacouba, criticisedd MPs, in par-
ticular for the privileges they had granted
themselves (...). The parliament had little
moral scope to act as an agent for conflict

These comments illustrate the complex-
ity of the measures needed to guaran-

tee solid democracies. Aid in the form
of support for the national budgets of
recipient countries has become the norm
and often represents more than two-
thirds of EU financing for development
cooperation. To receive it, southern
countries must meet certain crite-
ria linked to 'good
governance' and in
most cases pledge "Politics mL
to undertake pub- place in th
lic sector reforms,
implement an agenda
to help the poor, and show macroeco-
nomic stability. Criteria that often prove
difficult to implement in practice and
cause great concern on the part of the
donor countries.

"Parliament's participation in this exercise
is vital. If a parliament is not included
in the process, how can it provide the
follow-up?" asks Olivier-Pierre Louveaux,
manager of the Agora platform (see Box)
set up by the United Nations Development
Programme (UNDP) with the partici-
pation of some 20 partners, including
the EU. "At present, the technocrats are

being trained. Then transparency must
be ensured. It is a whole system", he con-
tinues. In short: "Politics must regain its
place in the debate."

Thomas Huyghebaert, an expert in "sup-
porting democracy" at the European
EuropeAid office,
st regain its goes further: "It is
e debate." important for pov-
erty reduction strate-
gies to be approved by
the national parliaments. Otherwise we
risk continuing to weaken the democratic
process". After being the poor cousin of
European aid (100 million euros over
10 years, almost half of which for post-
apartheid South Africa), support for par-
liaments is now beginning to take shape.
'Action plans' to enable the role of parlia-
ments to be included in political dialogue
with the recipient countries have just been
finalised. There is also work to be done
in the field, especially via the twinning
schemes implemented by the European
Parliament's Office for the Promotion
of Parliamentary Democracy (OPPD).


A multilateral initiative, Agora aims to
be an information hub for parliamen-
tary development. It pursues three aims:
sharing of knowledge and know-how,
networking of the players, and promotion
of parliaments as important vectors of
change in the field of development po-
licies. The portal is available in several
languages: English, French and, at a
later stage, will be available in Spanish,
Arabic and Russian.



0cs interaictions


to the



Erica GonzAlez

made up of five islands in the
Caribbean Sea, ceased to exist
on 10 October. Curagao and
Sint Maarten have become autonomous
countries within the Kingdom of the
Netherlands and Bonaire, Saba and Sint
Eustatius are now Dutch municipalities.

This restructuring of the Antilles resulted
from a series of referendums held amongst
the islands' inhabitants, carried out
between 2000 and 2005. The outcome
of the voting showed great disparity within
the Antilles. While Sint Eustatius demon-
strated its agreement with the existence
of the Netherlands Antilles, Saba and
Bonaire opted for a type of integration,
similar to the French overseas depart-
ment system, through which they will
become municipalities of the Netherlands.
Curagao and Sint Maarten have gone
in the opposite direction by choosing to
remain within the Kingdom as autono-
mous countries. The dissolution of the
Netherlands Antilles is the culmination
of a long period of internal difficulties and
divergences within the islands.

As a result, Bonaire, Saba and Sint
Eustatius will become municipalities of
the Netherlands, with adjustments made
to this definition on account of their loca-
tion in the Caribbean, whereas Curagao
and Sint Maarten will become autono-
mous countries within the Kingdom of
the Netherlands.

The birth of two countries

Curacao and Sint Maarten, the two
largest islands, have achieved the same

Willemstad, the capital of Curagao is renowned in the Caribbean as a unique example of colonial Dutch architecture.
SErica Gonzalez

autonomous status as Aruba obtained
in 1986. In the view of Zita Jests-Leito,
Deputy Head of General Affairs and State
Structure in the government of Curagao,
this change is a great achievement for the
island. "Now we will be in charge of more
areas which were previously controlled by
the Netherlands Antilles. Areas such as
the Police Force, Air Force and Customs
will now be controlled directly by us."

With the creation of the two new coun-
tries a shared currency and a central bank
for Curagao and Sint Maarten will be
established. "According to the proposal
which has already been submitted, if the
Island Council approves it, the currency
will be called the Caribbean :..... i ', says

New relations with CARICOM
and the OAS

Until 10 October, the Netherlands Antilles
had the status of observer in one of the
CARICOM (Caribbean Community)
councils, the Council for Human and

Social Development (COHSOD). Gideon
Isena, a member of the Foreign Affairs
Department of Curagao, is certain that
the two new countries will have the same
status, although it is the CARICOM
Council of Ministers which will decide
whether this will occur immediately or if
a new request is to be submitted. As these
two new countries will not be completely
independent and will continue to belong
to the Kingdom of the Netherlands, they
cannot be full members of CARICOM.

The same applies with the Organisation
of American States (OAS), although
its Assistant Secretary General, Albert
Ramdin, is more optimistic and hopes that
in the coming months general talks will be
initiated with the new countries on issues
such as information exchange and their
involvement in the fields of development
and cooperation.


S ....i.. D ..o.n -oop

International Literacy Day:

Cape Verdean Ministry of Education receives

UNESCO award

When a woman is illiterate, she has little chance of improving her situation and people can easily deny her rights. At the
International Literacy Day on 8th September 2010, UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation)
celebrated literacy as a means of empowering women by giving awards to governments and non-state actors that had
achieved effective results in the fight for literacy.

Andrea Marchesini Reggiani

UNESCO King Sejong
Literacy Prize set up in 1989,
was awarded to four innovative
literacy projects, in Cape Verde, Egypt,
Germany and Nepal. The initiative aims
to pay tribute to the women and men who
work behind the scenes to help others
acquire literacy skills, following the prin-
ciple that literacy is an important means
of empowering people.

One of the awards was assigned to the
Directorate-General for Literacy and
Adult Education (DGEFA) in Cape
Verde. Its 'Adult Education and Training
Programme' (EdFoA) was recognized for
its relevance and flexibility, its emphasis
on women and its remarkable impact: the
illiteracy rate in Cape Verde decreased
from 60 per cent to 20 per cent between
1974 and 2005 and has continued to fall.

Since independence, illiteracy has been a
big problem in Cape Verde's rural areas,
where women have had to work in sub-
sistence agriculture, and education has
been a privilege available to few. Since
1979, the DGEFA Programme has tar-
geted nearly 100,000 Cape Verdeans, out
of a population of 500,000. In addition
to boosting confidence and self-esteem
through the acquisition of reading, writing
and arithmetic skills, the programme aims
to enable people to exercise a profession
and thereby combat poverty. It constitutes
a lifelong community learning programme
which is based on four principles: learning
to know, learning to do, learning to be
and learning to live together. The tea-
ching method used is based on the work
of the Brazilian pedagogical theorist Paulo
Freire. Portuguese language lessons draw
on real life situations in Cape Verde and
are also held in the national language,
Crioulo. The programmes also cover gen-
der equality and HIV/AIDS prevention.

The other 2010 UNESCO International
Literary Prizes were awarded to Nepal's
Non-Formal Education Centre, Egypt's
Governorate of Ismalia, and State
Institute for Teacher Training and School
Development in Hamburg, Germany, each
of which has used innovative programmes
to increase literacy rates in marginalised
communities. The German project, for
example, is based in Hamburg, a city
where immigrants make up 14 per cent
of the population. It targets the parents of
children under the age of six from immi-
grant communities, particularly mothers,
who go to school once a week with their
children, for two years.

International Literacy Day is one of many
parallel projects overseen by UNESCO,
with the aim of increasing literacy rates
by 50 per cent by 2015. It is in line with
the Millennium Development Goal
(MDG) of ensuring that by 2015, chil-
dren everywhere will be able to complete a
full course of primary schooling. Another
of these projects is the United Nations
Literacy Decade (2003-2012), whose slo-
gan is 'Literacy as Freedom'.

Sao Felipe prison, literacy, adult education. -UNESCO/Dom-ique Roger
Sao Felipe prison, literacy, adult education. @UNESCO/Domnique Roger

Cape-Verde, Fogo Island, adult education course. UNESCO/Dominique Roger


o' 0




Seychelles meets

the fish quality challenge

Christopher Hoareau, Chief Inspector at the Seychelles' Fish Inspection and Quality Control Unit, casts an eye over the
country's success in meeting the EU's exacting import standards for fish and fishery products.

Seychelles has taken big steps
to meet quality standards over
the years with donor backing
including funds from the EU's
Strengthening Fishery Products Health
Conditions (SFP) programme for all
African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP)
states and Overseas Countries and
Territories (OCTs).

The Indian Ocean country embarked on
exports of fish and fishery products in
the early 1970s, mainly to its neighbour
in the Indian Ocean, Reunion Island,
a French Overseas Department. In the
early 1980s, under bilateral fisheries
agreements, it expanded its export mar-
ket to the United Kingdom and France.
At the same time big industrial tuna
boats of Spain and France were allowed
to operate in Seychelles' waters. A tuna
canning factory was opened in 1987.

Back in August 1998, the EU's Food
Veterinary Office made an assessment
of Seychelles' compliance with EU
sanitary requirements for export of fish
and fishery products, coming up with a
long list of recommendations which the

Seychelles' industry had to undertake
to satisfy the EU minimum sanitary
requirements from including improved
laboratory standards and hygiene survei-
llance. "The government policy was to
increase exports and turn the fisheries
sector into the second pillar of the eco-
nomy after tourism", says Christopher

In 2002/2003, it
faced one of its
biggest challenges;
the banning of swor-
dfish exports to the
EU market due to a
high level of heavy
metals, such as cad-

Ever-improving procedures

Then in 2007, the Seychelles industry
was faced with two alerts on its exports
to the EU market due to high levels of
histamine discovered in canned tuna.
Improvements in processing procedu-
res resulted. Seychelles has been a big
beneficiary of Module 2 of the SFP to

support to microbiology, food chemistry,
environmental and
metrology laborato-
"It is very difficult to obtain ries (see: http://www.
sponsorship for long-term sfp-acp.eu/).
training in the food safety, food "It is obvious that
science and technology areas" the Seychelles sani-

mium, in species which flouted the
extremely low Maximum Allowable
Level of 0.05 parts per million (ppm)
set by EU regulations. "This cost the
industry significant economic loss
since most long liner operators had to
cease their activities", says Christopher
Hoareau. A subsequent amendment in
the legislation which raised the maxi-
mum level to 0.3 ppm resulted in the
ban being lifted.

tary legislation for
fish and fishery products for export
now satisfy the equivalency principle
with that of the EU", says Christopher
Hoareau who shows no complacency. He
says that some current difficulties are
to maintain trained personnel who are
attracted by the private sector. "It is very
difficult to obtain sponsorship for long-
term training in the food safety, food
science and technology areas", he adds.


Tanzania: caught between

status quo and audacity


Tanzanians were going to the
polls to elect their new presi-
dent. New is a slight exag-
geration, since all observers agree, with
a certain sense of fatalism, that the
outgoing president, Jakawa Kikwete,
will most likely be re-elected without
much difficulty. Despite the measures
taken in recent years by the president
to clean up his party, the Revolutionary
Party (CCM) -holding an African
record of 49 consecutive years in gov-
ernment -the misuse of power, along
with rampant corruption, have signifi-
cantly hindered the strategies put in
place to assist the country in emerging
from endemic poverty, despite its rich
natural resources.

The truth is that President Kikwete is
unrivalled. The main opposition party,
the CUF, is mainly active in Zanzibar,
a semi-autonomous archipelago, The
other major opposition party, the
Chadema, which mainly represents
the young urban elite, is struggling to
define a clear party line. In addition,
Jakawa Kikwete, in the eyes of many,
embodies stability rather than audac-
ity. It was under his presidency that an
historic agreement was reached on 31
July between the Zanzibarian branches
of the CCM and the CUF to form a
united national government in Zanzibar,
which has been periodically shaken by
violent political score settling. His active
presence internationally and regionally
has also been to his credit. Finally, the
president has been successful in per-
petuating some ofNyerere's values, who
is known as the 'father' of the country's
peaceful struggle for independence. In

particular these have included a capac-
ity for empathy, as evidenced by the
policy of openness towards the victims
of conflicts in neighboring countries,
and exemplary press freedom. And it's
undoubtedly for these reasons that the
country remains, even today, despite
signs of fatigue, 'a donors' darling'.

It remains a country known abroad for
its gold and precious stones, (Tanzanite
is exclusive to Tanzania, although widely
sold by the Indians or South Africans),
the packs of wildebeest running along-
side the stunning Ngorongoro crater,
the 'Big Five' of the Serengeti National
Park and its beautiful beaches on the
east coast of Zanzibar.

But it is on leaving the country that we
take with us its most valuable asset of
all: the gentle kindness of its 43 million


I he father of the Nation', Julius Nyerere, portrait still hangs
in some school classrooms. a Marie-Martine Buckens

'Mwalimu', the national

and international icon

Some say that Tanzania was the first inhabited African country, as evidenced by
the discovery of the remains of a robust Australopithecus in the Oldupai gorge,
which cuts into the western slope of the Rift Valley on the Serengeti plain in the
north of Tanzania.


ethnic groups. Although con-
flicts are almost non-existent,
due in part by the decision
of Nyerere to make Swahili the official
language, recent years have seen rising
tensions between Christians (around 45
per cent of the population) and Muslims
(35 per cent, but 95 per cent in the archi-
pelago), a problem that may threaten the
ever fragile unity between the mainland
and Zanzibar.

1961. Julius Nyerere. Nicknamed the
'Mwalimu' (teacher), he headed the first
independent government of Tanganyika
(mainland part of the current Tanzania),
before becoming president of the country
a year later. At the time the 'teacher' was
the head of the TANU (the Tanganyika
African National Union), founded in 1954
when the country was under the trus-

teeship of the United Nations mandate,
having previously been a British protec-
torate. A legacy of the Germans forced,
after the First World War, to cede to the
British the former colonies of German
East Africa, except Rwanda and Burundi
which were returned to the Belgians.

Zanzibar itself became independent and
remained under the authority of the sul-
tan, who would be overthrown in 1963
by a revolution that
led to Sheikh Abeid
Amani Karume beco- Nyerere mana
ming president. The
same year, Nyerere good relation
initiated negotiations while receive
with the Zanzibari assistance
president resulting in
the creation of a uni-
ted Tanzania. What is the reason behind
a union between two countries whose
ambitions and goals differ so much? The
Western powers, fearing that Zanzibar
might become the 'Cuba' of Africa, played
a significant role in this union.



February 1967. Julius Nyerere, in the
famous 'Arusha Declaration', established
the founding principles of a new economic
policy, aiming to achieve self-sufficiency
with regard to food and laying the foun-
dation for socialism in Tanzania through
'Ujamaa': "An honest government, equa-
lity between rich and poor, economic

1977. TANU became Chama Cha
Mapinduzi (CCM). Between 1970 and
1980, Tanzania supported various
African liberation movements, whether
in Mozambique, the future Zimbabwe
or South Africa. Nyerere managed to
maintain good relations with the West
while receiving substantial assistance
from China. But in 1983, the economic
crisis made it necessary to liberalise the
Tanzanian economy.

1980. The 'teacher' began his last presi-
dential term, but would remain head of
the CCM the single party until 1990.

1985. Ali Hassan Mwinyi succeeded
Nyerere. Re-elected in 1990, he accele-
rated the reform agenda for transition to
a market economy and with a multiparty
system. Julius Nyerere maintained his role
of eminence grise in Tanzania and that of a
'wise man' called upon to resolve regional
conflicts in Africa, until his death in 1999.

1995. CCM candidate Benjamin Mkapa
is elected as president. He is re-elected in
2000, while Amani
Abeid Karume, the
gedto maintain son of Zanzibar's
*with the west first president, was
; with the west
elected president of
ig substantial the island in an elec-
from China tion boycotted by
the opposition. The
Tanzanian president
faced a difficult situation accentuated by
a severe economic crisis and the presence
of nearly 300,000 refugees from Burundi.

2005. Jakaya Kikwete, also a CCM can-
didate takes over the country.


Tanzania Report

A new common market of 130M

people, unique in Africa


1 July 2010 was an historic day for the
five countries of the East African
Community (EAC). The day when
the government leaders of Tanzania,
Burundi, Rwanda, Uganda and Kenya
signed the protocol for the free move-
ment of people, goods and services, to be
followed, in 2012, by a single currency.

At the EAC offices in Arusha -not far
from the International Criminal Tribunal
for Rwanda -we met with the organisa-
tion's Secretary General, the Tanzanian,
Juma V. Mwapachu. A lively debate
followed with this 68-year-old former
ambassador who is planning to bring his
experience to the Tanzanian private sector
when he retires from the EAC in 2011.

A first Community of three countries
- Tanzania, Uganda and Kenya -was
set up in 1967 but ended 10 years later.
How do you explain this failure?

There were many reasons and it is impos-
sible to say which the dominant one was.
First of all, I believe that the first EAC,
founded shortly after independence, was
built on the wrong foundations, namely a
colonial heritage built by the British. So
you had institutions providing a common
service railways, a post office, aviation,
energy, even the university -that were not
underpinned by any genuine political will.
They were almost borrowed institutions.
Also, the decision-making was too cen-
tralised, in the hands of the heads of state.
There was no Council of Ministers as in
Europe. If one representative was absent,
all decisions were blocked. Then there was
the fact that Tanzanian President Nyerere
refused to sit down with the Ugandan
Idi Amin Dada when the latter invaded
northern Tanzania in 1972, declaring: "I
do not want to sit down at the same table
as that animal". Finally, some stress the
economic choices, with Tanzania taking
the socialist route, Kenya advocating a
market economy, and Uganda a mix of
the two before becoming a state with no
rule of law at all.

In 1999, the EAC was reborn from
these ashes, at the same time invit-
ing Rwanda and Burundi to the table.
Why this choice?

Look at the history. Before, Tanganyika,
Rwanda and Burundi were German colo-
nies. Then there was the slave route run-
ning from the north of Dar-Es-Salaam to
Kivu. This spread Swahili, which became
the common language of Tanzania,
Rwanda and Burundi. There are also
ethnic affinities, especially between
Burundi and Tanzania. Also, due to their
large neighbour, the DRC (Democratic


Rep' t Tanzania.

T R e poti

Republic of the Congo), some believed raise a language issue, with Burundi
that Burundi and Rwanda would look to already marginalised at meetings due
the West. That was a mistake. They looked to its language, which is French.
east. All their external trade is through
the ports of Mombassa, in Kenya, and Firstly, regarding language use. President
Dar-Es-Salaam. Finally, the three found- Kikwete, whose country currently holds
ing countries of the EAC see the historic the EAC presidency, stated at the last
fragility of Rwanda summit in Kampala
and Burundi as a "The three founding countries that the time had
reminder of their own of the EAC see th historic come to revise the
fragility. Look at the statutes that limit
empathy shown by the fragility of Rwanda and communication to
Tanzanians when they Burundi as a reminder of their just one language;
welcomed a million own fragility" English. Regarding
Burundian refugees the DRC, we are
on their soil. Remember also that a con- 'passionate' about this country that, for
flict between Hutus and Tutsis remains its part, is mainly interested in our infra-
possible. In this case, it is the bordering structures. But the next country to join
countries that suffer. By welcoming them the Community is more likely to be South
into the fold of the Community you can Sudan. If they vote for independence in
forge an alliance that fosters stable peace. 2011 they will clearly be the priority can-
didates. The reasons are simple: they have
What are the challenges facing the
EAC, for Tanzania in particular?

cultural ties with Uganda and Kenya, they
are Christian and their economy looks
firmly to the South.

Tanzania is also a member of the
Southern African Development
Community, SADC. Of these two insti-
tutions, SADC and EAC, which do you
think is seen as most important by the
country's leaders?

At a certain moment we divorced our-
selves from the East and, in our attempts
to win a new woman, we fell deeply in
love with the South, with SADC! During
apartheid we had strong ties with the ANC
in South Africa and the elites remain emo-
tionally linked to SADC. But Tanzania
also knows which side its bread is buttered
on, namely the EAC. It is a question of
being realistic.

The Tanzanians say they are afraid.
Since the 1980s a new generation of
young Tanzanians has seen a fall in edu-
cational standards that has undermined
their confidence in regard to others, espe-
cially the Kenyans. While the number of
Tanzanians with access to education has
increased considerably, no improvement
in quality has followed. Language is also
becoming an important factor. They see
the Ugandans and Kenyans who speak
English fluently -which is the case for
my generation, but not for theirs. They
are seeking refuge in a fortress mentality,
believing they are unable to compete. It
will take us 10 years to bring our education
to the level of our two large neighbours.
But my reply to young Tanzanians is:
open up and you will learn new skills,
expose yourselves to the outside world.
For its part, the Inter-University Council,
an EAC institution, must work on har-
monising the educational system. We
are the only economic region in Africa
seeking to embrace the Bologna process
implemented in Europe. We have already
standardised the level of university fees.

The DRC has expressed a desire to join
the EAC. Some fear that accepting this
'big country with big problems'would
be 'the kiss of death'. It would also

S.' N

L. e e ]*p l
a ...ni. I' j "I ,



"With such potential Tanzania

could do so much better"

Interview with Ambassador Tim Clarke, head of the European Union delegation in Tanzania

"Twenty years ago I spent five years in
Tanzania as rural development adviser,
working for the European Commission",
Tim Clarke tells us. "We managed what
was then the biggest European agricul-
tural programme in Africa, alongside that
of Senegal. Today, 20 years later, people
don't like it when I say that the level of
poverty in rural areas seems to have
remained almost unchanged. Perhaps
not surprising since in the same period
the population has doubled."


the Tanzanian Government's
fight against poverty. Last year
it launched its vast 'Kilimo
Kwanza' ('Agriculture First') pro-
gramme. "I am afraid that many view
this as no more than old wine in a new
bottle. Although the jury is still out, the
results of this new strategy are yet to
be seen. Generation after generation of
families in the rural areas continue to
live in poverty. Having said this, extra
budgetary resources have been allocated
to Agriculture in the 2011 Budget. So I
remain cautiously optimistic."

Nyerere's leadership

"Nyerere had already understood this 20
years ago", continues Tim Clarke. Nyerere
is 'the' reference cited by everyone you
speak to in Tanzania. The EU ambassa-
dor is no exception. "His image remains
considerable. He was an international star,
even if his actions in the social field proved
to be unrealistic. He was a modest and
humble man. He understood that agri-
culture was at the core of everything, and
that reform of agriculture was critical to
achieve positive change. He didn't have all
the right answers, but he remains a revered
Tim Clarke. EC person nevertheless."

Nyerere is the reference for all African
countries seeking independence and roots.
Tanzania still aspires to a leadership role
and, adds Tim Clarke, it is true that "its
attitude to refugees is exemplary. The
interior minister's decision to naturalise
160,000 non-nationals is unique. This is
'pure Nyerere', in keeping with his Ujamaa
policy of working for the common good. In
Tanzania you find both this extraordinary
sense of human compassion and, at the
same time, a curious fortress mentality; the
desire for a Tanzania for the Tanzanians."

Combating corruption

But the party founded by Nyerere, the
CCM, is suffering from its longevity.
"It has been in power for 49 years now,
a record for Africa, if not the world",
observes Tim Clarke. "And it is not
without its problems. Corruption sadly
seems to dominate political life today. The
government has adopted some positive
measures, such as setting up a Prevention
and Combating of Corruption Bureau
(PCCB) and giving it some teeth. But
too many view this as a smokescreen.
Too much money 'leaks' from the public
sector. There is a public sector reform
programme in place, which we are sup-
porting. But it needs to be invigorated.
The transit of goods within the country
and the region is subject to repeated police
checks that increase economic costs, and
in some cases, notably for fresh agricul-

SMarie-Martine Buckens


R^ep^^rt Tanzania^^^

viarle-Martine tucKens

tural produce, leads to unnecessary spoil-
age. Intensive efforts need to be made to
reduce such non-tariff barriers to trade
within and outside Tanzania. Neither
we, nor other partners, have been able to
have a really serious in-depth discussion
on Governance and Corruption issues.
But I am sure it will come."

Abandoning old habits

"Most of our aid is in the form of gen-
eral and sectoral support for the state
budget. But due to the lack of a clear link
between the injec-
tion of resources and
outcomes achieved "In Tanzania y
real measurable extraordinary,
deliverables some compassion a
EU Member States
are becoming increas- time, a fortress
ingly reluctant to use desire for a T
this form of financial Tanza
instrument. We would
like more dialogue on governance and
accountability issues." Tim Clarke goes
on to say that: "The management of public
resources must be improved allowing the
public and private sectors to work together
in a synergetic way. The common cry from
all is to reduce bureaucracy and stamp out
corruption at all levels. Then, we believe,
there will be tangible progress, with real
economic benefits to the poor." "My job",
he adds, "is to help create a sound business
environment, to support the capacity of
institutions involved in cooperation and
ultimately allow Tanzania to stand on its
own feet. I remain convinced that Tanzania
has the potential and the resources to do
this. We remain a respected partner, but
there continues to be some discrepancy
between our expectations and what the
Tanzanians think and do".

"It is true that the country has good
macroeconomic stability. It has adequate




budget support and is moving in the right
direction. But in Tanzania many of those
in the donor community feel that it is
failing to realise its potential." The rea-
sons? "I don't know. If there was a magic
bullet it should have been found by now.
Agricultural development is difficult, and
takes time. There is a strange fear of see-
ing the Kenyans, the Ugandans and other
outsiders gain control of the economy.
But this is misguided -the latest figures
show that it is Tanzania that is doing as
well or even better than other members of
the East African Community in terms of
intra-regional trade.
The strong socialist
u find both this mentality is still very
ense of human deep, and although
d, at the same the private sector is
making some head-
mentality, the way, it remains a very
nzania for the challenging process."
"While agriculture
should be the principal means of wealth
creation, we are still seeing poor manage-
ment of natural resources. Deforestation
is increasing, and we see soil erosion and
loss of biodiversity. And I do not feel
enough resources are being mobilised by
the government to tackle these issues."
He also believes that land tenure issues
are at the heart of the problem, with
preventing small scale farmers unable
to exploit new opportunities. The sim-
ple hoe ('jembe') remains the dominant
agricultural implement for farmers. This
is a problem that is well known in many
African countries, and there are no sim-
ple solutions. A passionate Tim Clarke
continues: "The same is true in the health
sector. The conditions in the hospitals are
sometimes dreadful, with two or three
people having to share the same bed."
But there are marvellous exceptions. He
cites the CCBRT hospital programme
(read separate article) which is caring

for disabled people in Dar es Salaam as:
"la creme de la creme".

International credibility

Tanzania nevertheless remains a favoured
international interlocutor in matters of
Africa policy. Tanzanian President
Kikwete was one of three leaders (together
with the Liberian and Rwandan presi-
dents) to be invited to speak at a confer-
ence organised by US President Barack
Obama. "The links with China are also
important, as indicated by the Chinese
leader's visit, a rare event. It is with the
Chinese that most contracts are signed.
Also notable is the Iranian vice president's
visit, as links with the Muslim world are
also important." President Kikwete has
headed the African Union, today he chairs
the EAC or East African Community
(read the interview with its Secretary
General). This counts and the ambassador
admits that "the EU did not invest suffi-
ciently and failed to play this card". But he
also believes that President Kikwete could
have used his present position within the
EAC to advance the economic agenda.
In the meantime, the EU has a limited
dialogue with the EAC, even if EU funds
are allocated to it indirectly, essentially
to support government actions in favour
of human rights and, in the future, in
infrastructure. "My colleagues and I are
trying to put a political dialogue into
place", answers Tim Clarke. A dialogue
that is all the more important as Tanzania
has chosen finally to negotiate its future
Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA)
with the EU within the EAC, abandon-
ing membership of the Southern Africa
bloc. EPAs that are still proving difficult
to finalise. "The political will within the
EAC remains lukewarm", believes Tim
Clarke. Hence the importance of future
EAC/EU dialogue.


Tanzania Report

MVarie-Martlne bucKens

Repor Tanzani

Significant budget support

to fight poverty

Despite a high annual GDP growth rate of around seven per cent, Tanzania remains one of the poorest countries in the world,
according to the Human Development Index of the UNDP, the United Nations Development Programme. The country therefore
remains the largest recipient of Official Development Assistance (ODA) in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Just over half a billion Euros
in European aid
Under the 10th European Development
Fund (EDF), the EU has decided to al-
locate E555M to Tanzania for the period
2008-2013. This aid is mainly provided
through government budget support (55
per cent to the general budget and 25
per cent to the sector budget com-
munication, infrastructure), the rest -
E55.5M, being allocated to trade and
regional integration (in its non-state actor
component), and to programmes provid-
ing aid to: non-state actors (E23M); the
national authorising officer (5M); the
2010 elections (3M); technical coopera-
tion (5M); reform programmes (E8M);
climate and energy research (8M); and
others (complaints, contingencies).

In a re-nutrution centre of Partage Tanzania in Bukoba. Marie-MartineBuckens


O DA disbursement exceeded
US$2bn in 2006, a figure
which has doubled compared
to the nineties. On the other
hand the Tanzanian economy is, to a
significant extent, reliant on the support
of international backers (16 per cent of
gross national income and 41 per cent of
the state budget). "Tanzania is a 'donor
darling'", notes Enrico Strampelli, Head
of Development

Progress has been made, notably
following the strategy for growth and
poverty reduction (Mkukuta) imple-
mented by the authorities, mainly in
the areas of primary education, gender
equality, water access for the urban
population. But much remains to be
done in improving infrastructure, com-
bating extreme poverty and malnutrition
and improving health in general.

"Moreover", says Sadick Magwaya,
EU programme manager within the
department of the Chief Authorising
Officer of the

Cooperation at the "The rate at which poverty is Tanzanian Ministry
EU Delegation. of Finance, "the mor-
"Everyone is there: being reduced is too slow and tality rate fell from
the EU, the USA, remains a serious challenge 112 to 91 per thou-
China, 20 UN for the government." sand between 2005
Agencies, etc; and 2009". But he
nonetheless, coordination among the admits that, "the rate at which poverty
donors is working". As well as with the is being reduced is too slow and remains
government. So far, the efforts made to a serious challenge for the government".
implement the November 2009 Council Secondary education is also problematic:
decision for Tanzania to be a Fast Track there are too few teachers and they are
country on aid coordination and cohe- often poorly trained, not to mention
rence have been successful. that English essential to access higher

education -is not taught in primary
schools with the exception of private
schools, which are becoming increa-
singly common.

Rural areas, where 80 per cent of the
population lives, have been "severely
affected both by poor agricultural per-
formance and underemployment". The
lack of opportunities is so severe that, in
2006, out of 760,000 job seekers, only
70,000 found employment... "The cha-
llenges remain significant", Magwaya
says, "agriculture remains dependant on
rainfall, aid -in terms of research and
expertise -is desperately lacking, as is
infrastructure. Our food industry is still
underdeveloped and the EU would like
to promote the role of the private sector
in this context". In the new Mkukuta
strategy, launched in July 2010, the
government has decided to place a grea-
ter emphasis on the private sector but
it remains insufficient, acknowledges
Magwaya. "And yet, the public sector
cannot grow indefinitely ..."


Breaking the vicious

circle of disability/poverty

The Msasani medical centre in Dar es
Salaam is a hive of activity. Some children
are waiting for physiotherapy and others
for cataract surgery. More than 200 peo-
ple queue every day for a consultation.
However, the care provided for the disa-
bled does not stop at the hospital's door.


'T he project goes back
to 1995. It was set up
by a highly motivated
"group of people led by
Dr. Willibrod Slaa (the presidential can-
didate of the opposition party, Chadema,
NDLR), who is the chairman of the
project's management board. It initially
focused on the blind -cataracts are a real
scourge -and was later expanded. Today,
it has 320 staff and 200 beds. But probably
more important than the hospital itself
is the work we do in the communities in
cooperation with local people. You have to
understand that a disability is seen as an
inadequacy here in Africa, a punishment
from God", explained Erwin Telemans,
head of the'Comprehensive Community
Based Rehabilitation in Tanzania' project


The disabled are therefore restricted to
their communities. This means that is
where care for them has to be provided.
Thanks to a large-scale communications

strategy involving the media, but also
'ambassadors', often former patients,
the centre has succeeded in convincing
families to bring their deaf, their blind
children and those born with clubfeet
or cleft palates for treatment. Msanani
provides care for them. Both Tanzanian
and foreign doctors work there. Erwin
Telemans added: "10,000 operations are
carried out here each year, 8,000 on the
eyes and 2,000 involving orthopaedics
artificial reconstruction. There are people
who have been unable to see for 20 years
owing to cataracts and who, thanks to a
20-minute operation, regain their sight.
However, if you operate on children born
with cataracts before the age of 6 or 7, they
can regain their sight and have the oppor-
tunity to become lawyers, doctors or, who
knows, even president". The project's
CEO has fond memories of a family who
came to the centre with five blind chil-
dren. After just a few days, they were all
able to see again. He said: "Their mother
was overcome with joy, the hospital was
filled with song. The Africans are very

However, not all patients can be cured.
Support units have therefore been set
up to help parents to ensure their disa-
bled children are socially integrated with
assistance from a team of physiothera-
pists. Educational programmes have been
launched which today cover 58 schools.

Step by step, the centre has offered care
for other disabilities, such as for mothers
suffering from obstetric fistula after a
difficult childbirth, a condition which
marginalises them. Once again, the work
in the communities, in particular in the
rural regions, has proven crucial. The
government is now calling on CCBRT
to expand its services to include mater-
nal healthcare. A hospital based on a
public-private partnership has been esta-
blished. The government has provided
the land and is meeting some staff costs.
Otherwise, the centre depends on funding
from private donations, other NGOs and,
above all, the European Union.

One person in ten worldwide suffers
from a disability. Eight disabled people
in ten come from the countries of the
South. Fewer than 2 per cent of the disa-
bled attend school in Tanzania

) CCBRT/Dieter Telemans


^^^^^Tanzania Report^^

Report Tanzan

The power to decide

Helping young women break out of the vicious circle of poverty and dependence is
one of the projects developed in northern Tanzania by the German NGO, 'DSW'. The
approach is twofold: to learn a skill and to manage their sexuality.


chef at the Golden Rose Hotel
in Arusha, a major urban and
tourist centre a stone's throw
from Mount Kilamanjaro. She is likely
to find a permanent job soon. Nothing
very extraordinary about that, you may
think. But just a year ago the only life choi-
ces open to her were marriage or home-
lessness, her parents having no resources
to help her after she left school. Today
Gertrude has no plans to marry for at
least another five years.

Gertrude was trained at the Vocational
Training Centre in Faraja, a few kilome-
tres from Arusha. The centre was foun-
ded in 2007 by Martina Siara, a retired
social worker. This model centre, built
on Martina's property, currently has 40
young female pupils. Many of them have
a painful past as victims of rape, sex tra-
fficking or families who disowned them.
Sixteen of them are mothers. A creche
has just opened so they can follow their
training in hotel management, dressma-
king or computing.

"This centre is unique", explains Jesse
Orgenes, the programme manager,
"because it accepts women and their chil-
dren. Women who used to be rejected. If
we give them the necessary tools they can
join the labour market with more self-
confidence and that makes them less vul-
nerable. They will finally have the power
to make their own life choices".

Agents of change

It is thanks to EU funding in particular
that DSW is able to support this centre.
But how do the women find the centre?
"Thanks to our youth clubs. We have
around 30 of them in each of the three
regions where we are working here in the
north: Arusha, Kilimanjaro and Tanga",
adds Orgenes. "These clubs are used in
all our projects." Although the NGO
supports a lot of projects, they all have
one thing in common: they teach young

In the Vocational Training Centre in Faraja Marie-Martne Buckens

people, and women in particular, to take
responsibility for their own lives. While
information on sexual health is central
to most of its actions -as well as distri-
buting condoms or contraceptive pills,
travelling theatres visit markets to warn
of risky practices and show how to avoid
contracting HIV -the clubs also teach
young people how to set up projects and
manage them financially. Trained by the
NGO, the youth club workers in turn
train other young people who go on to
also become "agents of change".

Also supported by the EU, the DSW's
'reproductive health' programme reaches
hospitals, major companies DSW coope-

rates with the Tanzanian Horticulturalists
Association, which has several large inten-
sive flower production farms in the region
-and even artisanal mining groups where
the conditions are often sordid.

"The EU support does not stop there",
stresses DSW National Director Peter
Munene. "It also supports our actions in
favour of health in Kenya and Uganda
through its regional fund. Through the
East African Community it even helps us
carry out actions targeted at young people
in the five member countries with the aim
of making them aware of their political


Tanzania Report

Water, the sustainable development

challenge in Zanzibar

There is no shortage of rainfall on the island of spices; however it faces numerous challenges to ensure an adequate and
good quality water supply, especially for the neglected rural population of the north-west of the island, far away from the
tourist areas.


ted in the natural caves of
this mainly coral island.
And yet several different
factors threaten its availability. "The
overuse of groundwater causes salina-
tion of coastal wells, leading to an over-
load on the wells in the inland, and a
lowering of water quality", explain the
technical services of ZAWA, the Water
Authority in Zanzibar. Moreover, unlike
on the Tanzanian mainland, a decree has
permitted foreign investment in this semi-
autonomous archipelago which has deve-
loped the tourist area in the eastern part
of the island. In short, the public water
system is obsolete and ill-equipped to
meet the needs of the current population.
"The majority of the network dates back
to independence, and the water policy was
lacking efficient regulations and based
on free service", adds Luca Todeschini
of the Italian NGO, ACRA. It was not
until 2004 that the authorities adopted
water legislation, and not until 2006 that
ZAWA was set up.

Community priority

ZAWA is ACRA's main partner in the
sustainable water management project
in Zanzibar, along with two Zanzibarian
NGOs. With a budget of 1.05M over
three years, it is 75 per cent funded by
the European Union. It is particularly
innovative in that it creates 'water com-
mittees'. These committees, mostly made
up of women -an integrating factor, given
that women are economic outcasts -are
responsible, with ZAWA support, for ensu-
ring the collection of fees in villages. The
elected committees are also responsible for
maintaining the small-scale infrastructure
within districts.

The active participation of the popula-
tion, coupled with the rehabilitation of the
water network, has a positive impact on
the willingness to pay, adds Todeschini:
"People understood that the sale of water
at reasonable prices is essential to perpe-
tuate the service for future generations and
public health. Although the national water
tariffs, recently published, could guarantee
the recovery of the costs, we are just at the
beginning of a behavioral change which
will need time before fully succeeding".

IVIIcrogrands or 1 eeKeeping acuLvlues in me imaingives. ACHAItaly

Holistic action

"But our work does not stop there."
The NGO ensures a minimum level of
hygiene -there was a cholera epidemic
which began in 1979 and peaked in 2007
-through the construction of household
latrines and education campaigns in
schools and villages and through radio
and TV spots. It is also involved in the
diversification of the economic activities
of the villagers. Priority is to allow women,
the poorest, to pay their fee through sales
of their products in local markets and
hotels. Others are installing new beehives
among the mangroves found on the west
coast. Not to mention the fishing com-
munities involved in aquaculture projects
which still present challenges.

New water tank. ACRA Italy

Water by gravity

In the district of Njombe, Mainland Tanzania, ACRA, in partnership with NDO, a local
NGO, is currently finalising the construction of a gravity water scheme fed by the pure
mountain sources of the southern highlands. The 80km long aqueduct provides safe
potable water to 14 secluded rural villages. ACRA has supported, and trained, the
organisation of about 40,000 users into an association which is fully responsible for
its operation and maintenance.


*.DD n z

The Tanzanians' nightmare

M.M.B. VayM i reI'- l W. I 1

of Tanzania, lies on the
shores of Lake Victoria. If
you approach people and
ask them what they think of Darwin's
Nightmare, the documentary directed by
Hubert Sauper, faces harden, the silence
echoes around you. Four years after its
premiere, the film, widely praised by
international critics, maligned by some
experts who described it as "voyeuristic"
and "unethical", has not been forgotten.
And Tanzanians are still waiting for the
investigation promised by their president,
who, at the time, declared he was outraged
by the film.

A quick reminder: the film shows us the
damage caused by the EU funded estab-
lishment of a packaging plant for Nile perch
fillets, exported to Europe and Japan from
a port which had previously been limited to
small-scale traditional fishing. The plant
creates around a thousand direct jobs, but
also leads to a rural exodus and causes
many related activities to take place, such
as the salvaging of by-products, but also
prostitution, street children taking drugs
and, as suggested by the director, arms
trafficking, with weapons filling the holds
of aircraft on their return to Africa after
the fillets are unloaded in Europe. Not to
mention the ecological disaster: introduced
over 50 years ago, the voracious and car-
nivorous Nile perch has created a vacuum
all around it, threatening to leave behind
a dead lake.

In Bukoba, a port located less than 200
km north of Mwanza, tongues loosen
around a meal oftilapia. "You see", says
an economist working for an NGO, "other
species are still very much present". It is

true that the tilapia being served is itself
an introduced species, the Nile tilapia,
the endemic species having, if you believe
some experts, virtually disappeared. But,
he continues: "in our re-nutrition centres
for orphans, we use large amounts of the
fulu, a small pelagic fish, an important
source of protein and minerals". The fulu
remains the fish of choice for rural people
even if, statistically, it makes up only 1 per
cent of the catch compared to 80 per cent,
before the perch boom. "But putting it this
way is misleading", he says, "because that
doesn't tell us the actual volume caught".

Professor of geography and former head of
a humanitarian NGO, the Frenchwoman

Fishing village on Lake Victoria. a Marie-Martne Buckens

Sylvie Brunel, while not denying the reality
portrayed in the film, condemns what she
sees as the West's eternally condescend-
ing and backward-looking gaze towards
Africa, forever the victim. She also criti-
cises Sauper's 'deeply unethical' analy-
sis in establishing a direct link between
the country's calls for food aid and the
situation of those demeaned in Mwanza,
criticising the unfair manner in which the
European representatives are derided. A
country cannot develop without a domestic
market she stresses, but experience shows
that it is often the existence of an export-
focused modern industry which creates it,
rather than the continuation of a small-
scale self-sufficient community.

S.r C

Protecting nature versus economic development
A month on from the elections, the Tan- Congo on one side and the east coast of
zanian government is attempting to quell Tanzania, bordering the Indian Ocean, on
discontent among environmentalists by the other, to finally be implemented.

announcing the establishment of a working
group responsible for advising on its con-
troversial project to build a road through the
Serengeti National Park, which is classed
as a UNESCO World Heritage site and is
the country's main tourist attraction. This

However, the road would cut through the
migration route taken by 1.3 million wilde-
beest each year, which could result in the
wildebeest population falling to less than
300,000, causing grassland degradation

50 km road would enable at a time when and threatening the survival of predators
the East African Community is spreading (lions, cheetahs, African wild dogs) accord-

its wings an older project with the aim of
creating an economic channel between
Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi and the DR

ing to environmentalists.


David Mzuguno. Courtesy Lumleres d'Afnque

Cultural cauldron

From the traditional ngoma to design by way of the Tinga painters, not forgetting
the revival of cinema, Tanzanian culture is alive and well and exploring an identity
between tradition and modernity.


n the north of the country, close to
the port of Mwanza, the Bujora cul-
tural centre is one of the two major
institutions actively promoting ngoma,
a traditional Tanzanian dance of subtle
rhythms -aided by the tambourine and
marimbas or lamellophones that express
the life of the community and communi-
cate with the ancestors.

Dar es Salaam is seeing more modern
initiatives flourish. It is in the economic
capital that Mustafa Hassanali "makes
fashion a religion", to quote the website of
Swahili Fashion Week, an annual initiative
launched by this young fashion designer.

In 2003, Rachel Kessi and friends opened
the Mawazo Gallery in the centre ofDar es
Salaam. This young Tanzanian 'art busi-
ness woman', a long-time expatriate living
in Switzerland, uses the gallery to enable
local artists to exhibit their works.

The Zanzibar International Film Festival
(ZIFF), launched in 1998, has breathed
new life into the Tanzanian film industry.
At the same time, as evident from this
year's award for a South African film,
ZIFF has become a major cultural event
that provides a showcase for artists from
throughout the Indian Ocean and beyond.


The legacy of Tingatinga

He painted for four years of his life ... but
that was enough for some 400 artists in
Tanzania to claim, 38 years later, to belong
to a school that now bears his name.

Edward Saidi Tingatinga was born, it is
believed, in 1932. But it was not until 1968,
having noticed the interest from tourists
passing through Dar es Salaam in paint-
ings from neighboring Mozambique that,
in the absence of Tanzanian paintings, he
decided to pick up a brush.

His material: chipboard panels. His tools:
enamel paint borrowed from the coach-
builders on the corner. His subjects: ani-
mals, painted in vibrant, bright colours. A
new style was born. Edward, a civil serv-
ant, entrusted his wife with the task of
selling his paintings in the lively neighbour-
hoods of Tanzania's commercial capital.
His paintings were popular and sold well
- for low prices and so Edward soon
enlisted other family members to help.
Some would even become his disciples.

This was the beginning of a school that still
exists today, built on the practise of hand-
ing down knowledge. Edward trained five
apprentices who in turn trained 20, and so
on. "In these cooperatives, imitation was
almost de rigueur", explains Yves Goscinny,
a former gallery owner in Dar es Salaam
and now the co-manager of the Lumieres
d'Afrique Gallery in Brussels. "The artists
did not sign theirwork and it was only later,
on the advice of Westerners, that Edward
began to sign his paintings E.S. Tingatinga,
as his first name is Edward, Saidi is the
name of his father and Tingatinga was his
grandfather's name." Edward died in 1972
from a stray bullet during a police chase.

Today the Tingatinga style has consid-
erably diversified and new themes are
constantly being introduced, but the bright
and vibrant colours remain. David Mzu-
guno one of the new painters, will have
a special retrospective exhibition at the
European Commission in Brussels from
4 to 29 April 2011.

Information: www.lumieresdafrique.eu

Tanzania Report

Urban Camouflage:

Exploring the Origins of an Art Project

In Africa, cloth is not simply a way of covering the body. It also a means of com-
municating cultural belonging and defining social status. It is like a history lesson
made plastic, walking around in towns and villages. This is the concept that Ann
Gollifer, a British artist living permanently in Botswana, explores in her work, par-
ticularly in her 'Urban Camouflage' project.

Sandra Federici

took part in the first Urban
Camouflage project.
'Street Safari' took place in
Botswana's capital Gaborone in 2007,
during which the teenagers wore special
outfits depicting images of Botswana's
founding fathers 'The Three Chiefs'
Khama, Sebele and Bathoen. The act
of walking around their city dressed
in such clothes allowed the teenagers

to express an awareness of and reflect
upon issues such as African history and

The Courier interviewed Ann Gollifer
who is now preparing another artistic
performance based on the Kanga fabric,
which will also take place in Gaborone.
Kangas are pieces of printed cotton
fabric, frequently with a border, a cen-
tral design and a text. They are a type
of traditional dress worn by women
in Central/East Africa. The text has
evolved from commonly political cita-
tions in the 1960s and 1970s, now often

consisting of general words of wisdom
and jokes.

Can you tell us about your new
'Fashion and Art' project?

I want to make a series of Kangas using
my own designs and proverbs. My idea
is to get an industrial fabric printer to
print the cloth and then get a group of
women to wear the Kangas for a photo
shoot. I am currently designing the cloth
using a continuation of my artwork and
the 'Haarlem Hand'. The slogans I will
use will be in English and/or Setswana.


Where will the event take place and
what slogans will be used?

There will be another 'Street Safari'
in Gaborone. I would like to use urban
venues such as supermarkets: South
African chains in Botswana, as well as
small local supermarket chains such as
Choppies. I am also thinking about dry
cleaning outlets. The slogans/proverbs
printed on the Kangas will be sayings
that I have heard from my grandmothers,
mother and friends, as well as advertising
slogans that strike me as funny or meanin-
gful in some specific way. For example, ----
the wonderful advertising slogan that is
currently being used to sell Sorghum meal:
'Unleash the indigenous you'!

Who will wear the Kangas that you
are creating?

The group of women who will wear the
Kangas will be my friends of different Urban Camouflage, up in the air with the 'Three Chiefs', 2008. CAnnGoIllfer
nationalities and cultures who live in
Gaborone: Botswana, Sweden, Jamaica, during a woman's daily life, such as pre- stories about the African ability to alternate
South Africa, Zimbabwe, etc. They will paring food and doing the laundry: the between tradition and modernity, naturally
wear my Kangas 'traditional African modern day "hunting and gathering" renewing tradition every day to produce
attire' which I have personalised with my carried out by contemporary house wives. new, autonomous creations. Her works
images in contemporary settings that never fail to raise new questions about
relate to the mundane tasks performed Gollifer's works full of irony, and recounts African culture and identity.

African Photography in Ulm:

An exhibition not to be missed

When large sums of money are used to support artists, to engage competent curators and to offer the public an intelligent
and unique cultural experience, the results are always pleasing. This is certainly true of the first exhibition organised by the
Walther Collection, being held in Burlafingen near Ulm, in Southern Germany from June 2010 to June 2011.


art critic Okwui Enwezor, the
exhibition integrates the work
of three generations of African
artists and photographers with that of
modern and contemporary German pho-
tographers. In total, it comprises 243
works of art by 32 artists, all of which
examine the topic 'Events of the Self:
Portraiture and Social Identity'.

The photos on display are part of the
Walther Collection, a very important
broad and in-depth collection of the work
of modern and contemporary African
photographers. This collection was cre-
Theo Eshetu, "Trance" 100 x 100. Courtesy Theo Eshetu



ated by Artur Walther, a retired man-
ager and entrepreneur who previously
worked in finance. Walther has devoted
his time to collecting African, Chinese,
US and German photography, and has
been actively involved in the organisation
of a range of visual and performing arts
institutions. Since 2005, Okwi Enwezor
has been helping Walther to shape and
expand the African part of his collection
and has been responsible for curating
the catalogue. This is the first time that
the Collection has opened its doors to
the public.

Chika Okeke-Agulu, a leading curator
who is also the Dean of Academic Affairs
at the San Francisco Art Institute and
founding publisher of Nka: Journal of
Contemporary African Art, writes in his
blog: "I predict that this Collection will be

the research Mecca for scholars of African
photography for years to come".

For example, the first section of the exhi-
bition -located in the 'White Box' build-
ing -has two sequences. The first is a
monographic exhibition dedicated to the
studio portraits of the Nigerian-British
artist, Rotimi Fani-Kayode (1955-1989),
while the second is an exhibition that
presents the work of 25 contemporary
African artists, which is organised around
the themes of portraiture, portrayal, gen-
der, performance, theatricality and iden-
tity. The artists include Sammy Baloji,
Oladele Ajiboye Bamgboye, Yto Barrada,
Candice Breitz, Allan deSouza, Theo
Eshetu, Samuel Fosso, David Goldblatt,
Kay Hassan, Romuald Hazoume, Pieter
Hugo, Maha Maamoun, Boubacar Toure
Mandemory, Salem Mekuria, Zwelethu

Mthethwa, Zanele Muholi, James
Muriuki, IngridMwangiRobertHutter,
Grace Ndiritu, Jo Ractliffe, Berni Searle,
Mikhael Subotzky, Guy Tillim, Hentie
van der Merwe and Nontsikelelo Veleko.

The exhibition in the 'Green House'
presents and compares the portraits of
two great modern masters: Seydou Keita
(from Mali) and August Sander (from
Germany). The 'Black House', mean-
while, examines the concept of seriality in
the work of Bernd and Hilla Becher (from
Germany), Malick Sidibe (from Mali)
and J. D. Okhai Ojeikere (from Nigeria).

. ... -

-.~ %.t*_. .
re N

Theo Eshetu, Passage" 35 x 200, from Trip to Mount Zigualla" (2005). Courtesy The Walther Collection



For young readers

Fruitful entry to Europe?

Comic by Eric Andriantsalonina


European Development Days, Brussels, 6 to 7 December 2010

This year, the 5th edition of the European
Development Days (EDD) will take place in

all confirmed the role of Europe, not
only as the leading donor of develop-

Among the topics covered:
SAid Effectiveness Objective Korea 2010

Brussels on 6 and 7 December. Organised ment aid but also as the leader of in- Isthe European Union committed to making

by the European Commission and the Belgian
Presidency of the Council of the European Un-
ion, EDD is the leading European forumwhere

ternational thinking about development
cooperation. They have strengthened

change happen?
* Development for the next generation -Chil-

public awareness of development is- dren's rights in development policy

the questions and issues about international sues and helped to improve European Food Security

development cooperation are debated.

The previous four editions of EDD have

cohesion with a view to increasing the Making work decent for women
effectiveness of aid.




18 -19/11 African media leaders forum
Yaounde, Cameroon

19/11 Nigerian BELUX Diaspora
Organised by Nigerians in
Diaspora Organisation Europe
(NIDOE) in partnership with
the Embassy of Nigeria.
Theme: Activating invest-
ment Communities for Mutual
Conference Centre, ACP
Secretariat, Brussels, Belgium
More information: www.nidoebe-
lux.org / Tel: +32 497 05 35 30 /
em ail: .:.. ,. .. !,

25-26/11 Africomm 2010: 2nd
International ICST
Conference on e-Infra-
structures and Services for
Developing Countries
Cape Town, South Africa

26- 28/11 4th EU-Africa Business
Tripoli, Libya
www. euafrica-businessforum.org

29 30/11 Africa-EU Summit
Tripoli, Libya

29 -10/12 United Nations Climate
Change Conference
Cancun, Mexico


2-4/12 20th Session of the ACP-EU
Joint Parliamentary Assembly
Kinshasa, Democratic
Republic of the Congo
www. europarl. europa. eu intcoopi
acp/60_20/default en.htm

06-07/12 European Development Days
Brussels, Belgium

7-8/12 3rd Euro-Africa Cooperation
Forum on ICT Research
Helsinki, Finland
www. euroafrica-ict.org/events/

09 -10/12 2010 Euro-Africa e-Infra-
structures Conference
Helsinki, Finland


T 0 :-= z m 8=

... 'Z Z >"


z -

m 0. o o o' E
0 M

< C a 0 E = Z

Spiisis anCC

^n ~ *E D5
m^SuI S )V)Ny sg-
[r SEzo"~g^ S^ S
m' Nlt u 1




r O

" -,.

z F c . )0
- N a C) C) CZ C5 c --



zz a a
z E E VE

LUC w~4m ~ ~~IC,5 C,5~~