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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
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    Back Matter
        Back Matter
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text


N. 18 N.E. JULY AUGUST 2010

u@u rie
The bini.nlhly miagazinn dI Alri. a Caribb.an Pa. ilii & Eurp.ian Unin ....pi raii, a


*-i""* > \.-: -
ll l i ", _, .. .,.f.
Trinida.d and Tob. j ,
Oil and Spirit. 4 ..,,

'Little Poland', the Great

Africa in the world economy
4 W1/ 8 ?j/'saf


J N.'%s


7 r

Table of Contents


Editorial Board
Mohamed Ibn Chambas, Secretary General
Secretariat of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States

Fokion Fotiadis, Director General of DG Development
European Commission

Core staff
Hegel Goutier

Marie-Martine Buckens (Deputy Editor-in-chief)
Debra Percival

Editorial Assistant
Okechukwu Umelo



Production Assistant
Telm Borrs

Contributed in this issue
Eric Andriantsalonina, Victoria Burbidge, Sandra Federici, Okeoma Ibe, Joshua Massarenti,
Nawa Mutumweno, Dev Nadkarni, Andrea Marchesini Reggiani, Okechukwu Umelo, Charles

Project Manager
Gerda Van Biervliet

Artistic Coordination
Gregorie Desmons

Graphic Conception
Loic Gaume

Public Relations
Andrea Marchesini Reggiani

Viva Xpress Logistics ww.vxlnet.be

Photo Agency
Reporters wwv.reporters.be

Trinbagonian photographer, Abigail Hadeed, portrays Song of the Earth
(1996), the middle 'Mas' or Carnival of the 'Great Triology' of Trinba
gonoian Mas Master, Peter Minshall. (Hallelujah, 1995 and Tapestry
Threads of Life 1997) which is about expressing gratitude for the gift
of being. Song ofthe Earth places man at the centre, giving birth to all
and singing everything into existence (see 'Minshall's inspiration' in the
box in the opening article of the ACP Country Report).
Song ofthe Earth (1996). Abigai Hadeed

The Courier
45, Rue de Trves
1040 Brussels
Belgium (EU)
www.acp eucourier.info
Tel: +32 2 2345061
Fax: +32 2 280 1912

Published every two months in English, French, Spanish and Portuguese

For information on subscription,
Go to our website www.acp-eucourier.info or contact info@acp-eucourier.info

Publisher responsible
Hegel Goutier

Gopa-Cartermill Grand Angle Lai-momo

The views expressed are those of the authors and do not represent the official view of the
EC nor of the ACP countries.

The consortium and the editorial staff decline ail responsibility for the articles written by
external contributors.

Fokion Fotiadis: EU still committed to the target
of 0.7 of GNI to development aid by 2015

Kristalina Georgieva: More attention to humanitarian
needs and constraints of resources


Africa in the world economy

Africa: solid economic foundations in the face of the crisis 12
The European Investment Bank plays the Africa card 14
China-DRC: A textbook case -for better or worse 15
China seen by African leaders as a flexible business partner 17
West Africa's aid package to exploit EU opportunities 19
Is Africa benefitting from its economic powerhouse,
South Africa? 20

Somali NGOs voice their country's needs

Zambia's sugar surge

'Little Poland'

Royal Krakow
Europe's biggest nation



In Poland's Case 29
We have to enact solidarity with the poorest 30
Food sovereignty links North and South 32
The Zakopane intellectuals 33

Trinidad and Tobago's 3Canal: Taking Rapso Global 34

Climate change and the media 36

Michael Hailu, new CTA Director: Agriculture is back
in a big way on the international development agenda 37
ECOSOCC: Interface between civil society and the
African Union 38
Pacific's strategy for a resurgent global economy 40
Caribbean's private sector gets a boost 41
Rebuilding Haiti's knowledge economy 42
European foundations and the Europe 2020 agenda 43
Virtuous circles of exchanges 44
MDGs -Women: We are far from meeting the Beijing
objectives 45


The performing arts in Africa: the power of imagination
Increased ACP support for the film industry
Jos da Silva: A true success story
The Biennial Visual Arts Festival: Regard Bnin 1.0

Village integrated into the global economy


Inside: Readers' Survey

Trinidad and Tobago

Trinidad and Tobago: a new political era
Government rises to uncertainty in oil and gas market
Women challenging cultural norms
Diversification drive
Industrialisation v. biodiversity
Fashion mirrors T&T's gorgeous mosaic
EU by T&T's side in economic diversification
Tobago: a big little sister

Cultural centre promoting artists from countries in Euro-
pe, Africa, the Caribbean and the Pacific and cultural
exchanges between communities through performance
arts, music, cinema, to the holding of conferences. It is a
meeting place for Belgians, immigrants of diverse origins
and European officials.

Espace Senghor
Centre cultural d'Etterbeek
Brussels, Belgium

C 411111

N. 18 N.E. JULY AUGUST 2010


Photo taken in Cedros, on the South West coastofTrinidad. 'Hosay', one of the country's Indian festivals, involves multi-coloured model mausoleums being paraded and offered to the sea, or any other
body of water. The name 'Hosay' cornes from Husayn, the grandson of Muhammad who was assassinated by Yazid in Karbala. The only other place where the same celebration takes place on the island is
St. James on the outskirts of Port of Spain.

'Hosay' celebration. Abigaill Hadeed


When Africa awakes

evening news on Belgium's
leading French-speaking tel-
evision station warned viewers,
on 2 August, ofthe upsetting nature ofthe
images to follow. They were of children
torn from the arms of their mothers who
were trampled underfoot, of a pregnant
woman being dragged down the street.
Most shocking of all, a woman with a
child tied to her back being pulled along
by her feet with the full weight ofher body
resting on the baby. These were homeless
Africans, mostly women and children,
being evicted by police from a squat in
a Paris suburb. It was amateur footage
shot on 21 July that had caused a buzz
on the Internet before being broadcast by
TV stations worldwide, including CNN
and the BBC.

An African immigrant must respect the
law and the police must enforce it. But in
reply to a journalist's question concerning
a touching case in which a young female
teacher committed suicide after being
relentlessly pursued by the courts for
misconduct with no victim, one French
President, George Pompidou at the time
(1969) distanced himselffrom the force of
the law and replied by reciting lines by the
poet Paul Eluard: "Understand it ifyou
will. Me, my remorse was the reasonable
victim, with the gaze of a lost child, she
who resembled the dead, who died so as
to be loved". A comment that is valid in
other circumstances too.

A few days before this brutal eviction it
was images of the starving children of
Niger, wracked by hunger, which moved
the world. In the past two years the inter-
national press has also sounded the alarm
about the worsening food situation in
Ethiopia and the spectre of a famine as
dreadful as it was in 1984.

Yet we have also seen the publication of
Mathias Lridon's "Africa you are doing
well" just as The Courier was preparing
this issue's dossier on Africa's place in the

world economy. This work calls to mind
the audacity ofthe publication, in 1973,
of"When China wakes... it will shake the
world" by the French essayist, diplomat
and politician Alain Peyrefitte at a time
when this country seemed to be plunged
into depression. A perspicacity which can
only fully be appreciated today.

The Courier knows ofmany international
organizations and experts that agree with
Lridon. Whether it is the International
Monetary Fund applauding Africa's per-
formance in resisting the financial crisis
thanks to its healthy and solid financial
bases or the European Investment Bank
playing the card ofthe continent's small
and medium-sized enterprises and, above
all, stressing to European entrepreneurs
that it is the place to invest. Or the
Overseas Development Institute (ODI)
and UN Millennium Campaign that place
11 African nations among the 20 leading
developing countries for their success in
achieving the Millennium Development
Goals, the subject ofa special supplement
enclosed with this issue ofthe magazine.
The image conveyed by South Africa's
faultless organisation ofthe World Cup,
refuting the doomsayers, couldn't be more
positive for Africa.

The image is completely changing and
becoming an image that perhaps, in 20
or 30 years' time, will replace those which
today have upset television viewers. It is
no more than a bet. But one on which a
growing number of experts are putting
their money.

* Matthias Leridon "L'Afrique va bien", Ed.
Nouveaux Dbats publics www.nouveaux-

Hegel Goutier
Editor in chief

N. 18 N.E. JULY AUGUST 2010

EU still cor initted to the target of 0.7

of GNI to development aid by 2015

Interview with Fok.incm Fotiadis,
iih-- i lI-.:r- I 1 l. I-i. L i ,'hI -i'-', and Relations .\i'-~ ACP States

On 1 July 2010 Fokion Fotiadis took up his new job
as Director General of DG DEV, the DG ....ii ii for
development policy and relations with African, Caribbean
and Pacific States. After leading the Commission's Maritime
Affairs and Fisheries DG for iliir- years, he now heads a
service that is facing a very challenging ,, tI il 1 agenda.
The Courier magazine talked with Mr Fotiadis a few weeks
after 1'' i i up his new post.

Hegel Goutier

y ou have significant
experience deal-
ing with external
relations. In your
previous job you also
had to deal with the ACP
countries. How will this
experience benefityou in
the new post and what are
the immediate tasks that
you have marked in your
'To Do List'?

I have spent the longest part
of my career at the European
Commission working in
the External Relations
DG. I have worked with
countries ranging from our
close neighbours in Eastern
Europe to Central Asia and
the Middle East. Even the
EU maritime and fisher-

ies policy has a significant
international dimension.
Let me give you just one
example -Mauritania, the
EU financial support pack-
age for the fisheries sector is
even larger than the develop-
ment aid from the European
Commission to that country.

There is a new
Commissioner responsi-
ble for development policy
since the beginning of the
year. I am taking up the
new post just a couple of
months ahead of the creation
of the European External
Action Service. Institutional
change is all around us, but
people should not expect a
slow start from me. Several
important events are
planned for this autumn
the UN High Level Meeting
on Millennium Development
Goals (MDGs), the EU

Africa Summit, as well as a
number ofpolicy documents
which are already being
prepared. Let's not forget
that there are only five years
left to achieve the MDGs.
It is time to prepare already
now for the period after
2015 what will be our new
strategic goals for the rest
of the decade? We will have
a challenging Autumn and
interesting years ahead of us
in development policy.

We will have a
challenging Autumn and
interesting years ahead
of us in development

One of the EU'spriori-
ties is achievement of the
Millennium Development
Goals. Many European
countries are lagging
behind on their commit-
ment to attain spending
of 0.7 per cent of GNI
(Gross National Income)
by 2015, citing economic
andfinancial difficulties.
Do you think they will be
able to make up the lost
ground and arefurther EU
commitments required?

The European Union is
fully committed to helping
developing countries achieve
the MDGs. I am confident
that the target of 0.7 per
cent of GNI can be reached

by 2015. EU leaders have
confirmed this target at the
European Council on 17
June. Of course, it will be a
real challenge, especially in
the current atmosphere of
budget austerity measures
imposed by many Member
States. Increasing Official
Development Assistance
(ODA) is an issue ofpoliti-
cal choice, and we have seen
that a number of Member
States have been able to
increase their aid in 2009
and 2010 despite the eco-
nomic downturn in Europe.

To monitor the progress of
reaching the ODA targets,
the Council has agreed
to report on this question
annually. We see that there
are several EU countries that
have made their ODA targets
binding and they are actu-
ally succeeding in reaching
them. There is no binding
EU legislation on how each
Member State has to arrive
at their ODA target, but I
can promise that we will
continue working closely
with them to make the 0.7
per cent figure a reality by

What outcome are you
hopingforfrom the UN's
High Level Meeting on
MDGs in September?

The European Commission
presented its so called '12-

point Action Plan' in support
of MDGs on 21 April 2010,
which paved the way for the
EU to core to New York
with a strong and substantial
political message agreed in
the Foreign Affairs Council
in June. Later the European
Council reaffirmed the EU's
determination to support the
achievement of the MDGs.
We are determined to
make the MDG Summit in
September a success. More
precisely, the EU wants to
make a real step forward in
terms of aid effectiveness,
notably by better coordinat-
ing our spending, focusing
on high impact aid and
improving the coherence of
other EU policies with devel-
opment objectives. We must
ensure that the High Level
Meeting is a stepping stone
in this direction with strong
political engagement from
ail stakeholders.

Many analysts say devel-
oping countries have
managed to keep their
heads above water during
the recentfinancial crisis,
notably Africa. Do you
feel that the continent is
poised to become the new
emerging bloc?

African economies have
been hit hard by the crisis.
However, it is true that
Africa proved to be more
resilient to the crisis than
other parts of the world and
several African countries
increased prosperity (GDP
per capital) in 2009. The
recently released African
Economic Outlook 2010
predicts real GDP growth
averaged across the conti-
nent in the range of 4-5 per
cent in 2010 and 2011. The
European Commission is

Road in Uganda. Reporters

proud to have contributed
to this over the last two
years using the Vulnerability
FLEX mechanism to assist
the countries worst affected
by the crises.

Increasing ODA
is an issue of political

Therefore, I see some posi-
tive signs for Africa's future
and Africa's potential to
become the new emerging
continent. However, there
are still some significant
challenges ahead for the
continent. The constraints
to Africa's growth include
poor infrastructure and
low levels ofhuman capi-
tal. The drivers of growth
are still trade-related and
African trade suffers from
weak diversification both in
terms ofsectors, still rely-
ing mainly on commodities
and raw materials, and in
terms of markets of destina-
tion. Attracting investment

into diversified and higher
value-added sectors remains
a challenge for the continent.
From the perspective of the
EU, it is therefore ofutmost
importance that we design
our development policy as a
catalyst to boost growth and
to accompany Africa in its
development effort.

In the past, you have also
worked on EU relations
with China and other
Asian countries. Do you
feel that the time is ripe
for Africa-EU- China trian-
gular relations or should
bi-lateral policies prevail;
Africa-EU and Africa-

It is important that donor
countries cooperate, under
the coordination of the
recipient country authorities.
This is a large part ofwhat
we mean by 'aid effective-
ness'. But it is not enough
to do this among traditional
donors. Emerging donors
become more and more

important and we need to
engage in a constructive
cooperation with them.
China is a significant devel-
opment partner of Africa.
There is no doubt that a
triangular cooperation will
be helpful at a certain point.
But your question is about
timing, whether the time
is ripe. This requires the
will of all three parties. The
Commission made this clear
in 2008 when adopting its
Communication entitled
'The EU, Africa and China:
towards trilateral dialogue
and cooperation'. The
Chinese authorities have
expressed their openness to
the approach, provided of
course that African partners
also want it. At global level,
the G20 offers a unique
platform to foster interna-
tional cooperation. As the
need becomes greater, we
are already seeing African
interest in concrete cases. In
my view, this interest is set
to grow.

N. 18 N.E. JULY AUGUST 2010

Kristalina Georgieva, speaking with a logistics manager in Haiti,
after the violent earthquake struck the island. 0 EC

More attention to

humanitarian needs and

constraints of resources

Kristalina Georgieva, a Bulgarian citizen, was recently appointed EU Commissioner
for International Cooperation, Humanitarian Aid and Crisis Response. The rapidity
with which her initial emergency package was delivered in the wake of the earth-
quake in Haiti did not go unnoticed. She has already developed a reputation for
communicating in a direct and heartfelt manner.

Interview by Hegel Goutier

HG You are thefirst Commissioner
to hold the humanitarian aid and
crisis response portfolio and at the
same time have responsibility for
international cooperation. Is there a
KG The Commission decided to set up
this new portfolio because of the unfor-
tunate increase in the frequency, intensity
and impact of disasters. People are suf-
fering either from natural or man-made
actions; from wars and conflicts. This new
portfolio combines two main objectives:
one is to bring attention to humanitarian
needs and suffering people and to ensure
that the EU deploys resources in the most
effective ways possible where they are
more needed; the second is to bring a more
coordinated and more efficient, coherent


Kristalina Georgieva Hegel Gouter

and visible EU response to disasters. This
is because when needs are growing and
EU member countries are burdened by
the impact ofthe economic and financial
crisis, their budgets are constrained.

I also have in my title the words 'interna-
tional cooperation' because humanitarian
assistance and crisis responses are the
best way to deploy
the EU's most pre-
cious value ofsolidar- What we dc
ity. Solidarity means see is a para
reaching other coun- Of develop
tries and more proac- partners in
tively engaging them
to cope with natural worlds; one of
disasters. Every year another o
we disburse around
1lbn of humanitarian aid. Although this
is a lot ofmoney it is not that much, given
the needs around the world that are crying
out. For example, we know that there is
once more a danger of famine in the Sahel.
We have committed 30M for the Sahel
and are working on almost doubling this
money very quickly.

In the case of Haiti, when the earthquake
struck the country, working with local
partners we disbursed an immediate 8M
in humanitarian assistance followed by
another 30M. Less than two months
later, I went to Haiti and we increased
this by 1f20M in humanitarian assistance.

Does thefrontier between development
assistance and humanitarian aid not
appear to be unclear sometimes?



In the vast majority of cases we build
continuity between relief, rehabilitation
and development. If we have a situation
where there is debate on policies between
an individual country that we are assisting
and the European Commission, we will
provide humanitarian aid if needed, but
in such a case there may be less scope
for other forms of engagement. In these
cases, the distinction
between humanitar-
not want to ian aid and devel-
lel economy opment aid may be
nt assistance more profound, but
aiti with two these cases are more
the exception than the
expatriates and rule.
For instance, in
Haiti, of course, we are striving to
make sure that humanitarian aid helps
development and development meets
humanitarian needs. With our partners,
the World Food Programme, we are
trying to get as much food as possible
procured locally, either in Haiti or in the
Dominican Republic or other countries
in the region. Why? Because by doing
that we provide an incentive, we help the
agricultural sector in Haiti, and then we
try to make sure that this help follows
the people and is not artificially concen-
trated in one place, say Port-au-Prince.

We have used humanitarian assistance
cash for work programmes because we
want to encourage young people to work
and mobilise them to clean and build
houses or set up tents. Support for job cre-

ation is a long-term sustainable objective.

But the cultivation of rice in Haiti has
historically perished because of over-
seas imports.

Not with my money. For this reason, on
31 March, the very day of the New York
conference for Haiti, we asked ail our part-
ners first to seek local purchases and only
if local products were exhausted could
they import food from elsewhere.

You spoke about work for food; did
you ask European NGOs to employ
competent local experts in Haiti or
elsewhere instead of engaging only
foreign staff?

What we do not want to see is a paral-
lel economy of development assistance
partners in Haiti with two worlds; one
of expatriates and another of Haitians.
What we do want to see is the building
of as much capacity as possible as quickly
as possible and topping up capacity that
already exists. What impressed me more
than anything else when I travelled to
Haiti was the dignity ofthe Haitian people
and the fact that they came out of this
tremendous shock without experiencing
any riots on the streets and in a way more
willing to work together than they were
prior to the earthquake.

In the humanitarian field, we have around
200 partner organizations around the
world and we always strive to ensure that
these organizations are deeply grounded
in the countries.

Is EU humanitarian aid sufferingfrom
a lack ofvisibility compared to the US?

Yes, there are two explanations. The first
is that European peoples are modest.
When the US says "Great, fantastic, fabu-
lous", we in the EU we would say, "Not
too bad". This is a cultural difference.
The second reason is the United States is
a federal country. The EU is a union, not
yet a federation. There are 27 independ-
ent States, with 27 flags; they do not yet
have the instinct to promote the European
flag. Duringthe conference on Haiti, for
the first time, the European Union came
with one very big number, almost 1.3bn.
Afterwards, individual member states
stood up and pointed out the amount they
contributed to this number. I think we
will see this happening more and more.
We owe our citizens information about
what we do, giving them pride in knowing
that the EU is number one in the world
for generosity.

N. 18 N.E. JULY AUGUST 2010



Election build-up

Uneasy polity, unstable economy: Nigerian columnist, Okeoma Ibe, says these four
words summarise the current political and economic situation in Nigeria ahead of
the 2011 general elections.

Okeoma Ibe

misfortunes -colonial rule,
military dictatorship and a dif-
ficult transition to democracy.

The 2011 general elections are cur-
rently dominating the country's politi-
cal discussions. Recent events suggest
that the incumbent, President,Goodluck
Jonathan, might be interested in contest-
ing for the office he currently holds. In the
build-up, Nigeria's legislative assemblies
(federal and states) have voted to remove a
provision ofthe 1999 Constitution which
bars candidates indicted by administrative
panels from contesting political offices.
Indictment by an
administrative panel Neglect o0
of enquiry was one Delta pose
ofthe methods previ-
ously employed to exclude politicians from
participation in elections. Nomination
is a party affair. Traditionally the ruling
People's Democratic Party's (PDP) alter-


nates its presidential candidates between
the north and south meaning that it would
be the north's turn in 2011. This sched-
ule now appears to have changed but
President Jonathan, who originates in
the south, has yet to spell out whether he
will contest the election. Recent proposed
changes to the constitution could mean
that the elections could take place as early
as January 2011. Civil society groups have
already begun mobilising Nigerians to
protect their mandates and ensure rigging
does not rob them of their votes.

Economic front

On the economic front, Nigeria's growth
has been impeded by inconsistency in
economic and development planning.
Unfortunately, Nigeria has not been lucky
in getting successive
the Niger governments to com-
Sa danger mit to the same eco-
nomic priorities. The
banking crisis of 2008/9 is a classic case.
While the Chukwuma Soludo-led Central
Bank supported a $US167M minimum
share capital for banks, the current leader-

ship thinks that banks must be categorised
into small, medium and large. Similarly,
the previous administration did not find
any corporate governance issues with
bank management while the current one
sacked the management of five banks.

In the aftermath of the crash in stock
prices, the National Assembly recently
passed a bill which established the Asset
Management Company of Nigeria
(Amcon) to 'soak up' toxic loans provided
by banks to persons and institutions with
the intention of bringing some stability
into the stock market and by extension,
the economy.

"The establishment of Amcon is a reflec-
tion of the government's commitment
to safeguard the interests of depositors,
creditors and other stakeholders in the
Nigerian financial system, and in doing
so rejuvenate the domestic economy", says
President Jonathan.

Falling crude prices owing in part to oil
pipeline vandals and kidnapping in the
Niger Delta have had a negative impact
on oil revenue forecasts. Neglect of the
area poses a graver danger as militants
there are threatening to destabilise oil pro-
duction until the government invests in
making the region liveable for inhabitants.


South Africa

The 'socially


flower trade

In South Africa, some flower growers
have managed to gain a foothold in the
much coveted African flower market,
one still dominated by Kenya. But unlike
most of its continental rivals, the Timbali
company is investing in its workers, ail
of whom originate from poor rural com-

Marie-Martine Buckens

ST he initial idea was to offer
people from underprivi-
leged backgrounds the
"chance to participate
in the economic mainstream", explains
Mauritz Lombaard, one ofthe nine direc-
tors of the Timbali technology incubator
that lies just a few hundred metres from
the administrative buildings of Nelspruit,
the capital of Mpumalanga Province. The
companyis built on the 'cluster' model and
is a grouping ofseveral micro-companies.
"The aim", continues Mr. Lombaard, "is
to share a common infrastructure, such as
the water purification system, transport
costs, supply and marketing. That way we
achieve economies ofscale that facilitate
our access to the market".

The Gerbera in the Timbali greenhouses.
Xavier Rouchaud

government agency, which helps small
businesses, as well as by other institutions,
including the European Union.

Timbali owns the infrastructures and the
farmers who work there rent the services. In this way the Nelspruit incubator
"It is an incubation process", explains gives black people from poor communi-
Lombaard. "In the ties -"most of them
first six months we The farmers must face heavily can hardly read or
look at whether the subsidized competitors, often write" the chance
candidates are really poor soils and severely limited to acquire the skills to
ready to make the enter a South African
commitment. We water resources agriculture sector in
then train them for two or three years which farmers must face heavily subsi-
before offering them places on manage- dised competition, often poor soils and
ment courses. After that, they are free to severely limited water resources.
return to their land and produce under
franchise. In that case they have access Wisdom
to production grants." The company is
supported in its activities by the SEDA At present Timbali markets mainly
(Small Enterprise Development Agency) Gerbera. "With an annual production

of 2 million flowers, we are without doubt
Africa's biggest producer ofthis flower",
adds Lombaard. The flowers are sold
throughout the province and as far away
as the rich province of Gauteng while
awaiting an opening on the much coveted
export market. Unless the bosses are
wise enough to look first to the conti-
nental market, having witnessed just how
hard the major Kenyan flower growers
were hit when the volcanic eruption on
Iceland grounded all air transport. But
the company is thinking big. Around the
greenhouses, thousands of lemon and
other fruit trees have been planted and
alongside these intensive plantations,
two hectares are given over to biological
market gardening, with pesticide-free
production. Another potential market

N. 18 N.E. JULY AUGUST 2010

Roun up

Christopher 'Dudus' Coke:

Victimiser or benefactor?

An analysis of the prominence of Christopher 'Dudus' Coke, now facing drugs and
gun trafficking charges in the United States

Christopher "Dudus" Coke, Jamaican gang leader escorted by DEA agents.
Reporters/ Associated Press

Victoria Burbidge

of Tivoli Gardens -an inner-
city community located in the
West Kingston constituency,
was in train since childhood when his
father, Lester Lloyd Coke (Jim Brown)
ruled the area. According to Claude
Robinson, a Jamaican political analyst,
Coke's widespread support stems from
'garrison politics', which was started in the
late 1960s and 1970s by the two dominant
political parties, the now ruling Jamaica
Labour Party and the Opposition -the
People's National Party. "You have to
go back to the basic structures of garri-

son communities and Tivoli Gardens
has been described as the 'mother of all
garrisons'", he says. Robinson explains
that these garrison communities operate
as a law unto themselves, with their own
"jungle justice system".

"Since the breakup of the apparatus in
Tivoli Gardens, we have seen reports in
the press of torture chambers and other
indications of a jungle justice system", he
says of the community, which is repre-
sented by the Prime Minister ofJamaica,
Bruce Golding. "The dons and leadership
operating in garrison communities have
a capacity to inflict and use force and
coercion to get their way among citizens
and the evidence suggests that there is
some form of jungle justice, there is a

power ofcontrol and people are a victim
ofthis authority", he adds.

Coke, the benefactor

But some residents ofTivoli Gardens have
openly embraced the system, saying that
Coke's presence in the community made
them feel safe. Many residents demons-
trated and barricaded the community
after Prime Minister Golding gave the go
ahead for Coke's extradition request by
the United States to begin albeit months
of delaying tactics. Even after Coke's
extradition to the US in June and the
deaths of more than 70 persons during
the civil unrest where gunmen attacked
the security forces and burnt at least one
police station, the residents maintained
that there was order in the community
prior to the civil unrest with no incidents
of rape and an 8:00 p.m. curfew imple-
mented by Coke for all those who went
to school.
Coke's presence in the
community made residents
feel safe

Robinson argues that Coke was like a
benefactor to many of Tivoli's poor resi-
dents. "We saw many people come out and
demonstrate that they were beneficiaries
of food, clothing, school fees, money and
other things ofthat nature", he says. He
adds: "So what you saw were two ele-
ments at work, the element of coercion
and the element of benefaction and so in
a sense, what happens is that the garrison
communities' control by criminal dons is
where the effective control of the states
in those communities have been eroded
over many, many years, and that has to
be something of great concern".

Another Colombia?

Robinson, however, says that both politics
and the criminal elements were at play and
have supported each other. "Our politics
have been corroded by this phenome-
non; the two are interrelated and feed off
each other." While agreeing that there
are some similarities between pre-2002
Colombia and Jamaica, Robinson, howe-
ver, disagrees that Jamaica is heading for
a Columbia-like state where gangs have
taken foothold in municipalities effectively
making them states within the state.


Roun p


Colombia's unemployment rate in 2002
was 18 per cent of the 49 million popula-
tion, with approximately 60 per cent living
in poverty. There was corruption among
state officials, limited social services, poor
representation, and drug lords filled the
void created by these absences.

"Both Colombia and Jamaica are sta-
tes that are battling narco-trafficking
and these drug lords. In recent times,
Colombia has had some success in dealing

with this", says Robinson pointing to the
fall of Pablo Escobar. He adds: "I don't
know which road we are heading, I don't
want to make any comparison with other
countries... but certainly I will say that
both countries are fighting these drug

He, however, argues that the dismantling
of the criminal network in Jamaica will not
happen overnight but will have to entail
a concerted effort by the state. "Do not

offer them contracts, do not offer them
support and perhaps I think that there is a
possibility, a chance ofthe dismantling of
the criminal networks in Tivoli Gardens",
he says. "It is (also) possible that you
can begin to dismantle other networks
elsewhere." Robinson is, however, quick
to point out that this will not happen with
just one operation in one community but
that it has to be a sustained effort by the
states, the communities, private sector
and everyone in Jamaica.

Goodbye to Stefano Manservisi,

Co-chair of The Courier's Editorial Board


Director-General for Development
at the European Commission and
Co-chair of The Courier's Editorial
Board, has been appointed Director
General of the Commission's new Home
Affairs Department where he took up his
duties on 1 July.

Before his appointment as Director-
General of DG DEV in 2004, Stefano
Manservisi had already spent 15 years
working at the European Commission,
including stints in the Development
directorate-general and as Head of
Cabinet to Romano Prodi, President of
the European Commission from 1999
to 2004.

With his long experience in dealing with
development affairs and cooperation,
Stefano Manservisi had become a familiar
face to the ACP Group, almost a member
of the family, who could be at ease and
frank with his partners from the different
ACP regions. His hard work lay behind
the success ofvarious papers, initiatives
and events over the past five years. While
implementing the policy established by
the Member States and Development
Commissioners, from the time he took

Stefano Manservisi atthe EU -Africa business forum. a Reporters/JockFistick

up office as Director-General he launched
major changes and modifications to make
European development policy more effi-
cient. Examples include strategy papers
of the ACP countries and regions which
placed greater emphasis on the decisions of
beneficiary countries in aid programming.
The European consensus on development
in order to improve the coordination and
harmonisation ofthe development policies
ofthe European Union and its Member
States is another example of an initiative

to which Manservisi made a major con-

Stefano Manservisi also attached great
importance to the profile ofthe European
Union's development policy and to public
awareness in general. The energy he
devoted to supporting events such as
European Development Days, launched
by Commissioner Louis Michel in 2006,
contributed significantly to the success
ofthis event.

N. 18 N.E. JULY AUGUST 2010

Round I

~ia 'le~l

Workers transfer bricks at a construction site in Johannesburg, South Africa. Reporters/AP

Africa in the world economy

Solid economic foundations in the face of the crisis

Sub-Saharan Africa is the region which
has been least affected by the global
financial crisis, owing to its relatively
low degree of integration in the world
economy, but fundamentally because of
the favourable macroeconomic condition
of the continent. The region was also
quick to adapt its economic policies at
the very start of the crisis, with a view
to limiting shocks from the wider world,
and this is without mentioning its social
achievements and sectors of economic
growth. Such is the broad conclusion
of a recent report by the International
Monetary Fund*.

Hegel Goutier

n spite of the question mark in the
title of the IMF report published
in April 2010 (and revised in July
2010*), 'Sub-Saharan Africa: Back
to High Growth?', it is relatively optimis-
tic about the economic situation in the
region and its trump cards for increased
integration into the world economy. Like
everywhere else in the world, growth fell
in 2009, with an increase in production of
only two per cent, a marked decline which
is none the less considered to be limited
in nature. There are also large dispari-

ties, with a very heavy fall in countries
of an intermediate income level, such as
a 6.5 per cent drop in growth in South
Africa, for example, in comparison to
Sub-Saharan Africa's
resistance to the global
downturn is one of the most
notable phenomena of the
current world recession
the period between 2003 and 2007, and
on the other hand a positive balance in
most of the so-called fragile economies,
like Congo (DRC), with growth figures of
over 10 per cent. On average, projections


Afici- Ieo, eonom Jy D srl

(revised in July 2010) for the region as a
whole for 2010 estimate growth of five
per cent, with an even more promising
figure of six per cent for 2011. Moreover,
this growth should be maintained as long
as the worldwide recovery continues, and
assuming that there are no major political
destabilising factors.

Bold policies: an increase in
public spending instead ofcatch-
ing a cold

Sub-Saharan Africa's resistance to the
crisis is considered in the IMF study as
one ofthe most notable phenomena in the
current world recession. The continent's
low level of integration in the global eco-
nomy has certainly played a part in this,
but this reason alone is not sufficient
to explain it, given that previous crises
caused a great deal more suffering. The
determining factors in its performance are
to be found in the strong macroeconomic
foundations built up since the middle of
the past decade, and in the intelligent
reactions ofAfrican governments, which,
at the very first signs of economic slow-
down, took steps to reduce the importance
of external factors by increasing public
spending, in spite of stagnation or reduc-
tions in revenue. This has permitted the
economy to wait for the current recovery
in global demand and its corollaries, an
increase in the prices ofstaples and there-
fore a growth in export revenue for many
sub-Saharan countries.

During the crisis, this increase in public
spending has been particularly signifi-
cant in certain fragile economies like
Togo. A few countries, however, have not
been able to increase flexibility in terms
of budgetary policy, such as another fra-
gile state, the Comoros, which is still
far from leaving the ranks of the most
indebted poor nations. Another example
is the Seychelles, which, despite being
an intermediate-level country, has had
to face macro-economic imbalances
owing to the colossal property inves-
tments made.

form of development', as it is described in
the IMF report. This consists in investing
in food securitythrough the subsidising of
agricultural input, in addition to public

Social policy: in defence of the

While in the past, the IMF report notes,
sub-Saharan African countries had the
bad habit of cutting social expenditure
in order to resolve budgetary problems,
their reaction this time, from the start of
the financial crisis, has been completely
different. In 2009, the last year for which
figures are available, they managed to

tments have bounced back to the degree
where there are already signs in the most
developed countries of fears of an over-
heating economy. It is also the case that
remittances from African expatriates have
only undergone a small decline, a similar
pattern to that seen in development aid.

The picture is not, however, entirely
rosy. A third of the region's nations are
highly unintegrated in the movements
of international capital. The IMF study
closes with some recommendations
which appear to be beneficial. Following
the protective measures needed in the
short term, governments were advised
to give priority once more to traditio-

Session 'Rethinking Africa's Growth Strategy' at the Annual Meeting 2010
of the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland, 2010. UPP/Reporters

maintain spending on the most under-
privileged classes. In terms of education
and health, the sums allotted have even
been increased in 20 ofthe 29 countries
with low revenues. Nonetheless, the fact
remains that the near total absence of
social security has led to great suffering

In monetary terms, many ofthe continent's for the most underprivileged sectors, par-
nations had lowered base rates to a reasona- ticularly for those who have lost their jobs,
ble level, which has favoured internal inves- 700,000 in South Africa alone. According
tment. Governments to the World Bank, the
have kept their own Governments have maintained crisis has prevented
public investment their own investment because at least seven million
at the same level as budgetary balances had people from lifting
before, with half of improved in the years before themselves above the
them even registering poverty threshold
an increase. This has the crisis ($1.25 per day).
proved possible because budgetary balan-
ces had improved in the years before the In comparison with other regions ofthe
crisis. Given the lack of new resources, world, sub-Saharan Africa has been rela-
many countries undertook transfers of tively successful in maintaining the con-
sound resources which might be conside- fidence of foreign investors. The most
red as a kind of 'social protection in the recent recorded trends show that inves-

nal objectives such as infrastructure,
and to resolve budgetary deficits that
have been beneficial during the crisis,
even if it sometimes proves necessary to
employ prudence and continue to call
upon the budget to stimulate demand.

* World Economic and Financial Surveys
Regional Economic Outlook IMF, April 2010.

**World Economic Outlook update: http://

The European Commission will publish a
new Eurobarometer survey on Europeans and
Africa in November before the AU-EU summit.
Web link http://ec.europa.eu/publicopinion/
index en.htmb

N. 18 N.E. JULY AUGUST 2010

I r "f rR aa -in o eon

The European Investment

Bank plays the Africa card

Since the beginning of the year, the European Investment Bank (EIB) has commit-
ted itself, alongside other financial institutions, to a number of initiatives in Africa
aimed at stimulating economic recovery and job creation by strengthening capital
markets and the private sector and attracting investors. This is boosting Africa's
new image as a growth continent.

n May 2010, the EIB joined
forces with the African
Development Bank (AfDB) and
the OPEC Fund for International
Development (OFID) to support the
new Capitalisation Fund for Africa
initiated by the International Finance
Corporation (IFC), a member of the
World Bank Group. The fund will have
$US200M with which to consolidate
the lending capacity of Africa's pri-
vate commercial banks with the aim
of speeding up the economic recovery
and job creation. It plans to coordinate
its actions with those of other financial
institutions to alleviate the effects of the
global financial crisis in Africa. Above
all, it hopes to attract sovereign capital
and thereby demonstrate the commer-
cial viability ofprivate investments that
contribute to Africa's development.

"The partnership put into place...
sends a clear signal of confidence
regarding the possibilities for commit-
ment on African financial markets",
believes EIB Vice President Plutarchos

From large companies to micro-

Also in May 2010, the EIB and seven other
African institutions or institutions well
established on the continent, such as the
Development Bank for Southern Africa
and the Netherlands Financing Company
for Developing Countries (FMO) offi-
cially launched the 'African Financing
Partnership', designed principally for
large scale projects in the infrastructure
and industry sectors. These eight estab-
lishments invested a total of $US8.8bn
in Africa in 2009. The initiative aims to
attract private investment with a high
growth potential. In 2009, three-quarters
of the EIB's investments in Africa were

in partnership with other institutions.

Within the 'African Financing
Partnership', any one of the associated
institutions can operate on behalf ofthe
others, with the aim ofreducing the waste
oftime and resources incurred by, among
other things, repeated audits and numer-
ous case studies.

Another pledge for Africa. The EIB has
become the leading investor in the sole
microfinance fund for Sub-Saharan
Africa, the REGMIFA* launched in
May 2010 following a G8 decision and
allocated $US150M, the EIB contribut-
ing $US15M. This fund will invest in 50
microfinance enterprises that will grant
loans in local currency to small busi-
nesses, an initiative from which 300,000
are expected to benefit over the next
five years.

*Regional Micro, Small and Medium Enterprise
Investment Fund for Sub-Saharan Africa.

European Investment Bank. EC


Afrcai- IDeor eo- omo l yD r

Contracts between China and the Congo (DRC)

A textbook case:

for better or worse

In September 2007, the government of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)
and a Chinese state consortium signed the most important bilateral investment
agreement ever agreed at the time between China and an African country. For
Stefaan Marysse, professor at Antwerp University, it is symbolic of Sino-African
relations today and of what is at stake given the new position held by Africa in the
world economy.

Interview by H.G.

government and a group of
state-owned Chinese compa-
nies concerns a loan for the
construction of infrastructure valued at
$US6.5bn and a further $US2bn loan for
the modernisation ofthe existing mining
infrastructure, both provided in their
entirety by China's EXIM Bank. At the
time, this was China's largest single deal
in Africa. As a guarantee of repayment,
a Sino-Congolese joint venture has been

set up to exploit the copper, cobalt and
gold ofthe Congo.

SM -This venture marks a transitional
period in Chinese relations with Africa.
It shows that the post-colonial era under
the aegis of the old colonial powers has
finally come to an end. It is now some
time since the balance of commercial
links began to swing towards the East,
initially in the shape ofJapanese imports.
In 2030, all projections indicate that
China will represent from 35 to 40 per
cent ofworld production, and Africa too
is making inroads into the world econo-
mic system. These changes are traumatic
ones for Africa, however. The continent
is in the process of repositioning itself,
breaking out of not only the colonial
period but also the post-colonial one in
which its governors believed that they
could control the economy by political
means. In this economic context, Africa
is at the same time returning to the roots
ofits cultural values and uprooting itself
in an attempt to join the world economy.

The dual movements performed by China
and Africa have placed the latter in a rela-
tionship of strength. The big question
is whether, with this geo-strategic shift,
Africa is in a sufficiently powerful posi-
tion. Sino-Congolese relations are sym-
bolic of what is happening on the whole
African continent.

HG -What is special about Sino-
African, and in particular Sino-
Congolese, relations?

In economic terms, China is seeking
raw materials to feed the expansion of
its economy. It does not have enough,
and has to find them elsewhere, but all
the major reserves in the rest ofthe world
are already under the control ofmultina-
tionals from the old powers. Only Africa

has these resources, and China is another
imperial power that is simply doing what
every hegemonic power has done. There
is, therefore, something of the colonial
project here.

What the Chinese are giving African
countries in exchange for the raw mate-
rials is public infrastructure, an area in
which they are competitive, competent,
and able to meet short deadlines. This
is precisely what Africa, and especially
Central Africa, needs.

So why is this a colonial project? Isn't
it what they need, and what classic
colonialism did notprovide?

For Africa, the great danger here is of a
development project going offthe rails. It
must also be remembered that the Chinese
are rebuilding infrastructure which exis-
ted before: it was in the nationalist period
that no attention was paid to it. In the
colonial era, the Congo (DRC) was as
well equipped as South Africa.

The difference with the Chinese approach
is that it recognizes the sovereignty of
African peoples. It does not meddle
with local politics and does business
with bandits as readily as with the most
impeccable democrats. And it does not
criticise. It reinforces the status ofthose in
power, whether in a democracy like South
Africa or a repressive regime like that
of Zimbabwe or Sudan. This is possible
because decision-making is concentrated
and there is no critical press, for example.
Chinese policy has in this sense followed
the same lines since Bandung*, where
it set itself up as the leader of the non-
aligned nations.

China's response to criticism ofits support
for undemocratic regimes is that it does
not grant budgetary aid to governments,

N. 18 N.E. JULY AUGUST 2010

IDer AfrcR a a -i ol o n o

but carries out projects that are useful look at a map of Chinese building in the
for the countries. This allows Africans DRC, Angola and Zambia, ail are linked
to appropriate aid resources. to each other, with the aim of exporting
raw materials and bringing in imported
So does Africa's economic develop- products.
ment benefit from these exchanges
with China, which endow it with sig- It is the times that make the difference.
nificant infrastruc- My impression is that
ture? My impression is that Africa is beginning
to hold its head up
Europe has also inves- Africa is beginning to hold high. There are major
ted billions of dollars its head up highs political actors like
in infrastructure in Mandela, or Amadou
Africa, but also in good governance and Toumani Tour in Mali, and there is an
in elections. European countries, though, increasing awareness that the political
have done this with a scattergun approach, classes can only survive if they provide
and their actions have suffered from a lack good government. Africa is repositioning
of visibility. China has concentrated on itself. It is resisting the crisis much better
infrastructure. In a country like the DRC than other regions.

which has to import everything (eggs from
South Africa, rice from Thailand, etc.),
infrastructure is vital. The Chinese have
understood this -that is clear. But if we

In the case ofthe Congo (DRC), however,
the contracts signed with China have had
to be reviewed under instruction from

the International Monetary Fund (IMF),
which judged that DRC could not, just
as it was on the point of finally moving
out ofthe group ofmost indebted coun-
tries, venture into new and colossal debts
which could compromise future genera-
tions. The guarantees required by the
Chinese in the September 2007 contract
were considered exorbitant. The IMF has
therefore demanded changes in the con-
ditions ofthe loans, and in October 2009
amendments were made to the agreement
reducing the cost of the infrastructure
by half. In one sense, it's positive, but in
another, the DRC really does need this
infrastructure. Greece has after all just
borrowed around $USll0bn, and we're
only talking about $US6.5bn here.

* Conference attended by 29 Asian and African
countries, forming a group of non-aligned
third-world countries.

Illustration by Eric Andriantsalonina


Afrcai- oronomDosIer

China seen by African

leaders as a flexible

business partner

Trade relations between China and Africa, especially in countries within the conti-
nent's east coast, are nothing new and extend back to medieval and even ancient
times, emphasises the Ethiopian economist, Kelbesa Megersa. Nevertheless,
significant economic and socio-political relations between the Asian giant and
Sub-Saharan Africa started up during the Mao Zedong era (1950-1976). Since
the start of the 21st century, however, a novel and massive scale of trade rela-
tions has been witnessed, he adds. As a simple indication, trade between the two
sides shot up markedly more than tenfold, from $US10.5bn to over $US106bn,
between 2000 and 2008.

Kelbesa Megersa Courtesy of Kelbesa Megersa

Interview by H.G.

W here has the Chinese
expansion in Africa been
the most significant?

China has particularly
expanded its trade relations with oil pro-
ducing African nations. The fact that
countries like Angola, Sudan and Nigeria
are some of its most important African
trade partners serves as a clear indica-
tion. The nation takes a lot of initiatives
to help it secure raw material sources
in the long-term. Various state-owned
enterprises like China National Petroleum
Corporation (CNPC), China Petroleum &
Chemical Corporation (Sinopec Corp.) and
China National OQ .-,,. Oil Corporation
(CNOOC) are carrying out this mission.
As China has to compete for resource-
rich African nations with other major
powers, it is very careful in its foreign
policies. It makes generous donations and
supplies low and free interest loans. China
is also very active in the construction of
infrastructure and, above all, abstains
from interfering in local political issues.
Recently, for instance, China has been
observed as being unwilling to put pres-
sure on Khartoum in UN assemblies,
despite the tragic atrocities committed
in Darfur.

Is China's capability in developing
trade with the African continent due
to its competitors, notably Europe,
under-estimating China's dynamism?

China's dynamism might have been
underestimated in the early phase of its
rise, but probably not in the 21st century.
It is, rather, a matter of China's drive in
Africa beingmotivated by the continent's
exclusion from the EU's trade and inves-
tment radar. For a long time, the EU had
largely limited its trade ties with the conti-
nent on account of political instability and
conditionalityy'. China, on the other hand,
could not ignore the potential benefits
earned from trading with this resource-
rich and marginalised continent.

China claims that it holds a policy of'non-
interference' in the internal affairs of its
trade partners. Quite unlike the West, it
refrains from criticising the governance
problems and human rights abuses of its

N. 18 N.E. JULY AUGUST 2010

IDOSi ..nn e r c n o ,-

A five-platform com plex pumps crude off the coast of Cabinda, Angola's most prolific oil field. 0 Reporters

African partners. This means China is
seen in the eyes ofmany African leaders
as an easy business partner.

Many economists currently say sub-
Saharan Africa's economies are now
heading in the right direction. What's
your opinion?

Africa was off the map in numerous
important world stages. Most western
nations were not willing to regard Africa
as a trustworthy trade partner unless it
solved its governance problems and fit
with their 'expectations'. Some strategic
African countries especially have seen the
revival of western interest following the
arrival of China.

I think I would agree with the statement.
The past decade, especially the period Many analysts understate Africa's role. It
prior to the global financial crisis, has is, however, possible that some analysts
been glorious for the overstate Africa's role.
region. Many coun- China is also very active in As a newly growing
tries were able to the construction of and resource-rich
see impressive GDP infrastructure and, above continent, Africa has
growth rates and a an important role
boost in trade and ail, abstains from interfering in global dynamics.
investment figures. in local political issues Specifically, it could
The political turmoil play a significant role
has also begun to calm in many countries. in the development of trade in mineral
Yet, many problems still exist and unless resources, agricultural commodities and
resolved may hinder the sustainability of various labour intensive commodities. It
the ongoing progress. is also an untapped investment ground.

Do you think that Africa's partners-
hip with China and other emerging
countries has brought about a re-
positioning of Africa in the global

I would rather say, yes. For a long time

Africa's trade relations with emerging
economies hold both promises and perils.
Sometimes African businesses (like the
textiles sector) are seen as suffering from
cheap imports from the Asiatic emerging
economies. On the other hand, African
nations are enjoying rising exports to these

countries. However, it is a good thing that
there are multiple trade partners. China
should not be the only 'alternative market'.

Since the economies of emerging coun-
tries are on the rise, huge markets are ope-
ning up for African exports. Additionally,
African nations could import essential
inputs at a much cheaper price.

Is poverty in Africa lessening as a
result of the new partnerships being
created, notably between numerous
African countries and China?

With the advancement ofthe Sino-African
partnership, trade volumes are surely soa-
ring and the GDP ofmost African coun-
tries is growing. However, the poverty
implications might be limited as the
growth is often not inclusive. Further,
quite unlike the western aid model which
flows through project interventions to
directly reach the poor, China is involved
in big infrastructure projects and inves-
tment ventures. Yet, it should be noted
that in the long term such projects greatly
assist the African war against poverty.
These contributions, coupled with its
donations and loans, might even position
China as a good development partner for
African nations.


Afrcai- Ieo, eonom Jy D srl

West Africa's aid package

to exploit EU opportunities

PAPED is the EU-financed Development
Programme for West Africa attached to
the Economic Partnership Agreement
(EPA), a free trade agreement between
the EU and the region*. It is tailored to
enable the region to make the most of
new market openings under a future EPA.

Debra Percival

kage has been drawn up in
tandem with talks between the
EU and West Africa on market
liberalisation under an EPA. The EU is
hoping to conclude these by the end of
2010. "Nothing is agreed until everything
is agreed upon", said Soumaila Ciss,
President ofthe Commission ofthe West
African Economic and Monetary Union
(WAEMU/UEMOA), at a seminar held
in Brussels in May organised by the EU's
Spanish Presidency on the EU's role to
strengthen West African integration.

As negotiations on the minutiae of the
EPA continue, the EU has confirmed
it can provide 6.5bn of the estimated
9.54bn for PAPED over the coming five
years (2010-2014). It wants other donors,
including multilateral institutions and the
private sector, to come on board to make
up the shortfall.

"Market openings alone do
not lead to development"
Mohammed Daramy, UEMOA

PAPED has been drawn up with the two
regional organizations in West Africa, the
West African Economic and Monetary
Union (WAEMU) and the Economic
Community of West African States

(ECOWAS) which are leading the region's
integration including a common external
tariff and a monetary union. Governments,
regional institutions, the private sector and
civil society in West Africa have also been
involved in PAPED talks.

Speaking at the seminar, Andris Piebalgs,
the EU Development Commissioner, said
PAPED will "go beyond the adjustment
needs ofEPA". For Mohammed Daramy,
ECOWAS Commissioner for Trade,
Customs and Migration, "market ope-
nings alone do not lead to development".
Secretary General ofthe ACP Group of
African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP)
nations, Mohammed Ibn Chambas,
reminded participants that the aim of
the trade liberalisation and regional inte-
gration was to create jobs and fight against
poverty which is still at an unacceptably
high level.

Infrastructure a priority

It is foreseen that the bulk ofthe PAPED
budget (6.029bn, 63 per cent) will go

to improving and strengthening trade-
related infrastructure. A 1.855bn
sum (19 per cent) will go to projects to
diversify West Africa's economies and
increase production capacity whereas
631M (7 per cent) will be set aside
for intra-regional trade development
and to facilitate access to international
markets. The remaining 145M sum (2
per cent) will be for the EPA's imple-
mentation, monitoring and evaluation.

"We need to talk about figures but also
about strengthening strategies under
PAPED", said Angel Losada Spain's
Ambassador to Nigeria at the Brussels

* One of the four EPAs being negotiated with
four African regions.

West African countries in talks on an EPA
are: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Cte
d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea
Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal,
Sierra Leone, Togo and Mauritania.

A road through Monrovia, the Liberian capital. 0 Reporters

N. 18 N.E. JULY AUGUST 2010

ID in. he ol cn m o -

Does Africa benefit from South Africa

Is Africa benefitting from its economic
powerhouse, South Africa? Ah ... the
pursuit of self-interest ... that great-
est of ail motivators of mankind ... can
sometimes have wider benefits and it is
indeed a cornerstone of modern society.
My neighbour and I agree not to clobber
each other over the heads because it is
in our mutual and separate self-interest.

"South Africa exports its electricity to its neighbours."
Chris Kirchoff, MediaClubSouthAfrica com

Charles Visser *

S elf-interest is then also the main
driver of South Africa's keen pro-
motion of the economic develop-
ment of its immediate neighbours
and indeed the whole of sub-Saharan
Africa. It keeps their citizens at home
and creates a market for South African

It is not generally known, but South
Africa has consistently endeavoured, even
during the apartheid
years, to improve the South Africa ha
economic fortunes of even during
its neighbours. This years, to i
was the case from
the very creation of economic f(
the Union of South neigh
Africa in 1910 which
also saw the creation of the world's old-
est customs union, the Southern African
Customs Union (SACU).

The primary goal ofthis customs agree-
ment between South Africa, Botswana,
Swaziland and Namibia is to promote
regional economic development through
the coordination oftrade. The 1910 agree-
ment made provision for common external
tariffs on all goods imported into SACU.

A common pool of customs duties as per
the total volume of external trade and
excise duties based on the total produc-
tion and consumption ofexcisable goods.
SACU-produced goods could also cir-
culate freely and without quantitative
restrictions within SACU and a revenue
sharing formula was agreed upon.

The agreement was amended in 1969 and
again in 2002. The 1969 agreement saw
the inclusion of a multiplier in the revenue
sharing formula that boosted the revenues
of Botswana, Swaziland and Lesotho by
42 per cent. Once again South Africa's
self-interest was at stake. The apartheid
state was eager to create a community of
'separate but equal' states within it and
around it.

It became a South African policy imper-
ative to boost the economies of the
already independent black states within



it (Swaziland and Lesotho) and, border-
ing it, Botswana. The reason for this was
that independent black states had to be
seen to work for 'Grand Apartheid' (the
creation of 'independent homelands' for
South African blacks) to be feasible.

Main player

In one ofthose typically African ironies,
the revenue they earned from SACU
became the main source of foreign cur-
rency for Swaziland and Lesotho even
if they were loudly calling for ever more
stringent sanctions on apartheid South
Africa at the time.
he apartheid Post-apartheid
prove the saw South Africa
prove e join the Southern
rtunes of its African Economic
ours Development
Community (SADC).
The SADC was established in 1980
to reduce the original nine members'
dependence on South Africa. The organi-
sation now boasts 15 members as far
north as the Democratic Republic of
Congo on the west coast and Tanzania
on the east coast as well as Mauritius and
Madagascar in the Indian Ocean. South
Africa has, ironically but unsurprisingly,
become the main player although it is coy
about admitting that.

The SADC has many lofty ideals, that
they express in that language that is so
beloved by bureaucrats the world over
but that can put the most adamant insom-
niac to sleep within minutes. Here is an

achieve complementarity between
national and regional strategies and

promote and maximise productive
employment and utilisation of resources
ofthe region;

achieve sustainable utilisation ofnatural
resources and effective protection ofthe

strengthen and consolidate the long-
standing historical, social and cultural
affinities and links among the peoples
ofthe region;


Afrcai- tooom DsIer

Ifyou are still awake read on. Lofty indeed
but many people are accusing the organi-
sation of being just another ministerial
talkshop. Long on words and short on

Meanwhile the South African private sec-
tor did not need a second invitation to

expand into Africa. As we speak South
Africans are erecting cellphone towers
in the DRC, opening supermarkets in
Mozambique, breeding specialised broiler
chickens in Zambia, extending SME loans
in Africa. making money transfers easier
... and mining tanzanite in Tanzania.
Whether these commercial activities are

Wine production in South Africa.
Lait/ Reporters

to the benefit ofthe peoples ofthose coun-
tries is open for debate, but if one argues
from the viewpoint that trade and industry
is good ... it must be good.

Then their is eco tourism. It is regarded
by many as the only really longterm sus-
tainable industry for many impoverished
regions in Africa. On this front South
Africa is doing well with the creation of
several transfrontier parks that are set to
attract tourists to areas of Mozambique
and Zimbabwe that are currently
under-utilised. The Greater Limpopo
Transfrontier Park is a joint initiative
between South Africa, Mozambique and
Zimbabwe and is expected to cover an
area of 35 000 km2 in the first phase of its
development and awhopping 100 000 km2
upon full integration. South Africa also
recently helped to return five endangered
black rhino to their home in the Serengeti
Game reserve in Tanzania. A further 27
are set to be returned to their native coun-
try over the next two years.

To return to the original question. Yes
Africa is benefitting from many of the
African solutions to African problems that
were developed in South Africa over time.
Yes it is benefitting from the hope for the
continent that the country inspires. Yes
it is benefitting from the infrastructural
development brought by South African
business interests, be it a supermarket or
an upmarket eco-friendly game reserve
being built, it will have longterm benefits.
Yes it is benefitting from South Africa's
successful conservation techniques...

Is South Africa benefitting from sharing
technologies and techniques with Africa?
Silly question ... of course it is!

* South African freelancer.

Johannesburg Chris Kirchoff, MediaClubSouthAfrica com

N. 18 N.E. JULY AUGUST 2010

1 Uem --- IMIIMM"

Somali NGOs voice

their country's needs

This Autumn will see the drafting by the European Union (EU) of a Communication on the Horn of Africa, including Somalia.
The EU's High Representative for Foreign Affairs, Catherine Ashton, is also due in the region in September. Ahead of both,
Somali Non Governmental Organisations (NGOs) working in different parts of the country with EU partners assess their
country's humanitarian and development needs.

Debra Percival

by Islamic-based insurgency
groups including al-Shabab
which has declared allegiance
to al-Qaeda, the Islamic group allegedly

linked to international terrorist activities.
NGOs point out differences between the
autonomous areas ofPuntland (NorthEast
Somalia) and Somaliland (North West)
where they report relative peace, parti-
cularly so in Somaliland. The country's
Transitional Federal Government (TFG)
is installed in Mogadishu in South and
Central Somalia where conflict continues

between government troops and extremist
militants. Additional peacekeeping for-
ces were pledged for the country by the
African Union (AU) at its July Summit.
"In a country like Somalia, most of which
is too dangerous for officials to visit, the
EU must listen to the Somali NGOs who
are the local experts and can help policy-


makers shape better policies", says Noah
Gottschalk, Oxfam's EU Humanitarian
Officer. The NGO points out that piracy
may be a symptom ofinstability in Somalia
but 3.2M Somalis, or nearlyhalfthe popula-
tion, are in need of urgent humanitarian aid.

Peace in Somaliland

"In the so-called North-Western
zone, in development circles known as
Somaliland, where peace and stability
have prevailed for over a decade, inter-
national support should be scaled up
in order to nurture the existing peace
and encourage the exemplary democra-
tic structures in that area -bearing in
mind that there has been a free and fair
election and smooth
transition of power", The EU mus
says a representative Somali NG
of an NGO based in the local
Hargeisa, Somaliland,
who cannot be named can help p(
for security reasons. shape bet

He adds: "The peace dividend should be
encouraged but at the same time; those
who need humanitarian support in conflict
areas should not be neglected, otherwise
an exodus to more stable areas will occur
which will ultimately endanger the peace
and security of those areas. Capacity
building should focus more on advocacy,
peace-building, conflict resolution".

A representative of one NGO working in
South and Central Somalia where insur-
gency is rife who also wishes to remain
anonymous, wants to see more funds for
youth programmes, "We are hiring youths
between 18-30 to work on the rehabilita-
tion of canals and road clearance. They
are paid about US$54 per month which is
really good money", he says. He remarks
that the current situation in the region
is almost worse than in the time of the

A strong civil society

"It is critical and important to build the
capacity of Somali civil society as they
are the only non-profit organizations that

bring checks and balances to the country,
particularly in the context of Somalia,
where the public sector is weak and it is
mandatory to have a strong and capable
civil society that lays down the founda-
tion of a strong nation in the country and
good democratic and governance prac-
tices", says Jama Mohamed, Director of
the Nairobi-based Somali Organisations
for Community Development Activities

"This can only be achieved through the
installation ofgood leadership, the buil-
ding ofcommitted and capable security
forces and restoring the justice system
in the country", he adds. "During the
stabilisation period the proliferation
of political groups,
t listen to the as well as regional
Os who are and international
experts and interference, have
to be firmly con-
ilicy-makers trained. Traditional
ter policies reconciliation pro-
cesses fully-owned
by the Somalis have to be initiated. This
process has to address the security and
safety of Somali people, political parti-
cipation process and the future gover-
nance in the country."

The same NGO Director says: "It is
important for Somalis to own the pro-
cess and all stakeholders to partici-
pate in order to have indigenous and
culturally-respected constitutions that
become part of Somali traditional codes".

The aforementioned Hargeisa-based
NGO is also concerned about the envi-
ronmental effects of charcoal exports
from southern Somalia to the Middle
East, calling on importing countries to
urgently implement a ban. "Interventions
in alternative energies and supporting
technically and financially institutions
involved in alternative energies are a mat-
ter of paramount importance. With the
ongoing destruction ofthe environment,
the livelihoods of local communities are
endangered", says the NGO represen-

Noah Gottschalk sums up: "The EU
should invest more in building the capa-
city of local NGO workers who risk their
lives on the frontline to give Somalis a bet-
ter life. They're the heroes, the ones not
only providing for basic needs like food
and water, but also offering alternatives
to so many people who would otherwise
resort to criminal activities like hijacking
ships for a living".

N. 18 N.E. JULY AUGUST 2010

EU: Somalia's biggest donor

The EU is the biggest donor to Somalia
with a current ongoing financial contri-
bution of E180M for governance and
education, economic develo-
pment and food security. Since 2007,
it has further provided 99.5M to the
African Union's peacekeeping mission
to Somalia (AMISOM). It is at the fore-
front of EUNAVFOR Atalanta, an EU
naval mission to deter and repress acts
of piracy off Somalia's coast and has
mounted the European Union's
Mission for Somalia (EUTM) which is
working with Uganda, the United Sta-
tes and the AU to create the embryo
of a future Somali army. On 27 July,
the EU allocated a E35M humanitarian
package for the country to provide food
aid, medical aid, water and sanitation
and on 2 August pledged a 15M relief
package for Somali at the
camps in 1<
east province, the location ofthe largest
group of refugee camps in the world.



sugar surge

A more open European Union market for
Zambia's sugar exports is creating new
investment and jobs and increasing the
country's export receipts.

Nawa Mutumweno

S ince last year, the duty and
quota-free market is ushering
in new investment opportuni-
ties for sugar in Zambia's huge
arable lands to supply new markets
and new industries. It is predicted that
Zambia's sugar industry will grow sub-
stantially in the coming years, not only
due to increased exports to both the
EU and regional markets such as the
Democratic Republic of Congo, but also
due to diversification into biofuels and
other by-products.
Easier access to the EU market has
come about through the phasing out
of quotas under the EU's Everything
But Arms (EBA) initiative for Least
Developed Countries (LDCs). This
2001 EU trade incentive gave duty and
quota free access to the EU market for

the world's 49 LDCs for all products
apart from rice, sugar and bananas,
deemed to be sensitive. The remaining
restrictions on sugar were eliminated on
1 July 2009 giving duty and quota free
access to the EU market for Zambian
sugar and that of other LDCs.
Zambia is also one of the six countries
in the East and Southern Africa region
(the others are Comoros, Madagascar,
Mauritius, Seychelles and Zimbabwe)
to have agreed a 'goods only' European
Partnership Agreement (EPA) with the
EU. This already ensures free access to
the EU for the bulk of Zambian goods
and for sugar, from 2015.
New Optimism
A new optimism follows the pessimism
that prevailed four years ago when the
EU reformed its sugar trading regime.
In its 2006 trade reforms, the EU
reduced its internal sugar prices by 36


per cent, meaning lost export earnings
for 18 African, Caribbean and Pacific
(ACP) sugar exporters who were signa-
tories to the former Sugar Protocol of
the ACP-EU Cotonou Agreement under
which the ACP sugar price was aligned
to that of the EU. It means that Zambia
has seen the price of sugar exported
fall from 523.7/tonne to f335/tonne in

To offset the cuts, the EU offered
a f1.28bn package of assistance for
the 18 signatories of the ACP Sugar
Protocol to fund four-year Multi-
Annual Adaptation Strategies (MAAS)
such as upgrading production to reduce
costs and help diversify into ethanol.

ACPs feared even fiercer global com-
petition when the EU followed up the
price cut with the phasing out of the
Sugar Protocol in 2007 which also set
fixed annual quantities for ACP sugar

Despite its worst fears, Zambia is
adapting and now that the remain-
ing EBA restrictions have been lifted,
the country's sugar exports to the EU
have increased from 30,000 to 135,000
tonnes, say industry insiders. It marks a
new long-term confidence in the indus-
try in Zambia.


The commissioning ofthe one trillion kwa-
cha (1 kwacha = 0.00016) Nakambala
Sugar Estate Expansion Project run by
Zambia Sugar, the country's premier
agricultural enterprise, has resulted in
the Estate doubling its production. The
expansion, which started in April 2007,
included the upgrading of an existing fac-
tory, construction of roads and canals as
well as planting sugarcane on over 10,000
hectares of additional land.

From 1 April 2009, Zambia Sugar began
full production at the plant, increasing
output from its previous 246,000 tonnes
to 440,000 tonnes. Some 130,000 tonnes
of sugar will be for the Zambian market
while 120,000 tonnes will cater for the
booming regional markets. "Our exports
to the EU are expected to increase to
around 200,000 tonnes in about three
years while production capacity of the
plant will rise to 465,000 tonnes", said
Lovemore Sievu, Zambia Sugar's corpo-
rate affairs manager. The 100 per cent
increase in production will result in the
creation of 10,000 jobs, including in the
outgrower scheme where small-scale pro-
ducers are encouraged to produce sugar.

Scene from Zambia between Chingola and the swamps of Bangweuleu. unset/Reporters

With the removal of EBA
restrictions, the country's
sugar exports to the EU have
increased from 30,000 tonnes to
135,000 tonnes
Zambia Sugar announced the comple-
tion of the purchase of 85.73 per cent
of shares in Nanga PLC. Nanga PLC
previously owned 9,800 hectares of
agricultural farm land in Mazabuka,
Southern Zambia, of which 2,200 hec-
tares are planted, primarily with sug-
arcane. Zambeef, the controlling share-
holder of Nanga Farms, elected to sell
its stake to focus on their core business;
the production and distribution of beef,
chicken, pork, eggs, milk and dairy
produce. Zambia Sugar's purchase of
the stake has allowed the long term sup-
ply of sugarcane for its expanded sugar
refinery in Mazabuka to be secured. It
is envisaged that a further stake in the
farm will be sold to a consortium of
indigenous investors, in line with the
country's citizen empowerment policies.
Zambia Sugar's controlling shareholder
is Illovo Sugar of South Africa, which
has a big out-grower scheme throughout
sub-Saharan Africa.

The Nanga Farm sale is a landmark
deal in Zambia as it brings together
some of the leading players in agricul-
ture, with funding provided by one of
the leading banks in Zambia, Zanaco,
which is benefiting from credit support
from Rabobank, a global leader in the
food and agribusiness. Sugarcane is also
grown and processed by Kalungwishi
Sugar Estates in Kasama, Northern
Province and Consolidated Farming
Limited (Kafue Sugar) on the outskirts
of Lusaka.

Zambia Sugar has also reduced costs by
producing its own electricity and has
thus stopped use of that provided by the
Zambia Electricity Supply Corporation
(ZESCO). Zambia Sugar also plans to
expand its biofuel production from
sugar, producing ethanol from molasses
used as feedstock. Molasses has a resi-
due to production ratio of around 0.2
per cent, meaning that for each tonne
of sugar produced, some 200 kg of the
feedstock becomes available, in total
some 88,000 tonnes. Ethanol has an
average conversion ratio of around 35
per cent, thus the total biofuels produc-
tion potential from the by-product in
2011 would be around 31,000 tonnes.

N. 18 N.E. JULY AUGUST 2010




It was described as the 'Rome of the
Slavs' by Adam Mickiewicz, the great
Polish romantic poet who died in 1855
in the middle of the Crimean War, after
travelling to the front in an attempt to
form a Polish legion to fight the Russians.

Y. -

Igor Mitoraj's massive sculpture Eros Bendato ('Eros bound') in the main square (Rynek Glowny) of Krakow.
Marie-Martine Buckens

Marie-Martine Buckens

Although Warsaw stole the status
of capital from Krakow in the
16th century, for many Poles it
is Krakow that remains the true
heart oftheir country, and most certainly
of'Little Poland', one of the 16 Vovodies
(regions) oftoday's Poland. In Krakow you
are also constantly reminded that Poland
is above ail a fervently Catholic nation, a
religion that has left its mark on the entire
history of the country. It began in 966
when the pagan King Mieszko I decided
to convert to avoid a religious war with
his Czech neighbours. The cathedral
where archbishop Karol Wojtyla, the future
Pope Jean-Paul II, ministered -churches
and Gothic or Baroque chapels serve as
a reminder at almost every street corner.
As do the people themselves. When going
about their everyday business it is not unu-
sual for them to make a discreet detour
to spend a quiet moment before a Christ
or representation ofthe Black Virgin, the
original of which is kept in Czestochowa
-less than 100 km north of Krakow -one
ofthe most important Catholic pilgrimage
sites in Europe that attracts around five
million pilgrims a year.




Shop window, Krakow. a Marie-MartineBuckens


biggest nation


S ince the 10th century Krakow
has also been a city oftrade, tes-
timony to which remains today
in the form of Rynek Glowny, the
market square covering four hectares and
one ofEurope's biggest medieval squares.
It is also a city of art and culture, with its
many universities, including the famous
Jageillonian University, Central Europe's
second oldest after Prague University.
This welcomed such famous names as

Copernicus and even the astrologist and
alchemist Faust, the latter serving as the
inspiration for Goethe in his famous novel
of the same name, regarded as the most
important work in German literature.
Beginning in 1386, Krakow experienced
two centuries during which it flour-
ished under the dynasty first of Queen
Hedwig, daughter of Casimir the Great
-the last member of the Piast dynasty
-and her husband, the Grand Duke of
Lithuania, Ladislas Jagellon. Krakow at
that time was the capital of a powerful
and vast state. In 1410, Poland -and
its Lithuanian allies -won the Battle of
Grunwald against the Teutonic knights,
marking the end ofthe latter's expansion
along the Baltic coast. Fifty years later
Poland regained the town of Gdansk,
birthplace in the 1980s of the anti-
communist movement, Solidarnosc. The
country now stretched from the Baltic to
the Black Sea, including areas ofpresent-
day Belarus and Ukraine. It had become
Europe's biggest nation.

N. 18 N.E. JULY AUGUST 2010


The grandeur proved to be short-lived. In
1596, King Sigismond IIIVasa transferred
the royal residence to Warsaw. Krakow
lost importance, especially as it was weak-
ened by pillaging at the time of Swedish
invasions and by the plague that claimed
20,000 victims. In 1795, the three pow-
ers -Russia, Prussia and Austria -who
were jealous of their neighbour's power
and despite the insurrections, divided up
the country. Krakow became part of the
Austrian Empire's Province of Galicia and
as such enjoyed a certain freedom, even
being declared a "free town" between 1815
and 1846. In 1846, after another attempted
revolt, Krakow again came under the
control of the Austrian Empire. After
the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 Austria
granted autonomy to Galicia in return for
a pledge of Polish loyalty. Krakow again
became a national symbol. The Austrians
being less harsh than the Russians or the
Prussians, Krakow was able to blossom and
regained its status as Poland's cultural and
artistic centre. Famous painters, writers
and poets came to work there.

disappeared from the map for 123 years.
There then followed a long period of
submission, insurrection and waves of
repression and emigration. The poet
Adam Mickiewicz was not the only one
to go into exile.

Sinister memory

At the end of the First World War, the
Treaty of Versailles restored Poland to
the map of Europe. A brief period of
calm ended abruptly 19 years later with
the German invasion. But it was not just
the Germans. The Soviets, linked by a
secret clause in the Germano-Soviet pact,
invaded Poland at almost the same time
as the Reich. The 'Blitzkrieg' was the
most terrible ofwars, Hitler being deter-
mined to put an end once and for all to
what he called "this bastard of Europe".
The Soviets were scarcely any better and
began by murdering 4,500 Polish officers
and intellectuals in Katyn and deport-
ing hundreds of thousands of Poles to
Siberia. Six million Poles -20 per cent
ofthe population, including three million
Jews perished between 1939 and 1945.

In 1795, after having been divided up and At this time Krakow became the 'capital'
shared out on three occasions, Poland ofthe territory occupied by the Germans.

Governor Hans Frank set up concen-
tration camps not far from Krakow, in
Plazow and Auschwitz. More than a mil-
lion Jews perished as well as Polish resist-
ance fighters and gypsies in these death
camps of sinister memory.

After the Second World War, Poland
seemed to count for little in the eyes of
the major powers -Soviets and Allies
-and it soon found itself under Soviet
rule. Intellectual and bourgeois Krakow
experienced it as a particular humiliation
when, in the 1950s, Moscow decided to
build the town of Nowa Huta (the 'new
steelworks') and its steel-making com-
plex just a short distance from the proud
historical city. In addition to the purely
economic aspects, Nowa Huta pursued
an ideological objective. The plan was
to make the Little Poland region a sym-
bol of socialism and even to transform
Krakow the bourgeois cultural capital
of Poland into a town for the proletariat.
Today Nowa Huta can be proud of its
inhabitants despite all that has happened.
It is they who, supported by Archbishop
Karol Wojtyla, were one of the principal
sources of popular support for the anti-
communist movement. And the pleasant
neighborhoods ofthis 'new' town where
the participative tradition remains alive
and well today attract a growing number
of young Krakowians who are often for-
gotten by the new Western capitalism.

The Vistula

Krakus is the mythical first king of
Krakow. He is said to have lived on the
Wauwel, a hillside overlooking a bend of
the Vistula, the great river with its source
in South Krakow that flows right across
the country to the Baltic. It is a capricious
river that, due to the very flat nature
of the regions through which it flows,
frequently causes disastrous flooding,
notably in 1813, 1888, 1934, 1960 and,
to a lesser extent, in the spring of 2010.

History and legend

From the top of St. Mary's Church belfry,
on the market square, every hour of the
day a trumpeter plays a tune that stops
suddenly, in memory ofhis predecessor
who gave the alarm on the arrival of Tatar
troops in 1241 and who was killed by an
enemy arrow to the throat. Known as the
Hejnal, it is a tradition that has continued
uninterrupted for seven centuries.

St. Mary's Basilica, in the Rynek(the main square of Krakow) is home to the unmatched Oltarz Mariacki, the giantGothic
altarpiece carved by VeitStoss, Europe's greatest sculptor of the period between 1477 and 1489. Marie-MartneBuckens


In Poland's Case

What place should Poland occupy among the donors? What type of aid and to
assist which countries? These and other questions remain open and give rise
to many, often passionate, debates. They are also at the origin of a new kind of
university course.

M.M.B. International Academy ofPhilosophy, and
finally the University of Iceland.

ST he 'Peace and Develo-
pment Studies' pro-
gramme that we
T launched in 2008 is a
completely new specialisation in Poland",
explains Konrad Pedziwiatr, lecturer and
project coordinator for this new study
cycle, taught in English, at the Tischner
European University in Krakow. "The
lack of a tradition in this discipline in
Poland causes us to establish links with
other universities and outside organisa-

The project has the backing ofsolid part-
ners such as Polish Humanitarian Action
(PAH), an organisation that has long
aided victims ofwar and natural disasters.
The Norwegians are also present with the
Programme of Comparative Research on
Poverty (CROP), Liechtenstein with the

"Since it joined the European Union,
Poland has played an increasingly impor-
tant role on the international stage in the
field of aid policies and peacekeeping. It
therefore needs to acquire experts in these
fields", stresses Pedziwiatr.

Despite the organizers' success in attrac-
ting experts from ail over the world to
their study programme, the future of
Peace and Development Studies is far
from assured. Its very life blood is at stake:
"We receive subsidies, from Norway in
particular, but there is no guarantee they
will be renewed". In Tischner, as with the
NGOs, the hope is that the creation ofthe
new National Agency for Development
Cooperation will solve the problem, which
is a recurring one for all involved.

Info: www.wse.Krakow.pl

Konrad Pedzwiatr and students at the end of a training course at Tischner European University.
Tischner European University

N. 18 N.E. JULY AUGUST 2010

Islam, Judaism
and Christianity

The study of Christian minorities in the
Middle East was the subject of Konrad
Pedziwiatr's thesis. It was one that took
him to Syria, Turkey, Lebanon, Egypt
and the Occupied Palestinian Territo-
ries. "In the United Kingdom, where I
did my master's, I was struck by certain
similarities between these minorities
and the Muslim minority in Britain. They
sometimes suffer from some forms of
discrimination, even if their situation is
stable." It is a subject that leads, as so
often in Krakow, given its proximity to the
former Dachau concentration camps, to
the question of the Jews. "In the 16th
century Poland was a refuge for ail the
persecuted of Europe, including the Jews.
Before the Second World Var there were
more than 3 million Polish Jews", Konrad
Pedziwiatr points out. "The Poles, by far,
were the people who saved most Jews
during the war. And today our government
is by far the most pro-lsraeli, and even
goes so far as never to criticise Israeli
policy", he adds. But times are changing.
The meeting in Krakow organised for the
day after our meeting is proofofthe fact:
'Solidarity campaign for Palestine'.

As a rich country, we have

to enact solidarity with the


Interview with Mr Marek Ziokowski, Director of the Development Cooperation
Department in the Foreign Affairs Ministry


Sn a speech given in Warsaw on
May 17, EU Commissioner for
Development, Andris Piebalgs
said: "In Poland, the word 'soli-
darity' is to this day associated with
SolidarnoS, that brave social move-
ment. But it also has a wider mean-
ing: uniting together for a common
cause, for example to help others in
need". Today, Poland, once a benefi-
ciary country in terms of aid, has to
reason in terms of being a 'rich' coun-
try, part of the EU and as such bound
to its developmentpolicy. How is this
perceived by the population?

Compared to the new member states of
the EU, Poland is perceived as an eco-
nomically successful country. Developing
countries, particularly the less affluent
ones, regard Poland as a wealthy country.
The international community therefore
expects us to share our success to a larger
extent by increasing the volume of our for-
eign aid. Although Polish society is aware
ofthe economic difficulties experienced

by groups of poorer Poles, we are still
ready to help other countries. The driver
ofthis readiness is our sense of moral duty
and the beliefthat helping others is a way
of paying the 'debt' incurred by Poland
when we received aid from the West in the
earlier transformation stages. This aid was
instrumental in implementing social and
economic changes in our country. Poles
are well aware of the fact that this assis-
tance has largely contributed to what we
can enjoy today: freedom, democracy and
membership in Euro-Atlantic structures.

As a society we have not yet achieved the
level of development which can ensure
welfare for all Polish citizens. The majority
of Poles understand that our membership
in the elite 'clubs' the EU and OECD
means that we also belong to the world's
richest countries. We also know that this
position obliges us to enact solidarity with
the world's poorest countries. An over-
whelming proportion of Poles (83 per
cent according to the latest survey for the
Development Co-operation Department
ofthe Ministry ofForeign Affairs) believe
that Poland should provide less developed
countries with assistance (in line with all
other Member States: Eurobarometer sur-
vey October 2009, Ed.) It is also noticeable
that the growing support for our assistance
activities goes hand in hand with Polish
people feeling more 'at home' in the EU.
Support for Poland's development assis-
tance has been rising systematically since
2004 and has not been affected by the
opinions ofthe rare contesters who claim
that before helping others we should first
solve our own problems.

On the government side, the Ministry
of Foreign Affairs in Poland has been
organising a number of international
events related to development co-oper-
ation, and is in theprocess of consoli-
dating and reforming the structure of
its development co-operation. What
will be the shape ofthis new structure?

The majority ofwell developed countries
have legislative frameworks pertaining to

Marek Ziolkowski.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Poland


development assistance. The key asset of
legislative regulation is a clear division
of roles and responsibilities among the
public institutions involved in assistance
activities. Such legislation will also be
introduced in Poland as work is cur-
rently in progress on the Polish Act on
Development Assistance.

The Act will co-ordinate various assistance
activities implemented by a range of Polish
administrative entities. It will also guarantee
well-structured collaboration with the NGO
sector through the relevant Minister (the
Minister of Foreign Affairs). The co-ordi-
nation task will be delegated to the National
Co-ordinator ofInternational Development
Assistance ranked as Secretary or Under-
Secretary of State.

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs will be
responsible for the totality of development EU Com
co-operation, including selection of geo-
graphical and thematic priorities as well
as allocation of funding. Planning will i.e. Afghanistan, Angola, Palestinian
take place within the relevant unit ofthe Autonomy, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova
Ministry and will include the appropriate and Ukraine. We attach particular impor-
Polish Embassies. Our tance to development
development policy "An overwhelming proportion assistance directed to
will be defined by the Of Poles 83 per cent believe Afghanistan.
Minister of Foreign that Poland should provide
Affairs assisted by less developed countries with Thanks to the Polish-
the Development as" Swedish Eastern
Co operation SSan Partnership* initia-

Programming Committee -an advisory
body appointed by the Minister and com-
posed of a few experts from the other
Ministries involved in development assis-
tance and representatives of NGOs.

The Act on Development Assistance
should trigger a more efficient, more co-
ordinated and internationally standard-
ised use of public funding. An important
advantage of the Act will be the possibil-
ity to implement projects over extended
periods of time (e.g. two or three years)
and make multi-annual commitments
instead of the current system in which
projects last a maximum ofa few months.

It must be emphasised that the draft
takes into account many comments and
opinions reported by the Polish NGOs
engaged in international development
co-operation and humanitarian aid.

In more concrete terms, what are
Poland's aidpriorities on theground,
in terms of programmes and coun-
tries? For instance, how will you
balance your engagement towards
Eastern countries and the traditional
countries (the ACP) benefiting from
EU aid?

Similarly to previous years we will con-
tinue to assist our priority recipients

tive adopted by all EU member states,
an additional opportunity has material-
ised to develop the EU's relationship with
the region. We have to bear in mind that
Poland is an attractive partner for the
countries of Eastern Europe as we had
a similar starting point in terms of the

The great Polish journalist who travelled
across Africa and other continents and
penned such major works as The Empe-
ror, Shah of Shahs, Imperium, and The
Shadow of the Sun, made no secret of
his admiration for the great ethnologist
Bronistaw Malinowski. Ryszard Kapus-
cinski died in Poland in 2007, having
completed what he described as his
'mission'. For which he drew inspiration
from his Polish religious culture that pro-
vided him with a facility for understanding
revolutions, in particularthe Khomeinist
Revolution. Today the Polish Foreign
Ministry organises with the European
Commission and the United Nations De-
velopment Programme 'Kapuscinski
lectures' where experts on development
issues can meet.

missioner Tor ueveiopmeni, ,naris rieoaigs speaKing ai ne
Kapuscinski lectures in Warsaw on May 17 EU

level of development and were able to
make our way into the EU. We are per-
ceived as a country which understands the
problems ofthe region better and we can
offer our unique experience in systemic

As to the other directions of Polish aid
-we will continue to support selected
African and Middle Eastern countries, as
well as the countries of Central Asia. Our
presence in these regions will be a reflec-
tion four financial capacity and, most of
all, our know-how: these two factors drive
the thematic and geographical division of
labour among all donor countries.

The 'Eastern Partnership' proposal constitutes
a new initiative aimed at counterbalancing the
project of the Union for the Mediterranean advo-
cated by the French president Nicolas Sarkozy. It
was inaugurated in Prague on 7 May 2009.

Ryszard Kapuscinski.

N. 18 N.E. JULY AUGUST 2010

Food sovereignty links

North and South

Poland is rediscovering its agricultural know-how with the current fad for 'bio'
produce among Western Europeans. Know-how it can also make available to the
countries of the South.

........ =====a

Countryside near Cracow Typical wooden house in Zakopane
Marie-Martine Buckens Marie-Martine Buckens


SS f sustainable development is
our motto and increasing
public awareness of 'res-
ponsible purchasing' is
one of our major programmes", declares
Emilia Slimko, a manager with the Polish
Green Network (PGN) that has its main
offices on a busy street running through
the old town in Cracow.

The PGN was set up nearly 15 years ago
and includes 10 environmental protec-
tion organizations. In addition to Cracow,
the organisation has two other national
offices. "The Warsaw office," continues
Slimko, "is part of the international net-
work, 'Bankwatch', that monitors public
expenditure against environmental and
sustainable development criteria. The
national office in Szczecin [port town on
the German border, editor] works more
specificallywith programmes for southern

To return to the subject of responsible
purchasing, in addition to programmes
targeting schools or ethical fashion, there
are also those that focus on 'local' purcha-

sing. This inevitably raises the question of
food sovereignty. A complex issue, but also
one that can bring together local farmers
in Poland and in the South, in Ghana for
example, where the PGN is active. The
Szczecin office in particular is involved
in this and works closely with the French
Committee for International Solidarity
(CFSI). "They have the leadership", con-
tinues Slimko, "and they would like us
to be more involved internationally. But
these are still very new questions for us
and, for the time being, we have decided
to be less ambitious".

"Bio agriculture is what we
practiced in the past, without
knowing it. And we still have
the knowledge and we have
healthy soil"

"We believe", she explains, "that along-
side the international actions we have
work to do here, in Poland. We are already
active in the field, in cooperation with
the Polish Ecology Club, Poland's oldest
non-governmental organisation. People
here still have a connection to the land.
Although, since signing up to the CAP
(Common Agricultural Policy), many
farmers tend to grow subsidized crops

Making Africa a priority

The government view (read interview on
page 30) is that cooperation that benefits
Eastern European countries remainsthe
priority. Zaragoza, which bringstogether
ail the many Polish organizations wor-
king directly or indirectly on cooperation,
believes this is a view that must change.
It has made this clear to the national
authorities at a time when they are pre-
paring to reform their cooperation policy.
Ola Antonowicz, PGN president, is one
of the leaders putting pressure on the
government to allocate more money to
projects in Africa. Money that should be
allocated on a multiannual basis and not
year by year, as is the case at present.
Hence the importance of setting up a
National Cooperation Agency.

only, we are trying to interest them in bio
produce. After ail, bio agriculture is what
we practiced in the past, without knowing
it. We still possess the knowledge and we
have healthy soil".


The Zakopane


Zakopane, a small town at the foot of
the Tatra Mountains in the Carpathians,
a stne's thrnw from Slnvakia and 100

km from Krakow, was a refuge for many
scholars, writers and painters at the time
of the partition of Poland.

t was above all the beauty ofthe place
and the charm ofthe Tatra Mountains
where the 'Gorale', or mountain
people, still practice their folklore
today -that attracted artists and scholars
from the early 19th century onwards.

The whole ofLittle Poland was occupied
by the Austrians at the time, under whom
they suffered less than relative to the other
provinces that were ruled by Russians and
Prussians, who cracked down hard on any
kind offree thinking. Less exposed than
'big' Krakow, Zakopane soon became a
'protected' centre ofpolitical and cultural
life as well as a university town. It was to
Zakopane that professors removed from
their university chairs came to teach at the
Summer University. Later, it was here that
national militant organizations were born
and victims of persecution were assisted
in crossing the border.


Writers flocked to Zakopane in the late
19th and early 20th centuries. One of
them was Stanislaw Witkiewicz. Like
many Polish artists he expressed his
talents in many genres, as a playwright,
philosopher, pamphleteer, painter, pho-
tographer and novelist. In 1914, at the
age of 29, and devastated by the suicide
of his fianc, he left for New Guinea
with Bronislaw Malinowski. Fiercely
condemned by his contemporaries, he
nevertheless wrote more than 30 plays
that were neither published nor performed
and produced a number ofpaintings. He
committed suicide on 18 September 1939
as the Soviets marched into Poland. He
did not gain international recognition

until the late 1950s when director Tadeusz
Kantor put on his plays.

His friend Bronislaw Malinowski revolu-
tionised the world of anthropology. Born
in 1884 in Krakow, the author of The
Argonauts of the Western Pacific travelled
the world, a characteristic he shared with
many Poles whose wanderings were often
forced upon them by successive invasions
oftheir homeland. It was after returning
from what is now Papua New Guinea with
his friend Witkiewicz that he described
the Kula Ring system for trading in goods
regarded as prestigious (shell jewellery)
but of no direct value, as practiced bet-
ween around 20 ofthe islands. This study
made him famous as did his method of
'participant observation'.

Marie-Martine Buckens

N. 18 N.E. JULY AUGUST 2010

Trinidad and Tobago's 3Canal:

Taking Rapso Global

3Canalis a three-memberTrinbagonian 'Rapso' group combining "powerful lyrics
with a strong rhythm" says one of its members, Roger Roberts. Its music embod-
ies the vibrancy, spirit and rich cultural mix of the twin-island Caribbean nation,
Trinidad and Tobago (T & T).

Debra Percival

We meet in their office in
Ariapita Avenue, one ofthe
liveliest areas ofdowntown
Port of Spain. Although
Lancelot Layne started Rapso in the
context of the rise of the Black Power
Movement in T & T in the early 1970s,
Roberts explains the musical form rose
to prominence in the late 1970s through
'Brother Resistance'. "Whereas the
most popular form of music in T & T
is nowadays Soca, which is more about

party music and fun lyrics, 3Canaltends
to go deeper into socio-political issues",
says another of the group's members,
Wendell Manwarren. He says that the
group also has a Latin flavour since
fellow group member, Stanton Kewley is
from Venezuela and also, Trinidad and
Tobago's music can't help but be influen-
ced by its neighbour's music.

A huge Rapso revival happened in the early
1990s, says Manwarren, when Kindred
and Ataklan brought a whole fresh pers-
pective to Rapso by fusing it with hip-hop
rhythms. "Our first song was called 'Blue',
as homage to an iconic carnival character,

the 'Blue Devil"', he says. 3Canal always
create a 'band' (a procession of people)
for Carnival's 'J'ouvert' event (meaning
dawn or break of day) when people parade
smeared with paint or mud and in simple
costumes fashioned out ofjunk, coloured
cloth or perhaps a feather. 'J'ouvert' is also
known as 'dirty mas' and is thought to
be a symbol ofthe new found freedom of
emancipated slaves. 3Canal's first three
participation in 'J'ouvert' in consecutive
years covered the spectrum of colours in
the national flag; "the first one was white,
the second, black and third, red. But it
was the 'blue devils' that put the group
on the map", says Manwarren. In 2010,


Wendell Manwarren. o3Canal

the theme was 'Jam-It', a Creole expres-
sion meaning a class of people below the
social line. "Going back to the grassroots
of the Carnival was what it was all about
and then Haiti (a creole speaking nation)
had just had its horrible earthquake", says

Already in their thirties when they formed
3Canalin the 1990s, Manwarren says they
were just a "mixed bunch of characters
coming together". All members previously
took part in the Carnival 'band' of the
country's former 'Master Masmaker',
Peter Minshall ('Mas' comes from the
word masqueraderss' or dressing up in a
way disassociated with your everyday life).
This provided grounding for 3Canal in
'Mas' culture, says Manwarren. Another
former 3Canalmember, John Isaacs who
passed away in 2000, was also involved
in Minshall's procession. "Roger was a
production manager with Minshall and
I was artistic assistant", says Manwarren.
Roberts, he says, has brought harmo-
nies to 3Canal's Rapso, something learnt
from his days singing in a church choir.
"Stanton has more of a dance hall, street
chanty sort of flavour and I have a big
old rough voice. I'm the inveigler. I take

Stanton Kewley. 3Canal

the artistic lead in terms of the artistic
direction ofthings", says Manwarren.

Universal lyrics

He explains how Rapso puts emphasis on
the poetry of the lyrics. "We try to deal
with things happening on the ground
and then pull back and make the mes-
sage as universal as possible." He feels
that some ofthe lyrics ofmusicians have
now become almost too direct. In this
respect 3Canalborrows from Calypsonian
tradition whose most famous proponent
was the Trinbagonian 'Mighty Sparrow'.
"Calypso uses a lot of double entendre:
you may say one thing but it has another
meaning. You can never be sure. This
sort of masking means that the message
takes on a universal meaning", he says.

'Talkyuhtalk', recorded in 1999 marked
the group's emergence as social commen-
tators. Its theme is the 'Midnight Robber',
a character who claims all evilness to him-
self and in doing so highlights the evils
around. "One of the worst put downs
you could get as a 'Midnight Robber'
is that you would be called a 'Mocking
Pretender' -you are not really as bad as

you make out to be. The song is about
challenging oppression, but not in a direct
fashion", says Manwarren. At this point
Roberts and Manwarren sing their hit
to demonstrate its strong rhythm. "It's
the same musical beat that resonates on
a 'J'ouvert' morning when at 4 or 5 am
people are moving to a rhythm. We try to
keep the beat very elemental so that you
can dance to it", says Roberts.

"We try to deal with things
happening on the ground
and then pull back and make
the message as universal as

Manwarren says that 3Canal has gone
from "unconsciousness to conscious-
ness", becoming more specific about
the career choices it makes. When we
meet, they have just got back from gigs
in New York and Canada. Paradoxically,
the Trinbagonian Diaspora is more open
to Rapso, he says, than people in neigh-
bouring Caribbean nations; something
the group wants to change. "When we
first surfaced, we were popular ail over
the Caribbean; Jamaica, Barbados, St
Vincent, etc", says Manwarren. He feels
that the Caribbean has become more
musically insular. "What is strange about
Caribbean jazz festivals is that they always
draw artists from the North Americas;
R&B musicians who might appeal to a
more well-to-do crowd."

3Canal has also recently toured seven
cities in India, sponsored by the Trinidad
and Tobago Entertainment Company,
a government initiative to promote the
country's viable entertainment enterpri-
ses. Its future plans could include a visit
to Japan.

The group also wants to participate
in more world music festivals. They
would desperately like to perform in
Africa. Rehearsals for Carnival, which
takes place in 2011 between 7-8 March
(two days before the Christian festival
of Ash Wednesday), are already on the
horizon. 3Canal usually perform 10 con-
certs on consecutive days leading up to
Carnival before leading their own band
for 'J'ouvert'. They do not participate in
'pretty mas', more associated with French
and European tradition on Carnival
Tuesday when people dress up in elabo-
rate costumes. The creative street vibe
of 'J'ouvert', the great leveller, is closer
to their spirit.

For lyrics and more see: www.3canal.com

N. 18 N.E. JULY AUGUST 2010


Okechukwu Umelo




for the ACP

Climate change and the media

With rising sea levels, drought and flood-
ing throughout African, Caribbean and
Pacific (ACP) countries, it may seem
surprising that the number of people
unconcerned about climate change has
risen in the last two years from 4 to 9 per
cent globally*. The media's role in raising
awareness of this global phenomenon,
particularly in developing countries, is
therefore more crucial now more than
ever. This was the view of speakers at the
Deutsche Welle Global Media Forum 'The
Heat is On Climate Change and the
Media', June 21-23 in Bonn, Germany.

Regional Development Fund, the
forum gathered 1,500 participants
from 95 countries representing the
media, civil society, private sector and
research and government institutions.
The results of a global study conducted
by market research company Synovate and
international German media company
Deutsche Welle were presented, highlight-
ing that the media is expected not only to
inform the public about climate change in
a manner that is easy to understand, but
to also educate about its consequences.

Television, newspapers and websites were
revealed as good sources of climate change
information in the ACP, while web 2.0**
was deemed as crucial for educating the
younger generation in developing coun-
tries through social media sites and blogs
like Kenyan-based 'Ushahidi.com', which
interactively compiles online or SMS
information from 'citizen journalists'.

Mobilising action in the develop-
ing world

"Journalists need to tackle difficult issues
with well-researched stories and show
every individual that they can do some-
thing to help", said Deutsche Welle Director
General Erik Bettermann. "The media
must create a forum for the exchange
of ideas and opinions -and shouldn't
automatically buy in to those who offer

sensational reports from questionable
disasters or those who prematurely state
that ail is clear", he continued.

Pointing out the media's role as "chroni-
clers and interpreters" mobilising action,
providing hope and offering different
perspectives for developing countries,
Betterman noted that the media can
highlight the benefits ofmoving towards
green technology and ecologically friendly
consumption and production, while show-
casing "creativity and innovation, new
models ofworking and new fields ofwork
Sas well as a new quality oflife".

Betterman underlined an increased need
for awareness raising in the developing
world, where climate change is more
greatly experienced than in Europe. He
was also critical of the negative percep-
tion by media in the industrialized world
that developing countries are not making
use of climate change measures, in light
of economic disadvantages, adding that
the substantial efforts made by people in
developing countries to combat climate
change often go unnoticed by the media.
"It appears to me that these countries
are ready to pass us," said Bettermann.
"They aren't wasting time lamenting the
risks of climate-friendly production and
lifestyles, but rather realising the oppor-
tunities that exist."

* Synovate and Deutsche Welle Global Study
on Climate Change 2010 (18 countries).
** Web applications that facilitate interactive
information sharing, interoperability, user-
centered design and collaboration online.


career has been focused
in two important fields:
communication and forest
policy;first, at the WorldAgroforestry
Centre and later at CIFOR (Center
for International Forestry Research).
You were also one of the promoters
of 'Forest Day'. What lessons did you
take with you?

The key lesson from organising high
profile events such as Forest Day and
the World Congress of Agroforestry is the
importance of strategic communication in
advancing agricultural and environmental
issues on the global and national agenda.
Through Forest Day held during the
conferences of the United Nations
Framework Convention on Climate
Change (UNFCCC) since 2007, CIFOR
and its partners were able to raise the
importance of tropical forests and advance
the interests of forest-dependent people
in climate negotiations leading up to
Copenhagen. The World Congress of
Agroforestry, held in Nairobi in 2009
with 1,200 people from 96 countries,
also provided a forum to debate the
important role trees have for sustainable
farming, food security and climate change
mitigation and adaptation.

In both situations, a well-planned and
executed communication campaign
helped to transform conferences that would


of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and
employs 65 per cent of the labour force.
However, small-scale farmers, who
produce the bulk of agricultural outputs
in the ACP, face myriad problems, such as
low productivity, unpredictable weather
patterns, poormarket access, unfavourable
prices and degradation of land and
water resources. With these challenges
and opportunities, CTA can play an
important role in facilitating knowledge
and information exchange to support ACP
policy makers and agricultural experts.
In the coming six months we'll develop a
new strategy that will allow us to build on
CTA's strong networks and experience and
reposition the Centre to meet emerging
challenges. It is a very exciting time to be
working in agriculture and development,
and I see a real opportunity for CTA to
make a difference.

Food security is a top priority for
developing countries. How do you
intend to influence relatedpolicies?

When we talk about food security, we have
to look at both availability of food and
access to food. In both cases, CTA's work
in strengthening agricultural information
and knowledge systems in ACP countries
will help to achieve greater food security.
CTA also will continue to work with
key regional initiatives such as the
African Union's Comprehensive African
Agricultural Development Programme
(CAADP), which aims to advance policies
and strategies for ensuring sustained
agricultural growth and food security.

N. 18 N.E. JULY AUGUST 2010

otherwise have been entirely scientific
into multi-stakeholder forums where key
players could learn from each other and
advance issues of global importance.
In the coming six months,
we'll develop a new strategy
that will allow us to build on
CTA's strong networks and
experience and reposition
the Centre to meet emerging

Unfortunately, most scientists do not
pay much attention to the value of
communicating beyond their peer groups.
That is one reason why agricultural
research in developing countries does not
get the attention and resources it deserves.
They fail to get their messages out to the
wider world, learn from past experiences
and capture lessons to share with others.
Communication and knowledge sharing
should be carried out throughout the life of
a project and not be seen as activities that
are left to the end with meagre resources.

How do you envisage your leadership
of CTA?

Agriculture is back in a big way on
the international development agenda
following the recent food and energy
crises. Its critical role for poverty
alleviation, economic growth and meeting
the Millennium Development Goals is
widely recognized. In most ACP countries,
agriculture provides about 30 per cent


is back in a

big way on the




Michael Hailu
New Director of the Technical Centre for
Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA)

InetCip -fic

Interface between civil society and the African Union

ECOSOCC and the Quest

for the Holy Grail

ECOSOCC, the acronym for the African
Union's (AU) Economic, Social and
Cultural Council, an institutional bridge
between African civil society and the AU,
is not widely known. Since it was set up
in 2002, it has not been operating at
full throttle but its lively president, the
Cameroonian lawyer Akere Muna, says
this won't be the case for much longer.

Joshua Massarenti*

A kere Muna was interviewed in
the Ethiopian capital, Addis
Ababa, at the Regional Seminar
of African, Caribbean and
Pacific (ACP)-EU Economic and Social
Interest Groups (see box), organised
by the European Economic and Social
Committee (EESC). "With the EESC we
have a direct line of fire: the Summit bet-
ween Africa and the European Union that
will be held in Libya next November.**
I hope we will have the opportunity to
table a joint declaration recalling that
the interests of the African people must
remain at the heart ofthe Joint Africa-EU
Strategy (JAES)", says Muna.
Mistrust fades
A practising lawyer for 32 years, Muna
has become a champion for the fight for
good governance in Africa. President
and founder in 2000 of the Cameroonian
antenna of Transparency International,
in 2005 he became the global vice-
president of this NGO, recognized for


-i Interction

its fight against corruption. Muna also
presides over the powerful Pan African
Lawyer's Union (UPA) and in January
2010, he was nominated to the Panel of
the African Peer Review Mechanism
(APRM). "Despite the challenges, one
should not forget that in Africa our civil
society organizations and our democracies
are still very young. The Organisation of
African Unity (1963-2002) used to be just
a club of governments. With the birth of
the AU in 2002, our heads ofstate agreed
to establish a statutory organ to represent
NGOs, community-based organizations,
volunteer bodies and professional asso-
ciations, from both the African continent
and its Diaspora.

Despite the challenges, one
should not forget that in Africa
our civil society organizations
and our democracies are still
very young

Some saw the move as a mere gesture to
give African leaders a clear conscience
that the views of civil society were being
taken into account. However, ifyou look
at the historical context, you realise that
after decades of one-party systems, it
was a very significant step forward", says
Muna. "Admittedly, there's still a degree
ofmistrust between Africa's political class
and its civil society, but I note that thanks
to ECOSOCC's existence, this is dimi-

nishing. The fact that some former civil
society personalities such as Mali's former
President, Alpha Oumar Konar, are now
in positions of authority, also signifies
that non-state actors are becoming more
accepted", says Muna.

Obstacle course

Despite eight years of existence,
ECOSOCC is not yet operating at full
speed. For Muna, the fault lies with
organisationall and electoral obsta-
cles". The body numbers 50 members
elected at several levels: a national level
(two for each Member State), a regio-
nal level (two for each of Africa's five
regions) and a continental level (eight
members). Twenty places are reserved
for the Diaspora. "The nomination of
representatives was long and complica-
ted. Furthermore, equilibrium between
the diverse civil society actors needed to
be found, such as not advantaging men
over women, etc."

This explains why the first General
Assembly only took place in 2005, with the
nomination ofthe Noble Peace Prize win-
ner, Wangari Maathai, chosen to head the
body with very limited financial resources.
Thanks to discreet but efficient lobbying in
the African capitals, his competence and
fat address book, Akere Muna was awarded
the ECOSOCC presidency in 2008.

Things are moving but, like his prede-
cessor, Muna is contending with another
obstacle: the African Citizens' Directorate
(CIDO). Attached to the President of
the African Union Commission's office,
CIDO has the task of implementing the
African Union Commission's directives
in its partnerships with civil society and
the Diaspora. Moreover, it happens to be
ECOSOCC's secretariat. On paper, the
body that Muna heads is independent and
can count on administrative support from
CIDO. However, sources draw attention to
regular clashes between the two structures.

But the challenges don't stop there. The
election for the members representing the
Diaspora has still not been held. Muna
attributes this delay to "the overly broad
definition ofthis Diaspora that includes
the descendents of Africans in Brazil,
Haiti or the Caribbean. The 20 availa-
ble posts are highly coveted". His two
short years ofthe presidency have clearly
not sufficed for Muna to complete what
he set out to do. Muna is counting on
an extension of his mandate at the next
ECOSOCC General Assembly to take
place in September 2010, on home ground
in Cameroon, to move the organisation
ahead. His re-election seems a safe bet.

* Journalist based in Brussels. Correspondent
for www.afronline.org

** Libya, November 2010

African civil society's grievances
Under the auspices of the ACP-EU Joint signed on 22 June in Ouagadougou, imple-
Parliamentary Assembly, the European mentation of the EU-Africa strategy, and
Social and Economic Committee held its negotiations on the Economic Partnership
11th Regional Seminar of ACP-EU Eco- Agreements (EPAs). In all three cases, the
nomic and Social Interest Groups from 7 non-state African players expressed their
to 9 July in Addis Ababa. Members of the dissatisfaction at their degree of participa-
ACP-EU Follow-Up Committee arranged tion in decision-making processes. "The
the meeting of about 58 representatives seminar's final document will serve as a
of civil society, employers' organizations legal instrument for the battles they will
and trade unions from the 16 countries of wage in their own countries", explained
the East African Community (EAC) and Luca Jahier, President of the ACP-EU

Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA).

Follow-up Committee of the EESC.

federation-Africa, declared that: "African
civil society should be more organised
and proactive by following the example of
the success achieved on the EPAs by our
Caribbean brothers". The non-state actors
in the Caribbean succeeded in imposing
social and environmental clauses in the
complete CARIFORUM-EU agreement
as well as putting into place a Consulta-
tive Committee of civil society. "It was a
significant victory", said Jahier, "that con-
trasts with the deadlock on the EPAs in the
African regions".

Three main items were on the agenda: the Adrien Akouete, Deputy General Secre-
second revision ofthe Cotonou Agreement tary ofthe International Trade Union Con-

N. 18 N.E. JULY AUGUST 2010

Inte8CtwJOnS Pacific

Pacific's strategy for a

resurgent global economy

As the global economy picks up, new economic opportunities are being scouted
by the islands, particularly in the private sector.

Dev Nadkarni

financial crisis in the region
were not felt as severely as they
were in other parts ofthe world,
the fragile island economies did feel some
pressure due to reduced tourist numbers
and a dip in inward remittances -the
islands' top two revenue channels.

In Australia and New Zealand, their main
source markets for tourists and remit-
tances suffered milder recessionary trends
than the United States and Europe, but
reduced discretionary spending in these
two countries affected leisure travel as
well as the volumes of remittances, fol-
lowing general global consumer spend-

ing patterns that have seen a decline in
discretionary spending.

The dip in remittances, though, may have
been to some extent cushioned by greatly
reduced costs of money transfers that
have been in place more recently thanks
to joint initiatives between the islands'
central banks, money transfer firms and
commercial banks. These were facilitated
by a World Bank programme that has been
working on the problem of high remit-
tance costs for the past couple of years.

Individual islands' central banks have also
put in place tighter fiscal disciplines and
lending criteria to both individuals and
businesses over the past eighteen months
to meet the challenges of reduced inflows
into their fragile economies. Unlike in the
West, these were not government-spon-

scored interventions aimed at propping up
the financial system by pumping in cash.
Rather, they have been more proactive
than reactive, directed more at planning
and strategising, identifying new oppor-
tunities in the recovering global economic

EU workshop

In June, the Pacific Islands Private Sector
Organisation (PIPSO) carried out a
regional workshop in Nadi, Fiji, under
the auspices ofthe European Union (EU)
on ways that could assist the private sector
in the region to exploit global economic
recovery opportunities.

The workshop underscored the impor-
tance of carrying forward the provisions
ofthe Cairns Compact agreed upon by
the Pacific Islands Forum leaders at
last year's annual summit on working
more closely with the private sector in
the overall development process in the

Pacific Islands Forum Secretary General
Tuiloma Neroni Slade said, "Given the
influence of Governments on private
sector performance, most of the actions
that are needed to be implemented
would have to be led or facilitated by

The region is developing
strategies to confront future
financial crises

Ways to mitigate the impact of the crisis
on various categories ofvulnerable groups
including women and children were dis-
cussed at the workshop and a six-point
strategy was developed in the conclusions
of the event: improving efficiency and
equity public funding; renewed focus in
investing in social services; income crea-

An East Timorese youth walks as a streak of rainbow is seen in the background in Dili, East Timor.
Reporters / Associated Press


-acific / ..-RI -bea w PtertI

tion for young people and promotion of
the private sector; the need to improve
data for evidence-based policy, planning
and monitoring; the need to improve data
for evidence-based policy, planning and
monitoring; need to reorient economics
toward sustainable, green growth; and
a need to bridge the communications

The participants worked on a draft two-
year national action agenda, which will
frame policy discussions in the Pacific
countries in the ensuing months. These

are broadly seen as solutions for giving
the desired momentum to the islands'
economies to better integrate into the
resurging post-recession world economy.

Following the February summit, a sum-
mary of proposed national actions has
been developed. Many of these contain
opportunities for inter island co-operation
to spur economic growth not only nation-
ally but also regionally. The plans were
due to be presented to regional leaders at
the 41st Pacific Island Forum meeting in
Port Vila, Vanuatu, in August.

Now that Australia and New Zealand are
officially out ofthe recession as declared
by their respective governments, tourist
numbers have been growing and central
banks have also reported that remittances
have been regaining their pre-crisis levels.
Meanwhile the islands region has read-
ied itself to meet the resurgent global
economy and create hedges against the
potential effects of future financial crises
by developing these strategies.

Caribbean's private sector gets a boost

D. P.

Finan-cial Institutions have
come together to set up a
$US850M (f696M) action
plan to boost private sector investment
across the Caribbean region. The
European Investment Bank (EIB), the
Caribbean Development Bank (CDB),
the Netherlands Development Finance
Company (FMO), the International
Finance Corporation (IFC) which is
the private sector arm of the World
Bank, and PROPARCO, the private
sector arm of the Agence Franaise de
Dveloppement Group, have all raised
funds for the initiative aimed at spurring
economic growth.

Plans are for both individual inves-
tments by each institution, also joint
ones with fellow bodies in the plan, in
areas where the impacts ofthe economic
crisis have been felt the hardest; finance,
tourism and infrastructure. Technical
assistance and other initiatives to rebuild
Haiti's private sector development are

"The European Investment Bank wel-
comes this landmark initiative to work
more closely with our partner institu-
tions to support long-term economic
growth across the Caribbean, make
best use of our respective experience

Haitian migrants work at the Cap Cana Resort in Punta Cana, Dominican Republic. CAP/Reporters

and facilitate recovery in Haiti", says Investment Officer: "In these times pro-
Plutarchos Sakellaris, the EIB's Vice viding access to finance is imperative to
President responsible for the Caribbean. current and future generations of Hati
Adds Jurgen Rigterink, the FMO's Chief and other Caribbean nations."

N. 18 N.E. JULY AUGUST 2010

Inter8CtipnS -ti

Rebuilding Haiti's

knowledge economy

Nothing, or almost nothing, remains of
the 200 universities that, before the 12
January earthquake, were dotted around
Port-au-Prince. To rebuild Haiti's univer-
sity system and, above ail, to provide the
solid course content that to date has been
lacking: that is the plan France is putting
to its European partners.


' W e do not in any way
claim to be respon-
ding to the emer-
gency situation that
still prevails", explained Patrice Cayr,
representative ofthe Institut franais de
recherche pour le dveloppement (IRD

students in the ruins or a university.
0 IRD/G De Noni

Double challenge

The French initiative faces a double chal-
lenge. First, there is reconstruction. "Almost
ail the 200 universities (mostly private,
editor) were destroyed and many staff
and students killed", explains Georges
De Noni, head of the Agence franaise
inter-tablissements de recherche pour
le dveloppement (AIRD French Inter-
establishment Development Research
Agency) for Haiti. Meetings between the

Haitian authorities and French officials
have already made the assessment of im-
mediate needs possible. "The Dominican
Republic has already indicated its readi-
ness to help rebuild the buildings. For our
part, we have estimated the cost of rebuild-
ing basic facilities, such as laboratories, at
E200M", explains De Noni. The plan is to
create a national science and technology
university of Haiti ("Agriculture, fishing,
social sciences and applied mathematics
must be central priorities", adds De Noni).

French Development Research Institute)
to the European Union (EU), when he
presented the project in Brussels on 15
June. "But this initiative, which is part of
a longer term approach, is essential as it
is about rebuilding an economy that has
become vital; the knowledge economy."
"There are very few links in Haiti
between university education
and research and development"

But why announce this inherently French
initiative -part of the supplementary aid
package promised by President Nicolas
Sarkozy when visiting Port-au-Prince
in February -in the European 'capital'?
"France", adds Mr Cayr, "really wants
to incorporate this in the European fra-
mework and, if possible, in the framework
ofthe EU's common approach to help for
Haiti". Belgian universities have already
expressed an interest, starting, logically
enough, with the French-speaking uni-
versities, as French is the language of
education in Haiti.

"We realise that even for aid the thinking
behind it always has a 'win-win' aspect,"
acknowledges Patrice Cayr. "So, is it
realistic for Europe to compete, given
the proximity of the United States? I
believe so, especially for France that has
its own Overseas Departments (DOM)
such as Martinique, Guadeloupe and
Guiana that are all close to Haiti, the
only French-speaking sovereign state in
the Caribbean."

But this represents just part ofthe E500M
euros budget proposed by the French for
the years 2010-2020. The rest will serve to
rebuild structures and accredit the degree,
master's and doctorate courses "the sys-
tem is in difficulty, badly organised and few
students get beyond degree level". Finally,
the initiative includes"an ambitious remote
digital learning plan" to be implemented
in association with research workshops.


European foundations and

the Europe 2020 agenda

European Foundation Week, held in Brussels from 31 May to 4 June 2010 at the
Square, Brussels, highlighted how foundations are working for the public good.
It stressed the importance of foundations in supporting the 'brightest minds' in
science and technology. The European Foundation Week was followed by the 21 st
European Foundation Centre's Annual General Assembly and Conference, entitled
'A Conversation with the Institutions'.

Andrea Marchesini Reggiani

The events brought together
some 500 participants to dis-
cuss the role of foundations
in the 'Europe 2020' Agenda,
their relations with European institu-
tions, and how to facilitate further deve-
lopment of the sector for the benefit of
citizens and improved collaboration
between public and private donors.
Research, migration, employment, social
affairs and equal opportunities, develo-
pment, environment, culture, education
and youth: almost all of the topics addres-
sed by the European Commission were
examined in various 'Policy Briefings',
in which representatives of the various
European Directorates General parti-


Diverse points ofview

Herman Van Rompuy, President of the
European Council, said that foundations
had an important role to play in European
society, especially in a "stormy period in
which Europe needs stronger institutions
and a stronger civil society". "A demo-
cracy can't live and prosper without these
feelings oftogetherness and ofbelonging
to something", he stated.

Stefano Manservisi, former Director
General of DG Development, at the
European Commission*, took part in
the 'Development Policy' briefing on 2
June, along with Marzia Sica, Director
ofthe Fondazioni4Africa project, funded
by four Italian foundations and carried
out in Uganda and Senegal by several
NGOs. This project was also presen-
ted as an example of a fruitful multi-
level partnership by representatives of
Senegalese associations, which debated
the innovative and controversial issue of
migration and development, analysing
cases in which migrants associations are

proactively involved in the development
of their countries of origin.

Mark Walport, Director ofthe Wellcome
Trust, outlined the role foundations
should play in supporting the sciences,
due to the fact that they have assets and
are independent: "We can act on a global
scale. For example, in the field of medi-
cal research, we support a private-public
partnership for tackling malaria."

Gerry Salole, ChiefExecutive ofthe EFC,
affirmed that, "it is still a crisis period
for Europe and foundations can play a
critical role in the Europe 2020 agenda.
They are important partners for the EC.
There are at least 110,000 foundations in
Europe, which collectively spend 150bn
on the public good both within and out-
side Europe. They have a great impact on
science, youth, aged people, education,
green areas in cities and hospitals. People
benefit from foundations but don't know
anything about them".

*See separate article in 'Round up'.

Herman Van Rompuy, President of the European Council.

N. 18 N.E. JULY AUGUST 2010

Gerry Salole, Chief Executive of the EFC.

Europe Interaction

SP ...... D ...o.... .oo.-

Virtuous circles

of exchanges

'Train4dev'*, the informal donors' network, is now in its eighth year. Time to make
an appraisal. Overall, it has proved positive.


own priorities and cultural
model rather than coordinat-
ing their efforts, cooperation
agencies in the North are now trying to
speak with a single voice. The first stage is
to harmonise their methods and concepts,
and even their practices in the field.

This is the aim of the 'Train for
Development' initiative, better known
as 'Train4dev' and launched in 2003 at
the initiative of Denmark, Scotland and
Germany. Two years later, EuropeAid,
the technical and financial arm of the
European Commission's development
cooperation service, joined the group.
"Today, about 20 organizations are active,

some of them very active, within the
network", explains Dominika Nowak, a
key member of the 'Train4dev' team at
the Commission, where it is headed by
Grard Van Bilzen. It was this Dutchman
who, when approached by one ofhis for-
mer colleagues at the Dutch Ministry of
Foreign Affairs, was convinced of the
benefits of the initiative and decided to
contribute to the vast EuropeAid training
service (more than 560 courses run in
2009 with a total of 18,713 training days).

Virtuous circle

"Contacts are often made by word of
mouth and it is this that makes the net-
work particularly vibrant", confirms
Dominika Nowak. "The network's
strength and uniqueness lie in its infor-

IrA I 4 Q ifs



mality; the donors who join us doing so
on a voluntary basis", adds Van Bilzen.
From 1 to 30 June 2010, the members of
this 'network with a difference' met in
Marseilles (France), at the initiative of
the Agence Franaise de Dveloppement
(AFD) and EuropeAid, co-organisers of
this eighth annual meeting. The many
representatives came from the EU coun-
tries and from Canada, the World Bank,
the United States and Australia too.

"The network's strength and
uniqueness lie in its informality."

It was an opportunity to take stock of the
activities launched by the various sub-
groups, covering such precise themes as
decentralisation and local governance,
capacity development, knowledge man-
agement, public sector reform, electoral
assistance and the 'pro-poor' initiative.
Nowak continues: "This gives us a chance
to reflect on sometimes very different
visions. Everyone agrees that the local
governance issue is very important, for
example. But when you discuss it you
find it means different things to different
people. This network makes it possible to
establish a virtuous circle of exchange".

Timothy Lubanga from Uganda, who
attended one of the 'Train4dev' training
sessions in Kampala, gives his appraisal:
"The training was well prepared and very
practical. As far as possible the facilita-
tors used examples we face in our every-
day work. The sessions were especially
interesting as the group included repre-
sentatives of government, civil society,
development partners and the private sec-
tor". Suggestions? "It is important to make
sure that all participants have a minimum
basic knowledge. It would also be a good
idea to spread the training over 10 days
and to award a certificate at the end ofit."

* Website: www.train4dev.net

'Train4dev' meeting, Marseilles. 0 Marie-Martine Buckens


MDG Pne8Ci

Millennium Development Goals


"We are far from meeting

the Beijing objectives"

If there is a criticism to be made of the
MDGs, it is the failure to take account of
the situation of women globally.


' T hegender issue should cut
across all the millennium
goals", believes Hlne
"Ryckmans, project leader
with the Belgian NGO, Monde selon les
Femmes (the world according to women).
"There is a need to realise that for ail the
MDGs there is a disparity between men
and women. Unfortunately, this factor
is not taken into account. For the first
goal, on reducing poverty and guarantee-
ing food security, the UN data conceal
huge disparities, between towns and rural
areas, but also between men and women."
Also, maternal death in childbirth -which
remains very high -is linked to poverty
and is simply an indicator of women's
lack of autonomy. An autonomy to which
Ryckmans is wholeheartedly committed.
"In reality, we are far from meeting the
goals set at the 1995 World Conference
on Women in Beijing."

Sylvie Brunel, Professor at the University
of Paris-Sorbonne and author of works
including 'Nourrir le monde, vaincre la
faim' ('Feed the world, beat hunger').
"The MDGs are pertinent, because in
the field of sustainable development they
highlight the shortcomings in what I see as
the essential area ofthe familiar economy-
equity-environment trio by placing the
emphasis on social issues. Setting quan-
tifiable goals and adopting a timetable is
the only way to make progress. Certain
countries have achieved their goals, oth-
ers have not, but the deadlines are still
pressing, as is the need to mobilise inter-
national cooperation, despite the failures.
The maternal health goals a failure? How
can you be surprised at that when in so
many countries women remain second
class citizens?"

The European Commission will publish a
new Eurobarometer survey on 'Europeans
and the MDGs' in September which will be
available for the high level event in New York.
Web link http://ec.europa.eu/publicopinion/
index en.htmb

Rush hour, Johannesburg. Chris Kirchoff/MediaClubSouthAfrca com

N. 18 N.E. JULY AUGUST 2010

Trinidad and Tobago

A new political era

Just 11 kilometres off the South American continent, the twin-island state of Trinidad and Tobago (T & T) has a multi-ethnic
population of just 1.4M with a per capital income of $US23,000 (2009), one of the highest in the Caribbean. The country's
rapid industrialisation has been fuelled by exploitation of its oil and gas reserves, particularly in the boom years of the late
1970s and early 1980s. But as question marks hang over the country's long-term hydrocarbon potential, the huge well of
creative talent from animation to costume making is just one aspect of a more diversified economy being explored.

Debra Percival

C arib and Arawak Indians were
living on Trinidad (see article
in this report for Tobago's his-
tory) when in 1498 Christopher
Columbus christened the island, La Isla
de la Trinidad. The Spanish, who establis-
hed their first settlement in 1592, enslaved

many ofTrinidad's native inhabitants to
labour in their colonies and over the next
two centuries, the Spanish and French
(following the French revolution, plan-
tation owners and their slaves from the
neighboring French island of Martinique
emigrated to Trinidad) established an
agricultural-based economy. Slaves were
imported from West Africa to cultivate
tobacco, cocoa and sugar plantations.

In 1802, the island formally ceded to
British forces. With the abolition ofslavery
in 1834, slaves left the plantations and the
British imported thousands ofindentured
workers, mostly from India, to work in the
cane fields. In 1889, Tobago was joined to
Trinidad as a British Crown Colony. The
twin-island state became an independent
member ofthe Commonwealth in 1962.
The racial divide between Afro-


Trinbagonians* (roughly 37.5 per cent
of the population) and those of Indian
descent (40 per cent of the population)
has characterized the country's politics.
The People's National Movement (PNM)
of Eric Williams, supported largely by
Afro-Caribbeans, won the 1956 general

First PM ofIndian descent

The country became a Republic within
the Commonwealth in 1976. Williams
died in office but the PNM remained
in power until 1986 when the National
Alliance for Reconstruction (NAR), a
multi-ethnic coalition of Trinbagonians
of both African and Indian descent, was
elected to power. In 1991, the PNM's
Patrick Manning became the new Prime
Minister. In November 1995, Manning
called an early election and the United
National Congress (UNC) of Basdeo
Panday formed an alliance with the NAR
and Panday became the country's first
Prime Minister of Indo-Trinbagonian

Elections in 2000 returned Basdeo
Panday to power but a hung parlia-
ment resulted in Manning's re-election
in 2002. He won another mandate in
2007. A general election on 24 May 2010
called by Manning after only two and
a half years into his term in office, the
People's Partnership (PP), a coalition of
the UNC, the Congress ofthe People and
smaller parties,the National Joint Action
Committee, the Tobago Organisation
of the People and
the Movement for
Social Justice, won The country,
29 of the 41 seats in unparalleled
Parliament with 11
going to the oppo- s cr
sition. The UNC's
Kamla Persad-Bissessar, who is ofIndian
descent, became the country's first female
Prime Minister. On gaining 11 out of
14 of the 'regional corporations' in the
26 July regional elections -the first in
seven years -the PP's popularity was
confirmed. Dr Keith Rowley now heads
the PNM opposition.

Falling energy prices

"Trinidad and Tobago is not in a dire
position. We have had an economic slow-
down. There is tremendous potential for
growth once the global recession is over",
says Shelton Nicholls, Deputy Governor
ofthe Central Bank, despite recent falling
revenues from oil and gas and fiat growth
predicted for this year.

Alongside pursuing exploration of oil
and gas (see following article), those
with whom we spoke see potential in
agricultural, the film industry, tourism



National Carnival Building, Savannah Park, Port of Spain a D Perciva

(especially in tranquil Tobago) and music
from the sweet sounds ofcalypso played
on the steel pan invented out ofdiscarded
oil drums to Pantar, a mix of classical
Indian Sitar and the Steel pan pionee-
red by Trinbagonian Mungal Patasar.
The country already has an unparalleled
reputation for its creative exports (see box
on Peter Minshall).

Rising food prices are a concern for T
& T's economists. In May 2010, food
prices rose 5.3 per cent following a three
month drought. This
has turned attention
Ready has an to developing agri-
reputation for culture. Although
the country's remai-
e exports ning sugar refinery
shut down opera-
tions in February this year, Deosaran
Jagroo, Chief Executive Officer of the
sugar company, Caroni, says that the
company is looking at the potential to
diversify into other crops on two acre
plots, handed out as part of the redun-
dancy package to 6,000 former Caroni

An accusation of'buildingitis' was leve-
lled at the previous PNM government
for investing in under-utilised expensive
new structures such as the Waterfront
Development built to house a services-
based economy. The NGO Transparency
International also raised questions
about the transparency of the former
government's tendering procedures for
big building contracts. It has hence wel-
comed the new government's moves to
dust off a draft procurement bill which
foresees the appointment of a procure-
ment regulator.

Donors in T & T say that one of the biggest
issues is to ensure that services reach the
poorest in the population. The United
Nations Development Programme's
(UNDP) regional representative in T
& T, Marcia De Castro, says some 15
per cent of Trinbagonians are still below
the poverty line. Iwan Sewberath Misser,
the Inter-American Development Bank's
(IDB) Representative in T & T calls for a
new anti-poverty strategy and efforts to
tackle the complex roots of crime linked
to drugs and arms trafficking.

* A Trinbagonian is a national of Trinidad and

'Mas Master', Peter Minshall

More than anyone else Peter Minshall,
Trinibagonian designer of the opening
ceremonies ofthe Barcelona (1992) and
Atlanta (1996) Olympic Games, has put
out the message to the world that Carni-
val is about more than fancy costumes
and everything about social and spi-
ritual statements and showcasing the
country's tremendous creativity "I don't
design costumes. I provide the means for
the human body to express its energy,"
Minshall has said. He has trained and
inspired creative talent in his country,
such as Dane Lewis, who has mounted
his own events company, islandd People'.
"Carnival isthe freest expression ofspirit
anywhere in the world", says Lewis.

N. 18 N.E. JULY AUGUST 2010

TnnRInidadand Tbago epor

Government rises to uncertainty

in oil and gas market

Trinidad and Tobago's reserves of oil and gas are not inexhaustible. Some commentators interviewed say that at the current
rate of production, they could last just another 15 years. The vagaries of the global marketplace also create future uncertain
demand and fluctuating interest in exploration. The new government is already getting to grips with the challenges.

Trinidad and Tobago (T & T)
is said to be the first place
where oil was commercially
and has formed the "Our goal is
country's economic of the count
base for the past 100
years. A range of production p
downstream indus- aimed at inc
tries have been cre- VOIL
ated on the back of
oil: drilling, petrochemicals, steel,
plastics and liquefied natural gas. A
huge expansion of Atlantic Liquefied
Natural Gas (LNG) has been seen in
recent years.

Trinidad is the largest exporter ofLNG to
the United States and supplies the United
States with 70 per cent ofits LNG imports,
according to government statistics.



"Our goal is the balancing of the
country's oil and gas production pro-
file via efforts aimed at increasing
crude volumes", the country's new
Energy Minister, Carolyn Seepersad
Bachan told a press conference in
July in Port of Spain. She said the
last five to seven
the balancing years have seen a
y's oil and gas decline in T & T
in the number of
file via efforts wells explored, a
easing crude lack of interest in
mes" recent bid rounds
and a longer
timeframe to plan and execute bid
rounds. At the July press conference,
the Minister for Energy underlined
the need for an improved investment
climate to encourage more explo-
ration, as well as extracting more
from proven resources held by state
companies and making processing
plants more energy efficient.

Reporters / Associated Press

More exploration

Other plans in the pipeline are develop-
ing a petroleum contingency spill plan
in the wake ofthe recent disaster in the
GulfofMexico and a gas pricing policy,
as well as a Competitive Fiscal and Tax
regime to improve the enabling environ-
ment for exploration.

Petroleum inheritance

Trinidad and Tobago's Heritage and
Stabilisation Fund was set up in 2007.
Formerly known as the Interim Revenue
Stabilisation Fund (2000), it saves and
invests the country's surplus oil and gas
revenues for times when oil and gas
revenues fall and put a strain on public
expenditure. Excess revenues from oil
and gas also provide a heritage for future
generations. Deposits and withdrawals
are triggered by a 10 per cent fluctuation
in oil and gas revenues. According to
figures given by T & T's Central Bank,
the fund, denominated in US dollars,
currently stands at $US3.1bn
The former government set up a Petro-
leum Stabilisation Fund for CARICOM
(Caribbean Community) countries in
2005. Funded by T & T, it assists with
poverty alleviation and also provides
relief in emergency situations to other
CARICOM states, Haiti being its most
recent beneficiary. At CARICOM's July
Summit in Jamaica, T & T's new Pri-
me Minister, Kamla Persad-Bissessar,
suggested using some of the kitty to
create a Caribbean Children's Life Fund
to provide urgent medical care for some
of the Caribbean's children.


RepOrt TriAns.n id n Tbg

Women challenging

cultural norms

Kamla Persad-Bissessar may have been sworn in at the end of May as Trinidad
and Tobago's first female Prime Minister but there is still a lot to do to empower
the country's women, says Fulade Mutota, co-ordinator of the Port-of-Spain-based
Women's Institute for Alternative Development.

runs a mentoring programme
for girls 14-18 whereby they
accompany professional women
or 'big sisters' -to work. Workshops,
held with the girls' parents, "sensitise
the women on trade and economy, sexual
and reproductive rights and human rights
generally", says Fulade Mutota. "There is
a vibrant women's movement in Trinidad
and the Caribbean, but it has not shifted
how we do things. Women still under-
value themselves", she adds. She says
that the "patriarchal perspective" still
prevails: "It is not a natural evolution in
our context", but rather imposed by the
former colonial masters.

Women against armed violence

The NGO is especially worried about the
rising level of gun violence in the country
(see introduction) which, feels Mutota,
began to take a grip in 2000. Last year,
it organised 'women's conversations', a
women's workshop on the current level of
armed violence in Caribbean society spon-
sored by the United Nations Children's
Fund (UNICEF). Interestingly, the NGO
invokes United Nations Security Council
Resolutionl325, the first international
legal document requiring parties in con-
flict to respect women's rights and their
participation in peace negotiations, as
a launch pad for women's involvement
in opposing armed violence in her own

society. For Mutota, there are numerous
reasons for the high level of gun violence
in T & T; the drugs trade, easy access to
weapons, low detection rate by the police
services and insufficient presence ofsecu-
rity services in the country.

See: www.winad.org

* .


Doing She Own Thing
Gefld#f, pewmunce annd sub,lon
4in Tmidad C*wo

Doing She Own Thing 0 LarbertAcademic Publishing

"Doing She Own Thing"

Calypso Rose (aka McArtha Linda
Sandy Lewis), a popular Trinbagonian
calypsonian in the 1970s, was one of
Dr. Maude Dikobe's interviewees during
field research for Doing She Own Thing*.
In her recent publication, the Assistant
Professorat the University of Botswana
who has published widely on genderand
popular culture turns attention to Trinidad
and Tobago. "In essence the idea for
the book sprung from the political and
social commentary nature of song both
in Africa and the African Diaspora", she
says. Calypso Rose's song, 'Matrimony',
"challenges the whole idea of gender as
a social construct, which dictates to us
what a 'real woman' can and can't do",
she says, which is further illustrated by
another calypso, 'I am Doing My Thing'
(1977) from which Dikobe borrowed
the title for her book. "Calypso Rose
told me that when she started singing
calypso, it was male dominated and wo-
men were not expected to sing calypso,
but she went ahead and did her own
thing", says Dikobe. "Women have not
been given their due for the distinctive
roles they have played, and continue
to play, as originators, developers,
performers, and consumers of calyp-
so in Trinidad and Tobago", she says.

* LAP, Lambert Academic Publishing, ISBN
978-3-8383-0978-1, Paperback, 156 Seiten.

N. 18 N.E. JULY AUGUST 2010

TnnRInidadand Tbago epor


_ 1


Anansi Full Circle Producton

Diversification drive

From agriculture to animation, talk of
the diversification of T & T's oil and gas
dominated economy is on everyone's lips.

Angella Persad, President of Chamber
of Commerce, T & T D Percival

he Chamber ofIndustry
and Commerce has been
talking about this for two
T or three years, but now
the economic downturn has happened,
it will definitely be something that has
to be taken more seriously than before",

T & T's film industry
The Trinidad and Tobago Film Company
(TTFC) was set up in 2006 to create
employment, career opportunities and
nurture new skills. It has provided eq-
uity for feature and short films, explains
Carla Foderingham, its Chief Executive
Officer. It's a one-stop-shop for foreign
filmmakers interested in filming in many
varied locations, providing help with vi-
sas, accommodation, the importing of
technical equipment and offering 30 per
cent cash back on a maximum expendi-
ture of $US2M accrued whilst filming in

says Angella Persad, President ofT & T's
Chamber of Commerce which represents
570 private businesses.

At the beginning ofthe decade, for seven
or eight years, the country experienced
tremendous annual growth of 8-10 per
cent, largely because ofhigh government
revenues from the oil and gas sector. But
from 2009, the global crisis hit. "Our
manufacturing sector really plummeted


the country. The TTFC's outreach pro-
gramme takes filmmaking techniques
into schools and with the assistance of
the all-ACP films project, has sponsored
the participation ofT & T's filmmakers at
festivals. T & T's landscapes have been
scouted for the Lost and Survivor TV
shows. Participation at more film festivals,
more co-productions and transfer of skills
with Latin America, India and Africa are
ail part of future planning.


RepOrt Triniad and Tobag

I & I is known worldwide tor the quality ot its cocoa D Percival

completely because most of our manu-
facturing exports go to the CARICOM
(Caribbean Community) market of the
15 countries surrounding Trinidad and
Tobago", says Persad. "These economies
are very dependent on tourism and went
into recession. A lot of our services went
down too as they were servicing the oil
and gas sectors", she adds. The economy
is now stable, she says, although 2010 is
expected to be the second consecutive
year the country has experienced nega-
tive growth.

Last year, T & T's Chamber of Commerce
commissioned a study on areas with the
potential to generate exchange, including
agricultural products; cocoa, (T & T pro-
duces one ofthe best in the world but it is
exported raw with little added value), green
pineapples and tilapia (a fish). Deosaran
Jagroo, Chief Executive Officer of Caroni,

A passionate animator
Camille Selvon-Abrahams has a pas-
sion for animation. She has not only
set up her own animation company Full
Circle Production, but also a two-year
diploma in animation at the St Augustine
campus of the University of the West
Indies (UWI). Aimed at 3-6 year olds,
her latest creation is 'Krik Krak Anansi'
a spider who tricks his way into getting
anything. Her aim is to provide animation
for Caribbean children who do not "hear
or see themselves" on US-dominated
cartoon networks. And there is African
interest in the character. The 'ANANSI
project' was to be showcased at the
African animation festival, 'Animafrik,'
in Ghana in August 2010.


T & T's former sugar company, told The
Courier that it was moving ahead with
diversification into other agricultural pro-
duction for which it has received some EU
financial support (see interview with EU's
Charge d'Affaires), including pumpkins,
tomatoes and sweet potatoes. Persad says
that another potential growth sector is ter-
tiary education -some British and United
States-based universities already having
links with higher education institutions
in T & T -also tourism.

Tremendous potential

Tourism today accounts for just 13 per
cent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
but it "has a significant role to play
in diversifying the economy", Rupert
Griffith, Minister for Tourism in the new
government, told The Courier, especially
in hosting business and sports events.
Angella Persad says that T & T's unique
cultural blend is, "something tremendous
that can be packaged". In this rich mix
are: food (street specialities; 'doubles'
and 'bake and shark' (a shark burger) at
Maracas Bay, Trinidad); architecture
(notably the 'magnificent seven' his-
torical buildings around Port of Spain's
Savannah); festivals and its heritage;
Amerindians, African and East Indian
settlers and British, Dutch, French,
Spanish and Courlander (Latvian) colo-

The former People's National Movement
(PNM) government picked out other
industries with growth potential; food
and beverages, shipping, yachting, film
and entertainment, fish and fish process-
ing, printing and packaging, to give T
& T developed country status by 2020.
The outgoing government also invested
in the financial services sector, building

Peppers on sale at San Juan Market D Percival

a new International Financial Centre,
now a landmark in the Waterfront area
of Port of Spain to accommodate finan-
cial services companies, although the
building is still largely unoccupied. It
also spearheaded the development of
Tamana In-TECH Park to house high-
tech companies.

Are 'Nollywood' and T &
T's budding film industry in
competition under EU trade

In parallel to diversifying the economy,
Persad says the government also has to
seek out new markets. Central America,
she feels, has potential. Mahindra
Satram Maharaj, Chairman of the
National Carnival Foundation and one
of the Directors of the Trinidad and
Tobago Coalition of Services Industries
(TTCSI)*, also sees scope to export
products and expertise from its long
Carnival tradition, including to the 700
festivals that take place every year in
Europe. He told us of plans to mount
a T & T trade mission to Europe, "to
ascertain the benefits" of the Economic
Partnership Agreement (EPA), a free
trade agreement signed between the EU
and members of the Caribbean trading
bloc, CARIFORUM, in 2008. TTCSI's
Chief Executive Officer, Nirad Tewarie,
fears that the EPA could undermine the
traditional South-South cooperation pro-
moted by the African, Caribbean and
Pacific (ACP) group since the individual
regional EPAs pitch regions against one
another. 'Nollywood' (the Nigerian film
industry) could end up competing with T
& T's budding industry, he said.

*See: www.ttcsi.org

N. 18 N.E. JULY AUGUST 2010

TnnRInidadand Tbago epor

Biodiversity v. Industrialisation

Trinidad and Tobago needs to find new
ways to confront the 'classic clash'
of the protection of a rich biodiversity
pitched against industrialisation, says
world renowned Trinbagonian biolo-
gist, Professor John Agard of T & T's St.
Augustine Campus of the University of
the West Indies.

n geological terms Trinidad and
Tobago is a relatively new country,
having disconnected from the South
American mainland just 10,000 to
11,000 years ago. It means a distinc-
tive South American fauna and flora
(akin to Brazil's and
Guyana's) yet, like "Unlike clin
m any other Antillean biodiversity
islands, it has a high ,. t
number of indige- liPS f all the
nous fauna and flora prme rr
including birds, rep-
tiles, butterflies, frogs, marine turtles
and mammals. "On a world tabulation of
species per square metre, Trinidad and
Tobago is right up in the top group which
is quite extraordinary", says Professor
Agard, who heads St. Augustine's
Department of Life Sciences.

Toucan, a bird native to Trinidad. Oshutterstock


Yet the twin-island state ofTrinidad and
Tobago is one of only two islands in the
world that are net exporters of oil and
related products, Bahrain being the other.
It is the world's largest exporter of ammo-
nia, the fifth largest exporter ofliquefied
natural gas and one ofthe top exporters
ofboth ethanol and urea, says Professor
Agard. Oil and gas fuelled industriali-
sation means thought is being given to
evaluating "ecosystem
ate change, services provided by
s not on the the biodiversity", he
residents and
'nisters" One such service is
what Professor Agard
refers to as evapotranspirationn' due to
the fact that over a half of Trinidad and
Tobago has forest vegetation. The forested
areas cause moisture in the atmosphere
to rise where it cools and rains in other
non- forested areas. Tobago's Main Ridge
Reserve is one of the oldest protected
areas in the Western hemisphere. "There
is a lovely document dating back to the
1600s declaring it a protected area for the
preservation ofthe rains", says Professor
Agard. Other 'ecosystem services' are the
development of pharmaceuticals from
plants and the erosion protection through
coral reefs. A study done in Tobago by
the World Resources Institute, together
with some associations in Trinidad and
Tobago, found that the coastline in
Tobago is eroding faster where there are
no coral reefs. It puts the value of erosion
services of coral at US$30M per annum, a
not inconsiderable sum given that Tobago
has a Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of
US$250M per annum.

Lines of communication

Together with other scientists and econo-
mists, Professor Agard says he is working
on an EU-funded study that is using the
economists' bag oftricks to a do a proper
cost/benefit analysis of ecosystem services
in T & T. Although reluctant to place a
value on everything, he sees advantages in


RepOrt TriAns.n id n Tbg

this type of approach since it opens lines
of communications with the decision-
makers on biodiversity who would oth-
erwise view biologists as, 'hysterical tree
huggers'. This allows planning choices to
be made, he says; the economic benefits
of building a hotel weighed against the
destruction done by blasting out coral
for hotel construction.

Another biodiversity service is eco-tour-
ism. "Tobago has a unique character; low
level development, mostly original vegeta-
tion, ancient forests and a more genteel
atmosphere. People like its 'islandness';
the mangroves, coral, different vegeta-
tion culture, its way of speaking. This
has a value and without the biodiversity,
this advantage would disappear", says
Professor Agard. He says that naturally
occurring bacteria that break down oil
present in oil seeps on Trinidad are also
being researched.

"In the Convention on Biological
Diversity, a target was set years ago for
no significant loss of biodiversity by 2010
and this has not happened anywhere in the
world", says Professor Agard. He would
like biodiversity to have the same global
status as climate change including the
setting up of an Intergovernmental Panel.
"Unlike climate change, biodiversity is not
on the lips of all the presidents and prime

ministers", he says, adding, "it costs more
the longer you wait".

And in Trinidad and Tobago, Professor
Agard feels the government should
embark on more long-term planning
about where the country is heading
beyond the exhaustible resources of

oil and gas. This should include more
emphasis on protecting biodiversity
and encouraging renewable energy and
a more information-based and services
economy, not forgetting the need for
more and better managed protected areas
to preserve biodiversity, he says.

Akilah Jaramogi climbs a tree, Fondes Amandes o DPercval

Trailblazers: Fondes Amandes

"This is fever grass (lemon grass) which
can be used to make a tea when you have
flu", points out Akilah Jaramogi who is the
Project Manager of the Fondes Amandes
Community Project in the hills behind Port
ofSpain. Jaramogi pioneered the project 27
years ago with her late husband, Tacuma
and a "bunch of people squatting in the
hills". Now a community of 27 people, it
sells organic plants and seedlings and is
a place where schools, other groups and
individuals go to find out more about the
medicinal benefits of the flora on well-
maintained trails cut through the forest

vegetation. She explains how the forest
cover also creates a fire climax zone, pre-
venting the spread of fire towards heavily
populated Port of Spain.

The Community has been able to develop
with backing from international donors,
including a small grant from a three-year
project, 'Practices and policies that improve
forest management and the livelihoods of
the rural poor in the insular Caribbean',
funded underthe European Commission's
(EC's) Programme on Tropical Forests and
other Forests in Developing Countries.

Run by the T & T-based Caribbean Natural
Resources Institute (CANARI) the project
is empowering local communities to take
the lead in forest management in similar
projects in eight Caribbean nations, ex-
plains Nicole Leotaud, CANARI's Execu-
tive Director. Akilah Jaramogi would like
to take the Fondes Amandes project to
another level, including the development
of an eco-tourism lodge where visitors can
stay overnight. One issue she would also
like to see resolved is the security oftenure
of land occupied by Fondes Amandes to
ensure the Community's longevity.

N. 18 N.E. JULY AUGUST 2010

TnnRInidadand Tbago epor

Dianne Hunton the runway at Fashion Week 2010

Fashion mirrors T & T's

gorgeous mosaic

Dianne Hunt is a successful Trinbagonian*
fashion designer. Her 'Radical Designs'
label on the catwalk at Trinidad and
Tobago's (T & T's) recent Fashion Week
reflects the country's eclectic mix of cul-
tures and vibrant land and seascapes.


S he is wearing a cool cotton dress
from her own range in a fresh
blue and white floral print for our
meeting in Port of Spain together
with Don Grant who is an organiser of
Fashion Week. It would be a bestseller
in any summer collection anywhere in
the World. After 20 years in the busi-
ness, Canada-trained Dianne Hunt, who
is chair of fashion week, says her brand
needs new development. She used to have
13 stores throughout the Caribbean but
now owns just two in Trinidad and two in
Tobago due to sluggish sales over the last
four years, mainly because of competition
from cheap garments made in China.

Hot on the heels of the success of the
third edition of T & T Fashion Week,
held in Tobago, 20-31 May and Trinidad
2-6 June, she says it's time to revive her

business. She's hopeful that her brother,
Gary Hunt, who exited politics at the
last general election
in May, will draw up Ifyou put ail
a new business plan
for the label which is the world t
still 90 per cent 'Made WOuld reflect
in T & T'. New inves-
tment in industries with potential, says
Dianne Hunt, is part of the long term
2020 vision for the country launched by
the outgoing government.

Dianne Hunt was just one of 50
Trinbagonian designers, including some
of the country's nationals who live and
work overseas, showcased at Fashion
Week. Taking the event to the public,
models strutted their stuff around the
2.2 miles (3.5 km) perimeter of Port of
Spain's Savannah Park; "unofficially the
longest runway in the world", says Don
Grant. Celeste Vincent, whose 'Johnny
Vincent' label is worn by the Bajan sin-
ger/superstar Rihanna, is another of the
country's top designers.

A Caribbean aesthetic

What are Dianne Hunt's influences?
"The Caribbean aesthetic: rum shops,
relaxed lifestyle, colourful characters
and integrated races. The Caribbean is
the future. If you put all the people of
the world together they would reflect the



Caribbean." Growing up in Trinidad, she
used to sketch clothes and made brooches
which were much in
he people of demand from school
friends, attaching a
gether they signature feather from
he Caribbean her grandmother's
chickens. The biggest
challenge faced by the country's fashion
designers, she says, is to raise capital. She
also has ambitions to design and make
her own fabrics, noting that 'Sea Island
Cotton' grown on neighboring Barbados
is highly sought after by fashion houses
around the globe. And Dianne Hunt feels
that the production of fabric from bamboo
currently being trialled in the country,
has potential.

Work has already started on next year's
Fashion Week with a theme of'Water'. A
former international model and now an
actor, Don Grant is clearly upset by the
effects of the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.
The need to protect the Caribbean natural
inheritance and fragile ecosystems is a
message Fashion Week endeavours to put
across. Adds Dianne Hunt: "If we have
an opportunity to engage the audience,
why not lift their consciousness?"

*A Trinbagonian is a national of the twin-island
state of Trinidad and Tobago.
For more see: fwtt.org/


RepOrt Tinid.cl and Tobago

'Radical Designs', 2010

EU by T & T's side in

economic diversification

Stelios Christopoulos is the Charg
d'Affaires of the European Union's
Delegation in Port of Spain. In an inter-
view with The Courier, he explains the
EU's sectoral approach to disbursing the
25M of development assistance ear-
marked for the country under the EU's
10th European Development Fund (EDF)
which targets diversification of economy
and governance.

Stelios Christopoulos, Head of EU Delegation, T & T
D Percival

Shat are the EU'spriorities
in Trinidad and Tobago (T
& T) under the lOth EDF

To assist the country in its efforts to diver-
sify from oil and gas into other sectors and
to help improve some areas ofgovernance.
There's also a Technical Cooperation
Facility (TFC) to support implementa-
tion activities for achieving the objectives
of the National Indicative Programme
(NIP). Almost everything we do in T
& T is through sectoral budget support.

The first sector budget support pro-
gramme in T & T is the on-going 9th EDF
programme in non-
university tertiary "To be effective
education (27.3M). of clamping d
The EU's support to
the decision of the trafficking in Ec
government to diver- also do thing.
sify out of sugar and the authorities
minimize the socio- trafficking mo
economic and envi-
ronmental impacts of
such a decision is also a sector budget
support-based programme.

Some regional projects are also being
run from here -(those where the regio-
nal organizations concerned have Port
of Spain based headquarters); the
CARICOM Implementation Agency for
Crime and Security (IMPACS) which
fights against crime and drugs trafficking,
the Caribbean Financial Action Task
Force (CFATF) which is fighting money
laundering -also linked to drugs traffic-
king the Caribbean Court of Justice
(CCJ) and the Caribbean Meteorological
Organisation. Forty per cent of cocaine



consumed in Europe is thought to tran-
sit this sub-region and the bulk perhaps
through T & T, so there is a mutual inter-
est in backing the efforts of the gover-
nment and authorities to fight against
illegal drug trafficking. Other priorities
are trade cooperation and implementa-
tion ofthe EU-CARIFORUM Economic
Partnership Agreement (Ed: up and run-
ning since October 2008).

What are the advantages of sectoral
budget support for T & T?

T & T is a middle income developing
country, which has enough capacity to
implement projects. What it needs now
is international donors to act as partners
in its efforts to improve its sector policies.
With the sector budget support approach,
rather than projects, you focus on a sector.
Performance indica-
Sin our efforts tors are jointly agreed
wn on drugs with the government,
progress monitored
rope, we must and actions chosen.
here to help We are still focusing
prevent drug on non-university ter-
re efficiently" tiary education. With
sectoral support, the
number of students
enrolled has already gone from 20,000
in 2005/06 to over 75,000 in 2009. While
we are still in preliminary policy dialogue
and we do not know yet what we are going
to do in the area of governance under
the 10th EDF, we are more advanced
with diversification. We are trying to
help improve the enabling conditions for
Trinidad and Tobago to become more
competitive, dialoguing on a regulatory
framework, and incentive-based fiscal
and macro-economic indicators, but it is
not our business to say whether the gover-
nment should diversify into tourism, or
aeronautics, because we don't know how
competitive the country can be.

N. 18 N.E. JULY AUGUST 2010

TnnRInidadand Tbago epor

Portof Spain, Trinidad and Tobago D Percival

In our support to the sugar adaptation
strategy, although measurable targets
were set, we felt that these could have
been more ambitious. In 2007, when we
started the sugar support programme,
food-related inflation was around 25
per cent. We suggested that some of the
e43M earmarked (T & T's allocation for
2007-2010 under the 'Accompanying
measures for Sugar Protocol Countries'
ofwhich an initial tranche of 2.5M has
been disbursed to date) might be spent
on restructuring farming to retain more
farmers, but the former government was
not very keen to do this. Farming accounts
for just 0.7 per cent of GDP in a country
known for the quality of its products and
where 15-20 per cent of its population are
farmers. I believe that people would be
more satisfied if the [new] government
considers the possibility of diversifying
into other food production cultures.

You point out that T &T has a per
capital GDP matching that ofPortugal.
How wouldyou explain to EUcitizens
that the country still needs develop-
ment assistance?

The EU has to make sure that the deve-
loping world also stabilises. You need to
help the country to use the money in the
right way to achieve its developed nation

objective [Ed: the former government's
vision was for T & T to reach developed
country status by 2020]. The country is
conscious of a gap between wealth and
development: ten per cent ofthe popula-
tion has no access to running water. The
right sectoral policies are required. Our
assistance is not enormous because what
the country is doing in tertiary educa-
tion is many times more than the funds
we are giving; the same can be said for
transforming the sugar sector, but T & T
is appreciative that we are by their side in
the process.

Look too at the fight against crime:
according to the press, there have been
more than 300 reported murders since
the beginning of 2010 in a country of
1.3M people, sixty per cent ofwhich were
allegedly related to trafficking cocaine,
coming to more than 500 murders
annually for 2010, or around 42 murders
per 100,000, a figure that would put T &
T amongst the five top countries in the
world when it comes to murder. Indeed,
a big amount of cocaine [Ed: from South
America] is transiting through T & T
to West Africa and on to Europe. It is
in our interests to have a good working
partnership. To be effective in our efforts
of clamping down on drugs trafficking
in Europe, we must also do things here

to help the authorities prevent drug tra-
fficking more efficiently.

What are the benefits of the EPA for
T & T?

Both manufacturing and services can
benefit. By reducing the tariffs on pro-
ducts that are imported from Europe,
the price of some basic components of
products manufactured in T & T will
also go down which will help to reduce
the cost of products so they can become
more competitive. For the time being,
the sectors likely to gain the most are
tourism and health-related services, pro-
vided that the security situation improves
dramatically. Also cultural cooperation:
for example, Carnival has created a whole
school of culture, costumes, music groups,
dancing groups. There are impediments
such as meeting the high level standards
in Europe for all products. The same goes
for services; you don't want to get involved
in a business partnership if you aren't
certain about the professional standards
of that partner. On a regional basis, a
C36M sum is available under the 10th
EDF's e165M regional package to assist
Caribbean nations in meeting those stan-


Report The~rnid.dan T..g


a big little sister

Just 30 kilometres separate Tobago from Trinidad to the south west, yet in appear-
ance and character there's minimal resemblance to its big sister on the horizon. It
has its own House of Assembly, albeit with limited powers.

sandy coves, sleepy fishing
villages such as Charlotteville,
and translucent coral reefs
have drawn tourists to Tobago although
hotel occupancy has slipped during the
global economic downturn, according
to Trinidad and Tobago's Tourism
Association. But it's easy to see why the
island won the World Travel Awards' top
eco-tourism destination in four consecu-
tive years from 2003 to 2006. Its Main
Ridge Reserve is the oldest protected
forest in the western hemisphere and
leatherback turtles, a critically endan-
gered species, lay their eggs on Tobago's
secluded beaches from March to June,
the hatchlings emerging 55 to 70 days
later. As Tobagonians say, their island is
a place to "breeze out".

Amerindian tribes, were thought to have
settled on the island (the island takes its
name from the Taino word for tobacco
or pipe, 'Tabago') 10,000 years ago.and
it remained in their hands until 1652.
The first European settlers to arrive were
the Courlanders (Latvians), the island
changing hands a reported 33 times bet-
ween Courland, Spain, England, France,

Aerial Shotof Buccoo Reef Buccoo Reef Trust Tobago

Sweden and the Dutch republic. The
Europeans established sugar, cocoa and
coconut plantations and with a shortage
of labour, they brought in African slaves.
East Indians came to Trinidad under an
indentureship system to work on the sugar
plantations; a small percentage of them
settled in Tobago. In 1783, Portuguese,
Chinese, Syrian and Lebanese popula-
tions arrived and others from Barbados,
Grenada and Trinidad. In 1814, Tobago
became part of the British Empire
administered alongside Grenada, the
Grenadines, Dominica and St Vincent,
and in 1889 was united with Trinidad in
a British crown colony, becoming inde-
pendent with Trinidad in 1962.

Tourism accounts for 60 per cent of the
Gross Domestic Product (GDP), accor-
ding to House of Assembly statistics and

15,000 workers are involved in all tourism
services from running of guest house inns
to bike rentals.

More powers for Assembly?

Tobago has its own House of Assembly
for its 55,000 population, established in
1980 with its own budget from central
government. In 2010, funding from T &
T's central government (recurrent & deve-
lopment assistance) will total an estimated
$1.77bn T & T, according to Assembly
figures. The Assembly can make decisions
on where the money from central govern-
ment goes, such as health and education,
but it cannot collect taxes or establish local
laws. It has 12 elected members and four
appointed councillors; three on the Chief
Secretary's advice and one on the advice
of the minority leader. At the last elec-

N. 18 N.E. JULY AUGUST 2010

TnnRInidadand Tbago epor

tions, the People's National Movement
(PNM) gained a majority in the Assembly
winning eight seats with four seats taken
by Tobago's Organisation of the People
(TOP). The next Assembly elections take
place in 2013.

As Tobagonians say, their
island is a place to
"breeze out"

But at central government level, the
two parliamentarians who represent
Tobago are both from TOP, one of the
parties which form the central T & T
government's People's Partnership. We
asked the Chief Secretary of Tobago's
House ofthe Assembly, Orville London,
whether the lack of representation of the
House ofAssembly's majority in T & T's
Parliament might create an untenable
position for the Assembly. "There is
nothing unique about our political situa-
tion", he replied. He said, however, that
it would test the validity of the House of
Assembly Act.

Although there is no ground swell for
independence from Trinidad, he told
The Courier, there is room for reform.
"We have a situation where there is no
empowerment. The House of Assembly
has no teeth or authority to act in Tobago",

he added. He wants to see a greater level
of autonomy to give the Assembly law-
making authority in matters pertaining to
Tobago and an abilityto draw up financial
agreements with local and international
agencies without the say of the govern-
ment in Port of Spain.

Find out more: www.tha.gov.tt

Orville London, Chief Secretary,
House of Assembly, Tobago. CD Percival

Charlotteville, Tobago CD Percival

Buccoo Reef: Tobago's natural wonder

Horseshoe-shaped Buccoo Reef is To-
bago's most striking landmark but climate
change and pollution have taken their toll.
An NGO, the Buccoo Reef Trust, isat the
frontline in conserving the reef, collecting a
raft of scientific data which isof use to the
wider Caribbean. Ten thousand years old
and covering 7 km2, it is the third largest
reef in the western hemisphere with several
species of corals and many sea creatures.
As well as protecting the coastline, with
an estimated annual income of $US119,
164M annually, it is important in tourism
terms and provides many families with a
livelihood. It was declared a protected area
in 1973 under the Marine Areas Act in 1970
but Buccoo Trust Director, Kaye Trotman,

told The Courierthat it is more ofa "paper
park" with a need to step up enforcement
and public awareness about conservation.

One project run by the NGO is the Land
Use Planning and Watershed Restora-
tion in the Courland Watershed and Buc-
coo Reef Area Demonstration. Its project
manager, Sandra Timothy, explains that
increasing deforestation and poor farm-
ing practices in the watershed have in-
creased pollution in the reef. She has led
land activities such as re-afforestation.
The reef also suffered from the bleaching
of coral that occurred Caribbean-wide in
2005. Although the reef's coral has 75
per cent recovered, there needs to be

constant data collection and "education,
education, education" about conservation,
says Buccoo Reef Director, Kaye Trotman.

The Buccoo Reef Trust has also taken
the lead in a three-year regional pro-
ject, the Coastal and Marine Manage-
ment and Education in the South East-
ern Caribbean (CaMMESEC) with the
International Coral Reef Action Network
(ICRAN) to exchange best practices on
conservation of ail the regions reefs in-
cluding the setting up of Marine Parks,
explains the project's coordinator for the
Buccoo Reef Trust, Hyacinth Armstrong.

Find out more: www.buccooreeftrust.org


Reprt rinda an Toag

Visionary Africa, BOZAR Brussels

The performing arts in Africa :

the power of imagination

At the major 'Visionary Africa' festival at
BOZAR (Centre for Fine Arts, Brussels), the
headline exhibition 'GEO-graphics'* and
a wide range of other graphic arts and
photography shows are enjoying great
success, providing a dazzling window on
the performing arts in Africa. The African
country with the strongest historical links
to Belgium, and also one of the crea-
tive stars, is the Congo (DRC), which is
particularly well represented. The festival
takes place from 30 May to 26 September


Africa' event is undoubtedly
the major concert '50 years of
Congolese music', premiered
in Kinshasa on 30 June and on an inter-
national level exclusively performed at
BOZAR on 16 July. This concert is the
heart of'Congo@Bozar', a festival within
the festival. Most ofthe big names ofthe
Congolese scene are there Papa Wemba,
Mbilia Bel, Werrason, Ferre Gola, Simaro
and many others -and the renowned
arranger Hilaire Maka Munan is the
artistic director. The show is designed
as homage to now-departed greats such
as Kall Jeff, creator of the evergreen
'Indpendance Cha Cha', in its time the

hymn of Africa's quest for freedom, later
to be transformed into despondency and
disenchantment after the continent lost
its way in the period after independence.
'Congo@Bozar' also involves a full pro-
gramme of gospel concerts in different
areas of Brussels, and acoustic rumba
shows which each pay their respects
to a particular period or personality of
Congolese music, with the participation of
the stars of'50 years of Congolese music'.

Other African stage artists and the
Diaspora are far from being outdone, how-
ever. Malian singer Rokia Traor, award-
winner at the BBC3 World Music Award
and the French Victoires de la Musique
and protg of Ali Farka Tour and Papa
Wemba, has cast a spell on audiences with
her Mandingo music, with its harsh sounds
and winks at rock and blues. The same is
true of the Beninese author, composer,
singer, guitarist and 2007 GrammyAward
winner Anglique Kidjo, who has collabo-
rated with Santana, Herbie Hancock and
Peter Gabriel.

Didier Awadi's performance takes us back
to the illustrious history ofrap. Awadi has
orchestrated a show entitled 'Presidents
of Africa', based on the speeches of the
founding fathers ofAfrican independence
and the writings of the major thinkers of
the Diaspora. This forms an integral part
of a special 'Day of Literature'.

And film plays its part in 'Visionary Africa'
as well -it is the scene for the world pre-
miere of Claus Wishman and Martin Baer's

film 'Kinshasa Symphony', about the
Kinshasa Symphony Orchestra, a group set
up at the peak ofinstability and civil war by
non-professionals withno more than what
they themselves could contribute. Among
other genres, the Orchestra plays classical
European music with a rare sensibility, and
their interpretation of Carmina Burana is
a true hymn to joy and to life. It is easy to
believe that most listeners have not been
able to hold back tears of emotion.

* See issue 17 of The Courier, pg. 62.
See Agenda for more on 'Visionary Africa'.

'Visionary Africa' is a major cultural
event to mark Belgium's presidency of
the European Union (1 July to 31 De-
cember 2010). It also celebrates the
50th anniversary of independence of
17 African countries. Supported by the
Belgian government, the European
Commission and the Secretariat ofthe
ACP Group. It takes place from 30 May
to 26 September 2010.

The ACP Group, according to its Secre-
tary general, Mohamed Ibn Chambas,
considers this festival as "the start of
framing a long term vision of our rela-
tion to the Africa cultural heritage and
African art, in Africa and Europe alike".

N. 18 N.E. JULY AUGUST 2010

Read now


Comic strip on 50 years of the history of
the Democratic Republic of Congo


is a magical tour de force, or
rather comic strips, as eight
Congolese cartoonists pooled
their talents to create and record on paper
this exciting and frenzied story, like eight
stanzas ofa piece of music. To ensure con-
tinuity between the comic strips, the car-
toonists Asimba Bathy, Cara Bulaya, Jules
Basol, Didier Kawend, Fati Kabuika,
Djemba Djeis, Tshamala Tetshim and
Jason Kibiswa associate the talented
Alain Brzault as script coordinator. He
was also responsible for overseeing the
production. The result is a comic strip
which is full of emotion but which is free

of fanaticism or extreme viewpoints ...
and difficult to put down. It is all told at 'Congo 50' by Asimba Bathy & co / Ed.
an exhilarating pace. The title ofthe first Roularta Books www.roulartabooks.be and
comic strip is 'Indpendance cha-cha'. Africalia www.africalia.be

Increased ACP support for the film industry

Michle Dominique Raymond
ACP Assistant Secretary-General, Head of the Department of Political Affairs and Human Development

The Jury Prize at the Cannes Film Festival was awarded to 'A Screaming Man' by the Chadian director Mahamat Saleh
Haroun, financed by ACP Films.

Interview by H.G.

'' t is an historic event for an
African film to be included
in the Official Selection and
Lto win an award at Cannes.
The ACP Group and its Secretariat make
no secret of their delight at the award.
They see it as homage to, as well as a
reward for their cultural policy which is
designed to complement rather than be an
alternative to the many programmes that
have been implemented which are encour-
aging sustainable development and the
progressive integration of their countries
into the world economy. The ACP-EU
support programmes for the ACP film
and audiovisual sector and ACP culture
industries are the concrete expression of
this policy. By the time the programmes
are completed, the aim is that the ACP
countries will have well-trained profes-
sionals and quality films. Many festivals
are already beginning to show an interest
in ACP productions.

Yet again, the very talented Mahamat
Saleh Haroun has highlighted the poten-
tial ofthe ACP film industry. The excel-
lent performances by the actors draw
attention to the pool of talent that exists
in Africa and by extension in Caribbean
and Pacific countries.

The ACP Group, in continuing to provide
its unflagging support for the cinema and
audiovisual sector, hopes to see a repeat
ofthis fantastic experience."

HG Does the film itself have a mes-
sage for the ACP countries?

It is true that the film contains a message
for citizens ofACP states and beyond, in
that the drama experienced by Adam,
while peculiar to him, also invokes uni-
versal existentialist concerns. A man with
no future and no prospects and who is in
danger of being robbed of what little he
has finds the means to regain his dignity
and maintain his freedom and ability to
provide for himself. The story, filmed by
Mahamat Saleh Haroun, is simple and

very human. It deals with poverty, the
effects of economic globalisation and war.
In doing so, it encourages the audience to
reflect on such issues.

Michle Dominique Raymond. o PhotoACP Secretariat



Jos da Silva:

A true success story

Jos da Silva is the manager of Cape Verdean singer Cesaria Evora, and his
company, LUSAFRICA Productions, represents a true success story in Africa's
cultural industry. The Courier met him at the 'Girona Conference on Culture and
Development', which was held on 4 and 5 May and organised by the Spanish
Agency for Development Cooperation and the EC's DG Development.


history in the field of

At the age of 12, I moved to
Paris from Senegal. In the early 1980s, I
started to get involved with Cape Verdean
culture, through the local Association of
Cape Verdeans, which organises the 'Cape
Verdean Week in Paris'. Then, I founded
a group of Cape Verdean musicians, in
which I played percussion. We started to
play for the Diaspora, first in Paris, then
in Rotterdam, Switzerland and Rome. As
part of this experience I received 'trai-
ning' on topics such as contracts, locations
and logistics. Throughout this time, I
was employed by the French Railways
and worked with singers during my free
time. Following requests for support from
various Cape Verdean groups, I set up a
small, informal company that organised
Cape Verdean concerts in Paris.

I met Cesaria Evora in 1987, at the musi-
cian and cultural promoter Bana's Monte
Cara restaurant in Lisbon, and in 1988 I
founded LUSAFRICA in Paris.

What difficulties didyou encounter in
promoting Cape Verdean music to the
European public?

In the beginning it was not easy. I star-
ted to promote Cesaria Evora at celebra-
tions and concerts, mostly amongst the
Diaspora in Paris and Rotterdam. But the
aim was to reach a public which did not
belong to the Cape Verdean Diaspora.
In 1989, Brazilian Lambada music was
becoming popular, and there was growing
interest in Cape Verde's slow dancing
music. We produced the albums La Diva
Aux Pieds Nus (1988) and MarAzul (1991),
which resembled the typical style of'Noite
Caboverdiana' (Capeverdean Night), the
latter selling 50,000 copies.

In 1992, we organised the first concert
for a non-Diaspora audience, at the
Angouleme Festival. Immediately after

this, Miss Perfumado, Cesaria's most
important album, was released, selling
400,000 copies in France and 800,000
copies internationally. That year was
a turning point, because I was able to
stop working for the railways and open a
LUSAFRICA office in Paris.

LUSAFRICA currently has offices in
Paris, Lisbon and Prague. What's the
secret ofyour success?

Today I work in 60 countries and my artists
have received important awards. I pro-
mote artists from Africa, Latin America
and the Caribbean and LUSAFRICA is
well known all over the world. In addi-
tion to our production and distribution
companies in Lisbon and Prague, we have
also founded the company Armonia, in
Cape Verde. But we never received public
funding for any ofthis work. Our success
is due to the public's passion for Cesaria
and our other artists.

Jos da Silva and Cesaria Evora 0 LUSAFRICA

N. 18 N.E. JULY AUGUST 2010


The Biennial Visual Arts

Festival 'Regard Bnin 1.0'

The inaugural edition of 'Regard Bnin' ('a look at Benin') opened on 8 June and will
run until 31 August 2010, in the Beninese cities of Cotonou, Porto-Novo, Abomey
and Ouidah. This is the first biennial festival of visual arts in Benin, and features
exhibitions and performances in various disciplines, including art, photography,
music and dance.

Sandra Federici

T he festival has been organi-
sed by the Benin Ministry
of Culture, in collaboration
with Culturesfrance and the
French Embassy in Benin, with the aim
of "affirming Benin as a place for the
promotion of artists at the national and
international levels". The desire to mark
50 years of independence in Africa has
also been an important factor behind the
promotion of the thriving arts scene in
Benin. The Zinsou Foundation (see The
Courier special issue on 'ACP Culture and
Development', June 2009), Espace Tchif
and the Laboratorio Association are just
a few of the many organizations partici-
pating in the festival. All events are free,
and artists' studios are open to the public.

The Zinsou Foundation has organised
several exhibitions, including 'Raconte-

moi l'indpendance', an historical exhi-
bition which aims to raise awareness
amongst young people in Benin of the
historic day of 1 August 1960 -when
independence was gained -through
the accounts of Beninese citizens, both
famous and unknown. The Foundation
has also organised an exhibition of two
photographers, Malick Sidib from
Burkina Faso and Baudouin Mouanda
from Congo Brazzaville, who belong to
different generations (the former is 74 and
the latter is 29 years old) and represent
the same subject from different historical
points ofview. The subject is the irresisti-
ble need ofAfrican youths to distinguish
themselves and to define a place for them-
selves in a strict and repressive society, in a
way which is often ironic and provocative.

The Laboratorio Association has orga-
nised 'Focus Zinkp', a retrospective of
the installations, drawings and paintings
ofthe famous Beninese artist Dominique
Zinkp, which will be on display at the

Abomey Museum until 30th August. The
exhibition includes the famous Zinkp
taxis, a typical means of transportation
which was imported from the West and
adapted to the economic and social sys-
tems present on the African continent.
Laboratorio also presented the work ofthe
Beninese artist Grard Qunum, who is
internationally renowned for his distinc-
tive style of sculpture which makes use of
recycled objects (mostly discarded dolls),
whose diverse origins contribute to the
overall significance ofthe pieces.

Another interesting initiative that forms
part of the varied programme of the
festival is the 'Footculture' initiative,
organised by Espace Tchif. This initia-
tive is dedicated to football and the 2010
World Cup in South Africa. The venue
has organised a range ofevents, including
concerts, an exhibition that explores soc-
cer through the eyes of artists, debates
between sports experts and, of course,
World Cup matches shown on big screens.

LINKPE, laxi Go Slow, 2UU2, Marseille. CZinkpe

Grard QUENUM, Formule 1, acrylique sur toile,
103 X 80 cm, photo by Andr Jolly



For young

Village integrated into the global economy

,ii A L--' 1 LISi
IT ALL..:^ IS TSuk
I1 EC1.;~'T.; T _CE .;' C IL TCiE ^ ^ ^H ^


Comic by Eric Andriantsalonina

N. 18 N.E. JULY AUGUST 2010

To Idriss Daoud (Senegal):

The Courierwould like to congratulate
Idriss Daoud and awards him with the
following certificate:

Certificate awarded to
Idriss DAOUD
for his innovative distribution
of The Couriermagazine

This certificate is awarded to Idriss
DAOUD in recognition of his innovative
activities in distributing The Courier, par-
ticularly at Senegal's 'Ecole Nationale
d'Economie Applique' (ENEA).

For the past two years, Idriss DAOUD has
distributed and made the magazine known
to fellow ENEA students, academic staff
and the institute's library. It shows his en-
deavourand commitment to disseminate
publications and ideas that he considers
useful for his community's development.

Brussels, 1 August 2010
Hegel Goutier,

BOZAR: 'Moloch Tropical' (Preview film),
Raoul Peck. In this sixth feature film by Hai-
tianfilm-maker, Raoul Peck, entirelyfilmed on
location in Haiti, Peck is inspired by his past as
his country's former Culture Minister, putting on
screen final days in power of Aristide as though
it were a Shakespearean drama.

BOZAR: Geo-graphics (see The Couriernl18); A
useful dream (African photography 1960-2010);

Words From Readers

Dear Sirs,

Once again, thank you to The Courier
magazine, which, as I have often said, is a
mobile :i .,. i an excellent source of reliable
and pertinent information in allfields.

[Issue 16] celebrates youth. We the young
people of the world, and ofAfrica in partic-
ular, welcome this very much. My message
is addressed ;,.. ... to young Africans
from all the continent's many countries
who face huge difficulties. I call upon these
young people, of whom I am one, to be
more determined than ever and to adopt the
thinking of the new and emerging Africa.
I ask them to believe in themselves and to
stop thinking that without aid we are lost.
To make an effort to silence the divisions of
all kinds (ethnic, racial, etc.), to commit
themselves to the common cause, that of a
united and emerging Africa. Yes we can!
On the sole and unique condition that we
are committed to it, that we believe in it,
and that we work for it. In short, that we

ourselves resolve to think li, i.- to act
U: 1. i.-. to behave Ui,. ii. than we
do at present. Long live Africa. Long live
African Youth!

Babacar Ndione (Rufisque, Senegal)

This picture of St Therese of Lisieux
also known as Patroness ofthe Missions
was kindly
sent by one of
our readers who
liked the article
on St Therese
in the report
onNormandy in
issue no. 17. St
Therese died of
TB in 1897 at the
age of 24.




Publication of Eurobarometer on
'Europeans and MDGs'

20 22/09
UN MDG Review High Level Event
New York City, USA
., 1i ,- *. *. . ... . . r 1 . .. : .. l::: l)10

27 -30/09
3rd meeting of ACP Ministers in
charge of Asylum, Migration and
Brussels, Belgium

27 -30/09
2nd Intra-ACP Migration Facility
Technical Workshop

Brussels, Belgium

27 30/09
21st Session of the ACP
Parliamentary Assembly and 21st
Session of the JPA
Brussels, Belgium

28/09 -02/10
SADC (Southern African
Development Community)
Week 2010
Procession of the Manneken Pis
in Southern African costume (Grand
Place, Brussels)
Cultural exhibition and performances
(University VUB / Brussels) /
Investment and tourism Seminar
Sport and fun (Esjeeweelokaal /

Brussels, Belgium

November 2010
Publication of Eurobarometer
on 'Europeans and Africa'

29 -30/11
EU-Africa Summit
Tripoli, Libya

European Development Days
Brussels, Belgium
.,.i"" ". ". , ,i ,


Festival 'Visionary Africa' / Brussels 26.06 > 30.09.2010

Roger Ballen (photo); Pze III/African Town (photo)
Royal Museum for Central Africa : Bonjour
Congo in Belgium ; Kinshasa-Brussels, from
Matonge to Matonge

BOZAR: Germaine Acogny, 'SongookYaakaar'

Literature & Music
BOZAR: Closing event: 'African authors' & Did-
ierAwadi (latest record -'Presidents d'Afrique')

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