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Table of Contents
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    Back Matter
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    Back Cover
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Full Text

N. 16 N.E. MARCH APRIL 2010

Su o u r ie r and.relation
The bimonthly magazine of Africa Caribbean Pacific & European Union cooperation and relations

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Yourn pusning development

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Editorial Board
Mohamed Ibn Chambas, Secretary General
Secretariat of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States

Stefano Manservisi, Director General of DG Development
European Commission

Core staff
Hegel Goutier

Marie-Martine Buckens (Deputy Editor-in-chief)
Debra Percival

Editorial Assistant
Okechukwu Romano Umelo

Production Assistant
Telm Borras

Contributed in this issue
Elisabetta Degli Esposti Merli, Sandra Federici, Catherine Haenlein, Francis Kokutse,
Laufaleaina Lesa, Souleymane Maadou, Joshua Massarenti, Anne-Marie Mouradian,
Andrea Marchesini Reggiani, Alfred Sayila, Francesca Theosmy, Charles Visser

Project Manager
Gerda Van Biervliet

Artistic Coordination, Graphic Conception
Gregorie Desmons

Graphic Conception
Ldic Gaume

Viva Xpress Logistics ww.vxlnet.be

Photo Agency
Reporters ww.reporters.be

Play Soccer programme in Alexandra Township,
Johannesburg, South Africa. Xavier Rouchaud

The Courier
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Belgium (EU)
www.acp eucourier.info
Tel : +32 2 2345061
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Published every two months in English, French, Spanish and Portuguese

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Go to our website www.acp-eucourier.info or contact info@acp-eucourier.info
Visit our website!
Publisher responsible You will find all articles in this
Hegel Yu will find all articles in this
edition, the latest ACP-EU
Consortium news and details on our photo
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The views expressed are those of the authors and do not represent the official view of the EC nor of
the ACP countries.

The consortium and the editorial staff decline all responsibility for the articles written by external

Development policy:

a tale of links and paradoxes

S een from the outside, the
European Union often appears
to be a perfect example of a
group of countries which has
managed to transcend the atavistic
weight of history and to bring to fruition
a very special revolution, that of creat-
ing a powerful union without recourse
to coercion. It is this Europe which, in
the face of worrying political threats
thrown up by the conflict between the
strengthening of its institutions and
the private interests of each Member
State, is at present enacting one of its
most important achievements, namely
the creation of a functioning common
foreign policy.

In this issue we provide a profile of
one of the main architects of this new
initiative, Catherine Ashton, the EU's
High Representative for Foreign Affairs
and Security Policy, as well as outlining
some of the possible pitfalls which lie
in her path. Among the most pressing
of these is the nomination of ambas-
sadors to almost 130 EU delegations, a
task which will no longer be performed
solely by the European Commission,
but also by the governments of Member
States and the EU Council Secretariat.
Large doses of tact and diplomacy will
be required to reconcile the interests
of the whole with those of its different

The special feature in this issue focuses
on youth today, and the article in our
'To the Point' rubric gives the views
of one of the youngest members of
the European Parliament, Karima Delli
from France, who is not only a young
woman but also one whose origins are
in the global South. With one foot in
the social pressure groups in which she
began and the other within the institu-
tions, she emphasises what she feels she
personally is best placed to create: links.
Delli underlines the paradox which
exists between the high rate of voter
apathy regarding the European elec-
tions among young people, who often
feel they are outside the system because
of their precarious economic situation,
and on the other hand the fact that
they feel a natural identification with
Europe, having been born 'within' it.

We also learn in this issue about the
depth of despair among young people

of many developing countries, and how
at the same time it is precisely they who
show some of the greatest ingenuity
in creating jobs for themselves, above
all in the pioneering field of new tech-
nologies. As far as the young people
of Haiti are concerned, however, the
earthquake has destroyed their dreams.
The International Donors' Conference
"Towards a new future for Haiti" was
to take place on the 31 March, and Ms.
Ashton and European Commissioner
Piebalgs, both in attendance, were cer-
tainly not intending to turn up empty-
handed. The EU has set up an impres-
sive policy structure for Haiti, the
result perhaps of the new foreign policy
instruments which it now possesses.
There is, nevertheless, another nation
that now has a Haitian policy to be reck-
oned with, the Dominican Republic. In
a highly significant shift in the tectonic
plates of global politics, it is celebrating
its reconciliation with its neighbour by
giving generously.

The completion of the process of con-
struction of the two greatest peaceful
revolutions of the 20th century, that of
the European Union and that of South
Africa, seems too to be shifting into a
higher gear at an unexpected time. The
coming into force of the Lisbon Treaty
has taken place at the end of a period of
great gloom for the European integration
project, and it was accompanied by the
arrival in power of Jacob Zuma in South
Africa, which was feared by some to
presage the triumph of certain hardline
attitudes. However, the reverse appears to
have been the case. This is at least what
the report on the country contained in
this issue seems to indicate. The new
government has placed a great deal of
emphasis on providing an outlet for dis-
sent, and the president has pledged his
support for a collective model by allowing
his colleagues in the government plenty
of room for manoeuvre. These changes
appear to corroborate the existence of
a 'social laboratory' in South Africa, as
well as a number of other 'laboratories' in
which creative thinking plays an impor-
tant role, in spite of the open wounds that
doubtless remain in South Africa and the
disillusionment which is often voiced by
the media.

Hegel Goutier
Editor in chief

N. 16 N.E. MARCH APRIL 2010

Table of Contents




Mabousso Thiam, Director of the Centre
for the Development of Enterprise

Catherine Ashton, High Representative of the EU
for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy


Karima Delli, young activist and member of the European Parliament




Should youth move up the development agenda?

A future at the end of a lens
Destroyed dreams in Haiti
Former child soldiers: The strength to survive
Tavalea Nilon, current 'Miss Samoa': A beautiful mind
The world in your hands
Creating one's own sesame


Amnesty International: "Health is a fundamental right"
Civil society in Haiti:
To the heart of solutions, with the barest minimum of resources


Lake Tanganyika: a hub for trade


Tyrol (Austria)

The Austrian Tyrol: Right in the centre, yet completely separate
One of Europe's more stable economies:
Interview with Eugen Sprenger, Acting Mayor of Innsbruck
'South Wind' and 'Light for the World' fight aid cutbacks
Innsbruck: where the shadows shine more than the light
Tyrol's Soul
Tyroleans of African origin: the 'white wolves'


'SAN' or the universal man by Vincent Mantsoe






P. 16-17

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New moves to stamp out the ivory trade 36
No tuna fishing ban just yet 37


Cotonou revision rises to MDG challenge 38
EU action on Gender Equality and Women's Empowerment 39
What next for ACP trade? 40
Haiti and the Dominican Republic: a time for reconciliation 41 -"
Belgium backs small business in Africa 42
New EU impetus for MDGs 42 k sm
New ACP Water Facility launched 43
The Success of Capacity4dev.eu 43


South Africa

South Africa: An extraordinary laboratory 44
From the Khoisan to the Rainbow Nation 45
South Africa is of strategic importance to Europe:
Interview with Lodewijk Briet, EU Ambassador to South Africa 47
A democracy that is opening up to the opposition 49
Opposition politics in South Africa are changing slowly but surely 50 f.44-45

Future soccer champions are train in Alexandra 52
The 'Black Diamonds' 53
From dust to gold 54
HIV/AIDS: Responsible cooperation 55
Rehabilitating rural areas 57
Climate negotiations move south 58 g


Marie Ndiaye: A powerful woman 59
The Khatarsis Project in Cape Verde 60
Africa pret-a-porter 61
HIFA 2010: Harare International Fine Art 62
Focus on African Comics at the Quai Branly Museum 62


Competition for young ACP photographers 63


N. 16 N.E. MARCH APRIL 2010

Mabousso Thiam
Director of the Centre for the Development of Enterprise

A strong link between

EU and ACP companies

Hegel Goutier

enterprise, endorsed
the signing ceremony.

M abousso Thiam
was appointed
Director of
the Centre
for the Development of
Enterprise (CDE*) in
March 2009. In less than
a year, he has left his mark
on this organisation which
promotes private sector
cooperation between the
European Union and the
group of African, Caribbean
and Pacific countries.

The signing, on 2 February
2010, of the ATHENA
convention -a financial
instrument for the financing
of very small companies in
ACP countries on which
an agreement between
the CDE and the Belgian
Investment Company for
Developing Countries
(BIO) is based -epitomises
Thiam's dynamism. The
Belgian Minister for
Cooperation, Charles
Michel, who sees BIO as
the Belgian government's
most powerful tool in
development cooperation for

BIO is a joint venture
between the Belgian
government and private
companies which invest in
companies in developing
countries, in particular
in Africa where the
organisation has partners
in 16 priority countries.
In total, BIO is present in
more than 100 countries,
23 of which are prioritised.
Mabousso Thiam put a
great deal of effort into the
conclusion of ATHENA,
which will benefit a specific
type of ACP company
those which are too small
to attract major foreign
investment and too big to
receive microfinance.

An impressive track

A lawyer and economist,
he trained in his native
Senegal at the faculty of
law in Dakar and at the
International Institute of
Banking and Economics
in Cyprus. Thiam began
his career in Paris in an

international company
trading in seafood products.
He left after a year in 1980
to join the Central Bank
of West African States
(BCEAO) working in its
various departments over
eight years, including
public relations, regulations
and the inspection of
commercial banks before
tackling the restructuring of
the region's entire banking

After leaving the public
sector, Thiam spent ten
years as the head of various
successful food companies
in Senegal, while at the
same time carrying out
studies for private and
public sector projects,
holding negotiations
with funding providers,
organising the recruitment
of personnel and focusing
on management tools in his
consultancy business.

From 1997, he began
a 10-year period of
international consultancy.
As head of his company,
Assistance et conseils aux
Entreprises, he carried out

mandates for numerous
major clients including the
World Bank, USAID and
governments, notably those
of France and Canada,
in a wide range of fields,
but generally linked to the
private sector. The last
project he managed before
becoming Director of CDE
on 3 March 2009 was a
Senegalese government
initiative backed by the
World Bank to support
the private sector. His
impressive career path then
led him to the CDE.

* www.cde.int;


Baroness Catherine Ashton. EC

Catherine Ashton
High Representative of the EU for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy

Drawing on reserves

of diplomacy

Debra Percival

is the first in
the post of High
of the European Union
for Foreign Affairs and
Security Policy. As a result,
more column inches have
been written about her
to date than any other of
the Commissioners in the
European Commission's
Barosso II cabinet (2010-

This Spring her task is to
draw up the blueprint of
the EU's new European
External Action Service
(EEAS) to give EU foreign
policy more of a single

"We are connected in
ways we have never been
before. Technologies,
ideas, diseases, money ...
everything moves. At the
heart of everything lies a
simple truth: to protect our
interests and promote our
values we must be engaged
abroad", she told Members
of the European Parliament

(MEPs) in Strasbourg on 10


In setting up the new
service, she will draw
on the quiet diplomacy
that earned her a lot of
respect whilst formerly
EU Trade Commissioner,
a position she took over
from Peter Mandelson in
2008. Interviewed by The
Courier in Samoa last year,
Joachim Keil, the Pacific's
trade negotiator, explained
how she put talks between
the EU and the region on
an Economic Partnership
Agreement back on track.
"At the end of 2007, there
was a bad feeling -nobody
wanted to talk to each other
for about a year", he said.
But Catherine Ashton "...
understood where we were
coming from".
A British citizen, Catherine
Ashton was born in the
town of Upholland in
Lancashire from where she
draws the title of Baroness
Ashton of Upholland.
She variously held posts
in the public, private and
voluntary sectors in the

UK chairing the Health
Authority in Hertfordshire
from 1998 to 2001 and was
also Vice President of the
National Council for One
Parent Families. She held
ministerial positions in the
British Government in both
Justice and Education and
was leader of the House of
But in the first few months
as the new EU's foreign
policy 'supremo', she has
faced a headwind in raising
the sail of the EEAS whose
organisation chart was
due to be approved by EU
Ministers in April 2010.


Signs of sparring are already
emerging on the one hand
between EU member states
and on the other, between
member states and the EU
Commission as names are
drawn up to fill the posts
of Ambassador in up to 130
EU delegations around the
globe. Presently, they are
mostly filled by European
Commission career staff
of various nationalities
but shifts are likely as
EU capitals seek to place

their own nationals in
the EU delegations. The
Ambassadors will both
administer EU programmes
and apply the policies of the
foreign policy head. The
plan is that one third of
delegations will be staffed by
Commission personnel, one
third by Council Secretariat
staff and one third by EU
member State nationals.

Another work in progress
is how Baroness Ashton
will share her duties with
fellow Commissioners
for Development, Andris
Piebalgs, in charge of
African, Caribbean and
Pacific (ACP) states and
Kristina Georgieva who
deals with International
Cooperation and
Humanitarian Assistance.
Baroness Ashton was
mandated by EU Ministers
on 22 March to represent
the EU at the 'International
Donors' Conference
Towards a New Future for
Haiti' in New York on 31
March where she was to
announce an EU three year
lbn plus pledge for Haiti
over the next three years.

N. 16 N.E. MARCH APRIL 2010

European Parliament Audiovisual Unit

Karima Delli,

young activist and member of

the European Parliament

Born in 1979 in Roubaix, France, to
Algerian immigrant parents, Karima
Delli caused a stir in 2009 when
she was elected as a Member of the
European Parliament (MEP) on Daniel
Cohn Bendit and Eva Joly's Europe-
Ecologie list.

Anne-Marie Mouradian

A former political science stu-
dent, former general secretary
of the Jeunes Verts (Young
Greens), cofounder of com-
munity groups, this activist has stood
out because of her determination and
activism in the fight against social
exclusion. One of the youngest mem-
bers of the European Parliament,

she has expressed her desire to keep
"one foot in the social movements,
one foot in the institutions". Karima
Delli builds bridges to advance demo-
cratic solidarity and has been stirring
things up from the inside for the last
10 months in the Employment and
Regional Development committees.
"I'm not coming to Parliament to build
a career but rather I am on a mission",
she explained. "I have 5 years to get
there. I am working flat out and with a
smile because smiles create hope."


The Courier Is it possible to recon-
cile your life as an activist with your
role as an MEP?

Yes, because it's essential. Everything
that I take to European level comes
from my work as an activist and I want
to bring the social movement to the
European Parliament. Europe has 80
million poor people. This year (2010)
has been declared European Year for
combating poverty and social exclusion
and we must use this opportunity to
make things happen. I was appointed
as coordinator on this issue by the
Verts/Alliance libre europeenne Group.
We're working so that within compa-
nies, employees can make their voices
heard regarding remuneration policies.
We demand equal pay for men and
women, the end of tax havens, the
taxing of bonuses.. The Employment
Commission has recently adopted two
reports which make significant progress
on these points.

I am also vice-president of the URBAN
InterGroup which is responsible for
urban policy. I am fighting to make
the housing problem a priority with
special emphasis on issues related to
energy poverty. An increasing number
of households in Europe are no longer
able to pay not only their rent, but their
heating costs as a result of the buildings
being poorly insulated.

We want to involve citizens in our
debates, especially those from working-
class neighbourhoods. I took a del-
egation of MEPs from the Regional
Development Committee out in the
field with me, in the Ile-de-France area,
to get them out of their Brussels bub-
ble for a while and give them a dose of

Young people are very concerned
about these issues. And after all it is
the young who will build the Europe
of tomorrow...

In the last European elections, the over-
all abstention rate in France was 57 per
cent, reaching 80 per cent among the
18-34 age group! Yet young people have
a natural relationship with Europe, they
are born 'inside' of it, so to speak. But
they see no need to vote because Europe
does not provide answers to their prob-
lems, namely unemployment, insecurity,
shortage of housing, skyrocketing rental
prices. Young people have no social wel-
fare system, but one in five young people
in Europe live below the poverty line!
Even those who have a very high level
of education have to supplement their
income with part-time work.

There should be a European minimum
income which should be extended to
students and apprentices, to create a

France, Nantes, students demonstrate against the CPE (first employment contract). a Reporters

European student status and to promote
greater mobility. Erasmus is a great
programme but it should be extended
to all young people whatever their social
status. Nobody can live on the 400 per
month provided by Erasmus if they are
not helped by their parents.

How exactly can we "reconcile the
young with Europe"?

There is a lot of educational work to do.
I am a member of the Youth Parliament
InterGroup. I get visits from young peo-
ple from impoverished neighbourhoods
and I explain to them what exactly
Europe is.

It is time to renew the policy. The unions
are now attracting fewer members than
before. It is up to young people to
come up with new ways to engage peo-
ple. Young people were present at the
Copenhagen summit on climate change.
They create action groups such as the
'Precarious Generation' and 'Save the
Rich' groups in France... Other groups
exist in different Member States and
together they constitute a European
youth network.

Instead of coming up with solutions for
young people, decision-makers should
come up with them through collabora-
tion with young people, using real situ-
ations which they have experienced as
a basis.

In March, the Greens participated in
a European meeting in Barcelona with
representatives of youth organisations to
discuss access to employment, the risks
of exclusion and insecurity. The find-
ings will be included in an upcoming
parliamentary report. We must move
forward one step at a time, using all
instruments at our disposal in the EU.

You have also been named as a
spokesperson for the European Year
of Volunteering in 2011.

Yes, the proceedings have now been
finalised. Volunteering allows young
people to spend six months of their
life undertaking community work. It
functions as a tool to encourage them
to rediscover Europe and promote a
social solidarity economy. It shouldn't
however be confused with voluntary
work. The volunteers taking part in this
programme should be remunerated and
recognised as skilled professionals.

As a member of the parliamentary
delegation responsible for relations
with India you are working for soli-
darity with the South

I worked with the landless farmers'
movement, a popular, non-violent move-
ment, inspired by Gandhi, created by
Rajagopal. Thousands of Indian farmers
commit suicide every year because they
can no longer support their families, vic-
tims of multinationals like Monsanto. In
2006, 25,000 landless farmers marched
on Delhi to assert their rights. An inter-
national platform has been created and
is preparing for a march in 2012. I will
take part in it.

We often only see India in the context
of an 'emerging economy'. But there is
a lot of poverty. In February, I led the
delegation of the European Parliament
in Bhopal. Twenty-five years after the
disaster, the site of the Union Carbide
factory has still not been decontaminat-
ed; farmers live within 100 metres of it,
their goats effectively grazing on asbes-
tos. It is unbearable. We have submitted
a resolution to the European Parliament
to encourage the decontamination of
the area. This is a very serious issue.

N. 16 N.E. MARCH APRIL 2010

IT th Int

Development cooperation is in crisis.
Effectiveness, empowerment by
recipient states and new synergies are
all challenges to which development
actors must respond. Who will take
the lead in pursuing a new policy?
A seminar organised by Belgian
Technical Cooperation (BTC) on 25
January 2010 and attended by senior
European Commission officials and
cooperation agencies from Denmark,
the United Kingdom and Germany
sought to provide some answers.

Marie-Martine Buckens

Aid' by the Zambian Dambisa
Moyo sought to highlight
the problem, one that the
global crisis has also placed in the
spotlight. But a number of deadlines
are now approaching: the UN Summit
that in September will evaluate progress
made in achieving the Millennium
Development Goals (MDGs) and, in

2011, the fourth High Level Forum on
Aid Effectiveness in Seoul.

Paradoxical policies

"We must respond to sometimes con-
tradictory actions and expectations",
Marcus Leroy, Belgian minister coun-
sellor and special MDGs coordina-
tor explained, by way of introduction.
"The very notion of development is
such that it is linked to the notion of
progress. But what is progress? If the
ultimate goal is to offer better qual-
ity of life, then the question of how to
quantify it becomes an essential one, as
an evaluation must refer to indicators".
Playing devil's advocate, Leroy contin-
ues: "There is also a huge paradox: we
know that aid is most effective where it
is least necessary and vice versa, which
puts us in an uncomfortable position.
However, it is generally accepted that
action is better than inaction. We act,
giving ourselves the impression that
we are in control. But it is an illusion
to think that the results are necessarily
the fruit of our actions".


"Until recently, input was the refer-
ence", stressed Koos Richelle, Director
General of EuropeAid at the European
Commission. "The last reference was
the famous 0.7 per cent of GNI, the
public development aid target that each
country was to meet. Today, we have


to build a convincing case that coop-
eration is still useful. You have to pro-
duce results; Parliament and taxpayers
demand them. The difficulty is that
there is no uniform system for quan-
tifying results. On this point we are

"In the past", continued Mr. Rochelle,
"aid was conditional. Today we speak
of empowerment. We have to convince
populations to adopt our ideas: 'we do
this, you do that.' This more profession-
al approach is a good thing. It encour-
ages NGOs to review their policies from
a more economic, more technical angle.
It also encourages the recipient to be
more responsible".

So are people being sufficiently pre-
pared? "Technical assistance -increas-
ingly censured -must be constantly
called into question. The question of
management becomes central now that
aid is increasingly taking the form of
budgetary support. And that is some-
thing we can no longer do alone.
Coordination between aid organisations
is becoming central. So too is training,
as demonstrated by the Train4dev pro-

* Train4dev is a network of more than 25 devel-
opment agencies and multilateral organisations.
Its aim is to promote effective aid through
training -including for local personnel -and
the exchange of competencies. Info: www.train-


Ron ,-u

Europe must shake off its comfortable habits

EU development policy must break out of
the restricted framework into which it has
been put, and become an integral part of
the international cooperation policy re-
established by the Lisbon Treaty, say four
leading European think-tanks. In a memo-
randum presented to the new European
Commission in February, ECDPM, ODI,
DIE and FRIDE urged it to demonstrate
new leadership in the effort to determine
how development cooperation can help
tackle common global issues.

Paul Engel, Director of ECDPM, said:
"Just two years ago, development coop-
eration could still be seen as a policy area
of its own, responding to the clear-cut de-

velopment objectives embodied in the Mil-
lennium Development Goals.....a world in
crisis has shaped an international coop-
eration agenda that has diversified almost
overnight. If Europe wants to increase its
global impact, it needs to shake off its
comfortable habits and provide evidence
of leadership in support of international
cooperation which fosters sustainable de-

In their memorandum, the four think-tanks
call upon the EU to "make fuller use of its
considerable resources and the shared
values enshrined in the Lisbon Treaty to
lead a new engagement". While calling
for a 20bn shortfall in development fund-

ing to be made up, this report underlines
that aid in itself is not enough. Policies on
trade, climate change, security and migra-
tion must all take into account the impera-
tive of the fight against global poverty.

* The report, "New Challenges, New Begin-
nings" (www.ecdpm.org/eumemo), is the re-
sult of collaboration between four European
think-tanks on international development: the
Overseas Development Institute (ODI) from the
UK, Deutsches Institut fir Entwicklungspolitik
(DIE), the Madrid-based Fundaci6n para las
Relaciones Internacionales y el Dialogo Exte-
rior (FRIDE) and the European Centre for De-
velopment Policy Management (ECDPM) in the

Off target: EU

member states'

aid spending

Debra Percival

European Union (EU) mem-
ber states are not on track to
reach the target of an average
0.51 per cent of Gross National
Income (GNI) to be spent on Official
Development Assistance (ODA) by 2010,
says a new review of the Paris-based
Organisation of Economic Cooperation
and Development (OECD). The target
was set in 2005 by 15 EU member states
as an interim benchmark to reaching
0.7 per cent of GNI spending on ODA
by 2015.*

The OECD review names EU member
states whose ODA spending lags behind
the 2010 target. They are: France (0.46
per cent); Germany (0.40 per cent);
Austria (0.37 per cent); Portugal (0.34
per cent); Greece (0.21 per cent) and
Italy (0.20 per cent).

EU member states who are on track
to fulfil 2010 ODA pledges made in
2005 are: Sweden, which ranks as world
number one in terms of percentage
of GNI spent on ODA (1.3 per cent);
Luxembourg (1 per cent); Denmark
(0.83 per cent); The Netherlands (0.8
per cent); Belgium (0.7 per cent); the
UK (0.56 per cent); Finland (0.55 per
cent); Ireland (0.52 per cent) and Spain
(0.51 per cent).


CONCORD, the European NGO
Confederation for Relief and
Development, fears that the Millennium
Development Goals (MDG) for 2015,
which include wiping out hunger and
extreme poverty, are now severely com-
promised by the failure of some mem-
ber states to fulfil respective pledges
and recommends the EU draw up new
interim financing benchmarks.

"EU aid is under threat. Many govern-
ments have used the financial crisis as an
excuse to slash their aid budgets, cutting
off those in the developing world who
are most affected", says CONCORD
Board Member, Rilli Lappalainen.

On a more positive note, overall inter-
national aid to developing countries will
reach record levels in dollar terms in
2010, having increased 35 per cent since
2004, or an additional $27bn of aid 2004-
2010, but this is $21bn short of the total
pledge made in 2005 at the Gleneagles
and Millennium +5 summits.

* Different targets of 0.17 per cent of GNI to be
spent on ODA by 2010 rising to 0.33 per cent by
2015 apply to EU newcomers.
policy-proposalsen.cfm development/services/dev-policy-proposals
en.cfm (European Commission MDG plan)

N. 16 N.E. MARCH APRIL 2010


)Pov/Lai Momo

Africa's baby boom

Of all developing countries, it is those in Africa that are set to see the most
dramatic demographic growth over the next 40 years. But how can this
increase be managed to ensure it does not translate into even greater pover-
ty? Avenues were explored at a meeting in Brussels on 27 January organised
by the European Commission, the ACP Secretariat, the Technical Centre for
Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA) and development NGOs.

Marie-Martine Buckens

in 2009, by 2050 Africa is
expected to have exceeded
the 2 billion mark, rising to
4 billion in 2100. Figures that nonethe-
less need to be put in perspective, when
you consider that Africa today is four
times less densely populated than Europe
(which has 30 inhabitants per km2), albe-
it with some notable exceptions, such
as Nigeria (155 inhabitants per km2).
Over the coming decades Africa will be
the only continent to record a birth rate
above the average of 2.1 children per
woman that ensures population renewal.
The other distinctive feature is that this
is an essentially young population, but
one facing formidable challenges with
wars and epidemics encumbering fragile
agricultural economies.

The central role of women

For participants at the Brussels confer-
ence, managing demographic growth
was seen as necessarily a matter of
better control of fertility rates (record
rates in Niger and Ethiopia). "The best
solution," explained Wolfgang Lutz
of the IIASA (International Institute
for Applied Systems Analysis), "seems
to involve educating women". This is
most clearly the message of a study
carried out in Ethiopia showing that
women without formal education have
on average six children, while those
who have completed at least lower sec-
ondary education have an average of
just two. "The human capital -popula-
tion x education x health -that forms
the basis of nearly all development
must be at the centre of all efforts for
international development", concluded
Mr Lutz.

"Emptying" Europe
"The population increase was the
key to Europe's rise to eminence be-
tween the 10th and 13th centuries.
Conversely, periods of decline or
turning inwards correspond to pe-
riods of population declines. What
food for thought! But also cause for
concern! Europe today is an empty
world surrounded by full worlds,
as in the past Europe itself was a
world of overabundance dominating
a world that was empty. Questions
about the future of our continent are
inextricably linked to questions re-
garding its demography", notes the
historian Rend Remond.

In 2009, the world population
reached 6.8 billion. Despite a slow-
down in the rate of increase, the UN
expects this figure to increase from
6.8 to 9.1 billion in 2050. This growth
in world population will be almost
exclusively in developing countries.
The ageing population in developed
countries is due to the falling fertil-
ity rate coupled with a considerable
increase in life expectancy. Ageing
societies represent about 70 per
cent of the world's GDP.


Ahead of the Shanghai Expo 2010, China (1 May to 31 -October 2010), a show-
case for all the globe's nations, notably those of the African continent (see box),
we ask Professor lan Taylor, an expert on China-Africa relations at the University
of St. Andrews, Scotland* whether Europe has any lessons to learn from China's
expanding ties with Africa.

Billboard promoting the African continent at the China-Africa
Summit meeting, November 3-5, 2006. ReportersAP

Debra Percival

a typical agreement
between China and an
African nation?

Economic agreements (minerals are
the big ones) are usually negotiated by
the Chinese company with the author-
ity in Africa. In some cases, there are
indications that Chinese companies
get an advantage through political sup-
port of the government. Infrastructure
projects, for example, may be offered
up alongside a particular deal where
the Chinese company may potentially
be granted a [minerals] contract. But
this has also been overplayed in the
[Western] media.

Where is China most present in the
African continent?

If you look at China's top 10 trading
partners in the African continent, with
the exception of South Africa (whose
trade with China is more of a general

nature), they are either mineral or oil
producers: Equatorial Guinea, Congo-
Brazzaville, Angola and Sudan.

Do you have a ball park figure for
China's trade with Africa?

China's bilateral trade with Africa rose
from $US5bn in 1997 and last year was
$US106.8bn, an increase of 45 per cent
on the previous year.

So Africa-China economic relations
have not been affected by the eco-
nomic crisis?

When the recession kicked in, every-
body said the Chinese are going to leave
Africa but they actually haven't and
have in fact stepped up a gear. Africa is
extremely important to China because
the Chinese government's legitimacy
nowadays is only based on econom-
ic growth, not ideology. A lot of this
depends on inputs, particularly oil and
other minerals, to propel the economy.
One of the problems is that the relation-
ship is the same type that Africa has had
with Europe or the US; it is neo-colonial
in the sense that China imports raw

commodities like minerals and Africa
imports manufactured goods.

Another criticism levelled at China
is that unlike EU cooperation, its
policy is not very principled, lack-
ing both a human rights and poverty
eradication focus

The Chinese position is simply that
development comes first ahead of indi-
vidual human rights. The Chinese
authorities would argue that in provid-
ing infrastructure, you lay the ground-
work for development. The human
rights issue is one of the big weaknesses
in China's policy towards Africa. They
argue that human rights is about devel-
opment but in many African countries
like Sudan and Zimbabwe, the gov-
ernments themselves have undermined
the development of their own people,
so the Chinese position is not coher-
ent because they argue that they are
involved in development but they are
also involved with some authorities with
anti-development policies. China does,
however, have a different approach to
human rights to the West and this has
to be understood.

N. 16 N.E. MARCH APRIL 2010

The U.K. pavilion made up of thousands of slender transparent rods.
The Chinese Pavilion revealed at a ceremony finalising construction
at the Shanghai World Expo site. Reporters/AP

Do you view China's presence in
Africa as positive or negative?

Overall, it's positive. They are laying
the ground for infrastructure projects.
They have pushed up mineral prices
and of course this can reinforce Africa's
dependency on primary commodities
but that's not China's problem; it's
Africa's problem. There are negatives,
but I think that every country whether
we are talking about the EU or the US
has got negative aspects to its policies.

"Policymakers in Europe are
going to have to get used to the
idea that Africa is no longer their
exclusive sphere of influence
and that there are new actors"

And the negatives of China's pres-
ence in Africa?

It varies from country-to-country; space
is potentially opened up for autocrats
to find a new source of political sup-
port which frees them from having to
fulfil government conditionalities. But
the Chinese presence has re-focussed
the minds of Western policymakers on
Africa. The continent is emerging as the
big issue in international relations. In
Europe, we are so used to Africa being
in our backyards and in our sphere of
influence, but perhaps the rise of China
and others in Africa like India, Brazil,
Turkey and Israel is good for Africa as it
re-focuses on the continent and makes
us [in the West] re-think our policies.

Does the EU have anything to learn
from the way that China conducts its
policy to Africa?

The Chinese would say that they have
been responsive to the African gov-
ernments' requirements on infrastruc-
ture, whereas the Europeans have been
more focussed on things that come after
development like individual human

rights. The main handicap for the EU is
that it is just not united when it comes to
policy. There are EU policy documents
on Africa but what actually happens on
the ground is that France does this and
the UK does that. This undermines the
coherence of a European policy.

Is there scope for EU-China-Africa
triangular relations?

A lot of ink has been spilt on the con-
cept of tripartite talks between the
three actors, but I don't see the other
two buying into it. It is very much

ACPs in Shanghai
Fifty-three African nations, 42 of
which will share a pavilion with the
African Union (AU), are expected at
the Shanghai Expo2010. The Carib-
bean community's pavilion features
a Haitian hall with an exhibition of its
capital Port-au-Prince before and
post-earthquake to draw attention
to the country's reconstruction. The
joint pavilion of 14 Pacific Ocean
nations will promote the region as
a tourism heaven; 'Pacific Ocean -
Spring of Inspiration'.

European driven. Policymakers in
Europe are going to have to get used to
the idea that Africa is no longer their
exclusive sphere of influence and that
there are new actors. China is the first
one but there are others: India, Brazil,
Malaysia, and particularly in the past
two years, Iran.

Where are relations heading?

Trade will keep on growing but the
danger is that it is not sustainable as it
is based on minerals and there is no real
evidence of industrialisation in Africa as
part of this relationship. This has been
the case in Africa since independence.
There is a danger that China will rein-
force what the West has been doing for
the last forty years or so. But as long as
the Chinese economy continues to grow
and needs inputs and as long as Africa
has them, I think this relationship will
carry on.

*Professor Taylor's latest publication is: 'China's
New Role in Africa' published by Boulder, CO:
Lynne Rienner, 2010. A new book on Africa's
international relations is out in April 2010
and a book on the Forum on China-Africa
Cooperation will be coming out later this year.

He is also Joint Professor at China's Renmin
University, Honorary Professor at Zhejiang
Normal University, China and Extraordinary
Professor at the University of Stellenbosch,
South Africa



Should youth move

up the development


Debra Percival

Development Goal on Youth,

T here is no specific Millennium
but all the MDGs from
the eradication of poverty
(MDG1) to a global partnership for
development (MDG 8) have relevance
to the 15-30 age bracket.

Over the last two decades there have
been many international and regional
initiatives to move youth further up
the development agenda including the
European-African Youth Summit of
2007. This year, the Mexican govern-
ment will add to those in hosting a
global youth summit in Mexico City,
August 24-27.

It will set out priorities for youth targets
beyond the MDG agenda which will
be submitted to the United Nations
General Assembly. Governments, civil
society, academic institutions, public
and private foundations and interna-
tional organisations will all have a voice
at the event. Young people today are
more numerous, better educated and
enjoy better health than previous gen-

erations and have fewer children than
predecessors. The right policies could
boost economic growth and increase
savings, reads a concept note for the

The European Union does not have a
'youth for development policy' as such
but EU officials explain that "youth
empowerment" runs through its poli-
cies for African, Caribbean and Pacific
(ACP) nations. Funding under the
European Development Fund (EDF)
for ACP countries goes from budget
support for education and the building
of colleges to small projects such as
'Silence is Violence' in Botswana which
is run by the non governmental organi-
sation, Women against Rape, and is
educating young people on why cases of
harassment, assault and rape occur.

'Youth in Action'

The f885M 'Youth in Action Program-
me' run by the European Commission's
Directorate for Education (2007-2013)
funds intercultural exchanges, volun-
tary projects and non-formal education
activities across Europe, but also brings
together European youth organisations
with counterparts in ACP countries.

Projects which include ACP youth
range from the holding of a Youth
Parliament, in Montevideo, Uruguay,
July 5-11 2010, an initiative of the
Goethe Institute, Uruguay, to a project
for better inclusion of young people
with intellectual disability into society
through sport. Young people in Nigeria,
Botswana, Rwanda, Tanzania, Kenya,
Malawi, South Africa and Uganda are
involved in this project.*

As the aid budgets of some EU mem-
ber states wane, a recent EU staff
paper, "More and Better Education
in Developing Countries' firmly puts
across the message that education has
a "...pivotal role to play in enabling
long-term growth and improvements
in productivity, eradication of poverty,
improving health status, empowering
women, reducing inequality and con-
tributing to state building".

Away from the wrangles of how aid is
spent -education or elsewhere -in the
following pages our dossier puts across
loud and clear the tenacity and ambition
of youth across the ACP regions from
the scuppered but still surviving dreams
of Haitians to budding film directors in
the Kenyan slum, Kibera, and pioneer-
ing 'Miss Samoa' in the Pacific who is
leading the way for young engineers.

*For more information: http://ec.europa.eu/

N. 16 N.E. MARCH APRIL 2010

Josphat Keya. 0 Hot sun Foundation

Surrounding the Kenyan capital, Nairobi, Kibera, home to over half a million peo-
ple, is East Africa's largest slum. The Hot Sun Foundation is a non-profit arm of
Hot Sun Films which began making films in Kibera in 2005 with the international
award winning Kibera Kid. The Kibera Film School is the largest of its projects,
putting young people from Kibera on the path of realising ambitions to become
directors and producers and is developing a core of film makers to train others.
It has made a huge difference to the self-esteem of the slum's young people and
has fuelled pride in their community.

Debra Percival

St / towards developing
/ Kibera as a centre
V for the film indus-
try in Kenya where we can produce video
projects that will financially support the
Hot Sun Foundation", says Pamela Collett,
the foundation's Global Communications
Officer. The Film School is just one
of Hot Sun Foundation's many projects
which also include community work-
shops, community film screenings, street
theatre and training in performance and

Having provided a three-year grant to
the foundation, the Belgian cultural
association, Africalia is currently its
main funder, although it has also
received support from the Australian
High Commission and the Netherlands
Embassy in Nairobi. The project also
generates its own income from the sale
of its DVDs, especially Kibera Kid as
well as other small commercial projects.
Collett says the foundation also receives
online donations through www.global-
giving.org/3632 and donations of digital
still and video cameras have come from
Europe and the USA. Several interna-
tional and local interns and volunteers
have also given technical assistance.
But to develop the skills and experience

needed to be commercially viable will
still take a further three to five years,
says Collett.

'Togetherness Supreme'

Togetherness Supreme is the soon-to-be-
released full length feature film made
in Kibera Film School with the sister
organisation, Hot Sun Films. Its cast
all comes from Kibera and Kibera
Film School trainees work alongside
professionals in the crew. Earning a
small stipend at the film school, all of
the students we interviewed had ambi-
tions of finding permanent jobs in the
international film industry.


IDossier Y..t

Faith Wavinya, 23

A sales representative for TV satel-
lite dishes before joining the project:
"When I was given the opportunity to
work as a trainee in digital downloads
with the Red One camera in Kibera
(while filming Togetherness Supreme), it
awakened my interest in film making
and editing and was a turning point in
my life", she says. "Now I enjoy my life
every day. I wake up and I'm happy. I
can shoot and edit a video -something
that I couldn't do before. I intend to
use the knowledge I have to support my
mother and make her life better. Telling
stories about the community has given
her a more positive outlook on life", she
adds. Wavinya wants to be a good leader
and a filmmaker and give back to her
community films whilst furthering her
ambition of working as a producer or
editor with Hot Sun Films.

"Before, my life was one
of survival, now I have
a creative life"
Victor Oluoch

Gabriela Operre, 22

Gabriela is completing her A levels and
is a performing artist."I want to con-
tinue to be an activist in trying to make
Kibera a good place especially for girl
empowerment", she says. "I am working
with several community groups includ-
ing: Amani Communities Africa, as a
performing artist for peace; secretary of
KCODA, the group that shares infor-
mation with the community and with
Power of Hope, a theatre group dealing
with different community themes. I
want to be an activist, performing artist,
filmmaker and trainer", she says. Being
in the school has broadened her activi-
ties beyond acting to editing, produc-
tion techniques and script writing.

Victor Oluoch, 22

Victor has also learnt invaluable new
skills at the Film School. "Before com-
ing to Hot Sun Foundation, I had never
used any kind of video camera." To
survive, he used to sell shoes and cloth-
ing in the informal economy. "I have
learned general filmmaking skills includ-
ing scriptwriting, working with actors,
camera, sound, production, directing,
and editing." His new found strengths
are in camerawork and editing. "I fig-
ure out different creative angles -crazy
angles -that people may not be thinking
about. Whenever I am doing the camera

work, I also feel like a director. I work
with passion and dedication -that is
what is motivating me the most. I am
just hoping to do well in the filmmak-
ing industry and want to change film-
making in our country; to tell stories
of my country and my community",
he says. He has learnt scriptwriting,
working with actors, camera, sound,
production, directing and editing, and
the course has completely changed his
way of thinking and given him a new
direction. "Before, my life was one of
survival; now I have a creative life", he
continues. "I just want my world to be
a better place for people like me. If you
look at my back-story, I had no future.
Hot Sun Foundation gave me a future.
It was a rebirth. I have a dream and I
want to build my future. I want to be a
great filmmaker and help other people
achieve their dreams."

Josphat Keya, 23

Josphat did some electrical installation
work with his father before going to the
school and knew nothing about film-
making. "I liked to write stories, so I
thought I would come to the Kibera
Film School and sharpen that little skill
of storytelling", he tells us. "But film-
making is not just about storytelling; it
is about the camera and editing. I want
to come up with the stories that have
not been told, that can especially edu-
cate the youth and those people who are
neglected", he says. He has ambitions of
directing: "I believe a director should
understand scriptwriting, photography,
the actors, everyone. I want to be a
director who should know all parts of
the filmmaking business".

In March, the Film School was hoping
to complete a short autobiographical
documentary, Jewel in the Dust, on DVD
as well as a series of short documenta-
ries about other community organisa-
tions in the slum. Six short films from
Kibera can be purchased on: www.

Find out more:
info hotsunfoundation.org
Catch a preview of Togetherness Supreme at:

N. 16 N.E. MARCH APRIL 2010

Youth Dosie


dreams in Haiti

Measuring 7.02 on the Richter scale, the earthquake of 12 January 2010
claimed more than 200,000 lives and destroyed more than 250,000 buildings,
including schools. In the process, it shattered the dreams of Haitian youth, leav-
ing them with the feeling that they have to start again from nothing.

Francesca Theosmy earthquake but my boss was killed",
explains Larose.
She had to abandon her house that was
F endy Morency, 27, stayed on damaged badly by the earthquake and
alone in Port-au-Prince after is now living at a reception centre in
all his family left. While com- the capital.
pleting his studies in social
work at the State University he was
giving primary school classes before the
disaster struck.
"Before 12 January, despite the dif-
ficult conditions, many people had a
certain socio-economic stability. But
after 12 January we were faced with an
altogether new socio-economic reality.
In all sectors of life we simply have to
start again from zero. Some university
graduates have the feeling that there is
no longer any hope."
Fren&se Larose, 23, is a young single
mother. On the morning of 12 January
she paid 7500 gourdes (fl = 54.6
Haitian Gourdes) to pay for her son's
school fees, sacrificing the last of her
savings. In the afternoon her life was
thrown into turmoil. Her four-year-old
son suffered fractures and she had to
entrust him to her mother who lives in

Health, education and
agriculture are the three sectors
that warrant priority in the

"As everybody knows, these are hard
times, especially when you have a child
on your hands. I heard that kits were
being distributed, with food and tar-
paulin sheets, but I never received any.
My son is receiving medical treatment
and my mother phones me constantly to
ask for money. If I had not been quick
to fend for myself I would not have had
anything to eat. I had a job before the

More than half the population of Haiti
are aged under 21 and 36.5 per cent are
aged under 16. Before the earthquake
they faced unemployment and difficulty
gaining access to schooling. Now they
have to face the even harsher conditions
of life in centres for the homeless.

Youths search the rubble of a collapsed building for anything they can reuse or sell in the aftermath of Haiti's
earthquake in Port-au-Prince, Tuesday, Feb. 9, 2010. CAPPhoto/RodrigoAbd


DsI e Yout

A girl watches the line of women waiting to receive supplies during a UN World Food Programme food distribution in
Port-au-Prince, Saturday, March 6, 2010. AP Photo/Esteban Felix

The World Food Programme that is
coordinating international food aid has
said that it did not expect the aid to
reach everybody. But, in a context in
which it is difficult to set priorities, food
coupons are being sold or exchanged
and frustration and despair are rapidly
taking hold.

Some were able to survive the first days
thanks to money sent from Haitians liv-
ing abroad. It is estimated that money
transfers to Haiti increased by 10 per
cent in January compared with January
2009. But most Haitians have only them-
selves to count on, especially as the aid
cannot last indefinitely. What is more,
it looks like it will be a long process.
When you look at Port-au-Prince you get
the impression that the job of clearing
away the rubble, the first step towards
any reconstruction, has only just begun,
despite the fact that it is now nearly two
months since the earthquake.

"Change depends primarily on
local strengths and capacities,
and then international aid
complements that"

"For the moment I see no change. If we
wait until the country is rebuilt it will
be five years before the schools are open
again", fears Frenese Larose.

Shattered hopes

Constantly associating school with their
future, the young people we spoke to
made it clear that what was worst for
them was the risk of losing valuable
years that should be usefully employed
preparing for a future that is now

"I do not think the schools can just
reopen. Things are going from bad to
worse and the next few days will be
even more difficult", believes 15-year-
old Delgado Remy.

Almost two-thirds of the capital's
schools were hit by the earthquake.

Mechanical diggers have been at work
over recent weeks, raising hopes -fuelled
by government announcements -that

schools may be able to reopen. But
many obstacles remain. Many schools
left standing have been used to pro-
vide emergency accommodation for the
homeless and finding alternative facili-
ties for them is a major challenge. The
homeless also often include teachers and
administrative staff as well as pupils.

The earthquake also destroyed leisure
facilities, access to which was limited to
the privileged even before 12 January.
Football pitches, including the coun-
try's only stadium, Sylio Caor, have
been transformed into camps for the
homeless. Cinemas, many of which had
already been forced to close for eco-
nomic reasons but were planning to
reopen, such as the Rex Theatre and
the Triomphe, were severely damaged
or even destroyed entirely in the earth-
quake. The car park of the Cine Imperial,
the last to shut up shop, has been trans-
formed into a reception site for those
who saw their homes destroyed.

More aftershocks

"We are living in fear of further after-
shocks. We had never experienced any-
thing like this before and we wonder
if we could survive a repeat", admits
young Remy, who thinks it will be at
least two years before calm and hope
can return.

The reconstruction process launched in
February by Prime Minister Jean Max
Bellerive with the PDNA (Post-Disaster
Needs Assessment), a document that must
define and guide the reconstruction effort,
is seen by the young people we spoke to as
no more than an opportunity for the politi-
cians to wrangle and compete.

"Haiti's young people must be positive
and believe that they bear responsibility
for reconstruction. Some have adopted
this positive attitude already, but many
see 12 January as simply the end", said
Fendy Morency.

He believes that health, education and
agriculture are the three sectors that
warrant priority in the reconstruction.

"Some young people believe that to achieve
change, the impetus must come from the
international community. But they don't
realise that change depends primarily on
local strengths and capacities, and then
international aid complements that."

N. 16 N.E. MARCH APRIL 2010

Yu Dossie

DsI er Y.t

The strength to survive

Child soldiers Hebel Liberation -rontot Congo (I-L MLU) I-rontde Liberation du Congo (I-LU). Reporters/Wim Van Cappellen

Marie-Martine Buckens

S'W 'e want to tell the
c /W world that we are
not the 'lost gen-
S eration', that the
case of child soldiers is not a desperate
one, and that people can come through
it." Strengthened by this conviction, six
former child soldiers or child victims
of war founded the Network of Young
People Affected by War (NYPAW:
www.nypaw.org) in 2008.

Tellingly, five of these six founding
members of NYPAW come from the
troubled African continent: two from
Sudan, two (women) from Uganda,
and one from Sierra Leone; all regions
where civil wars have been, or still are,
rife. Zlata Filipovic, the woman who
has been called the 'Anne Frank of
Sarajevo', is the sixth member of the

Grace Akallo, now 29, told the United
Nations Security Council last April how
she, along with several other students,
was abducted at gunpoint by the Lord's

Resistance Army in 1996, as they trav-
elled to school. They were raped and
then forced to become soldiers. She later
fought alongside the Sudan People's
Liberation Army. She was made to kill
the other girls in her group when they
tried to escape or refused their hus-
bands. After several months in captivity,
she finally managed to escape. She was
taken in by villagers in South Sudan,
before being taken back to her parents.
She returned to college, and was then
lucky enough to go to university and
get a diploma -an opportunity that the
other young girls who were abducted
with her were denied. "I've told you my
story but there are thousands of others
that you haven't heard", she declared to
the Security Council.


Grace Akallo isn't alone in demonstrat-
ing such an extraordinary capacity for
healing. Ishmael Beah was 12 years old
when war broke out in Sierra Leone.
Forced to join the army, he later bore
witness to the hell he experienced in a
book, and today he fights for an end to
the use of children in war. "The army
was survival", he says. "You had to join

Former Sierra Leone child soldier Ishmael Beah,
author of the book "A Long Way Gone: Memoirs
of a Boy Soldier". Reporters/Redux

or you were killed. But the situation has
been reversed. Although initially I had
been trying to survive to escape from the
war, I ended up surviving with the sole
aim of making war, of hurting people."
In 1998, when he was 18, miraculously
he managed to reach the United States,
thanks to an American storyteller who
took him under her wing. He finished
his secondary school education and is
now doing very well at University. The
Sudanese musician Emmanuel Jal has
chosen to use songs as a means of exor-
cising his demons, and spreading the
message of peace. A renowned hip-hop
singer, he founded the NGO Gua Africa
to educate former child soldiers.
John Kon Kelei is also from South
Sudan. John is currently finishing his
studies in European and International
Law at the University of Nijmegen, and
most importantly has created an NGO
(www.cmsf.nl) that raises funds to set
up secondary schools in South Sudan.
Kelei is convinced that "education
not just primary education, which isn't
enough -allows children from poor
countries to forge ahead, to build a
future of progress and not of stagnation
or regression".


Miss Samoa. Laufa LeainaEli-Lesa

A beautiful mind

The 'Miss Samoa' crown has opened up doors of new opportunities for many of the
winners. Tavalea is one of them.

Laufaleaina Lesa

age beauty. The 24-year-old
is the current 'Miss Samoa'.
This is a prestigious honour
for young ladies in the Pacific island of
Samoa. It's a title that gives its holder
much influence and authority over their

"I entered the 'Miss Samoa' pageant
because it's a unique challenge and
through this endeavour I hope to become
a good ambassador for our country", she

But Tavalea was already an inspira-
tion to many young people, especial-

ly females who wanted to pursue a
career in engineering, before becom-
ing 'Miss Samoa'. She graduated from
the Australia National University with
Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering
and Bachelor of Science degrees.

Crowned 'Miss Samoa' while she
was pursuing further studies towards
her Masters degree in Mechanical
Engineering in Australia, she has now
put her studies on hold due to her com-
mitments as 'Miss Samoa'.

Professional engineer

This includes working full time for the
Samoa Tourism Authority as the face
of Samoa in regional and international
events to promote it as a tourist desti-
nation. Despite her youth, Tavalea is

well respected within the influential
Institution of Professional Engineers
of Samoa (IPES), of which she is a

"Engineering is a great career option
as there are a lot of avenues you can
go into. Engineering is what's making
the world happen. Often when people
think of engineering, they see it as
mechanical only, but it's more than
that", said Tavalea. She continued: "It's
an especially good career to pursue for
the people of Samoa as there are a lot of
developments happening at the moment
in our country".

"Engineering is what's
making the world happen"

Her peers at the IPES have honoured her
unique achievement. "Tavalea is a good
role model for IPES as we approach
schools to encourage young students to
think of engineering as a career in which
they need to work on their mathemat-
ics and science subjects", said Fonoti
Perelini, President of the institution.
He added: "She will make a great role
model for young girls to pursue a profes-
sional career."

Pro renewable energies

She is one of only 12 female members
of IPES, a predominantly male institu-
tion. Her appointment as 'Miss Samoa'
has added to the attraction of taking
up engineering as a career. "The 'Miss
Samoa' title is a platform from which
Tavalea can raise awareness on areas
such as natural disasters like tsunamis,
cyclones, earthquakes and problems
like global warming affecting low lying
islands in the Pacific", said Fonoti.

"Engineers will have a major contribu-
tion in finding solutions to mitigate
the impacts of these natural disasters.
Tavalea in her reign will promote aware-
ness and increase the profile of engi-
neers in Samoa and the region". She
has also been involved in charity work.
She is a member of Rotaract, Rotary
International's youth programme, dedi-
cated to helping the community.

Tavalea's other passion is to see more
projects focused on renewable energy
using Samoa's many natural resources.
She continues to make a positive impact
on other young women and men, to
aspire to become all that they can be.

N. 16 N.E. MARCH APRIL 2010

.u Dossie


The world

in your


In the days when the use of the tele-
phone was limited, the post office was
the only way of communicating with
friends and relatives. A post office box
was an important asset. The older
generation also recalls long queues at
Telephone Exchange in Ghana's capi-
tal, Accra, to place foreign calls. For
the younger generation, even faxes
and telexes are now dinosaurs, having
been replaced by mobile phones and

Francis Kokutse

Don't need to go the house
of my friends to find out
something simple; I just
make a call or send a text
to get the answer. I have saved myself
money or the physical pain by walk-
ing the distance", says Issaka Awudu,
25. Unemployed, how does he man-
age to top up his credit? "I normally
keep a little bit of credit and 'flash' my
friends. Those who do have credit on
their phones to make calls, respond".
('Flashing' is a way of making a call and
ending it after a few rings to alert whom-
ever you are calling to call back or text
back so you don't pay for the call).

Less than a decade ago, the premises
of what used to be Communication
Centres all over Ghana were always
jam-packed with young people trying
to make calls to friends and relatives.
They now all have their own handsets.
Anabertha Owusu-Bempah, 24, and
a graduate of the Kwame Nkrumah
University of Science and Technology
in the country's second city, Kumasi,
says, "I use the computer every day to
communicate with my friends around
the world. The world has become a very
small place that exists in a box that is
placed on a desk".

She uses email and Facebook to com-
municate with friends, and chats on
Yahoo Messenger. "These are new ways
of communicating with our friends and
it brings us closer to them and it has
helped to improve our understanding
of the world as we get to know of issues
very quickly", says Owusu-Bempah. But
there's a downside: "You get addicted
to it and spend so much time. With the
mobile phone, you can't stop a friend
who calls from talking".

Premier League results

Desmond Masoperh, 26, a Higher
National Diploma (HND) accounting
graduate says, "My mobile phone is
always by my side as it enables me to
catch up with my friends. I am always
online to either chat with friends or use
Skype to talk to my cousin in London".
He surfs the internet to catch up with
the latest happenings in the United
Kingdom's Premier League football.
Texting has generated, however, a lot of
criticism among older people who claim
spelling among younger people is going

"I have tried hard to stop my children
from engaging in text messages with
their friends because it destroys their
ability to spell properly. I have had stu-
dents spelling night as 9nt in an essay in
my class", says Anthony Quarshie, 52, a
secondary school teacher in Accra.

For Anita Pinto, 23, a software stu-
dent from IPMC -an Information and
Communication Technology (ICT)
institution in Accra -the computer "is
just a gadget I like to be with because
it is my main link to my friends. I get
my emails everyday and it has saved me
from the difficult task of going to the
post office to post my mails".

Pinto uses it to chat and simply surf to
see what other young people are doing
around the world. Like many of her
generation who do not own their own
computers, she uses the internet cafes
that have sprung across the country, but
surfing by the minute is costly.


DsI er Y.t

Youth Dosie





Souleymane Maizou

many of Niger's young gradu-
ates are setting up their own
companies. Fatimata Hassane
and Issaka Oumarou both have success
stories to tell.

"With the help of my uncle, who lives in
France, I opened this tele-centre", says
Hassane, aged 26. This girl, who comes
from a modest family background and
holds a degree in sociology, seems very
composed. Today, she is the head of a small
company which is performing very well.

At the outset in 2006, she had just one
telephone line in her small shop close to
the large Niamey market. "I work ten
hours a day and bring in daily revenues
of around FCFA 20,000 (30)", she
explains. "The work has nothing to do
with my sociology course. It is hard to
find a job when you leave university and
you don't know how long you are going
to be unemployed. You have to consider
setting yourself up in business."

Using her small amount of savings,
Fatima Hassane has now expanded her

company. She has opened a cybercafe
with a dozen computers. Thanks to a
loan from a local bank, she has also
extended her range of business activi-
ties. She cheerfully explains: "I've added
prepaid cards, mobile telephones and
women's, men's and children's clothing
to my initial activities".

The young entrepreneur called on some
of her fellow students from university
both girls and boys -to work with her.
Thirteen people work full-time in this
tele-centre, which has been transformed
into a 'business centre' within the space
of four years. The profits from the busi-
ness afford them a decent standard of

"We will work even harder to ensure we
perform even better", pledged young

The boy with the magic fingers

In contrast to Fatima Hassane, young
Issaka Oumarou, aged 25, set up his
company in the field in which he stud-
ied. Holder of an Advanced Technician's
Certificate in IT maintenance, he
opened a small company specialising in
maintenance and after-sales services for
IT equipment in 2007.

Tired of having nothing to do all day
long, Oumarou left Niger. His journey
took him to Benin, where a friend of
his older brother advised him to set
up in the private sector and lent him
some money. "That's how I opened this
office", explains Oumarou, the boy with
the magic fingers, as he is known to
both his friends and customers who are
extremely satisfied with his services.

"My customers are companies and gov-
ernment organisations who do not gen-
erally haggle over labour charges. The
business soon started to yield a profit.
That enabled me to buy and sell IT
consumables", he continues.

This young man has now escaped the
fate of graduates who submit CVs and
covering letters to company after com-
pany. "I created my own sesame which
opened all the doors for me. I am an
employer myself now", he jokes.

He employs six young people, includ-
ing three graduates. He nevertheless
remains tight-lipped about the level of
income generated by his company.

N. 16 N.E. MARCH APRIL 2010

"Health is a fundamental right"

Known for its campaigning on behalf of political prisoners, Amnesty International is increasingly expanding its field of
action. A particular priority is health, which, as the NGO stresses in a document addressed to the European Commission,
should be regarded as "a fundamental right".

Marie-Martine Buckens

world leaders will be meet-
ing to take stock of progress
in achieving the Millennium
Development Goals (MDGs), as
defined by the United Nations ten years
ago. This is the occasion for all parties
involved to review their situation and
take a stance. The MDGs have become
the reference for development aid pol-
icy, the major donors adjusting their
financing in line with the eight goals
set. This represents a major challenge
for NGOs whose activities are in part
dependent on these multilateral institu-
tions and on the European Union, the
latter having already adopted its posi-
tion on some of the MDGs ahead of the
Summit in New York.

Health is a major priority because it
covers three of these goals, namely:
to reduce child mortality; to improve
maternal health; and to combat trans-
missible diseases. Furthermore, in its
reply to the consultation organised by
the European Commission -prior to
adopting its communication on the

EU's role in global health ahead of
the summit (read separate article)
Amnesty International stresses that
"health is a fundamental human right,
protected by many regional and inter-
national treaties".

Pivotal role

Amnesty International goes further,
stressing that the MDGs as a whole
are fundamental rights and that the
EU should seize the opportunity of
this consultation to state the fact loud
and clear. "Human rights defenders,
with their understanding of the uni-
versal and indivisible nature of rights,
are able to make the link between
this right to health and other civil,
political, social and economic rights",
is Amnesty's position. The NGO goes
on to state that these human rights
defenders "can lend an added value
by verifying implementation of policy,
introducing new ideas and questioning
ideas that could impede the realisation
of the right to health". In conclusion,
the NGO states that the Commission
should explicitly "recognise the role
played by civil society organisations
and human rights defenders in pro-
moting the right to health (...) and

take measures that enable human rights
defenders to pursue their activities
without hindrance or fear of reprisals".

European Commisson comunicaton on glo-
bal health http://ec.europa.eu/development/
services/dev-policy-proposalsen.cfm ec.europa.eu/development/services/dev-policy-
proposals en.cfm

A caravan to Burkina Faso

At the end of January, an Amnesty
International caravan left Ouaga-
dougou, the capital of Burkina Faso,
to spread the message on mater-
nal health in the country's principal
population centres. This 'awareness
caravan' follows a similar campaign
in Sierra Leone. At the same time,
the NGO has submitted a report to
the authorities in the county entitled
'Giving life, risking death', in which
it estimates that 2,000 women die
every year in Burkina Faso due to
complications in pregnancy and


Civil society in Haiti

To the heart of solutions,

with the bare minimum of resources

Hegel Goutier

terrible days after the earth-
quake of the 12 January,
Haitian civil society played
a crucial role in first saving the victims
of the disaster and then helping them
to get their lives back on track. The
most widespread form of civil social
organisation in the towns is the area
committee. Once the foreign NGOs had
arrived on the island, with resources
appropriate for the task in hand, the
actions undertaken by the Haitian civil
society organisations were pushed into
the background, given that they had
neither resources nor equipment at their
disposal. Quite simply, what could be
done with bare hands alone had already
been done.

From this point on, the area committees
played a subsidiary role, as a structure
for expressing demands and as inter-
locutors with both state-controlled bod-
ies and foreign NGOs. This situation
resulted in a number of the committees

being in demand among the NGOs as
intermediaries, but the memory of the
pro-Aristide groups was too fresh, and
the first reaction of the authorities was
one of mistrust, all the more so because
some of the members of the committees
made certain errors of judgement at this

The press: acting on behalf
of civil society

On 12 January, coordination of res-
cue services was essentially provided by
the radio stations, which publicised the
locations where immediate intervention
was necessary. Radio apart, the Haitian
press as a whole was the engine of
notable civic action in the crisis, and in
tribute two large French media organi-
sations, Le Courrier International and Le
Monde, each dedicated an entire issue
to its work.

The focal point

The most visible civil society organisa-
tion in Haiti is the FOKAL Foundation,
a Creole acronym the letters of which
spell "Knowledge and Freedom


Foundation". This body is on one hand
an independent group under the patron-
age of George Soros's Open Society
Institute, playing an active role in a
wide variety of fields, and on the other
an umbrella organisation which works
with a large number of Haitian asso-
ciations, and forms a kind of training
centre for civil society in Haiti. As well
as undertaking research, FOKAL is also
involved in social action and in carrying
out projects on the ground, from the
construction of schools and libraries
throughout the country to the struggle
for equal rights for women.

FOKAL also serves as an advisor for a
number of overseas NGOs and institu-

Out in the open

From the end of January on, both
Haitian associations and the govern-
ment had been warning their backers
about the expected arrival of torrential
rains in March, and consequently the
desperate need for tents. By the end of
February, 40,000 tents had been set up,
when the number required was at least
200,000. Not a few people wondered
what had happened to the millions
of euros collected around the world
by, among others, high-profile figures
from the entertainment world such as
Angelina Jolie and George Clooney. The
Minister for Communications in the
Haitian government, Marie-Laurence
Josselyn Lassegue, who at the time hap-
pened to be in Brussels, explained that
the money raised by collections was
made available as quickly as possible
to the NGOs of which the figures were
patrons, and that these organisations
had prioritised spending on those areas
which they were specialists in. Tents,
then, were clearly not a priority for all of
these bodies.

Civil society organisations in Europe
have highlighted the importance of
learning lessons from this situation,
and have launched an appeal to the
EU*, stressing that civic groups in Haiti
should always be the central focus of any
measure taken and should not be left
exposed as before, as it is only with their
help that European NGOs can use their
abilities to the fullest degree.

* Signed by the CoEH (Coordination between
Europe and Haiti), the Prisma Association
(Netherlands) and ZOA Refugee Care

N. 16 N.E. MARCH APRIL 2010

l~i~I .

Lake Tanganyika. istock

Lake Tanganyika: a hub for trade

Alfred Sayila*

After more than 700 years of providing
livelihood and sustenance to people
who live along its shoreline, Lake
Tanganyika is today a trading hub for
several countries in the Great Lakes
Region (GLR) of Southern Africa.

Conference on the Great
Lakes Region (ICGLR),
Tanganyika which is embed-
ded in the east of the continent is not
only important to the region's peace
and security but is an economic life-
line for surrounding countries. Every
year trade worth more than US$5.8bn
in imports and exports passes through
it. The beneficiaries are not only the
countries surrounding the lake like
Tanzania, Zambia, the Democratic
Republic of the Congo, Rwanda

and Burundi, but Southern Africa
as a whole. Only recently, president
Rupiah Banda of Zambia, chairman
of ICGLR, urged a summit of the
African Union (AU) in Addis Ababa
in February 2010 to work together
in the interest of Lake Tanganyika's

Such political support of the GLR is
likely to add more impetus and value
to trade on Lake Tanganyika, which
has been on the increase for the past
ten years, from a paltry US$900M in
1999 to its current high. Statistics show
that trade between the Great Lakes
Region and the rest of Southern Africa
passing through the lake in 2005/2006


Rupiah Banda. aReporters

was about US$3.lbn. Annual trade
increases of 4.8 per cent are forecast
following the rehabilitation of some
ports, installation of new equipment,
the building of new ports and, not
least, the establishment of a Free Trade
Area (FTA) and Customs Union for
the Common Market for Eastern and
Southern Africa (COMESA).

In an interview with The Courier,
COMESA Secretary General Sindiso
Ngwenya, said he expected trade on
Lake Tanganyika to increase even

further because of the rise in intra-
regional trade which is greatly ben-
efiting member countries in the
GLR, Southern African Development
Community (SADC), East African
Community (EAC) and COMESA
itself. "I cannot over-emphasise the
importance of the lake to trade in the
region. It's actually a major artery for
the economy and trade", he said. He
added that the establishment of the
FTA had helped to increase regional
trade which has in turn raised the
standard of living for many people
and profits of firms that thrive on the
resources of the lake. "We are focused
on strategy, trade and investment",
he said.

"The lake is a major artery for
the economy and trade"

Sindiso Ngwenya

COMESA statistics show that intra-
trade for countries in the GLR and
Southern Africa in 2000 was approxi-
mately US$3bn, but rose to almost
US$8.6bn in 2007, before dropping to
around US$6.2bn in 2008/2009 in the
aftermath of the global financial crisis.
Trade on Lake Tanganyika has more
or less mirrored this trend. Both the
Exploitation du Port des Bujumbura (EPB)
and Agence Maritime Internationale
(AMI) who operate on the lake verify
that for the past five years transporta-
tion of goods on the lake has increased
by between 25-30 per cent.

The Mpulungu Corridor

Every year between 250,000-300,000
containerised traffic criss-crosses Lake
Tanganyika from key harbours to
inland depots. "We have a lot of ship
traffic from one entry port to a receiv-
ing terminus along the shore", said an
official with AMI. He said a lot of lake
traffic is between Kigoma, Tanzania in
East Africa and Bujumbura, Burundi in
Central Africa. He reiterated that not
only have ship movements on the lake
increased but trade as well!

For example, harbours on the lake
are connected to various road and rail
routes. The Mpulungu port in Zambia
is interlinked to a major highway that
feeds into the famous Tanzania-Zambia
Railways (TAZARA). This has made
the Mpulungu Corridor through the

harbour on the southern tip of the lake
a busy trade route handling 50,000-
60,000 tonnes of all sorts of import/
export cargo ranging from, inter alia,
cement, fuel, other petroleum prod-
ucts, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, steel,
sugar and coffee.

Other routes that connect the central/
northern parts of the Congolese port
of Kalemie before interconnecting with
Bujumbura and Kigoma, have resulted
in the creation of a trading triangle for
Eastern and Central African states in
the Great Lakes Region. The triangle
handles more than 100,000 tonnes of
cargo every month.

Maritime traffic on the lake goes in
all directions of the Southern African
region although imports tend to be
higher than exports most of the time,
by a ratio of 1:3. In the 2008/2009 peri-
od, imports passing through the lake
were worth about US$4.8bn compared
to exports at US$lbn. The trend is not
expected to change in the short-term,
despite the increase in intra-trade.
Based on these staggering statistics,
trade traffic on Lake Tanganyika has
shown an exponential increase despite
various economic shortcomings. This
can be seen from infrastructural devel-
opment taking place in some of the
GLR countries. Take, for example,
Zambia which with partners has jointly
embarked on the construction of a fuel
export jetty at Mpulungu port and is
developing Nsumbu harbour as a fully-
fledged port in the near future. Similar
developments are underway in other
countries of the region.

Keeping biodiversity

Apart from bulk cargo trade, Lake
Tanganyika is a major tourist attrac-
tion, generating more than US$3bn
and an additional US$2.5bn from com-
mercial fishing. Fishing has actually
been the mainstay for many people and
firms located along Lake Tanganyika.
This African lake has one of the rar-
est fresh water species and fish of
different kinds not found in other
parts of the world. It is hence an ideal
place for development of an all-round
regional fishing business. Thanks to the
Tanganyika Biodiversity Project and
Global Environmental Facility, indus-
trial pollution on the lake is kept to a
minimum while its ecosystem and bio-
diversity are preserved.

N. 16 N.E. MARCH APRIL 2010


The Austrian Tyrol

Right in the centre,

yet completely separate

Hegel Goutier

T yrol, one of the nine Linder
(States) of Austria, has been
part of the nation since the
middle of the fourteenth cen-
tury, and yet at all times it has jealously
guarded its unique character. There is
no doubt that this is largely due to the
geography of the region, with its valleys
imprisoned by high mountains, which
has made it more of a place to travel
through than one to settle in. But it is
this too that has allowed Tyrol to benefit
from the travellers, armies and wander-
ing sovereigns that have passed through,
while at the same time protecting itself
from any cosmopolitan influence. This
has also enabled the region to flourish
economically, despite its lack of natural

For six centuries at the very least, from
the late thirteenth century until the end
of the First World War, Austria has,
under the Habsburg dynasty, been situ-
ated at the very core of power in Europe.
From the time when Charles V declared
that the sun never set on his empire,
Austria was at the centre of this great

At the heart of the empire

In the first century A.D., Rome
extended its hold on the course of the
river Danube by the march to the east
towards what would later be known as
Ostarrichi, and in the second century,
this land began to acquire still greater
importance, as it became the northern
frontier of the Roman Empire. In the
third century, Ostarrichi became the
official name of what is now Austria.
From the tenth century onwards, the
country was united, first under the
control of the Babenberg family. This
dynasty was to suffer defeat at the hands
of the Magyars, and power was seized
by the kings of Bohemia, who were
themselves supplanted by Rudolph of
Habsburg, crowned emperor in the year
1273. Meanwhile, in 1027, the German
emperors had decided to set up a spe-
cial form of government for the "terri-
tory amid the mountains", a name used
to refer to the Tyrol. The year 1180 saw
the construction of the first bridge over
the Inn River, with the resulting town
taking the name Innsbruck. In 1420,
under Duke Frederick II, the official
residence of the Habsburg dynasty was
moved to Innsbruck, where it was to
remain until the middle of the seven-
teenth century.

Austria was now at the centre, the
engine of history. The country became
larger, and its internal administration
was reinforced. Frederick II was no
man to beat about the bush, declaring
that now "the whole world belongs to
Austria" (Alles Erdreich ist Osterreich
untertan), as was summarised in the
letters AEIOU. This state of affairs was
partly the result of wars waged, but was
due above all to a network of alliances
established through marriage, of which
the birth of Charles V was perhaps
the ultimate example. Charles came to
rule over the Holy Roman Empire in
Germany, Spain, Naples, Sicily, and
Sardinia, as well as the territories in the
Americas, and this empire was to last
until the end of the eighteenth century.

Epic saga of the Tyrolean
country farmer

In the course of the war against France
from 1792 to 1815, the emperor of
Austria suffered a string of defeats and
was forced to give up his titles of emper-
or of the Romans and leader of the Holy
Roman Empire in Germany.

The stage was then set for Tyrol to play
a part once more, and to write another
page of history that would consolidate


a dynamic artistic scene in this period
provided impetus and strengthened the
state from the inside, but this did not
prevent its relative decline at an inter-
national level.

The assassination of Franz Joseph's
nephew, the archduke Franz Ferdinand,
in Sarajevo in 1914 led to the outbreak
of the First World War. The Austro-
Hungarian monarchy was thrown into
turmoil, and, with the lives of a mil-
lion and a half of its subjects lost, it
was not to survive the War. In the

period between the two World Wars,
Hitler declared the Anschluss, or the
annexation of Austria, but after the
Second World War, the country quickly
became prosperous once more, joining
the European Union in 1995.

Today Austria is one of the wealthiest
countries of the European Union, and
Tyrol is in turn one of the most prosper-
ous regions of Austria. Tourism plays a
central role in its economy, with indus-
try in a rather distant second place.

Innsbruck Cathederal. Hegel Goutier

its identity as a unique region with a
separate role. In 1809, a simple country
farmer, Andreas Hofer, accompanied by
his Tyrolean partisans, was to shake the
very foundations of Napoleon's formi-
dable strike force for almost two years.
Napoleon was the victor in the end, of
course, and Andreas Hofer was betrayed
and then captured and executed. He
was soon enshrined among the leg-
ends of the Tyrol, however, and even
today his actions are still frequently
evoked. Napoleon went on to marry
the daughter of the emperor whom he
had defeated, and Austria, which had to
bend its will to that of the greater power,
came to regain the upper hand thanks
in particular to the famous diplomat,
Prince Metternich, whose work enabled
his country's troops to return to Paris in
1814 and, at the Congress of Vienna in
the same year, to recover a position of
strength which allowed it to rule once
more over Europe. It was, nevertheless,
forced to deal with a series of revolts,
such as those which drove Metternich
out of Italy in 1848.

Metternich was succeeded by Franz
Joseph, who became king of Hungary
too, thus creating the Austro-Hungarian
empire, over which he was emperor for
sixty-eight years, until the First World
War. Sustained economic growth and

The light and dark of Tyrolean history

aemocracy... Dnu in me times or te INazis, it acrea
like the rest of Austria". Hegel Goutier

Horst Schreiber teaches modern his-
tory at Innsbruck University. He spoke
to The Courier about his book, 'Von
Bauer & Schwarz zum Kaufhaus Tyrol',
a study of Tyrolean politics between
the mid-19th century and the present
day, including its periods of darkness.
In it he traces the fortunes of a large
store owned by a Jewish family as it
changes names and hands several
times under the shadow of rampant

"I trace the history of a Jewish minority
in Tyrol and the reaction of the majority
to this group. In the 19th century Tyrol
was distinctive for its marked opposi-

tion to industrialisation at a time when
it needed migrant labour originating
from other areas of the Austro-Hungar-
ian Empire. These included Jews with
their ideas of modernism. The very
Catholic local nobles and peasants re-
sisted this change and were afraid of
the migration, and subsequently, of re-
ligions other than Catholicism. It is this
that gave rise to anti-Semitism."

"Tyrol has always seen itself as a
democracy because it fought for its
freedom against the Bavarians and
the French under its hero, Andreas

"At the time of the Nazis, the Tyrol
nonetheless acted like the rest of Aus-
tria. After the war it looked beyond
its own borders, to Vienna. Since the
1980s there has been a subtle shift
into line with contemporary attitudes
elsewhere. But this does not mean
that the authorities in Tyrol are going
to support the historians in their wide
ranging research into collaboration.
The support the authorities gave to the
publication of my book is not some-
thing that can be taken for granted."

* Andrea Sommer and Habbes Schlosser-
auer worked together on two chapters.

N. 16 N.E. MARCH APRIL 2010

Tyrol: One of Europe's more

stable economies

Interview with Eugen Sprenger, Acting Mayor of Innsbruck

Eugen Sprenger is the First Vice-
Mayor of Innsbruck in charge, among
other things, of social affairs. When
The Courier visited Tyrol he was acting
Mayor. Social affairs are of the highest
priority in Austria and especially
in the Tyrol region. Sprenger has
a reputation of being close to his

Hegel Goutier 6.,

E ugen Sprenger I am very
close to the people. We fully
take care of 400 children who
cannot be looked after by their
parents. About 5,000 people receive
social allowances and 1,300 older peo-
ple live in homes for the elderly or in
sheltered accommodation. There are
a further 1,200 elderly people who are
able to live in their own houses and are
still being taken care of. We do not only
pay them a living allowance, but their
rent too. We compare very favourably
with other countries in this respect.

The Courier How is Tyrol's econo-
my faring?

I think we have quite a stable economic
situation due to our economic struc-
ture compared to the whole of Austria,
even to Germany. About one third of
the population lives off tourism, one
third depends on the industrial sector
and one third earns income from small
and medium sized enterprises. This
gives us a degree of stability. Of course,
we also have some redundancies and
joblessness. The economic crisis did
not actually cause a downturn in the
tourism sector. Figures for the overall
number of overnight stays have actu-
ally gone up.

We have problems in the industrial sec-
tor since we only have four or five major
industries. The biggest problems were
with Swarovski (crystal makers) and
Metalwerkt (metalwork). There was also
some slowdown -but not significant
small and medium-sized businesses.

Innsbruck. Hegel Goutier

Eugen Springer. Hegel Goutier

How does this compare with Austria
as a whole?

I think the situation in Eastern Austria
is even more dramatic than here, espe-
cially in regions where there is a lot of
industry; Vienna or Linz. They have

different economic structures and less
tourism except for the Alpine regions.
This is why they have suffered from
more unemployment and over the next
two to three years will feel the economic
pinch more deeply.


Crystal piece by
Swarovski. Hegel Goutier

What is Innsbruck's appeal to the

Innsbruck is the heart of the Alps. We
have beautiful landscapes and our tour-
ism is very well developed, both for win-
ter and summertime visitors. Annually,
Tyrol registers 43M overnight stays;
more than for the whole of Greece or the
whole of Switzerland.

Innsbruck is the heart of Tyrol's tourism
industry. Its city centre dates back to the
time of the Renaissance and in just half
an hour you are in Italy or Germany.
It has interesting and beautiful build-
ings. The whole city centre is a World
Heritage site of the United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organisation (UNESCO). We stage a
high level culture festival and have eight
theatres putting on plays, dance and

Innsbruck also has the label of a city
of sport. We have the second largest
congress centre in Austria. In 2002, in
Melbourne, Australia, we were award-
ed the title of World's Best Congress
Centre. Our university hospital and uni-
versity with its 350 years of tradition are

The Inn River in Innsbruck, the heart of the city. Hegel Goutier

both well-known. We also have a huge
number of museums.

How do you explain the fact that
Austria will not achieve its target of
0.59 per cent of GNI to be spent on
development by 2010?

This is not a question for us, but rather
for the federal government of Austria. Of
course, it would be good to keep up the
level of development aid to African and
other developing countries or even increase
it, but it's a question of budgetary decisions
in these difficult economic times.

How wouldyou describe the Tyrolean

It is not that easy to describe the Tyrolean
soul because of the settlement of differ-
ent populations in the region and hence,
differences in the mentality of the peo-
ple. Broadly speaking, Tyrolean people
are very financially-minded but at the
same time, open to other influences.
People are attached to their area and the
landscape, to their soil, to the piece of
land on which they live. Tyrolean people
are very hard working, intelligent and


Siegel uouner

Well structured but some
way to go
Austria'scooperation policy isdefined
by the Federal Ministry for European
and International Affairs (MFA) which
draws up three-year programmes,
implementation of which is entrusted
to the Austrian Development Agency
(ADA). It works in cooperation with
the other federal ministries, the fed-
eral states (Lander), municipalities,
Austrian development banks, NGOs
and companies.

It is important to note that the entire
government is responsible for coop-
eration in view of its special collegial
nature. There is no real head; the
prime minister acts only as a primus
inter pares, or at most a coordina-
tor who does not even personally
decide on each minister's portfolio
as this is determined by parliament.
When necessary, the prime minister
must call on parliament, while the
minister concerned remains without
a portfolio while waiting for an ad
hoc law. Austrian cooperation policy
partners priority countries, including
ACP states; Ethiopia, Uganda, Mo-
zambique, Burkina Faso and Cape

There is currently tension between
the government and the NGOs be-
cause the latter were not consulted
on the next three-year cooperation
programme. Another reason is the
decrease in Austrian aid from 0.50
per cent of GNI in 2007 to 0.43 per
cent in 2008, outside the 0.59 per
cent range which the country com-
mitted itself to as an indispensable
for meeting the Millennium Develop-
ment Goals (MDGs).

N. 16 N.E. MARCH APRIL 2010

NGOs in Austria and Tyrol

'South Wind' and 'Light for

the World' fight aid cutbacks

Lines Lanella, regional airecror orT uawina:
"We are very concerned about the cutbacks
in state aid for development in Austria".
Hegel Goutier

Hegel Goutier

S dwind is an Austrian NGO
which is well established in the
region of Tyrol. The organi-
sation works tirelessly on the
street, in public markets, universities
and schools of all levels and lobbies
political institutions to make its voice
heard and increase awareness of the
problems of poor countries in today's
globalised world. Like other civil society
groups, Stidwind is concerned about the
reduction in Austria's development aid

Ines Zanella, the organisation's regional
director in Tyrol, spoke to The Courier
about the situation: "Like other NGOs
in the development sector, we rely on
financial support from state institu-
tions. In the case of our branch here in

the Tyrol, this support represents 89 per
cent of our budget, with the rest coming
from the European Union.

We organise workshops on world trade
for teachers at all levels, from kindergar-
ten and nursery school up to university
level. It is our collaborative ventures
with the universities that enable us to
call on the qualified staff needed to
organise this work. As regards certain
topics, our library is often even more
extensive than those of some universi-
ties, and this is why its level of regular
attendance is so high. Suidwind regu-
larly launches major campaigns, such as
the Fair Trade initiative, which might
take place in the street, in supermarkets,
or in other locations."

Lack of commitment

The organisation is very concerned
about the cutbacks in state aid for devel-
opment in Austria, which have also
been singled out for criticism by the
Organisation of Economic Co-operation
and Development (OECD). Zanella
points out that "the authorities have not
shown enough commitment as far as
development issues are concerned, and
fall back on their claim that these issues
are not a priority for the local population.
According to the Austrian government,
this is to be expected, given the economic
situation in the world at the moment".
NGOs should have a bigger say
in development strategies -
Johannes Trimmel
Johannes Trimmel, from Light for the
World, an NGO which is active in
a number of developing countries on
behalf of the disabled and the visually
impaired in particular, has another criti-
cism to make regarding the Austrian

government. In an interview with The
Courier, he confided that "what we do is
talk to the Foreign Ministers and to the
ADA (Austrian Development Agency)
about projects to help the disabled. Like
other organisations, we play the role of
contractor partners for their projects,
but when it comes down to strategy and
to major decisions, such as the planning
of the next three-year programme for
the country's development aid policy,
which has to be presented to parlia-
ment, the NGOs play no part at this
stage, despite the fact that the review
document of the most recent project
stipulates that they ought to be involved
in the process. We must therefore appeal
to the government to fulfil its commit-
ments in this area".

Light for the World is particularly
active in the ACP nations of Ethiopia,
Mozambique, Burkina Faso and Sudan,
and to a lesser extent in Rwanda and in
the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
In Sudan, the organisation is working to
integrate visually impaired people into
society, with programmes to prevent
and treat blindness, and to rehabilitate
the disabled, helping them to play an
active role in everyday life.


Hegel Goutier

rural austerity with which
Tyrol is sometimes sad-
dled outside its frontiers, the
region's capital, Innsbruck, is a city of
high culture, a place which invites the
visitor to wander around aimlessly, in
a reverie of romanticism. This is a city
where in winter the atmosphere is some-
times even warmer and more laden with
fantasy than in summer.

In winter, the ring of mountains that sur-
rounds each valley seems to tighten its
hold. The inhabitants of what is, in spite
of its small-town appearance, something
of a cultural metropolis, take flight. And
not only at the weekend. Each day as
twilight begins to fall on the city they set
out to scale the heights of the neighbour-
hoods and villages surrounding the city,
or simply to look out into the distance.
The city is a real hive of activity, with
people climbing right from the centre of
town, hanging onto the walls of the val-
ley before taking refuge at night in the
restaurants and country-style taverns of
every neighbourhood.

Some people even ski down from these
snow-covered mountain pastures right
to their homes. Others prefer just to
stroll along the length of the uproari-
ous main thoroughfare, the Maria

Theresien Strasse. It is itself a compen-
dium of Austria's architectural dyna-
mism, blending state-of-the-art glass
structures with the most refined classi-
cism, not to mention the fantasies of the
local form of art nouveau, 'Jugendstil',
with its wonderful stained-glass win-
dows and graphite work.

A beautiful escape

Come the weekend, the towering moun-
tains become an obsession. The most
prized of the peaks, and one of the most
spellbinding, is the Hafelekar mountain,
now easily accessible via a new superfast
cable car, which is itself a futurist work
by the architect Zaha Hadid. The cable
car links the Hungerburg area first with
a lower station, where the views over the
city are already spectacular, and then
with another, right up to the highest
point at over 2,300 metres, looking out
over alpine massifs as far as the horizon.
You can descend from there on a choice
of ski pistes, from thoroughly safe to as
adventurous as they come.

Others prefer to head towards the pic-
turesque village of St. Sigmund, to
slide around in the winter sunshine, or
laze on a Tyrolean luge, sharing in the
favourite pastime of local children. This
little trip costs them no more than the
price of their public transport season
ticket. For tourists, it is included in the
cost of the Innsbruck City Card, which
grants access to all the city's museums

and historical monuments, as well as
the tourist attractions in the country-
side around. The venue of the Winter
Olympics, at Bergisel, offers another
easy escape from the city and a stunning
view of Innsbruck and its surroundings,
in addition to the most thrilling spring-
board for ski jumping.

The very laziest of visitors, on the other
hand, can stay in Innsbruck and just
stroll along the banks of the river Inn.
The whole of the lower town cries out

N. 16 N.E. MARCH APRIL 2010

to be visited, from the Goldenes Dachl
(Golden Roof) to the palace of the
Habsburgs. Neither should the innu-
merable museums be forgotten, in par-
ticular the Tiroler Volkskuntmuseum
(Museum of Tyrolean Folk Art), even
if you normally avoid this type of place.
In Innsbruck there is no room for mere
vapid decoration, or for the condescend-
ing attitudes of the aesthete. What there
is here is centuries of beautiful art, and
the refined skills of the valleys' artisans
are in evidence everywhere, such as,
for example, in the Hofkirche (Court
Church), with its extravagant mauso-
leum of Maximilian I.

A cornucopia of emotions

It is quite likely that the visitor to
Innsbruck will be lucky enough to
chance upon one of the city's wonder-
ful festivals, such as the Osterfestival
Tirol (www.osterfestival.at), with its

Tyrol's Soul

Hegel Goutier

Middle Ages, the first
influx of people settled in
Tyrol. The region only saw
a second wave of settlement in the 1960s
(Ed. due to the development of tourism
and industry), explained the historian
Horst Schreiber to The Courier. In those
intervening centuries, Tyrolean society
had, by the force of circumstances, no
other option but to rely on its own

Paradoxically, many figures from the
world of the arts and culture take the
view that the contemporary art of the
region has no connection with the area's
traditional art. Such is the opinion of
the gallery owner Beate Ermacora,
of the Taxispalais gallery (Galerie
im Taxispalais). For Astrid Gostner,
a former gallery owner, however, this
insistence on denying any link is proof
of a certain ambiguity in the attitudes of
the Tyroleans as regards their heritage,
which could be described as both pride
and a kind of complex. The ceramic
artist Isabella Mangold shares the same
view, though it is true that she is only a
second-generation Tyrolean.

Are you a 'Zugereister'?

Are you a 'Zugereister'? For Emmanuel
Rukundo, a Tyrolean of African origin,
this question is the response to anoth-
er question. Is it possible to become
Tyrolean? Is it possible to get onto a
vehicle which is already moving? When
a true Tyrolean is asked that question,
the word 'Zugereister' is bound to crop

thoroughly eclectic programme, or
perhaps a specialised festival like the
Tanzsommer ('Dance Summer', www.
tanzsommer.at), all of which offer a very
tempting array of attractions.

The refined skills of the valleys'
artisans are in evidence

The city's art galleries, too, are of very
high quality, and there are a huge number
considering the population is only a lit-
tle more than 100,000. Some of these
galleries are groundbreaking, too: the
Taxispalais (www.galerieimtaxispalais.
at), for example, under the management
of Beate Ermacora, would certainly not
be out of place in the largest metropolis.

When The Courier was passing through,
this gallery was showing what has prob-
ably been one of the most original exhi-
bitions of the season in Europe. Kirstine

up. A 'Zugereister' is a term used for
outsiders who have come to live in the
region, but are not considered "one
of us", and this word has passed into
the local vernacular. "'Zugereister' is a
word which whilst can be interpreted as
discriminatory can also be used in an
elegant way. It is even used of someone
from a nearby village." Rukondo adds,
"For the Tyrolean, it is first and fore-
most all about the family, the village,
the party, and then the people close to
these entities. I also feel I am part of this

Roepstorffs "Illuminating Shadows" is,
at the same time, a presentation of indi-
vidual pieces, and a display where each
group -paintings, sculptures, games of
light -is an installation in itself. The
artist has incorporated into her collec-
tion a number of traditional African
works of art, in a kind of marriage or
one-to-one encounter in the midst of
which the viewer loses all awareness of
the origins of these pieces, so intense is
the dialogue between them. The projec-
tion of the real or virtual gaseous filters
which cover her paintings, the shadows
that are transposed from one piece onto
another, and the mechanisms of light
where all the artifice behind them is
forgotten, leave one in a state of wonder
and awaken a cornucopia of sensual
pleasure for the eyes and a whole gamut
of emotions. Could this perhaps be a
work that will prove to be the harbinger
of a romanticism of the future?

land, and I love it. My wife is Tyrolean,
and my children too. The one thing I
would say is that the Tyroleans are frank
and direct to the point of sounding
coarse and unrefined".

So what would a Tyrolean employer do
if you applied for a job, and were com-
peting with someone from Vienna, or
from somewhere else in Europe? "If all
else were equal, it would be me that the
Tyrolean would take on. I am closer to
him." That much is quite clear.


Tyroleans of African origin:

the "white wolves"

Hegel Goutier

O n more than one occasion,
Emmanuel Rukundo, born
in Rwanda but a Tyrolean by
adoption, has stretched out a
line to link Austria and Africa, the two
poles of his working life and of his heart.
His consultancy business is active in
Rwanda, Kenya and in Europe.

Rukundo arrived in Tyrol eighteen years
ago, washed up amid the agonies of gen-
ocide. From that time on, he has trav-
elled regularly between his main base,
Innsbruck, and the various places where
he does business. He started off by
using the expertise he had acquired in
Europe to set up a consultancy business
for European and African companies
keen to expand their range of operations
into other continents. Choosing to work
with his Tyrolean backer E2M GMBH
Austria, along with its Italian counter-
part E2M SUCH Italy, he also formed
a partnership with a Rwandan consul-
tancy agency which already enjoyed
a high reputation in the local market.
And so the business, E2M East Africa,
was set up with four stakeholders; two
from Europe and two from Africa. But
this is by no means the only link that
Rukundo has woven between the two
continents. He spoke to The Courier
about his interesting personal journey,
and the triangle of development he has
created between companies, universities
and international agencies.

A diverse career

"For a long time, I was involved in
two main activities. On the one hand,
I was an employee of the Chamber of
Commerce, and I also worked for the
Workers' Chambers as an advisor on
their training courses for young people,
forging connections between schools

and the business world. Since 2003, I
have also run a business consultancy
here in Innsbruck specialising in invest-
ment and financing.

A short while after this, I moved to
East Africa in order to set up business
links between East African companies,
in Rwanda and Kenya first of all, and
Austria, Germany and the Alto Adige/
Siudtirol region (the Tyrolean region
which forms part of Italy). I have just
come back from working in Africa on
another of my projects, a synergetic ven-
ture involving business, universities and
development agencies which is support-
ed by the University of Liechtenstein
and the Association of Private Sector
Companies of Sildtirol, and in the near
future I am going to initiate contacts
with Austrian companies which operate
in China.
More and more African
investment in Europe

So far European companies with a pres-
ence in Africa have not dedicated a great
deal of thought to exchanges of technol-
ogy and capital. Right now, I am nego-
tiating on behalf of African businesses
that want to invest in Europe. There are
going to be more and more of these in
years to come.

My career path? I studied Humanities,
and did Latin and Sciences for my
baccalaureat. Then I did a degree in
Philosophy and Arts, and passed the
competitive exam for secondary educa-
tion in the Congo (DRC). After that, I
took a degree in Theology at the Leopold
Franz Jozef University in Innsbruck.
But then I gave up the idea of becoming
a priest, and instead started a training
course in consultancy for financing and
investment, which I then complemented
by passing a State exam which enabled
me to work in the field of the liberal

Emmanuel Rukundo, African-Tyrolian.
Hegel Goutier

At the forefront of the other Tyroleans
of African origin, known in Innsbruck
as the "white wolves", is Bella Bello
Bitugu, originally from Ghana and a
lecturer in Education and Sociology at
the Univeristy of Innsbruck. Among the
numerous significant roles Bitugu plays,
he is none other than Austria's voice in
the international 'Development through
Football' initiatives.

N. 16 N.E. MARCH APRIL 2010

'SAN' or the


man by



Backed by music that is mesmerising
and rhythmic, interspersed with verses
by the Sufi poet Rumi, South African
choreographer Vincent Mantsoe,
flanked by four other dancers, will
transport you for an hour with the San,
the Bushmen, living witnesses of a
long human journey that started over
20,000 years ago.

Marie-Martine Buckens

t is almost 10 p.m. when Vincent
Matsoe enjoys a last drink with
his dancers on the terrace of the
Market Theatre, which is home
not just to performance spaces but also
has a superb restaurant, not far from
the 'Dance Factory' where he had per-
formed just two hours previously. Before
returning to Newtown, a cultural dis-
trict of Johannesburg, Vincent Mantsoe
had driven his parents back home to
Soweto, after they had come to see him
dance. "At the end of the performance,
my mother was in tears", he told us,
happy and clearly moved. "My parents
gave me a lot of support", he continues;
"although when I was young, my father
wanted me to be a footballer, the only
way for a black to make it during the
Vincent Mantsoe performing 'SAN'. OXavierRouchaud


apartheid era. My mother was, and still
is, a 'sangoma', a traditional healer. It is
through her, through her rituals, that I
learnt rhythm and dance, and through
my grandmother too. She always told
me: "try to remain open culturally", and
said it was a way of knowing myself bet-
ter. It was difficult for me; there were so
many things in my head".

Performing remains
a challenge

But Vincent Mantsoe continued on his
chosen path, shaping his early chore-
ographies with five other young danc-
ers in the Joy Dancers group. "My big
break was to be able to attend courses
by Sylvia Glasser in 1990. She became
my mentor. At the time, it was hard for
a black to dance in a studio with whites.
But, in my opinion, we all have a mix-
ture of origins, and what mattered was
the spirituality that I saw in each person.
That was the way I was brought up,"
Mantsoe found that universal spiritual-
ity during his many travels. Some places
taught him more than others: "Africa
first of all, as well as Asian countries. In
South Korea, and especially in Japan,
I was struck by the similarity between

their dances and ours; their spirituality
was so close to our own".

In 1996 came his first recognition: the
young choreographer won an award
in France at 25 years of age. France
is where he would later meet his wife,
also a dancer, and where he has lived
for the last two years with their two
children, a seven-year-old girl and a
17-month-old son. That doesn't stop
him performing regularly in his home-
land, as well as in other African coun-
tries. He will soon be in Angola, and
in Benin in November. Nevertheless,
the young choreographer believes that
dance is not sufficiently appreciated in
Africa. "Here in South Africa, there
are not many festivals devoted to dance.
People in South Africa are not brought
up to go to the theatre or to a dance
performance." The choreographer is
critical too: "what is more, I don't see
anything very new, I don't even feel the
same passion; I don't feel any inspira-
tion, often I find the expression is very
'peripheral'". There needed to be a show
like 'SAN' to understand what Vincent
Mantsoe means by inspiration, as well
as by strength and beauty of move-
ment, backed by music that enthrals
you with its choreographic quality. That
said, the South African choreographer
recognises that performing anywhere
remains a challenge, although he has
the good fortune to be in contact with
companies, and with the private sector,
and teaching.

"We come from the same
source, and we are faced with
the same struggles"

Going back to this evening's show, it is
the second and final performance on
South African soil before the group's
return to France, and a solo perform-
ance the next day. "'What is SAN'? In
devising this choreography, I had a very
important political as well as a cultural

motivation. I am black, but the other
dancers are not. I did not want it that
way. I am talking about the survival of
the San (Ed. the Bushmen -see also our
feature on South Africa). They are all
black, but we all are, we come from the
same source. All of us, like the San, have
been attacked, we have been decimated
to some extent or another. We come
from the same source, and we are faced
with the same struggles."

Cultural connection

There are five of them on stage, at the
start their heads hanging from strings,
the strings being the sole scenery. They
start from the ceiling, cross the hall
from one side to the other, like paths
-like the 'song lines' of Australia's
Aborigines -and a string separating
the stage from the audience. Gradually,
these bodies will start to move, some-
times trembling, with verve, searching,
sometimes weary. And that is the start
of an hour's journey, our journey, the
journey of humanity.

The music by Shahram Nazeri, Iranian
singer and master of Sufi music, accom-
panies the piece, carries it, and itself
conveys, in long pauses, the verses of the
great poet Rumi. So Africa joins forces
with Asia. "This music is very impor-
tant; it conveys meaning and creates
a cultural connection", adds Mantsoe
fervently. "The instruments too; the
type of violin used is very similar to the
type found in West Africa today, a violin
that started out in Africa, and which you
find, in modified forms, in Kazakhstan
or in Japan."

It is getting late. Mantsoe leaves us
with one last, beaming smile, happy to
have been able to share his passion. His
silhouette, strangely frail and slight,
moves away down the street. On stage,
he is a giant exuding strength, with a
piercing gaze that speaks volumes.

'SAN'. Xavier Rouchaud

N. 16 N.E. MARCH APRIL 2010


n Wildlife wardens keep a watch on confiscated elephant tusks at
the Kenyan wildlife offices in Nairobi, Kenya (2009). 0Reporters/AP

New moves

to stamp

out the

ivory trade

An African Elephant Coalition is
calling on the European Union to
oppose any move in the Convention
on International Trade in Endangered
Species (CITES) that would give a
green light to exports of African
ivory which, it says, would further
put in peril the African elephant.
The ministerial meeting of CITES in
Qatar, 13-25 March, was expected to
look at requests from Tanzania and
Zambia to permit "one off" exports.
The move has re-opened the "deeply
divisive debate" on conservation of
the continent's elephant populations,
says Shelley Waterland, Programmes
Manager of the UK-based wildlife
protection charity, the Born Free

Debra Percival

An international ban on the
trade, placing the African
Elephant in CITES category
I, was originally imposed in
1989 following a decade of uncontrolled
elephant slaughter which reduced the
population of Africa's elephants from
1.3M to just 600,000. "The ban was suc-
cessful. Elephant poaching was signifi-
cantly reduced and prices of ivory on the
black-market slumped", says Waterland.

Nations have since chipped away at the
ban, she says. Elephant populations
in four Southern African countries
(Zimbabwe, Botswana, South Africa
and Namibia) have been downlisted to
CITES Appendix II enabling trade in
ivory if approved by CITES parties. In
1999, almost 50 tonnes of ivory were
shipped from southern Africa to Japan
and in 2009, 105 tonnes were exported
from Southern Africa to Japan and
China. Zimbabwe can export ivory
carvings for 'non-commercial' pur-
poses and Namibia can export ivory
'ekipas' (traditional carvings), also for
non-commercial purposes. In 2007, a
nine-year moratorium on applications
to CITES for further downlistings was
imposed, giving time to the interna-
tional community to observe the effects
of the moratorium and encourage it to
fund anti-poaching measures such as
the equipping and training of rangers.

Extinct in Sierra Leone

As well as opposing requests from
Tanzania and Zambia to export respec-
tively 90 and 22 tonnes of ivory, the
coalition of East, West and Central
African states (Ghana, Liberia, Mali,
Sierra Leone, Togo, Republic of Congo

and Rwanda), now also wants to see a
20-year moratorium imposed at Qatar.
The Born Free Foundation says that any
quantity of ivory entering the market will
lead to an upsurge in poaching which in
Kenya is at its worst levels since an inter-
national ban was first implemented in
1989. "For Sierra Leone, it may already
be too late", says Waterland. The foun-
dation fears the last remaining elephants
were poached in the West African state
in September-October 2009. Catherine
Bearder (UK Liberal Member of the
European Parliament), who sits on the
EP's Joint Parliamentary Assembly with
African Caribbean and Pacific (ACP)
states, is petitioning the EU's public to
support the moratorium.

In its application to CITES, Tanzania
says that its elephant population is well
managed; steadily recovering from
55,000 in 1989 to 136,753 in 2006.
Zambia also says it has "substantial con-
servation practices" in place.

"Legal ivory entering the market pro-
vides organised criminal synidicates
with open channels for laundering ille-
gal ivory", says Waterland. She wants
to see EU political support for a mora-
torium in CITES and funding to con-
serve elephant populations particularly
in West and Central Africa.

Latest: In Doha, CITES member
states rejected both the application
from Tanzania and Zambia to sell
stockpiles and the 'Elephant Coali-
tion's' request for an extension of the
ivory trade ban.

Find out more:


Oiu pane

No tuna fishing

ban just yet

"In the Indian Ocean, the annual catch of 500,000 tonnes is 40 per cent
above the level necessary to allow stock reproduction". Reporters/AP

Hegel Goutier

national Trade in Endangered
Species of Wild Flora and
Fauna (CITES), meeting in
Doha, Qatar, from 13 to 25 March
2010, did not decide on a bluefin tuna
fishing ban in the Atlantic from 2011, as
sought by the European Union, which
believes over fishing of tuna in the
Atlantic has already gone far beyond
the required limit for species survival.
There are also concerns about tuna fish-
ing in the Indian Ocean, in which many
EU countries are involved, and that is
an important economic sector for the
region's ACP states.

Before the meeting, EU Environment
Commissioner Janez Potocnik had
drawn attention to the fact that, on
the basis of the scientific data, a fish-
ing ban is the only way to avoid tuna
disappearing entirely from the Atlantic,
where they are threatened by over-
fishing. This is despite the protection
measures taken in the past two years by
the ICCAT (International Commission
for the Preservation of Atlantic Tuna),
which includes quotas imposed on fish-
ing vessels and satellite monitoring of
their movements, and also despite an
even stricter surveillance system put in
place by the European Commission.

These scientific opinions are unequivo-
cal. In the past 60 years the tuna popu-
lation in question has dropped by 15%
compared with what it would have been

without fishing, thereby rendering its
survival prospects unlikely. Bluefin tuna
needs to be included in the CITES
Appendix 1 of the most endangered
species for which a total fishing ban
must apply. This could be a temporary
ban provided it is total, believes the
European Commission.

A ban also has the support of envi-
ronmental protection NGOs, such as
the WWF, albeit with one reservation.
The latter criticise the delay of one year
before the ban enters into force, as advo-
cated by the CITES, the Commission
and certain EU Member States, includ-
ing France. These NGOs want to see
greater conviction, especially as few
EU Member States have changed their
stance after having long opposed any

Although the (yellowfin) tuna found
in the Indian Ocean is a little less
threatened than its Atlantic relative,
here too scientists are calling for drastic
measures to ensure its survival. At the
'Taking stock, action today for sustain-
able tuna fishing tomorrow' conference,
held in Victoria, the Seychelles, ending
on 10 February 2010, experts includ-
ing the reputed French scientist Alain
Fonteneau expressed the view that the
annual catch of 500,000 tonnes is 40%
above the level required to permit stock

The Seychelles Government, speak-
ing through their Minister for the
Environment, Natural Resources and
Transport, Joel Morgan, called on coun-
tries with fishing vessels operating in
the Indian Ocean to follow the example
of the Seychelles and adopt healthy
practices and to participate actively in
the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission
(IOTC). For his part, Orlando Fachada,
ofthe European Commission's Maritime
Affairs and Fisheries DG, expressed
regret that the IOTC's action has failed
to live up to the mandate with which it
was entrusted.

N. 16 N.E. MARCH APRIL 2010

Cotonou revision rises

to MDG challenge

Anne-Marie Mouradian

es, ACP countries and the
European Union concluded the
second revision of the Cotonou
Agreement on 19 March 2010. The
agreement will be formally signed in
Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, in June
at the next Joint ACP-EU Ministerial

The revised agreement focuses on
regional integration of the ACP coun-
tries and EU-Africa strategy. It steps
up cooperation on the challenges of
the Millennium Development Goals
(MDGs), climate change, food security
and sustainable fishing. Drawing on
the lessons of the recent economic and
financial crises, the agreement high-
lights the need to strengthen the capac-
ity of the ACP countries to resist exog-
enous shocks and to assist them using
all means, including the vulnerability
FLEX mechanism.

Andris Piebalgs, the European
Commissioner for Development, who
was delighted with the outcome, said
that the new provisions will enable the
EU and the ACP countries to combat
poverty more effectively and strengthen
their political relations.

In the presence of the new Secretary
General of the ACP Group, Mohamed
Ibn Chambas, the Minister for Economic
Affairs, Trade, Industry and Tourism

of Gabon, Paul Bunduku-Latha, and
the Spanish Secretary of State for
International Cooperation, Soraya
Rodriguez Co-Presidents of the Joint
Council -acclaimed the progress made
and the compromises reached.

Bones of contention

In line with a request from the European
Parliament, the EU wanted the princi-
ples of non-discrimination enshrined in
the Cotonou Agreement to be extended
to sexual orientation. In a resolution
in December 2009, MEPs pointed out
that homosexuality is only legal in 13
African countries and is still considered
a crime in 38 others and expressed
their concerns at the possible domino
effect of an anti-homosexuality bill in

Homosexuality is only legal in
13 African countries and is still
considered a crime in 38 others

The ACP Group refused to accept
any explicit reference to the rights of
homosexuals. The compromise finally
adopted is a vague one, settling on a
reference to the Universal Declaration
of Human Rights, Article 2 of which
advocates freedom "without distinction
of any kind, such as race, colour, sex,
language, religion, political or other
opinion, national or social origin, prop-
erty, birth or other status".

The issue of readmission of illegal
immigrants to their country of ori-

gin was another sticking point. Article
13 of the Cotonou Agreement makes
reference to the principle of return of
illegal immigrants, but the Europeans
maintain that it does not allow for an
operational approach. The 27 Member
States wanted to redefine the provisions,
whereas the ACP favoured discussing
the issue within the framework of the
bilateral agreements between the EU
and each state. Work on this issue will
continue until the official signing of the
agreement in June.

No aid figure

Furthermore, a joint declaration was
expected on the future financing of
EU-ACP cooperation after the 10th
EDF expires in 2013. The EU proposed
reaffirming its financial commitments
to combating poverty and addressing
the challenges identified in the agree-
ment. The ACP states wanted more
specific assurances and a series of fac-
tors, such as the increase in the number
of EU Member States, adaptation to
climate change and the adjustment costs
relating to the Economic Partnership
Agreements (EPAs), to be taken into
account. The EU was unable to commit
itself. "These criteria have not even been
discussed internally yet", explained a
European diplomat, and in the end, no
declaration was adopted.

The third revision of the Cotonou
Agreement in 2015 will coincide with
the deadline for achieving the MDGs.


S interactio

EU action on Gender Equality

and Women's Empowerment

An 'EU Action Plan on Gender Equality and Women's Empowerment in
Development, 2010-2015' aims to speed up the progress of the EU and its 27
Member States on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) on equality and
maternal health which are lagging behind.

Debra Percival

It builds on the EU's 2007 'Commu-
nication on Gender Equality' actions,
recommending the organisation of
regular political meetings to assess
progress, the setting up of gender data-
bases and analysis at an EU level and
more involvement of civil society in the
specific gender-related projects funded.

"Improving women's daily lives in
the world will be one of my priori-
ties", stated Andris Piebalgs, European
Commissioner for Development on
the Action Plan's 8 March launch on
International Women's Day.

Maternal health lagging

He added: "The EU is the world's big-
gest donor. We have to enhance our

ability to assist countries in implement-
ing their gender commitments and to
support the efforts of women's groups
and networks in their fight for greater

Least progress of all has been on MDG
5 focusing on maternal health. The
'EU Action Plan' also draws attention
to acts of gender-based violence which
continue to be widespread worldwide,
particularly against women and girls
(see box).
Find out more:
See The Courier's special issue on gender
(December 2009)
policy-proposalsen.cfm (food security)

Gender drawing competition
for eight to tens

Young people, aged eight to ten,
from Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, the
Pacific, Latin America, the Mediter-
ranean, the Middle East and other
European countries, including the
EU's eastern neighbours, are asked
to send in their drawings for an inter-
national competition launched by the
EU on the topic of gender equality.
The specific theme is how girls and
boys, women and men can together
make the world a better place. Win-
ners in each region will be awarded
a prize of t1,000 each, to be used to
buy books, computers or other edu-
cational materials.

For details: http://ec.europa.eu/europe-

Rape as a weapon of war

Gender-based violence is still rife in
the Democratic Republic of Congo.
On the 10th anniversary of UN Secu-
rity Council Resolution 1325 on vio-
lence against women in armed con-
flict, an exhibition of photos snapped
by photojournalist Cornelia Suhan on
'Rape asa weapon of war: Women in
the Democratic Republic of Congo',
was jointly hosted on 3 March by
German Green Member of the Eu-
ropean Parliament (MEP), Barbara
Lochbilhler and the German NGO
Medica Mondiale at the European
Parliament in Brussels. It featured
the NGO's projects to rebuild the
victims' lives. "It is not an inter-ethnic
conflict but one of multinationals ex-
ploiting the Congo. Victims are not
in Kinshasa but in rural zones and
women are paying the price", said
Jeannine Tshimpambu Mukanirwa,
Project Coordinator for Peacebuild-
ing with the NGO'Promotion et Appui
aux Initiatives Feminines au Congo',
one of the few organisations for rape
victims in DRC, and which works in
the field with Medica Mondiale.

Goma, Democratic Republic of Congo, March 8, 2009. International Womens Day Parade is
celebrated in the town of Goma in war torn Eastern Congo. Reporters/TeunVoeten

N. 16 N.E. MARCH APRIL 2010

interaction VD B

for ACP trade?

for ACP trade?

Coffee plantation Central Africa Congo (former Zaire). 0 Reporters/ Eureka Slide

A repeat of the de-globalisation of the
1930s, or rapid growth of the 1990s
and early last decade? Which scenario
awaits the world post-crisis?

Debra Percival

the 1970s and early 1980s:
very slow growth in the
West; high growth in
emerging markets -albeit slower than
pre-crisis -and negative growth in low
income and developing countries. The
warning came from Dr. Razeen Sally,
co-director of the European Centre for
International Political Economy at a
Conference, 'EU Trade Policy Towards
Developing Countries' hosted by the
European Commission in Brussels on
16 March.

Policymakers should be wary of past
mistakes by erecting new non-tariff bar-
riers which distort competition. There
were signs of such discriminatory trade
practices and restricted cross-border
lending in the last quarter of 2009, says
the World Trade Organisation (WTO).

There is no greater stimulus to world
trade, said Dr. Sally, than to push
ahead with the European Union's Single

Market; specifically more open markets
in energy and services. "When the EU's
internal market was doing well in the
1980s, external trade did well", said Dr.
Sally. And he added that the WTO's
Doha Trade Round should be pared
down to such as the abolition of agricul-
tural export subsidies so the world can
start afresh on a post-Doha strategy;
pluri-country negotiations of services,
energy, government procurement agree-
ments and elimination of non-tariff bar-
riers to trade.

"Messy reality" of EPAs

His view of the Economic Partnership
Agreements (EPAs) with the six African
Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) regions?
Given the current "messy reality" with
their negotiation, he doubts their suc-
cessful conclusion. The Caribbean
region, CARICOM, is to date the only
one to have signed a regional pact that
goes beyond trade in goods.

Other ACP regions -or parts of regions
-have drawn up interim 'goods only'
pacts and instead of joining an EPA,
many Least Developed Countries
(LDCs) of the 79-state ACP group
have instead chosen to benefit from free
access to the EU market under the EU's
2001 Everything But Arms (EBA) ini-
tiative for LDCs. The EBA is itself due
to be reviewed before the end of 2011
alongside the EU Generalised System
of Preference (GSP) for all developing
countries, said the EU's Commissioner

for Trade, Karel De Gucht, at the trade

"EPAs will help make ACP countries
more competitive by lowering import
costs and providing access to affordable
quality services. They will help create
a transparent and predictable business
environment and help ACP countries
attract the investment they so desper-
ately need", said De Gucht. Not sharing
this view many civil society groups con-
tinue to hit out at the EU's "corporate
trade agenda".

Professor Festus Fajana from the
African Union said that an EPA "devel-
opment component" is essential, such
as funds for infrastructure and more
relaxed rules of origin. The EU says
together with the 27 Member States, its
target is to spend 2bn annually on aid
for trade by this year.

China: EU's no. 2 trade partner

"The EU's trade with China its sec-
ond biggest trading partner- is worth
300bn per year and 50bn of the
EU's multilateral stock is in China.
The EU's trade with the ACPs is only
100bn, and just three and a half
per cent of EU's outward investment
goes to ACPs." Dr Razeen Sally.


Hait Interacti

The global politics of moving tectonic plates

Haiti and the Dominican Republic:

a time for reconciliation

Hegel Goutier

2010 awoke a global spirit
of generosity, and it seems
that this was true first and
foremost of Haiti's near neighbour, the
Dominican Republic. It may even be
that this was the most important side
effect of the catastrophe, at least for
Haiti, the Dominican Republic and the

In just a few days, more than sixty years
of relatively chilly relations between
the two neighbours which share the
same Caribbean island seem to have
faded into the past. On both sides of the
frontier, there is a strong feeling that
what some commentators have dubbed a
miracle, a rediscovery of a lost brother-
hood, or a metamorphosis in relations
has killed off once and for all the latent
suspicion harboured by the political
classes of each country towards their

Planes, ships and trucks

From the very first hours after the
earthquake, the Dominican Republic
has mobilised an unimaginable array of
resources in proportion to its own some-
what limited economic power. The first
to appear on the scene were the rescu-
ers, who were backed up with significant
supplies of drinking water. The country
then placed at its neighbour's disposal its
hospitals and airports, and mobilised its
aeroplanes, helicopters, ships and avail-
able land transport. Convoys of trucks
were converted into mobile health cen-
tres and buses into schools, and trucks
were dispatched to the remotest corners
of Haiti to serve as mobile restaurants.
The Dominican Republic has shared its
hydrological, electrical and telecommu-
nications resources with its neighbour.

A single set of figures sums up the situ-
ation. Every day since 12 January, the
Dominican Republic has spent nearly
$US85,000 on aid for Haiti, and, in
slightly over a month, the value of the
food aid alone provided is estimated at

Looking beyond aid and even beyond
the subsequent reconstruction of Haiti,
the Dominican Republic has taken on
a leading role in a series of diplomatic
initiatives, aiming for instance to secure
an early vote in the United States to pass
the 'Law of Economic Opportunities'
to provide more help for Haiti. In eco-
nomic terms, the business communities
of the two countries are contemplating
nothing less than the setting up of spe-
cial economic 'clusters', with a view to
giving competitive edge to both nations'
presence in the international market
for certain products. On 5 February,
this venture formed the focus of an
important meeting of businesspeople,
organised principally by the Director-
Generals of two vital institutions in the
countries, the 'investment facilitation
centers': Guy Lamothe in Haiti and his
Dominican counterpart Eddy Martinez
Manzueta respectively. This initiative
is being closely followed by the govern-
ments of both nations.

Free passage

The analysis of many a well-informed
commentator has been sprinkled with
other examples, too. The Dominican
government has provisionally rendered
null and void a set of laws, decrees and
measures limiting or imposing strict

control over the entry into its territory
of Haitians, granting free passage to the
wounded. In the space of less than three
weeks, the Dominican authorities have
given the go-ahead to more than three
hundred flights for medical purposes,
with all visa requirements lifted, and
have allowed a large number of homeless
individuals to cross the frontier without
imposing any strict controls on their
movement. The cardinal importance
of these measures has been universally

It is true that a degree of hesitation on
the part of the Haitian government as
regards accepting a Dominican military
contingent among the United Nations
troops posted to the country has sur-
faced, but no outright refusal has been
forthcoming either. While it has been
suggested that the Dominicans have
not been acting solely for altruistic rea-
sons, and that they are interested in the
opportunities presented by development
in Haiti, even if it is only to avoid a wave
of migrants, these voices of circumspec-
tion do not, however, appear to have
originated in the island itself. "And even
if it were true, performing good deeds
in order to protect oneself is still a kind
of altruistic diplomacy", or so a Haitian
official confided to us.


N. 16 N.E. MARCH APRIL 2010

interactI Belgium-Afria B

Belgium backs small business in Africa

Hegel Goutier

the Belgian Investment
Company for Developing
Countries (BIO), a coopera-
tive venture between the Belgian gov-
ernment and private enterprise, has set
up, in collaboration with the Centre for
the Development of Enterprise (CDE),
a novel financial institution which aims
to provide support for small businesses
in the South, and in Africa in particular.
ATHENA was officially launched on 4
February by the Belgian federal govern-
ment minister for development, Charles
Michel He was joined by high-ranking
officials of BIO and by Director General
of the CDE, Mabousso Thiam. A sum
of more than 3M has been set aside for
the initiative.

Those behind ATHENA see it as the
missing link for the enabling of support

for businesses in the South which are
too large to benefit from microfinance
and yet too small for medium-term-
type financing by the banks. It therefore
occupies a relatively new niche in the
international market of financial coop-
eration, namely that of "mesofinance".

New partner

In joining up with a new partner, the
CDE, the Belgian Investment Company,
itself a joint venture of the Belgian state
and private enterprise, is in a position to
benefit from the broad experience of an
organisation well-versed in cooperation
between ACP nations and the European
Union, and with specialised knowledge
of the special features of the differ-
ent types of companies in developing
countries and specifically of the actual
bodies operating on the ground. It now
has available the expertise to be able to
guarantee the credibility and solvency of
these enterprises and thus to allow BIO
to take the calculated risks necessary.

BIO, which has been in existence
since 2001, has a presence in more
than a hundred developing countries,
of which it has 18 privileged part-
ners, including 14 African countries,
11 of which are members of the ACP
Group (Mali, Senegal, Niger, Benin,
the Democratic Republic of the Congo,
Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, Tanzania,
Mozambique and South Africa). For
2010, ATHENA has a budget of 3.3M,
of which 300,000 will go to strength-
ening the technical expertise of benefi-
ciary companies. In terms of the sums
earmarked for the financing of enter-
prises in developing countries, BIO's
budget of 138M showed a net increase
in 2009, thanks to a 97M increase in
the contribution of the Belgian govern-

BIO's planned strategy for the next three
years envisages its playing an increasing-
ly important role in sub-Saharan Africa,
with a particular focus on the develop-
ment of the food processing sector.

New EU impetus for MDGs

Debra Percival

n the run up to the September
Review conference in New York
on the Millennium Development
Goals (MDGs), the European
Commission has drafted a staff working
paper on 'More and Better Education in
Developing Countries', http://ec.europa.
SEC2010 0121_EN.pdf) and is in the
midst of drawing up other thematic
papers on health, food security, gender
and tax governance. The bottom line is
that Official Development Aid (ODA)
alone is not enough if the MDGs are
to be reached (see separate article in
this issue on the latest ODA figures).
Together with an awaited 'Spring devel-
opment package' which includes further
Commission staff papers on the MDGs,
on the progress on the Monterrey
Consensus and Doha Declaration on
financing, aid effectiveness and aid for
trade, they are expected to give a new
impetus to making progress on attain-
ing the MDGs.

Strong EU Vision

"The EU should strive to promote a
strong vision, common voice and action
in global health and should promote
an inclusive framework under the UN

leadership," said EU Commissioner
for Development, Andris Piebalgs, at
a meeting on 'Delivering the Right to
Health with the Health MDGs', held
at the European Parliament, 2 March
2010. Piebalgs urged the international
community to focus particularly on:
mortality of children under five (MDG
4); maternal mortality (MDG 5) and
major pandemics such as HIV/Aids and
malaria (MDG 6). He also called for
more thought on the "coherence of poli-
cies". Trade, he said, influenced access

to medicines and migration policies
had direct implications on the ability
of partner countries to keep their own
health professionals. EU Foreign and
Security Policy, he said, needed to take
onboard global health threats. Food
security, he said, was closely linked to
nutrition and climate change affected
health on a global scale. Piebalgs called
for increased funding for research and
development and a look at "innovative
and original sources of funding".


ACP-E 'fV In r

New ACP Water Facility

Debra Percival

T he EU's new 200M
Water Facility for African,
Caribbean and Pacific
(ACP) countries financed
under the 10th European Development
Fund (EDF) was launched in Brussels
on 9 February. It aims to further the
target contained in the Millennium
Development Goals (MDGs) of halving
by 2015 the proportion of people with-
out sustainable access to safe drinking
water and sanitation and the related
MDGs of reducing child and maternal
mortality (MDGs 4 and 5) and com-
bating disease (MDG 6). It follows
the success of the first 500M facility
(2004-2006) under the 9th EDF and
emphasises participation of local part-
ners and NGOs in projects co-funded
with the EU.

Out of the overall budget, a sum of
110M is allocated to 'Water, Sanitation
and Hygiene promotion for the MDGs'.
Calls for proposals close on 2 June
2010. The focus here is on the provi-
sion of basic infrastructure in rural

and peri-urban areas. A 440M sum is
also budgeted for proposals to set up
'Partnerships for Capacity development
in the ACP Water and Sanitation sec-
tor' (North-South and South-South) in
order to transfer expertise and knowl-
edge from water and sanitation utilities,
local authorities and other water sector
actors to ACP counterparts. A M40M
"pooling mechanism" will co-finance
medium-sized water and sanitation

Luis Riera Figueras, a Director at the
European Commission's Directorate
General for Development, said the first
facility had brought safe water to 14 mil-
lion people; 2-3 million people had ben-
efitted from improved sanitation, and 11
million from better hygiene awareness.
The first facility also enabled 9 river
basin infrastructure projects.

"Water is a basic human right", said
Riccardo Petrella, a political analyst
and author of the 'Water Manifesto' at
the launch.

For more on the calls for proposals see: http://
cooperation/water/index en.htm

The Success of Capacity4dev.eu

Set up in October 2009, Capacity4dev (capacity4dev.eu) an interactive
platform set up by the EuropeAid office to "share ideas and knowledge" has had
surprising success so far. Vistors to date number nearly 25,000. It also has just
gained its 1000th subscriber.

Andrea Marchesini Reggiani

coordinator of the Backbone
Strategy on Reforming
Technical Cooperation, tells
us about the idea behind the website:
"What do you think of our technical
assistance?" I put this to the leader of an
African farmers' association some time
ago, and the answer was so rich and inter-
esting that I dreamt up Capacity4dev as a
space to share these voices."

She continues: "I work on the EC
Reform of Technical Assistance, with
the aim of making it responsive to local
demand and to real needs. This reform

is a game involving many players. We
need partnership and inputs from the
South to make it work. More generally,
we need Southern voices to improve the
way we work. Now, when I open the
platform every morning it's like opening
a window. When I post material, I'm
happy to think that it will be accessible
to such a variety of people."

Join in

But the website seems to have broad-
ened its horizons beyond the initial
target of operators in the field of techni-
cal cooperation. It now hosts around 30
workgroups (some of which are open,
while others are restricted) focusing on
issues such as rural development and
agriculture (the most popular group,

with 46 participants), and culture and
development (with 36 participants).

Capacity4dev's manager, Christoforos
Korakas, says the site is "the first open
space offered by a donor for partners to
create their own working groups and
fora. Whoever comes will bring content,
ideas and material, and will join a grow-
ing community of practitioners."

"It's good to see the number and variety
of external users growing", concludes
Manzitti. "Many are from civil society
and the private sector. It's encouraging
to see that our invitation to come and
see what we do has been taken up. Now
we are aiming to build more exchanges
and more online dialogue. It's a learning

N. 16 N.E. MARCH APRIL 2010

An extraordinary laboratory

Marie-Martine Buckens

11 February 2010. The entire
Rainbow Nation is celebrating the 20th
anniversary of the release of Nelson
Mandela, the global icon of the fight
against apartheid. His election as
South Africa's first black president, in
1994, heralded a new era for all those
condemned to the fringes of society,
primarily black people. Today South
Africa occupies a special place in the
concert of nations, as witnessed by
the Strategic Partnership signed
with the European Union in 2007.

Yet the South Africans are also the first
to highlight their still open wounds.
First and foremost is crime, even though
it affects essentially the underprivileged
sections of the population. It is therefore
not for nothing that the new black
middle classes, those who benefited from
the policy of 'positive discrimination'
(Black Economic Empowerment),
have adopted the same policy as the
whites by protecting their homes with
electrified fencing. "There is this
constant underlying fear of violence,

even if everybody gives the appearance
of being very friendly", one white
South African told us. It is as if the
population fear that at any moment
the feat achieved by Mandela and his
successors in avoiding a bloodbath and
a mass exodus of whites will suddenly
come to an end. It is no doubt this same
fear that explains their attitude to the
influx of refugees from neighbouring
countries, at a time when Bishop Paul
Verryn is calling on his country to
open up its external borders just as, he
says, it opened up its internal borders.

But if South Africa meets this challenge,
it will prove once again that it is an
extraordinary laboratory, in which a
new mixing of cultures is at work.

Other major challenges remain. Access
to basic services is denied to almost
half the population, for example. Then
there is the race issue, invisible barriers
remain and everybody can assure you
that "the colours of the rainbow do not
touch". Yet the mixing process is at work,

progressing little by little. All of them, be
they blacks, coloureds, whites or Indians
-categories that still apply in a system
of positive discrimination -will tell you
proudly that they are "South Africans".

That leaves the country, with its
wonderful people and beautifully
diverse landscapes. An emerging
economy that, alongside its precious
stones, also successfully sells its wines
and other nectars. "This country
enables you to find and express your
goal as there is so much to do" he adds.

11 June 2010. The SouthAfrican soccer
team, Bafana-Bafana, plays Mexico in
the opening match of the World Cup at
the Soccer City stadium near Soweto. A
venue of great symbolic significance.


From the Khoisan to

the Rainbow Nation

Marie-Martine Buckens

They were very probably the first
to walk the land of Southern Africa
more than 30,000 years ago. The
San whom Dutch settlers much later
called Bosjesmans ("bushmen")-
were hunter-gatherers. About 2,500
years ago, some of these hunters
became livestock farmers. These
Khoikhois, moved southward, as far
as the Cape of Good Hope. They
shared a common language with the
bushmen, khoisan. Because of the
"clicks" that are characteristic of their
language, the Khoikhois were later
nicknamed "Hottentots" (stutterers) by
the settlers.

peoples, who had come from
the Niger delta, started to move
into the east, into the modern-
day province of KwaZulu-Natal and
later, to the Eastern Cape province. It
was against this human backdrop that the
first Europeans landed on the southern
tip of what would become South Africa.

Initially, there were brief incursions by
the Portuguese, who ultimately preferred
the safe ports of Mozambique. Dutch-
man Jan van Riebeeck, commissioned
by the omnipotent Dutch East India
Company, and a hundred of his men,
were the first to settle at the foot
of Table Mountain on the Cape in
1652. His mission was to set up a base
where sailors weakened by scurvy after
several months at sea could take on
supplies of fresh produce. The small
colony ultimately became permanent;
in their quest for grazing lands, the
Dutch farmers, the Boers, were in
competition with the Khoikhois. Slaves
were imported, from Africa as well as
from Malaysia, and their descendants
form the ethnic group of "Cape Malays".
Boer society imposed an initial, dual
segregation. The only common factor:
the Afrikaans language, a distorted,
simplified form of Dutch. In 1685, the

Huguenots, driven out of France by the
revocation of the Edict of Nantes, joined
the Boers and developed the vineyards
which now rival their French ancestors.

The Promised Land

At the end of the 18th century, the pace
of change increased. The British decided
to seize the Cape Colony. Objective: to
prevent France, which had just invaded
the Netherlands, controlling this vital
stopping point en route to the Indies.
The Boers who dubbed themselves
Afrikaners and were convinced they
had found the promised land referred to
in the Bible, an unshakeable conviction
that would guide them throughout
their history found themselves in
conflict with the British, who ultimately

Gravure Khoikhois-Apartheid Museum, Johannesburg.
Marie-Martine Buckens

N. 16 N.E. MARCH APRIL 2010

Repo*rt S Afrc

dominated politics and the economy.
In 1835, the abolition of slavery, the
legal compensation paid to farmers, and
the arrogance of the British authorities
drove thousands of Boers to emancipate
themselves from the colonial power. So
they started a long exodus northward -
the Great Trek.

The Boer War

The Boers settled in the north and
founded the Transvaal and Orange
Republics. The British spread out from
the Cape to Natal, to the east, killing
thousands of Xhosas as they went.
The truce between the two colonial
peoples was short-lived. The discovery
of diamonds in Kimberley in 1867
aroused the envy of the British who, led
by the insatiable Cecil Rhodes, Prime
Minister of the Cape and soon to be the
head of the powerful De Beers mining
company, would seize the territories to
the north, which would later become
Rhodesia. But it was above all the
gold-bearing lode, located in Afrikaner
"lands", in Johannesburg, which drove
London to annex the Transvaal in
1866, which started the First Boer War.
It would result in a narrow victory
for the Boers, led by the legendary
Paul Kruger. The British issued a new
ultimatum, demanding equal rights
for the British living in the Transvaal,
where many foreigners, mainly Indians
as well as blacks, were working in the
gold mines. The Afrikaners resisted,
and London responded. Boer civilians
were sent to concentration camps, their
black servants to other camps, and their
farms were burned. The Afrikaners
surrendered, but the tens of thousands
of civilians who died in the camps would
long be a source of hatred for Afrikaners
against the United Kingdom.

From national union to

Under the unification treaty (Verdrag
van Vereeniging) signed on 31 May
1902, the Transvaal and the Orange
Free State became British colonies. To
compensate, the British government
granted the Boers autonomous
government. In 1910, the Union of
South Africa was established. The
former commander of the Boer army,
Louis Botha, became Prime Minister
and leader of the South African Party.
Blacks and Coloureds, who represented
over two-thirds of the population, were
systematically excluded from political
life. The first reserves for the Blacks
(Bantustans) were set up. Shortly
afterwards, in 1923, the Black elite
and the Coloureds formed a party that
would become the African National
Congress (ANC), which Nelson Mandela
would later join. In 1913, the White
Parliament adopted the Native Lands

Act, which reserved 93% of the land
of the Union for the white minority.

In order to win over a conservative
English-speaking electorate, Daniel
Malan, winner of the 1948 election,
introduced, a racial classification. It
divided South Africans into categories:
Whites, Coloureds (of mixed race),
Black (Black Africans) and Asian
(mostly Indian). In 1953, the Separate
Amenities Act enshrined the separation
of public places. Blacks were obliged to
carry with them the notorious "Pass",
which certified their identity and their
place of residence. In 1961, the Union
of South Africa became the Republic
of South Africa. In June 1964, the
UN Security Council condemned
apartheid and ordered that sanctions
be examined against the Republic.
The various parties fighting apartheid
radicalised. In 1961, Nelson Mandela
founded Umkhonto We Siswe ("Spear
of the Nation"), the armed wing of the
ANC. Mandela was arrested in August
1963 and sentenced to life imprisonment
in 1964. In 1977, the South African
government started a policy of "opening-
up" to the Coloureds and Asians in

From apartheid to the Rainbow

order to counter-balance the numbers
of Blacks. Protests and riots killed many
in the black ghettos. In 1984, a huge
campaign of demonstrations swept
across the country while Archbishop
Desmond Tutu, a black, was awarded
the Nobel Peace Prize. In February
1990, anti-apartheid organisations
were finally authorised. The ANC gave
up the armed struggle and, after 27
years in prison, Nelson Mandela was
freed. In May 1994, after the ANC's
victory in the first multi-racial elections,
Nelson Mandela became the first black
president of South Africa. The new
Constitution established a federation
of nine provinces. It recognised eleven
official languages.

"Justice under a tree", logo of the South African
Constitutional Court- Johannesburg. a avier Rouchaud

The Truth and Reconciliation

Chaired by Desmond Tutu, the Truth
and Reconciliation Commission was
charged with bringing an end to the
years of apartheid, by recording all
the crimes and political offences,
committed not only by the South Afri-
can government but also by the vari-
ous anti-apartheid movements, over
a period from 1 March 1960 (Sharp-
eville massacre) to 10 May 1994. Its
work would take two years.

The rise of Jacob Zuma

In 1999, Nelson Mandela handed
over to Thabo Mbeki. During his two
terms of office (until 2008), the coun-
try experienced annual economic
growth of 5% and improvements in
living conditions in the townships. But
on the other hand: 10% of the popu-
lation remained in abject poverty, ris-
ing unemployment was estimated at
nearly 40%, there was a sharp rise
in crime and the spread of the AIDS
pandemic, and the deterioration of
public spaces. In 2008, widespread
electricity cuts marked the end of the
economic record of a president who
in May had to contend with a wave
of violence murders and robber-
ies committed against immigrants,
mainly from Zimbabwe. Thabo Mbeki
was forced to resign. This resigna-
tion led to a schism within the ANC
and the creation of the Congress of
the People (COPE) by supporters of
the former president. In May 2009,
Jacob Zuma was elected president
of the republic after the ANC victory
(65.90%) in the general elections,
ahead of Helen Zille's Democratic
Alliances (16.96%), who won the
Western Cape Province, and Mosi-
uao Lekota's Congress of the People

Fifteen years after successfully
organising the Rugby World Cup,
marked by the victory in the final of
the national team, the Springboks,
this year South Africa will host the
Soccer World Cup.



Africa is of



to Europe"

Interview with Lodewijk Briet, the
European Union's Ambassador to
South Africa

t, the turopean Union s Ambassador to
South Africa. Xavier Rouchaud

Marie-Martine Buckens

Due to its high level of devel-
opment, South Africa has
a special place in Europe's
cooperation policy. How
would you define it?

Our interest in this country is primarily
geopolitical. South Africa is the conti-
nent's biggest economy. The country's
stability is also of huge importance to
the sub-region as a whole. South Africa
is seen as the "big brother" within the
Southern African Development Council
(SADC). That said, our global econom-
ic interests are limited if you judge them
on the statistics alone: South Africa rep-
resents between just 1% and 2% of our
total trade with third countries. I am
anxious to stress this as there remains
a misunderstanding on this point: too
often we are accused of coming here
with a 'hidden agenda'. This is simply
not true.

So politics comes before coopera-

Indeed, we are here first of all for politi-
cal reasons, over and above the develop-
ment aid aspect. That said, we are doing

important things in the field of aid. This
political vision of our relations took
concrete form in 2007 with a Strategic
Partnership. Three years later, where
are we? We have set up a dozen dialogue
fora and, above all, we have moved from
the donor-recipient relationship that
had prevailed since the early 1990s to
a partnership within which we discuss
matters on an equal footing. Too often
we forget that we have much to learn
from our partner. In the case of South
Africa we can learn about the reconcili-
ation process, and about gender equality
-I am thinking of my own institution,
the European Commission, where there
are still too few women in the top jobs.
The attraction of this country lies in its

A population that remains deeply
divided and unequal...

You must remember that the poverty
threshold is 70 a month and 70% of
South Africans live below this level. The
population of 48 million is made up of
black (just under 80%, at least half liv-
ing in poverty), coloured (close to 10%)
white (also close to 10%, more than half
of Afrikaner heritage) and Asian (just
over 2% mainly of Indian heritage).
Of this total population some 7% pay
most of the taxes. What is more, there

is little socialising between the differ-
ent groups. The colours of the rainbow
mostly do not yet touch, save for one
significant exception: in education, at
schools and universities. Reducing pov-
erty is the major challenge facing the

What is your view of the measures
taken by the government to combat

The measures presented on 17 February
by Finance Minister Pravin Gordhan
in his 2010 budget speech represent
a major effort in combating inequali-
ties and poverty. This is an extremely
complex and difficult exercise. But it is
essential at the moral as well as at the
political level. For better or for worse,
South Africa is a one-party state and
after being in power for 16 years the
ANC can no longer afford to delay. The
promise made by Thabo Mbeki of a bet-
ter life for all remains a dead letter for
many people. In this context, the legacy
of 'Bantu education' (suffering from
discriminatory education policy intro-
duced under apartheid, editor) remains
a particularly challenging issue. But, 16
years on, it is time to stop blaming the
past. Personally, I am very impressed
by many of those whom I have had the
privilege of working with, most of them

N. 16 N.E. MARCH APRIL 2010

South A -fic R o

Rep* t Sot Afrc

University of Pretoria. Marie-Martine Buckens

most of them from the black commu-
nity. Unfortunately, the black South
African population is arguably less well
disposed towards its whites than are
the black populations of neighbouring

What is the EU's contribution to this
"better life for all"?

Although we are the principal aid donor
(70% of external assistance funds) our
contribution is less than 2% of South
Africa's GDP and 0.1% of its national
budget. That said, the sum granted is
substantial: e980M over seven years.
The priority is employment and basic
services. There are many examples of
successful programmes. They have
focused on the less favoured sections of
the population, especially those living in
the townships that are often very remote

from centres of industry or economic
activity, but also the inhabitants of rural
areas that are home to 45% of South
Africans. About 122M has also been
granted to basic education, a significant
sum. It will take another generation to
guarantee that every child can read,
write and count by the time they leave
school. We are also working in the
fields of justice and governance, includ-
ing security. As South Africa in many
respects can be viewed as a one-party
state it is particularly important for civil
society to be able to play its part. Apart
from this our contribution extends well
beyond development assistance to issues
including, for example, energy and cli-
mate change.

Regional cooperation is also among
your priorities, especially the trade
aspect. How are the negotiations on

an Economic Partnership Agreement
(EPA) between the SADC and the EU

South Africa is seen as the 'big brother'
by its regional partners and it is rather
'by default' that these countries are
cooperating. As regards the EPA nego-
tiations, we probably made mistakes
but at the same time we made a lot
of concessions that, to date, have not
been met with constructive responses
from the South African Government
(at present four SADC countries have
already signed an interim EPA). We
respect the importance for the region to
develop its own agenda and believe that
the Agreement will help this agenda.

In front of the Union buildings, Residence of South African Presidency and Government. exavier Rouchaud


A democracy that is opening

up to the opposition

Marie-Martine Buckens

Since the end of apartheid, the
African National Congress (ANC)
has reigned supreme in South
Africa's political life. After the
'Mandela years' that were marked
by reconciliation, followed by the 10
years of Thabo Mbeki, a president
committed to pan-Africanism, since
May 2009 it has been the era of
Jacob Zuma. Observers believe this
is a presidency that could be marked
by a strengthening of democracy by
permitting the opposition to play an
increasing role in domestic affairs.

leader initially caused
questions to be raised on
the international stage due
to his disagreements with Thabo Mbeki
that resulted in the latter and his sup-
porters breaking away to set up a new
party (COPE), and also due to his court
appearances, the people of South Africa
placed all their hopes in their new lead-
er. They looked to him for new jobs, the
extension of basic services to all layers of
society, and a reduction in the virtually
endemic crime-rate. "He is doing what
he can", one European official told us.
"In fact, 10 months after taking office
he has surprised us with his pragmatism
and ability." Unlike his two predeces-
sors, Jacob Zuma is not a Xhosa but
a Zulu, a distinction that remains sig-

nificant in a country where racial dif-
ferences go beyond any divide between
'whites and blacks'. While Jacob Zuma
is an autodidact rather than an intel-
lectual, a polygamist and father of many
children, his activism within the ANC
is long standing. It landed him in prison
on Robben Island with Nelson Mandela
for a decade, but also earned him the
staunch support of the left wing of the


The frankness of the new president is
also surprising. In a rare interview with
the international press, Jacob Zuma told
Time magazine last December that the
challenges South Africa faces: crime,
AIDS, social divisions -even within the
black population with the emergence
of black millionaires -and corruption,
are "very real. And it is only when you
admit that there have been deficiencies
and weaknesses that you make sense to
the people (...) After 15 years, people
are asking: Where is the delivery?" Time
consequently ran the headline, "Could
Zuma Be the President South Africa

One South African observer stresses
that, unlike his predecessor, Jacob Zuma
allows his ministers plenty of room to
manoeuvre. His government has also
opened up more to minority politi-
cal parties, including the Communist
Party but also, for the first time since
1994, to the Freedom Front (FF+) on
the Afrikaner right. This party, which
has now abandoned the idea of creat-
ing a tenth 'independent' province (an
idea backed by the ANC at the time),
caused quite a sensation in May 2008
by succeeding in having the Afrikaners
included in the Unrepresented Nations
and Peoples Organisation (UNPO).

At the economic level, the president
is currently facing increasingly press-
ing demands from Julius Malema, the
fiery and often provocative leader of the
ANC's Youth League, to nationalise gov-
ernment policy. It is a demand support-
ed by the powerful Congress of South
African Trade Unions -COSATU.

South Africa's President Jacob Zuma kicks the ball from the penalty spot during a visit to Wembley
Stadium in London, March 4, 2010, four months ahead of the World Cup. APPhoto/SangTan

N. 16 N.E. MARCH APRIL 2010

South A 1fria Rpr

Repo*rt S Afrc

Opposition politics in

South Africa are changing

slowly but surely

Charles Visser

racy in South Africa in
1994, euphoria ruled. Then
Nobel Laureate Desmond
Tutu's 'Rainbow Nation' seemed firmly
on track, but soon enough the 'rainbow'
became monochrome and this has bedev-
illed opposition politics in the country
ever since.

The obstacles faced by opposition par-
ties in South Africa are many fold and
complex to address. First of all the con-
cept of'loyal opposition' is new to South
Africa and as such often poorly under-
stood. This holds true especially in rural
areas where traditional leaders have
held sway for hundreds of years. Other
problems include what could be called
the 'Lure of the Liberation' movement
and a strong belief in ancestors. These
two go hand in hand. It boils down to
the following pattern of thought: "I
must vote for the liberation movement,
because my ancestors fought and died
for it, and they would be angry if I voted
for someone else."

Then there is a problem of perception
that is unique to South Africa. The offi-
cial opposition, the Democratic Alliance
(DA), is perceived as being a party
promoting 'white' interests. Whether
this is based on any kind of reality is
debatable and quite contentious, but
the fact remains that it exists. The rul-
ing African National Congress (ANC)
recognises this all too well and does not
hesitate to exploit it to its full advan-

It was particularly true under the rule
of former president, Thabo Mbeki who
tarnished the legacy of Nelson Mandela
by making race central to all his policies.
Thus it became easy for him to label all
criticism of his government as "racist"
and, as such, not worthy of debate. And
when the criticism emanated from black
quarters the critics were derogatorily
called "coconuts" meaning people who
are black on the outside and white on
the inside.

The emergence of COPE

Now the question remains: Are these
very real obstacles insurmountable?
South African opposition parties do not

seem to think so. The DA is especially
optimistic that South African politics
are escaping from "the straight-jacket
of race and ethnicity" in the words of
DA MP James Lorimer. Surprisingly,
Lorimer credits the emergence of the
Congress of the People (COPE), a
break-away party from the ANC, for
what he sees as the beginning of a sea-
change in opposition politics in South
Africa. He says that COPE, despite
its organisational shortcomings, opened
the first non-racial debate about opposi-
tion in the country and this benefited
his party enormously.

Suddenly it was "okay" to vote for
someone other than the ANC. In the
2009 elections, the DA had a net gain of
20 seats to a net loss of 33 seats to the
ANC. But the majority remains firmly
in favour of the ANC. They have 264
seats in parliament against the DA's 67,
the 30 seats of COPE and the 18 of the
Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP).

The remaining 27 seats are shared by
smaller parties like the Independent
Democrats (ID) with four seats and the
Freedom Front + (FF+) also with four
seats. The problem these parties face
is once again the perception, in their
case mostly accurate, that they serve
the interests of small or ethnic group-
ings. Thus the ID is seen as a mainly
'coloured' (mixed race) party of the
Western Cape, the IFP as an ethnic Zulu
party and the FF+ as a party serving the
needs of conservative Afrikaners. The
general feeling is that these parties are
likely to disappear gradually as South
African democracy matures.

Mosiuoa Lekota, COPE leader. C Reporters/ JockFistick Democratic Alliance leader Helen Zille. CAPPhoto/Denis Farrell



of Hope

Hundreds of thousands come to the
land of Mandela each year seeking
asylum. Fleeing from poverty,
war or worsening situations in
the neighbouring countries, they
sometimes clash with their South
African counterparts from the
townships. Sometimes these situations
can be explosive.

Marie-Martine Buckens

Polzer, coordinator of a
study programme focused on
migration at the University of
Witwatersrand at Johannesburg empha-
sised from the outset that "the history
of South Africa has always been marked
by migrations, both regional and glo-
bal". She continues: "Many people, in
particular whites, are under the impres-
sion that this migration is new and only
dates back to 1994. However this is not
the case. It is simply a different kind of
migration. It isn't necessarily represent-
ative of a massive population influx in
terms of volume but rather in 'quality'".
And the new immigrants only account
for a small percentage of the popula-
tion: 1.2 to 1.6M out of a population of
almost 47M. "And this is including the
retired Europeans."

At the end of apartheid, South Africa
attracted a large number of people, for
political, and not solely economic, rea-
sons. "These population movements",
Polzer goes on to say, "were not control-
led as they were in the past when people
were recruited to work in the mines
and then sent back to their own coun-
try after their contract expired, or at
least that was the theory". Furthermore,
"South Africa has an extremely liberal
policy regarding the right to asylum,

which is found in few other countries in
the world". In this way, a refugee, whilst
awaiting the decision which will seal
his fate, has access, for a period of two
years, to all public services and also has
the right to work. Even so, in reality it
is much less straightforward. Following
the 2008 riots in the townships, the gov-
ernment took certain measures. "The
government is very embarrassed by the

Alexandra townsnip, JonannesDurg. MarieMartine Buckens

violence which erupted; the greatest
problem is that it is lacking in the
necessary technical capacity and long
term plans to face these issues." Polzer
also warns about 'spontaneous' violence
towards new immigrants: "It is very
often instigated by specific groups, who
mobilise the people in order to safeguard
their own interests, whether commercial
or political".

The bishop causing a stir

Bishop Paul Verryn, head of the Meth-
odist Church in Johannesburg explains,
as an introduction, that: "I could tell you
what is happening in Zimbabwe without
reading a single sentence from a news-
paper", adding: "what's happening in
that country, if a child of eight years old
can arrive here on his own?" The church
has taken on the appearance of a real
refugee camp where, for the last five
years, there has been an influx of hun-
dreds of illegal immigrants. For the most
part they have been Zimbabweans, but
there have also been refugees from Ma-
lawi and the Democratic Republic of the

Congo. Today there are over 2,000 of
them being housed in precarious condi-
tions in the place of worship. In January,
police raided the premises. Shortly af-
terwards, the bishop was suspended by
the religious leaders. "It was a wonderful
gift; it created an opportunity to mobilise
people, the government has decided to
take action." Although the church has a
school and an IT centre, Verryn still feels
that "this place of worship is not made
to accommodate 2,000 people". He
added: "There are currently more than
700 buildings in Johannesburg standing
empty ..."

N. 16 N.E. MARCH APRIL 2010

S Afica Re

Future soccer


train in


Alexandra is the most densely
populated and troubled and
sometimes violent too (remember the
2008 riots) of the Johannesburg
townships. It is here that two
afternoons a week about 250 children
come to train on the 13th Avenue
soccer pitch. Their coaches? Young
volunteers recruited from neighbouring
schools. It is a sport that teaches them
stamina, discipline, rules of hygiene...
and the fun of playing together.

Marie-Martine Buckens

F ootball? For many young peo-
ple in the townships it is the
dream of a better future. Just
a few weeks before the World
Cup, they are more motivated than
ever. "We are using the World Cup to
highlight our 'sport for development'
project", explains Sibu Sibaca, head of
the South African branch of the NGO
Play Soccer. In Alexandra ('Alex' as it is
known by the people of Johannesburg),
the programme was launched in August.
"The young people living in these dis-
advantaged neighbourhoods are often
left to their own devices, and the central
idea is to complete their education, in
the holistic sense, through their love for
soccer", explains Gerald Guskowski, of

German Technical Cooperation (GTZ),
which is co-managing the programme
with European Union support.

Thursday, late afternoon. The children
-aged between 4 and 15, girls and
boys -are training in groups of 10
under the watchful eyes of their train-
ers. The physical exercises are punctu-
ated with information sessions. "We
talk about AIDS, malaria and other ill-
nesses, immunisation, clean water and
good hygiene practices, explaining that
a strong body produces a better athlete",
says Sibaca. After the World Cup, in
October, the teams will play in tourna-
ments. Some players may even be lucky
enough to be picked out by a scout for a
professional team...

Learning about the other

"When it comes to community work and
football projects, everybody heads for
Soweto. Alex is overlooked. That is why
we came here. It is a densely populated
and dynamic community that presents
a challenge", adds the young Play
Soccer director. For its part, the GTZ,
also through its 'Youth Development
through Football' (YDF) programme,
supports two other communities in the
Klerksoord refugee camp near Pretoria,
home primarily to Zimbabweans who
in 2008 were victims of xenophobic

violence. The activities there include
football, rugby and volleyball, as well as
courses to make the children more open
to other African cultures and countries.

Vuvuzela and security
With President Jacob Zuma calling
on the whole population to support
the South African team Bafana-Bafa-
na, preparations for the World Cup
are in full swing around the country.
In addition to the mass production of
'vuvuzelas' ('to make noise' in Zulu),
a trumpet that the supporters will
be blowing, the government is pull-
ing out all the stops to complete the
stadiums, roads and other infrastruc-
ture in readiness for the great event.
Another imperative is security in a
country where crime rates remain at
record levels, as well as combating
people trafficking. The EU is actively
supporting (108.8M for the 2007-
2013 period) the measures taken by
the government, especially moderni-
sation of the police and improvement
of the criminal justice system.

South African English and general slang

There are 11 official languages spoken
in South Africa, with English being the
lingua franca.

Over the centuries these languages have
influenced each other and some words
became common currency amongst
most of them. Below is an abbreviated
glossary of some of these words that
a visitor to South Africa is likely to
encounter ... with emphasis on culinary

For a complete glossary compiled by
Mary Alexander go to :

babbelas (bub-buh-luss) -noun,
informal Hangover.
biltong (bill-tong) -noun -Dried and
cured meat.
boerewors (boor-uh-vors) -noun
-Savoury sausage developed by
the Boers, the forebears of today's
Afrikaners. Also known as wors.

braai (br-eye) -noun -Outdoor
barbecue, and a defining South
African institution.
bunny chow noun Curry served in
a hollowed-out half-loaf of bread.

chiskop, chizkop, noun, informal
Bald person, particularly one with a
shaved head.

dagga (dach-ah) -noun, informal
droewors (droo-uh-vors) -noun
Dried boerewors, similar to biltong.



Repo* t South Africa

The 'Black Diamonds'

Say "Soweto" and most people think of an endless sprawl of apartheid-built box
houses. People who have actually been there would perhaps think of the palatial
houses rising incongruously here and there between the box houses. Others may
think of the vibrant street life and the famous, perhaps infamous, Soweto street
parties and the pulsating beer halls called 'shebeens' but very few people

would think of wine and winemakers.

Charles Visser

entrenched white-dominated
industries is slowly but surely
giving in to the pressures of
transformation and wine is becoming
big in Soweto. Proof of this is the phe-
nomenal growth of the Soweto Wine
Festival which is due to host its 6th
annual edition in September this year.
(Yes, there will be life in South Africa
after the Soccer World Cup!).

So, who are the people driving this
move towards wine in a predominant-
ly beer drinking market. The short
answer would be the so-called 'Black
Diamonds' ... mostly as wine consum-
ers. They are the emerging class of black
entrepreneurs and business people who
are making the most of their post-apart-
heid opportunities. They are mostly, but
not exclusively, young, confident and on
the go ... and they are going in just one
direction and that is up!

Joe Chakela (55) and five other owners
of bottle stores (as licensed liquor out-
lets are called locally) became involved
in the wine industry directly after the
first democratic elections in South
Africa in 1994. Strictly speaking, Joe
and his friends are too old to be called
'Black Diamonds'; they deserve a men-

tion because they consider themselves
as a main driving force in bringing
wine culture to South Africa's town-
ships, especially Soweto. Their initial
plan was to launch a new brandy in the
townships. Joe stopped drinking beer
and switched to wine ... and today he
and his colleagues are the proud owners
of 55 per cent of Tukulu wine farm in
the famous Stellenbosch wine region.
The minority stakeholder in Tukulu is
South African liquor giant Distell and
the venture is considered as an example
for successful transformation in the
wine industry.

A perfect example

As 'Black Diamonds' go, Ntsiki Bayela
of Stellekaya estate near Stellenbosch is
a perfect example ... And judging by the
number of awards the wines produced
by Stellekaya have won since she joined
them six years ago, she is a winemaker
of note!

Ntsiki's road to becoming a top win-
emaker was not an easy one. She grew
up as an orphan in rural KwaZulu-Natal
and was raised by her aging grandmoth-
er. But how does a black lady from a
rural area become a winemaker, a white
male dominated industry? The simple
answer is hard work at school that won
her a scholarship from South African
Airways. The scholarship was specifi-
cally to encourage young black people
to become involved in wine making as

NISIKI bayela in ner estate btellaKaya, baellenDoscn.

part of the airline's wine selection proc-
ess. Ntsiki says that once she started out
at the Stellenbosch University she knew
that she had found her calling in life.
That was despite being the only black
person in her class and one of only a
few women.

Ntsiki's favourite wine of the moment
is Stellekaya's Orion, a Bordeaux style
blend of Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot
and Cabernet Franc. It got no less than
four-and-a-half stars out of a maximum
of five, from South Africa's foremost
wine critic John Platter.

Eish (aysh) -exclamation and adjective,
informal Ouch! or Ow!

frikkadel (frik-kuh-dell) -noun

jol (jawl or jorl) -noun, verb and
adjective, informal Celebration, fun,
party (noun); to celebrate, have fun,
party, dance and drink (verb).

kwaito (kw-eye-toe) -noun -Music
of South Africa's urban black youth,
which first emerged in the 1990s.
kwela (kw-eh-la) -noun -Popular
form of township music from the
1950s, based on the pennywhistle a

N. 16 N.E. MARCH APRIL 2010

cheap and simple instrument taken up
by street performers.

laduma! (la-doo-mah) -exclamation
Popular cheer celebrating goals scored at
soccer matches.
lekker (lek-irr) -adjective and adverb,
informal Nice, good, great, cool or tasty.

makarapa (mak-ah-rah-pah) noun -
A well-crafted and decorated headgear
usually won by football fans in South

pap (pup) -noun -Porridge made
from mealie meal (maize meal) cooked
with water and salt.

robot -noun -Traffic lights.

samoosa (suh-moo-suh) -noun
Small, spicy, triangular-shaped savoury
pie deep-fried in oil. Originally made
by the Indian and Malay communities.
slap chips (slup chips) -noun -French
fries, usually soft, oily and vinegar-

tokoloshe -noun -Evil imp or spirit,
thought to be most active at night.
tsotsi -noun -Gangster or thug.

zol -noun, informal Hand-rolled
cigarette or marijuana joint.

I ~ > > >B~a

South A 0fria Rpr

Repo*rt S Afrc

From dust to gold

Marie-Martine Buckens

ing up in South Africa to free
the too many rural com-
munities that are locked in a
spiral of poverty. The approach is to pro-
vide them with the tools they need to put
their skills to good use. It is one that has
been met with a response from the local,
regional, and even international market.

In many respects South Africa remains
a raw materials producer. Marketing
products with a major added value often
remains a challenge due to the many
obstacles in the form of tax policy, an
inadequate industrial base and the lack
of a skilled workforce. This is particu-
larly evident in the working of precious
metals and stones.

"The whole system currently in place
works against the local market", explains
Demos Takoulas, head of the Seda

Limpopo Jewellery Incubator (SLJI), set
up in July 2009 in Polokwane, South
Africa's northern province. "This applies
to diamonds, most of which go abroad.
De Beers (diamond producer, ed.) and the
government are working hand in hand in
this case." He continues: "South Africa
is one of the world's pioneers in the
production of precious metals and the
most important producer of platinum,
especially in this province. It is also the
world's fifth largest diamond producer,
yet our jewellery industry represents just
2 per cent of the world market in pre-
cious metals and stones. What we lack is
the know-how and appropriate environ-
ment". Nevertheless, the SEDA, a gov-
ernment agency which is responsible for
small and medium-sized businesses, has
decided to finance business incubators
in what have been known historically in
South Africa as disadvantaged indus-
tries. In the case of jewellery, SEDA
has acted on the basis of a study by the
Jewellery Council of South Africa that
estimated the industry needed 3,804
skilled workers over the next five years.

Alongside SEDA, the European Union
is the principal donor (7M).

The principle of the SLJI is to offer
apprentice jewellers -there are cur-
rently 30 of them, including five who
are deaf -the technical and also the
commercial, administrative and com-
puting skills to enable them to set up
a small business. "Many have no com-
puter training and also have to learn
to manage commercial risks and even
how to make out an invoice and contact
customers", explains Demos Takoulas.
On the other hand, many of them
especially the deaf -have undoubted
talents in jewellery-making. Thus, in
the space of just a few months, the
company headed by this South African
of Greek origin has shown more than
respectable results. He himself says that
since he has headed the business he is
"increasingly happy -it is the memory
of my mother, who smiled on the world,
and who taught me what is important in
life". A number of jewellers have already
managed to set up on their own since its
launch. "Starting with a salary of 2,000
rand (about 200) a month, our activity
within the SLJI business incubator ena-
bled us to record a turnover of 100,000
rand in December 2009, 70,000 rand
of it profit", Vukani Sibanda and Tau
Tebogo Lee told us.





Health and the fight against HIV/
AIDS in particular is one of the
South African Government's biggest
priorities, alongside education,
employment and combating poverty.

Marie-Martine Buckens

S outhern Africa, and South
Africa in particular, has
one of the highest Human
Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
rates in the world. The virus is notably
prevalent among women in disadvan-
taged population groups, principally
African. "In particular, an estimated 50
per cent of pregnant women are infected
with the HIV virus", explains Jean-
Frangois Aguilera, head of the HIV
Task Force set up by the European
Commission in 2008 in Johannesburg.
The aim is to give the European delega-
tions from 10 Southern African coun-
tries advice on preventing the epidemic
from propagating through development
projects financed by the European
Union. The medical knowledge of the
Task Force members Jean-Frangois
Aguilera is a doctor with a Master's in
public health helps make up for the
lack of expertise on the part of certain
health delegations. "These delegations
can then in turn advise the governments
of their respective countries", continues
A guide to 'good practices'
Studies are also being carried out to
assess human resources in the health
field as is the case in Swaziland and
South Africa as well as the health
policies implemented at the work place.
"In most cases the human resources are
clearly insufficient", explains the Task
Force official.
"On my picture I drew the virus -it's the small blue dot. The red circles are the Anti Retrovirals eating the virus. The
white is my blood. Look what I have written under my left hand: Accept your HI Virus, be at peace with it, have a clear
mind to fight it". Nondum iso Hlwele Constitutional Court's art collection, Johannesburg. Marie-Martine Buckens

N. 16 N.E. MARCH APRIL 2010

Sot AID 1fra p

But one of the priorities is to compile
a guide to 'good practices' in the field.
"Take the case of Malawi", explains
Aguilera, "where the EU is financing
road building projects. The mobility of
the workers employed by these projects
is a risk factor in HIV dissemination.
The driver of a mechanical digger who
is away from home will have sexual rela-
tions, often with prostitutes, at his place
of work. If you train women to replace
the men, you will reduce the risk. Other
measures are also being taken, such
as prevention campaigns aimed at the
local population. If there are prostitutes
then their health should be monitored,

treatment possibly given, and condoms

The same is true of rural development
projects. "Women, especially agricultural
workers, are often victims of rape and
consequently HIV. It is vital to take into
account this vulnerability particular to
women, and in the case of agricultural
projects this can be done by providing
separate accommodation and latrines that
are not placed 500 metres into the forest.

This guide has also been adapted for
projects carried out directly by govern-
ments where aid is essentially in the

form of budgetary assistance, as in the
case of South Africa. "This budgetary
assistance is linked to certain condi-
tions and we could add the condition
that direct account must be taken of the
HIV problem."

While Aguilera acknowledges that
measures have been taken in the coun-
tries concerned, they fall far short of
the effort required. "We have drawn
up a document that should enable the
European Commission to show that
funds granted to the Global Fund
against AIDS in the field of prevention
are insufficient."

University campuses spared the worst

After women, it is young people who are
most affected by HIV in South Africa. A
project launched by the Ministry of Edu-
cation's Department of Higher Education,
with EU financial support, is currently
identifying actions to be implemented on
the campuses of South Africa's 23 uni-
versities. The first surprise was to dis-
cover that HIV is clearly less prevalent
on the campuses than in the country as
a whole.

"While the distribution of HIV conforms
to the national pattern in terms of race
(blacks most affected), gender (primarily
women), age (the young) and education
group (the least educated), the percent-
ages are lower", explains Dr. Gail An-
drews of Pretoria University (UNIDA),
who heads the group that is coordinating
the programme. Among the university
students who agreed to be tested for HIV,
3.4 per cent tested positive, compared
with rates of 6.5 per cent or 10.2 per cent
identified in studies for the global popula-
tion of the same age, i.e. aged 18 to 24.
Behind this global percentage there are,
however, huge disparities between the
different racial groups: 5.6 per cent for Af-
ricans (blacks), 0.3 per cent for white stu-
dents, 0.8 per cent for 'coloured' students,
and 0.3 per cent among Indian students.

The results also show that the lower
the level of education on the university
campus the greater the HIV prevalence.
Teachers show a lower prevalence than
students (1.5 per cent); administrative

personnel show a prevalence of 4.4 per
cent (higher than that of students) while
among personnel providing basic serv-
ices the prevalence is 12.2 per cent. "This
study", stresses Gail Andrews, "tells us
that we must work above all with these
workers, who also come from disadvan-
taged backgrounds". The same is true
for African students who also very often
come from relatively poor families.

Apart from carrying out this survey the
programme also drew up recommenda-
tions for teachers to include material on
prevention in their classes. "We targeted
the Faculties of Education in particular but
also the Health Sciences, Economics and
Trade Faculties", adds Gail Andrews. The

report, which was officially submitted to
the government in April, recommendsthat
more health centres should be opened
on university campuses and that more
antiretroviral drugs be made available.

"European financing enabled us to imple-
ment the programme's educational com-
ponent in full. This will continue, even af-
ter the programme ends at the end of this
year, as the personnel have been trained
and can now go on to train the students",
explains the coordinator. "Also", she con-
tinues, "we will carry out further surveys
within the next two yeas to see how HIV
rates evolve on campus, thus permitting
us to study the impact of these new meas-

vviWwaiersrana university, JonannesDurg. Xavier Rouchaud


Report South Africa

Sot AID #fra p


rural areas

Muyexe, a poor and remote village on
the edge of the Kruger National Park,
has become the first 'pilot village'
under the Comprehensive Rural
Development Programme launched
in August 2009 by President Jacob

Muyexe. aXavier Rouchaud

Marie-Martine Buckens

densed form the many prob-
lems faced by South Africa's
rural farmers. Adjoining the
vast Kruger National Park (the size of
Belgium), it comes under regular attack
from the elephants and buffalos which
break through the perimeter fence that
separates the park from the rest of the
country. Livestock is kept well away
from the park and grazes the land clos-
est to the village. Water is scarce and
we are far from the fertile southern
slopes of this Limpopo Province where
there is large-scale cultivation of banana
and mango trees or pines to supply the
paper industry. The houses often lack
even basic sanitary facilities. Finally,
access to the land is a thorny issue in
a country now facing the failure of its
land reforms.

Barely up and running, the develop-
ment programme immediately turned
its attention to the most urgent prob-
lems. A second fence was erected along
the park perimeter and then a third to
create a buffer zone between the cat-
tle suffering from foot-and-mouth dis-
ease, which need vaccinating, and the
healthy cattle, and to protect the new
kitchen gardens. More than 150 houses,
together with 100 toilets, were built in
the space of four months. Tanks were
placed next to the houses to collect rain-
water and water recycling introduced,
while agreements were concluded with
supermarkets to distribute seeds, and
then the coffee, watermelons and other
produce from the communal kitchen
gardens. Finally, land was allocated in
agreement with the traditional lead-
ers. The programme is essentially man-

aged by the Limpopo Department of
Agriculture, and funded by the national
government as well as the province and
municipality. "In regard to our relations
with the Kruger Park, we envisage set-
ting up a discussion group to try and
find an institutional arrangement. The
question remains open", explains an
official in charge of the Department of
Rural Affairs.

The problem of land
In 1994, in the aftermath of apartheid,
the government set itself the task of
redistributing, by 2014, 30 per cent
(82 million hectares) of the agricultural
land 90 per cent of which had been
allocated to white farmers in 1913. An
impossible goal, admitted Gugile Nk-
winti, Minister of Rural Development
and Land Reform, on 2 March. At
present just 5 per cent of farms have
been redistributed. There are many
reasons for this, including the high cost
of buying the land but also, and most
importantly, lack of experience among
black farmers who are used to sub-
sistence farming. The majority of the
farms in Limpopo's fertile valleys have
consequently run into trouble due to
poor technical and financial manage-
ment. Following the experience in Zim-
babwe, the South African government
therefore decided to refocus its policy.
Priority will now be given to existing
infrastructure (modernisation, mecha-
nisation and training).

N. 16 N.E. MARCH APRIL 2010


Rep* o Sot Afic

Climate negotiations

move south

By putting forward Tourism Minister
Marthinus Van Schalkwyk as a
senior UN climate official, South
Africa intends to play the leading role
among the developing countries in the
ongoing 'post-Kyoto' negotiations.

Marie-Martine Buckens

As The Courier went to press,
Jacob Zuma officially
announced the candidacy
of his Tourism Minister for
the post of Executive Secretary of the
Convention on Climate Change, which
has been vacant since the resignation
in February of the Dutchman Yvo De
Boer. Known for his negotiating skills
in the Convention when he was also
Environment Minister, Marthinus van
Schalkwyk would have the backing of
several major environmental NGOs
and certain developed and developing
countries. Pretoria, like its partners in
the other emerging economies brought
together as 'Basic' (Brazil, South Africa,
India, China), has signed the controver-
sial agreement in Copenhagen which
plans to reduce greenhouse gas emis-
sions by 2020. This non-binding agree-
ment allows emerging countries to influ-
ence the negotiations aiming to replace
the Kyoto Protocol (applicable only to
industrialised countries), which expires
in 2012. Yet it is in South Africa, where
the Convention summit will be held in
2011, that the post-Kyoto solution will
be decided.

South Africa is less alarming to its
northern partners than to its energy
devouring Indian and Chinese partners.
This is particularly true today, when the
country must rely on foreign countries
to compensate for the chronic under-
investment in its energy system. The
opposition of the United States and the
United Kingdom to a loan ofUS$3.75bn
(2.75bn), or one tenth of the planned
investments, is indicative of the issues
involved. Anglo-Saxon Environmental
NGOs condemn a loan which would
go towards funding new polluting coal-
fired plants, the country's main source of
electricity production. Others imagine a
stand off between American and French

Near Soweto. Xavier Rouchaud

manufacturers seeking to expand the rating with their EU partners on devel-
nuclear programme -the only one on oping new techniques for storing carbon
the African continent. Furthermore, and clean technologies.
South African companies are collabo-

Some figures
South Africa

Size: 1.2M km2
Population: 48.7M
Capital cities: Pretoria (administrative),
Bloemfontein (legal), Cape Town (legislative)
Population growth: +1.15%
GDP (MUSD): 277.1 (2008)
Real growth rate: 3.1% (2008)
Inflation: 11.5% (2008)
Export of goods (US$, bn): 80.20 (23%
precious metals, 13% iron and steel)
Import of goods (US$, bn): 91.05 (fuel,
equipment and machinery)

EU- South Africa
Trade, Development and Cooperation
Agreement (TDCA) (signed in 1999),
which notably includes a free trade
agreement between South Africa and
the EU spanning a period of twelve years

and covering 90 per cent of bilateral
trade. Cooperation in research and de-
velopment is the subject of a separate
agreement for science and technology
(see The Courier no. 14)
Country Strategy Paper (CSP) on de-
velopment cooperation for the period
2007-2013. Its main objective is to re-
duce poverty and inequality while fos-
tering social stability and environmen-
tal sustainability and focusing on job
creation and capacity building in terms
of service provision and social cohe-
sion. The indicative budget of 980M is
mainly paid as budget support.
European Investment Bank. In total, the
lending activities of the EIB amounted to
1.5bn. The predicted funding for the pe-
riod 2008-2013 is forecast to be 900M.


Hegel Goutier

A powerful woman

Hegel Goutier

a monotone voice: "Oh great,
I've won the Goncourt", which
reflects her economy of language
as well as a certain distance and strength
of character. Marie Ndiaye, the daugh-
ter of a Senegalese father and French
mother, is best known for her writing, a
precise style where no word or punctua-
tion mark is redundant. Neither could it
be replaced by another or by a synonym.

She only uses what is essential. There
was no full stop in her first novel
Quant au riche avenir ('As For the Rich
Future'); she didn't put one in. One
book, one sentence, one long breath.
Like the flight of the albatross carry-
ing the reader on its wings over all of
her other works. This novel, which she
wrote at the age of 17, astonished the
literary world, prompting the highbrow
review Quinzaine litteraire to declare at
the time that she was already a great
writer. Ndiaye had, in fact, been writing
since the age of 12.

The first verses of the three songs
or three stories -which make up
Trois femmes puissantes ('Three Powerful
Women') certainly leave the reader

breathless. Who killed Norah's father's
beautiful young mistress? Her brother,
who she loved dearly when they were
little, who has become glib, insipid,
almost artificial, and stands accused of
the crime after an incestuous relation-
ship with this woman? Or the calculat-
ing father who took him from the family
home in France to Africa after leaving
the mother, Norah -who he struggles to
remember -and her sister in poverty?

The father: "He was there, radiating
cold brilliance, obviously having fallen
over the doorstep of his arrogant house,
the somewhat flamboyant side where
the garden had been planted because,
Norah said to herself...... this radiant,
fallen man, a huge blow to his head
seemed to have restored harmonious
proportions... ... And this man who
could transform any entreaty made of
him into a request for himself".

Description of feelings

There is a certain build-up of tension,
but definitely not the kind found in a
thriller. Her intricate descriptions of
emotions are without comparison -fear,
disgust, outrage, frustration, shame and
humiliation -she possesses the ability
to create a subtle haze for readers which
is the hallmark of a great writer. Even
before winning the Goncourt Prize,

Trois femmes puissantes became a best-
seller within weeks.

In the second song, Fanta, from Senegal,
where as a teacher of literature she had
succumbed to the charm of Frenchman
Rudy Descas, becomes a cleaning lady
in Gironde, France. Having come from
a poor background, she returns there.
"But she could not prevent him from
reflecting on the past and reminding
her in an imploring voice of the not so
distant good times, when one of their
greatest pleasures, in the half-light of
their room, sat on the bed, side by side,
like two companions, was..."

The novel's last song takes us into the
life of humiliation suffered by Khady
Demba in her country, Senegal. Dignity
lies in understanding this humiliation
and the self-awareness which help her to
take control of her deprived life. A sneak
preview: "When her husband's parents
and sisters told her what they expected
of her, what she would be obliged to do,
Khady already knew...." Finally, she
reflects: "It's me, Khady Demba, she
still thought about the time when her
head hit the floor and when, eyes wide

N. 16 N.E. MARCH APRIL 2010





The Khatarsis Project

in Cape Verde

Change is afoot in contemporary Cape Verdean culture. Young artists are set
on stirring things up.

Sandra Federici

A good example is The Khatarsis
Project, a multidisciplinary art
installation that was displayed
at the Casa da Imprensa in
Praia in December 2009. The project
was born out of the desire to explore
debates about the former Tarrafal pris-
on camp and the lives of the politi-
cal prisoners incarcerated there during
Portuguese colonial rule. The prison
camp was set up by the Salazar regime
near the beautiful Tarrafal beach, on
the island of Santiago.

A memorial conference, organised by
the Amilcar Cabral Foundation, was
held last year. The main aim of this
institution is to promote the memory
of this famous Guinean-Cape Verdean
hero. Recently, under the direction of
Samira Pereira, it has also been involved
in organising cultural activities aimed at
young people. This foundation provided
the means to allow the artists Cesar
Schofield Cardoso and Jo1o Paredela to
carry out the Khatirsis Project.

Female victims

The installation is based on a video
by Cardoso, where the human rights
violations that took place at Tarrafal
are represented in a universal and sym-
bolic way by showing a woman being
subjected to violence, her small frame
defenceless in her white dress. While
men were locked up and tortured in the
camp, those who were left behind -their
wives and children -were just as much
victims of the totalitarian regime.

The victim is played by the artist Soizic
Larcher, who at the end of the video
engages in action painting, where the
physical action of painting represents a
catharsis -the only solution to counter
the eternal, inevitable violence of man.
Cesar Schofield Cardoso, Katharsis





In recent years, the organisation of a large number of fashion festivals, events and
competitions has given greater visibility to African designers. It has highlighted the
need to promote the African fashion industry on a wider scale.

Elisabetta Degli Esposti Merli

influential figures in the fash-
ion industry, recently wrote
an article in The New York
Times entitled 'Next Stop, Africa',*
in which she predicted that upcoming
trends would be inspired by African

The catwalk guru said: "Maybe political
correctness has made designers hesitant
up until now; maybe they have had sin-
cere doubts about recycling images from
a part of the world that was ravaged and
exploited by colonialism."

Or maybe the concept of 'African fash-
ion' has been held back by cliches inher-
ited from ethno-anthropological litera-
ture and colonialism that view African
societies as having codes of dress that
adhere to the rigid functionalism of
ritual dress, and as being resistant to the
very idea of fashion.

Africa's time has come

Menkes observes, "Wouldn't it be sweet
to think that, after all the barren years,
Africa's time has come?" And things
are changing. International interest in
African fashion has been growing, aided
by events such as the Cape Town, Durban
and Johannesburg Fashion Weeks, and,
since 2005, the Tunisia Fashion Week.
The International Festival of African
Fashion (FIMA) has been held annually
in Niger and has gained a good reputa-
tion due to the energy of its founder,
Seidnaly Sidhamed Alphadi.

L'Afrique est i la mode!' ('Africa is
in fashion!'), a competition organised
by Culturesfrance as part of FIMA.
The competition aims to increase young
people's access to the international fash-

ion market. It is targeted at independ-
ent designers aged 18 to 35 who live
and work in countries in sub-Saharan
Africa and the Indian Ocean (except for
Reunion), and in the Maghreb coun-
tries (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco
and Tunisia). South African, Thokozani
Freedom Mbatha, won the competition
in 2009.


The designer said that his interpretation
of transition (the theme of the competi-
tion) is based on his personal philoso-
phy, "where the past, present and future
flow and blend in one direction, with
each city having its own character that is
ancient and modern. This combination
brings a new dimension and increases
and broadens the horizon and prospec-
tive of each culture and one's own inter-
pretation of culture".

Other winners included Salah Barka
from Tunisia and Charlotte Mbatsogo
from Cameroon.

For Salah Barka, "Africa is really in
fashion and will soon be dressing the
world (...) My creations transmit the
character of the continent that produced
them a continent which transforms,
works, and dances".

25-year-old Charlotte Mbatsogo also
has clear plans: she wants to reinvent the
classic cuts in order to adapt to different
times and trends.

It is clear from the collections presented
at the competition that African fashion
is made up of a series of identity trans-
formations, exchanges, negotiations and

And it is ready to inspire new trends.

* http://travel.nytimes.com/2005/03/20/travel/

Barkah Salah. Fashion show Photo by Bill Akwa Betote.

N. 16 N.E. MARCH APRIL 2010


HIFA 2010:



Fine Art

The 11th edition of Harare
International Festival of the Arts will
take place this year between 27 April
and 2 May. This six day annual festival
and workshop programme showcases
the best of Zimbabwean artistry, along
with the work of international artists.

Sandra Federici

on various disciplines: thea-
tre, dance, music, circus,
street performance, the spo-
ken word and visual arts. Since its first
edition in 1999, it has attracted large
audiences, and has come to be seen
as an important symbol of positivity
in Zimbabwe, through an attempt to
socially and culturally unify disparate
groups at a time of ideological conflict
and political uncertainty. Indeed, HIFA
is now seen as the largest cultural event
in Zimbabwe.

In 2006, UNESCO-Harare supported
the participation of traditional dance
groups in the festival, including the
marginalised Chigombela Venda
Dancers. It also gave funding to
workshops on different subjects: Arts
Promotion and the Internet, Product
Development and Marketing (for craft
workers), and Art and Development
(encouraging open discussion on the
topic of HIV).

'About Face'

This year the Founder and Artistic
Director Manuel Bagorro and the Board
of Trustees (presided over by Angeline
Kamba) chose the theme 'About Face'

-an expression that is open to inter-
pretation. As the organisers state on
the website, "the dictionary definition
of 'About Face' is 'the act of turning
to face in the opposite direction', and
as such, was first used in the United
States as a military command. It also
means, 'a complete change of opinion
or attitude"'.

They encourage Zimbabweans to open
their minds and change their opinions,
and to move from pessimism to opti-
mism, in order to encourage positive
change and growth, to develop new
attitudes, and to change their lives. And
they hope that this theme will inspire an
exciting 2010 edition of HIFA.

African Comics at the Quai Branly Museum

Catherine Haenlein

n February 2010, several African
cartoonists and some experts on
the African comic strip convened
in Paris for a three-day confer-
ence to examine the current state of this
artistic sector.

strip to be published in Africa. But that
which is golden does not always glitter.
The 50th anniversary of the African
comic strip showed that the field still
faces a range of obstacles. Organised by
African, Caribbean and Indian Ocean
comics expert Christophe Cassiau-
Haurie, the conference aimed to examine
how far this 'ninth art' has progressed in
Africa and its future development.

In 1960, the Togolese Pyablo Chaold's Between 4 and 6 February, comic strip
Le curd de Pyssaro became the first comic authors, editors, journalists, teach-

ers and museum curators from across
Europe and Africa assembled in the
museum's 'Salon de Lecture Jacques
Kerchache' to listen to presentations
by experts, view the film Resistants
du 9eme art ('The undiminished 9th
art') and enjoy a live demonstration
by Congolese comic strip author, Pat
Masioni. Lively debates took place
about resources for the sector and other
issues, for example, scarce funding for
scriptwriters, the lack of European fes-
tivals dedicated to African comics and
the saturation of the European market
by Japanese 'Manga' comics.

As well as looking where current dif-
ficulties lie, the conference was an
opportunity for a wide range of authors,
editors and experts to come together,
exchange ideas, and discuss future
prospects in their respective fields.
Contacts were made and practical pro-
posals drawn up, such as future col-
laborations and networking activities,
which will give a boost to this unique
form of artistic expression as it enters
the next 50 years of its existence.

Didier Kassai, courtesy of Musee du quai Branly and the



Fo yon *jr ades

One daCompetition for young ACP photographers
One day

To participate, check out
The Courier's website from
the end of April.

W~ MkWiAN 2,ov

N. 16 N.E. MARCH APRIL 2010



The Courier is holding a competition for
young photographers from the ACP!

The themes are science and technology,
culture (art and tradition), trade and
climate change.

Prize: 1000 euros

Visit our website at the end of April to
view the rules and vote!

Words From Readers

The Courier would like to open up a dia-
logue on this edition's 'Youth' dossier.
We invite our readers to send us feed-
back on the various issues covered. Feel
free to email us at info@acp-eucourier.
info or fax us at +32 2 2801406.


Agenda MAY-JULY 2010

May 2010

18 20/5
Lighting Africa 2010
Nairobi, Kenya
For more information:

18- 19/5
6th EU-Latin America and
Caribbean Summit
Madrid, Spain
For more information:
cum brestercerospaises/evento01.html

Science, Information Society an
Space Africa-EU Partnership:
Joint Expert Group meeting
Durban, South Africa

IST-Africa 2010 Conference
& Exhibition
Durban, South Africa
For more information:

Better Training for Food Safety
regional workshop
Bamako, Mali

eLearning Africa 2010
Lusaka, Zambia
For more information:

91st Session of the ACP Council
of Ministers
Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

June 2010

2nd Africa-France Business Meeting
Bordeaux, France.
For more information:
corn 2010/index.php

3rd Meeting of Regional Working
Group on Culture
Brussels, Belgium

AU-EU College-to-College meeting
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (tbc)

23/24 (tbc)
35th Session of the ACP-EC Council
of Ministers
Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

Deutsche Welle Global Media Forum
'The Heat is On: Climate Change
and the Media'
World Conference Center Bonn
(WCCB), Germany
For more information: www.dw-gnmfde

July 2010

EESC regional seminar of ACP-EU
Economic and Social Interest Groups
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Workshop: Civil society and the
Africa-EU Strategy
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

AIDS 2010 Conference
Vienna, Austria
For more information:


Book featuring photos from the Petits d'Hommes'

(Man Cub) exhibition is now available

Petits d'hommes featuring photographs
by Pierre-Jean Rey, published by Albin
Michel, France, November 2009.

The 220-page book features portraits
of children from around the globe,
the majority having endured eco-
nomic hardship, war, mafia injustices
and other insanities. Each child was
asked by the photographer to put across
through facial expressions whatever
he or she wanted to say, especially
to children in other countries. The
resulting compliation of photos is a
portrayal of children who have suffered
and whose suffering continues. Pierre
Jean-Rey's life affirming photos com-
municate above all pride, dignity and
courage. They were recently exhibited
at the European Parliament to mark the
40th anniversary of the 'Organisation
Internationale de la Francophonie'
(International Organisation of French
Speaking nations).

Africa Caribbean Pacific

and European Union countries

"Ir t, *4 *,' '', ~V '"'

-^. -*** *W: I l^
", ', .. -- <1 i

,.. ^, *-'^

The lists of countries published by The Courier do not prejudice the status of these countries and territories now or in the future.The Courier uses maps from a variety of sources.
Their use does not imply recognition of any particular boundaries nor prejudice the status of any state or territory.

Antigua and Barbuda The Bahamas Barbados Belize Cuba Dominica Dominican Republic
Grenada Guyana Haiti Jamaica Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the
Grenadines Suriname Trinidad and Tobago

Angola Benin Botswana Burkina Faso Burundi Cameroon Cape Verde Central African Republic
Chad Comoros Congo (Rep. of) Cote d'lvoire Democratic Republic of the Congo Djibouti
Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea Bissau Kenya Lesotho
Liberia Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria
Rwanda Sao Tome and Principe Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Somalia South Africa Sudan
Swaziland Tanzania Togo Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe
Swaziland Tanzania Togo Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe

Austria Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany
Greece Hungary Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Netherlands Poland Portugal
Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden United Kingdom


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