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    Back Matter
        Back Matter
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
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Editorial Board
Sir John Kaputin, Secretary General
Secretariat of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States

Mr Stefano Manservisi, Director General of DG Development
European Commission

Core staff
Hegel Goutier

Marie-Martine Buckens (Deputy Editor-in-chief)
Debra Percival

Editorial Assistant and Production
Okechukwu Romano Umelo

Contributed in this issue
Elisabetta Degli Esposti Merli, Sandra Federici, Tim Graewert, Philippe Lamotte,
Joshua Massarenti, Anne-Marie Mouradian, Andrea Marchesini Reggiani, Detlef Sonnenberg

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Gerda Van Biervliet

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Leaving Mindelo. Marie-Martine Buckens
Design by Gregorie Desmons

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Card game at the Mindelo market. Marie-Martine Buckens

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The views expressed are those of the authors and do not represent the official view of the
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Table of contents

Mohamed Ibn Chambas, newly-appointed Secretary
General ofthe ACP Group 2
Andris Piebalgs, new EU Development Commissioner 3
Michle Duvivier Pierre-Louis, Former prime
minister of Haiti: An architect of Haiti's difficult
renaissance 6
The G20 and developing countries
From a G20 ofthe poor to a G20 ofthe rich 13
In search of a global governance organisation involving
developing countries 14
G20: 5 out of 10 for financial reform; 3 out of 10 for
support to poor nations 15
International Finance Corporation branches out 18
"I believe we should have a G180":
Interview with Luxembourg MEP Charles Goerens 20
Fiscal reforms in developing countries 21
"Trade talks must reflect a new global consensus 23
on hunger"
Overhaul of EU fisheries agreements in 2012? 24
'Green' Ghanaian timber for Europe 25
Overseas Countries and Territories receive the
emancipation cure 26
EU funds for 13 ACPs to cushion the impact of
the economic crisis 27
Opinion: Newcomers to ACP-EU partnership draw
on 30 years of ties 28
Cultural policy: Operators engage in networking
activities 29
Securing a role for local authorities, the third party 30
Greenpeace sets up in Africa 31
ACP civil society adopts networking approach 32

Global crisis chips Africa's gem 33
Eastern Caribbean farmers slate "done deal" 35
Gloria Mika, supermodel: Flight ofthe 'Guardian
Angel of Democracy' 36
Copenhagen climate summit: Darkness before dawn 88
Cape Verde
Cape Verde: A hub connecting three worlds 40
Unique and proud: A nation born ofthe first
globalisation 41
Setting the standard for development 43
Becoming a bridgehead for continental Africa 45
Sound management that got us through the crisis 47
The government is a long way from achieving its
objectives 49
"Djunta-M!" 50
"Saudade" and natural beauty 51
Plovdiv: New ventures for Europe's oldest
inhabited city 52
Waiting to be discovered 53
From Dionysus to the damask rose -Plovdiv's riches 55
How to integrate and end discrimination of
the Roma? 57
Bulgaria's development programme on the
launch pad 58
A Meeting Place for African Culture 60
A Window on Contemporary Photography:
The 8th Bamako Encounters 61
Haiti in black and white and colour 63



Debra Percival and Hegel Goutier

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Anne-Marie Mouradian
Andris Piebalgs, New EU Development Commissioner
Development police not to be
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he Courier had to make a last-minute
change to the contents of this issue to
include an article on the hell that descend-
ed on Haiti on 12 January. During the
weeks since the earthquake, more information has
circulated on this country, its people, its history and
its culture than ever before.

The works and citations of all those who had sought
to present this Caribbean republic in a more just
light, generally without success, were all invoked.
From Andr Malraux, Andr Breton or Jean-Paul
Sartre to Sergue Mikhalovitch Eisenstein, director
of 'The Battleship Potemkin' and whose screenplay
'Jean-Jacques Dessalines' on the author of Haitian
independence he never succeeded in bringing to the
screen, to his great chagrin, although it remained
a reference in the university courses he later gave.
From Santana to Anas Nin, from Aim Csaire or
Lopold Cedar Senghor to Bill Clinton ... they all,
in one way or another, considered Haiti's contribu-
tion to the world to be exceptional. We discovered
the violence to which Haiti had been subjected,
the first country in the New World to experience
the very first globalisation after 1492 and two years
before it occurred in Cape Verde, the subject of
this issue's report. Haiti experienced torments and
the most barbarous form of slavery that began with
the arrival of Christopher Columbus, inflicted by
constant threats from various powers throughout
the 19th century and occupation by the Americans
in the early 20th century. Also the struggles for
freedom, including its support for the United States
for independence in 1776, before its own independ-
ence, and the massive aid in terms of men, money
and munitions for Bolivar and the liberation of
South America.

In the immediate aftermath of the earthquake, the
familiar clichs of Haiti were repeated; this accursed
land that has known nothing but chaos. All the
governments were tarred with the same brush, for-
getting the elections and democratic governments
dating back to the 19th century: from Nissage Saget
in 1870-1874 to Tiresias Simon Sam from 1896 to
1902 -admittedly sometimes alternating with the
most uncompromising of regimes -not to forget the
period of enlightenment under Dumarsais Estim
from 1946-1950.

Then the intellectuals and a growing number of
journalists started to tell the true story of this land,
its people, its riches, its modest but not insignificant
contribution to humanity, its many great writers,
and its artistic heritage. Also highlighted are the
beginnings of a renaissance in recent years, includ-
ing 13 international prizes for literature and its writ-
ers in 2009 alone. The country's progress too has
been exemplified in terms of the political govern-
ance of recent years that has largely convinced the
international community. Michle Pierre-Louis is
testimony to this fact, still prime minister before the
earthquake when she granted The Courier the inter-
view published in this issue. But for many it was the
disaster that gave the opportunity to discover the
truth about Haiti.

Were it not for this improved governance the soli-
darity on the part of the world community may not
have been so great. Meeting in Montreal on 25
January, the donor countries may not have been so
unanimous in deciding that the Haitian Government
was best placed to manage the funds to rebuild the
country, following the lead of the European Union
that had already granted its support in the form of
budgetary aid, a kind of mark of approval.

The Haitian Government says it is ready to begin
reconstruction on more solid bases. One example of
this is the Haitian president's urging of the World
Food Programme in particular that emergency food
aid should not destabilise local production and be
used mainly to constitute stocks. This is not so
removed from the problem raised in our articles
on the global consensus against hunger or fishing
agreements or even climate change. The reason
the choices made by Haiti at this point in time
have the backing of donors is that global govern-
ance has made notable progress in recent times,
despite major apprehensions that remain justified.
Our dossier on the G20 and developing countries
illustrates this.

Does this mean that good can come from misfor-
tune? It depends. Only time will tell.

Hegel Goutier
Editor in chief




Michle Duvivier Pierre-L
Former prime minister


difficult renli.a.lidri
Michle Duvivier Pierre-Louis. DEC
One of the political notables to attend the European Development Days in Stockholm in October
2009, Michle Duvivier Pierre-Louis is above ail a symbol of the recovery of Haiti's credentials as a
democratically-governed country. Our interview with the former prime minister took place before
the earthquake which destroyed Haiti and put in danger the country's renaissance which had
begin to take place over the past 2-3 years. Among other activities at the EDD event, she was invit-
ed to hand over one of the European Commission's prestigious Natali Prizes for Journalism, a true
sign of the times for a country that not long ago was itself plagued by human rights violations.*

ichle Pierre-Louis was prime
minister of Haiti from September
2008 to the end of October 2009,
and was particularly noted for her
implementation of the reform policy put into
place by President Ren Prval. One element
of this policy was to furnish the country with
a new image as a tourist destination. Note
that it was between Miami and Labadee
in Haiti that the new largest liner in the
world, Oasis of the Seas, property of the Royal
Caribbean Cruise Line with a capacity for
6,500 passengers, made its maiden voyage.

Duvivier Pierre Louis has spent a large part
of her working life outside politics in civil
society and is acutely aware of the collateral
effects of reform on the most vulnerable.

Is the worst now over for Haiti, or does the coun-
try still :,ii. from an image problem?

The country remains extremely fragile
despite the progress made. As regards the
uncertainties, I prefer to focus on day-
to-day problems, and as far as image is
concerned, I think one of the key events of

recent times was the forum for US inves-
tors, organised in Haiti by former President
Clinton as special UN envoy for Haiti. This
attracted 250 participants.

What do you see as your government's achieve-
ments and, more widely, those of the three years
of the Ren Prvalpresidency?

First of all, security and stability. When
President Prval came to power in 2006, the
country was still in the grip of gang violence,
with the 'Baghdad operation' plunging the


o the point

country into terror, including kidnapping,
killings, rape and arson. The president adopt-
ed a strategy that produced positive results,
namely appealing to the opposition to form a
kind of government of national unity.

The help of Minustah** made possible both
the reform of the police, with an increase in
manpower from 5,000 to 10,000, and the fight
against the corrupt practices of police officers
involved in the gangs and in drug trafficking.
Serious progress was made in dealing with
these gangs. Nightlife has returned to Port-
au-Prince today: before it was like a graveyard
after eight in the evening.

Doesn't the situation of extreme poverty in itself
pose a threat to security?

Absolutely. Haiti receives humanitarian aid,
and it is not through humanitarian aid that
a country is developed. That is why, in
Washington at the donors' conference in
April 2009, I proposed a change to the coop-
eration paradigm. It is private, public, for-

eign and Haitian investment that will make
it possible to kickstart the development proc-
ess. We are criticised for creating low-paid
jobs, but we are still paying the price today
for having invested so little in education. We
do not have the technical capacity to build a
road infrastructure or to protect our coconut
or banana crops against infection. These are
truths that are sometimes not what we want
to hear, but I prefer to state things as they are
even if it pains me to do so.

We took essential measures which were linked
to conditions required to access external
financing. When Aristide left office, the ratio
between the taxes on income and goods and
GDP was 6.5 per cent, and today it is 10.9 per
cent. In the wider Caribbean region, the norm
is around 15 per cent or even 18 per cent.

Over the past two years we have managed
to fund our operating budget out of the
public treasury, that is, from income tax and
taxes on goods combined, and it has been a


Michle Duvivier Pierre-Louis and US Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton speak to reporters at
the US State Department. Reporters/AP

very long time since this has been the case.
Unfortunately, between 65 and 70 per cent
ofthe budget's public expenditure continues
to be met by international aid. Our work is
making it possible to build up confidence
among citizens, but we are now at a cross-
roads. By that, I mean we could just as easily
take a step backwards as a step forwards.

I can perfectly understand impatience on
the part of the population and elected rep-
resentatives. I took office at a time when
four hurricanes in a row had destroyed eve-
rything. The international community esti-
mated the losses at a billion US dollars, or 14
per cent of GDP, and the UNDP launched
an emergency appeal to raise $US107M. At
the donors' conference in April, we received
promises of around $US400M, but since
then -and it is now eight or nine months ago
-we have not even received $US100M.

Wasn't the Haitian Government 'more Catholic
than the Pope' in pursuing reforms when one
sees the latitude that the rich countries have
allowed with regard to liberalism in the face of
the economic crisis?

The countries that adopted such latitude had
the capacity to do so. What measures could
we take? We bore the full brunt of opening
up our markets, and it was very hard. When,
at the request of the International Monetary
Fund and the World Bank, we deregulated
all imports into the country, we killed off
a large proportion of national production.
Rice from Miami was selling at a tenth of
the price of local produce. But that was the
price to be paid. The Paris Club cancelled
$US1.2bn of the Haitian debt.

We know that investment is the only way
to bring about genuine development. The
textile industry is on the right track. We
are also working to promote tourism, in the
entire country and not just in hotspots like
Labadee where the huge liners of the Royal
Caribbean Cruise Line bring in thousands of
tourists every week, particularly among the
Haitian diaspora. For example, we are cre-
ating infrastructure to attract them to visit
the Citadelle Laferrire, a national treasure

and a UNESCO world heritage site. The
Taiwanese are also now investing in the
south of the country. But it will be difficult
to compete with Cuba and the Dominican
Republic as a mass tourism destination, and I
am not even sure I regard this as desirable.

* See also article on aftermath of Haiti earthquake:
'Africa mobilises for Haiti ', p. 8.
**French acronym-The UnitedNations Stabilisation
Mission in Haiti.

Michle Duvivier Pierre-Louis; Haiti;
EU Development Days; Ren Prval;
Oasis of the Seas; Labadee;
Royal Caribbean Cruise Line;
Citadelle Laferrire; Hegel Goutier.

Hegel Goutier

ifrica mobilises for Haiti

To an unprecedented extent as far as a humanitarian cause outside the continent is concerned,
Africa has rallied to the aid of Haiti since the earthquake that laid waste to the country on the
12th January 2010 and caused probably more than 200,000 deaths, leaving millions more
wounded and homeless. Even those countries suffering a very difficult economic situation them-
selves have made their contribution to this display of generosity.

S outh Africa has been at the fore-
front of the continent's effort,
reacting with great speed not only
in announcing financial assistance
but by rushing rescuers and health pro-
fessionals to Haiti to help to tackle the
immediate emergency, closely followed
by specialist expertise, including experts
in the identification of bodies, and finally
the humanitarian aid teams themselves.
On the morning of the 14 January, only a
little more than 24 hours after the earth-
quake, a team of 40 rescuers specialised

in different fields called "Rescue South
Africa" took off from Waterlook Airforce
Base, where President Jacob Zuma had
gone personally to see them off, express-
ing his gratitude for the work they are now
doing in the name of South Africa. Zuma
also appealed to every South African to
contribute help in one form or another to
the Haitian people. The telephone com-
pany Vodacom, South Africa, has financed
this rescue team to the tune of 1.5M rand
(US$202,000), and another team of ten
specialists in trauma and different types of



surgery, "Gift of the Givers", left for Haiti
on the 14 January, taking with them a
variety of material, including tents, water
purification tablets, energy supplements
and medicines, to the value of 5M rand
(US$655,500). The South African Red
Cross has also launched an appeal for 30M
rand (US$4M).

South Africa's example has been widely
followed elsewhere on the continent, and
with similar speed. On the 15 January
Gabon, too, announced the sending of
substantial aid, accompanied by a state-
ment from the Council of Ministers speci-
fying that this was "emergency aid of
US$1M for our brothers, who have only
just recovered from both a long and mur-
derous civil war and terrible and deadly

> Senegalese parliament quotes
in fauour of right of settlement
in Senegal for Haitians
The president of Senegal, Abdoulaye
Wade, has decided to allocate US$500,000
to Haiti, and captured the headlines by
announcing that Haitians would be wel-
come in his country. "Africa should offer
Haitians the right to return to their home.
This is a question of rights, and we must
not be grudging in our giving". It is likely


Lel an- nignt negeu wou-er, iviale nepor erstr

that Mr Wade hopes that the costs of
this "repatriation" of Haitians would be
taken care of by the international com-
munity. Criticised by an opposition party
which labelled his proposal as "absurd",
Wade pointed out the example of Liberia,
populated by black people from North
America, and he had the backing of the
Senegalese parliament, which voted unan-
imously on the 22 January for this "right
to return" for Haitians, and in addi-
tion promised US$100,000 to Haiti from
its own resources, exhorting the whole
Senegalese population to offer the equiva-
lent of a day's pay to the aid efforts in
Haiti. The parliament also lent its support
to plans for a major national telethon to
help the Caribbean nation.

Nigeria has made available to the United
Nations mission in Haiti a contingent of
121 soldiers, to provide assistance with
operations to rescue victims. The vice-
president, Goodluck Jonathan, underlines
his country's commitment: "As the inter-
national community mobilises in aid of
Haiti, it can count on Nigeria's support",
and backed this up by releasing an initial
sum of US$67,000 of aid for Haiti.

Benin, a nation ruled by a royal family
which produced the architect of Haitian
independence, Toussaint Louverture, also


launched a telethon in aid of Haiti, and
in addition its government has decided
to provide assistance for 50 Haitian stu-
dents who attend university in Benin,
and to increase the number of its police
officers serving in MINUSTAH (United
Nations Sabilisation Mission in Haiti), as
well as sending soldiers to take part in the
MINUSTAH mission.

The Democratic Republic of Congo
(DRC) has contributed up to $2.5M to the
special fund set up by the United Nations,
a very generous amount considering the
difficulties which the country is under-
going. This offer has also received the
support of the opposition party "Union
du Congo", though this was not entirely
unanimous. Many Congolese, however,
support the gesture of their president and
the words of Mgr Ilunga Mutuka, who
made clear in a statement on behalf of the
Church of Christ in Congo (CCC) that
"the Democratic Republic of the Congo
still has a vivid memory of the contribu-
tion of many Haitians to the education of
Congolese youth in the wake of the inde-
pendence of the country in 1960".

Equatorial Guinea has released US$2 of
aid for Haiti, to be administered through
the United Nations fund, while Congo
has announced a contribution of one

million dollars, matching the respective
offers of Gabon and Namibia. Mauritius,
on the other hand, has donated an addi-
tional US$500,000 to the fundrais-
ing operation set in motion by Caritas
Mauritius. Botswana has contributed up
to US$150,000, Rwanda and Namibia
US$100,000 each, and LiberiaUS$50,000,
and other countries such as Zambia and
Gambia, have also shown their solidarity
with generosity. The list of donors contin-
ues to grow.

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priority region for Spain, emphasising here
development measures. Two major meetings
will be held under our Presidency with ACP
countries: the Joint EU-ACP Parliamentary
Assembly (Tenerife), and the Joint ACP-EU
Council (Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso).

How important is it to put the Doha round on

The EU's trade policy is characterized by its
support for free trade, within the framework
of international rules supported by all. The
reference point for the drawing up of trade
policies is the World Trade Organisation
and, in particular, the Doha Round of mul-
tilateral trade talks. The Spanish Presidency
attaches great importance to unblocking
this negotiation process and is commit-
ted to reaching an agreement on issues for
negotiation in the first half of the year. This
objective is also shared by the EU. Under
its Common Commercial Policy (CCP), it
gives priority to a multilateral approach,
which does not discount, however, other
forms of negotiation such as free trade areas
on both bilateral and regional scales.

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t uhb

The European Commission is to put pen to
paper on reform of the EU's Fisheries P..'. i
What changes would the Spanish Presidency
like to see, particularly with regards to illegal
fishing in ACP waters?

From 1 January 2010, Council Regulation
(EC) No 1005/2008, of 29 September 2008
establishing a Community system to prevent,
deter and eliminate illegal, unreported and
unregulated fishing, came into force and is
applicable not only in Community waters
but also in waters subject to the jurisdic-
tion or sovereignty of third countries. This
is the main tool of the Common Fisheries
Policy to combat and eliminate illegal fish-
ing. The Spanish Presidency is aware of the
importance ofthe economic, social and envi-
ronmental viability of fishing activities and
emphasises that it will be attentive towards
the exploitation of fishing resources based on
sustainability criteria both at the Community
and at international levels.

Will you launch any initiatives in the area of
gender qu:., j.:i in EU development ;-..-.:. i

SMiguel Angel Moratinos Cuyaub. ourtesyofthe Spanish
Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation

Apart from promoting the adoption of an
EU position in view of the special ses-
sion to revise the Millennium Development
Goals (MDGs) to hold in New York next
September, during its Presidency Spain
will promote progress in European pol-
icy with reference to certain MDGs, for
instance, MDG3: Promote gender equality
and empower women. We shall support the
approval of the 'EU Action Plan on Gender
Equality and Women's Empowerment'
which aims to enhance the effectiveness
of EU gender policies and programmes
to promote equality and the empower-
ment of women in developing countries. In
March, in Valencia, we are hosting the 4th
Europe-Africa 'Women for a Better World


IlII)III1 IC I I I~1(1~1 Il' (


Banner announcing Lisbon Treaty. Reporters/AP

Anne-Marie Mouradian

1 December 2009. In the com-
ing months its implementation will
make it possible to answer certain
questions concerning its impact, including
on relations with the ACP countries.

One of the treaty's principal innova-
tions is the creation of the post of High
Representative for Foreign Affairs and
Security Policy, the holder also being
Commission Vice President responsi-
ble for Foreign Affairs. The incumbent,
Catherine Ashton will conduct and coor-
dinate political dialogue with non-EU
countries and ensure a coherent foreign
policy. The Development Commissioner,
Andris Piebalgs, and Commissioner for
International Cooperation, Humanitarian
Aid and Disaster Response, Kristalina
Georgieva, will work closely with her. It
remains to be seen how these different posts
will interconnect in practice.

The treaty widens the common priority
objectives of the EU's external action to
include reducing and eradicating poverty.
This is proof, say some observers, that
development will be a policy in its own right.
Others underline the risk of it becoming no
more than an instrument in the service of
external relations. "I remain confident until
we see otherwise. I am not saying that devel-
opment has nothing to do with external pol-
icy, but the question I ask myself is whether
the autonomy of development policy will be
maintained", warned Louis Michel.

> Preseruing the acquis*

The disappearance from the Lisbon Treaty
of any reference to the ACP Group, which
had existed since the Maastricht Treaty
(1992), caused some concern. This was
expressed in the letter sent on 23 November
by Eunice Kazembe, President of the ACP
Council, to the Presidents of the European
Commission and Council. For his part,
Wilkie Rasmussen, ACP Co-President of
the ACP-EU Joint Parliamentary Assembly,


considered such fears to be premature, while
adding: "But I am not nave. We must fight
to preserve the acquis of our relations."

One of the principal challenges facing the
High Representative will be to set up the
European External Action Service, a genu-
ine European diplomatic service under her
authority. This colossus will ultimately, by
around 2014, consist of the 10,000 civil
servants of the Council, Commission and
diplomatic services of the Member States. A
first visible sign ofthe change is that, since 1
December, some 130 European Commission
external delegations have become EU del-
egations. These will grow progressively with
the addition of representatives ofthe Council
and the Foreign Ministries of the Member
States. Questions are naturally being raised
regarding the impact on delegations in the
ACP countries where the granting and pro-

gramming of aid is currently managed by the
Development Directorate-General.

Another innovation is that for the first time
the treaty introduces a specific legal basis for
humanitarian aid. For its part, the European
Parliament will have increased budgetary
powers and wider competence in fields such
as humanitarian aid and immigration.

In this new configuration ofthe EU's exter-
nal action, the personality of the High
Representative and of the Development
and Humanitarian Aid Commissioners will
clearly play a major role in determining their
relations in practice.
* The 'essence' of the agreement.

Lisbon Treaty; development cooperation;


Po* y Vic -rsdn of th r- niara l an ...si - s

-a Commssio. Bor in 1956 Brit- -us as Th -orera -opes


L cooperation at

a turning point

T he entry into force of the Lisbon > madagascar and niger
S s 1 Treaty and the completion, in
-2010, of negotiations for a review The JPA also condemned the coup d'tat
of the Cotonou Agreement will in Madagascar and called for the return to
i l be two new turning points, stressed Louis constitutional order by ail the parties com-
P Michel, European Co-President of the ing together in a spirit of consensus to put
Assembly. For his part, Wilkie Rasmussen, an end to the crisis. It regretted "the intran-
Sthen the ACP Co-President, argued for sigence of Mr. Rajoelina, who seems to be
iTrr^i* -the Economic Partnership Agreements to the hostage of his clan" and "the demands
include measures to help the ACP countries of the exiled president, Mr. Ravalomanana,
face the future opening up of their markets. who shows an inappropriate lack ofrealism".
It recommended individual sanctions in the
The Assembly adopted three reports. It event of failure to respect the undertakings
calls for improved representation for the given in Maputo and Addis-Ababa.
ef *liq EI fitr developing countries, especially in Africa,
within international institutions and on the The JPA also called on the authorities in
IMF and World Bank governing bodies. It Niger to "return to constitutional order as
- recommends that the impact of the finan- soon as possible and release all political pris-
me e ce cial crisis on the ACP countries should be owners, including Members of Parliament and
* reduced by seeking new sources of funding opposition leaders". The delegations from
for development, such as the introduction Madagascar, Niger and Guinea-Conakry
of an international tax on financial trans- were only present at this session as observers
actions. Finally, the report on social and without voting rights and not as full mem-
cultural integration and the participation bers ofthe Assembly. A.M.M.
of young people calls for guarantees of The 'essence' of the agreement.
improved access to education and jobs for
the 15-24 age groups.
Joint Parliamentary Assembly; Luanda;
new European Commissioners.


hi I

~l T1





I~ I!r

I Z-


Dossier G20 and developing countries

with different organizations of develop-
ing countries, namely the ACP, LDC,
SVEs (Small, Vulnerable Economies),
Cotton-4 (Benin, Burkina Faso, Chad and
Mali), G-33, NAMA-11 (Market Access
for Non-Agricultural Products), Caricom
(Caribbean community). This new forma-
tion set itselfthe initial objective ofworking
to ensure that the development agenda be
endorsed by the multilateral trade system.

After the eruption of the world financial
crisis, the epilogue to a series of crises which
had seriously affected developing nations,
the lobbying of the G20 of "developing and
emerging" countries helped to lead to an
enlargement ofthe G20 ofdeveloped nations
and the creation of a larger group of emerg-
ing nations. Six countries are members
of both groups: South Africa, Argentina,
Brazil, China, India and Mexico.

* Egypt, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania andZimba-
bwe; China, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, Philippines
and Thaland ; Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile,
Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru,
Uruguay and Venezuela.

G20; financial crisis; WTO; ACP; LDC;
SVE; Cotton-4; G-33; NAMA-11.

In search of a global

governance organisation

inuoluing developing countries

In their study 'The G20 and the regulation of the world economy' Catherine Mathieu and Henry
Sterdyniak of the OFCE (French Economic Observatory)*, an economic and political science
research centre in Paris, hold the view that developing countries, with the exception of the very
poorest, had initially benefited from financial globalisation, before coming to experience its
downside. The authors went on to explore possible channels for the creation of a new form of
world financial governance which is fairer on poor countries.

The study's view is that ail but the
very poorest developing countries
benefited from the strong growth
in the world economy from 1990
until just before the eruption of the finan-
cial crisis in 2008. Paradoxically, the third
world debt crisis of 1982 and those of Brazil
and Argentina which broke out between the
end of the 1990s and in the years immedi-
ately after the turn of the century, also all
occurred around the same period. Financial
globalisation is a source of instability which
places nations and people in competition
with one another, and it may be surmised
that the effects of this process are at their
greatest in the young republics of Africa in

> H combination of 620 and IMF?
A number ofexisting institutions will have to
be adapted and others set up if an improved
framework for global governance is to be
established. There will be a need for a cen-
tral organisation to provide leadership and
guidance to specialised bodies, and while
this central institution does exist in embry-
onic form in the G8, G20, and IMF, none
of these is at present sufficiently resource

From left: British Prime Minister Gordon Brown, Liberian
President, Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf and Nigerian Finance
Minister Mansur Muhtar. Reporters/AP
to take on the role required. To function
successfully, this organisation must have
effective sanctions at its disposal. The WTO
alone is capable of performing this role,
but in practice sanctions have been applied
almost exclusively to small countries. The
IMF is too dependent on the US and the
UN lacks the power required, while the G7/
G8, for its part, implies the dictatorship of
the rich nations.

The G20 is more in accordance with the
new power relationships in the world, and
its members constitute 90 per cent of GDP
and 65 per cent of world population. Its

weakness, however, is what the authors of
the study call "the great absentees", such
as Spain, Iran or Nigeria, and indeed whole
regions ofthe world play no role in it. Neither
has the organisation so far produced a great
deal in terms of significant specific results.

An economic and financial committee under
the combined leadership ofthe IMF and the
G20 could be one solution to this conun-
drum. Such a committee would include
the countries of the G20, but would also be
enriched by representatives of regions which
are at present under-represented, especially
Africa. While "the G20 has travelled a long
way in the right direction", the study won-
ders whether "the leaders of the G20 will
have enough will and constancy to carry out
reform in the face of the many challenges
ahead". H.C.

* Notes presented at the ENA (Ecole Nationale d'Ad-
ministration, Strasbourg, France), 9 December 2009.

Catherine Mathieu; Henry Sterdyniak;
OFCE; ENA; globalization; world financial
governance; Africa; G20; Hegel Goutier.


- -Dossier

5 out of 10O
for finance

n a e i Th f-e Couri ea o th a 0m a e e e
Naa e a W ood s e a a N 1 o as sa t i a si
Zealand-born aritis h aaademic who is P rec- a--seveloping economies. Ngaire as a s s ea --

meatff s Bt ae aae -a asa-at a-e5 a' ef asa fss i chang
N. a -a e e s e e a- aa-
** e e

Dossier G20 and developing countries

Is the G20 just papering over the cracks or does
it offer a real way forward in dealing with the
globalfinancial crisis?

To imagine that the G20 offers reconstruc-
tion of the system of global governance is
in my view completely wrong. People look
upon it as a complete revolution in global
governance. This isn't so: it just recognizes
a power shift in the world and the need to
have a different informal group of great
powers making strategic decisions.

The G20 has no formal authority to make
decisions. It has no implementing capacity
to make decisions and few of its members
would agree to it being used in that way.

When former US President George Bush
called the first G20 leaders' meeting in
November 2008 (ed: in Washington), it was
through the recognition that the financial
crisis required an immediate global coordina-
tion of policies which would be credible to
the market and investors. This initial meeting
successfully gathered leaders very quickly.
The first G20 Summits came out with action
plans which charged different institutions
and governments to do specific things. The
G20's Finance Ministers have been meeting
for 10 years. After the financial crisis in 1997,
the G7 already recognized that they had to
have a wider group which would come up
with global solutions to the financial crisis.

The London Summit in April 2009 followed
up the action plan of the first G20 meeting
and pushed it forward. Its main achieve-
ment was to get an agreement that major
economies would contribute credit lines to
the IMF. They collectively agreed to inject
money into the global economy to stop the
crash. The first thing was to stop the world
economy from seizing up; the second was
to start thinking immediately about how to
regulate finance in order to prevent another
crisis becoming a major one; the third was
to find ways to mitigate or to reduce the
impact ofthe crisis on developing countries;
and the fourth was to reform international
institutions because the very fact that they
had to meet at the G20 as opposed to meet-
ing within the IMF, for example, was to
put out a signal that reform of international
institutions was necessary.

At the third meeting in Pittsburgh, there
was much more of a focus on jobs because
the industrialized countries feared that
unemployment would become more acute.
So it went back to the number one point
on the agenda: stopping the economy seiz-

ing up. There was less focus at the G20 in
Pittsburgh on how the crisis was affecting
developing countries. The major agreement
to come out of Pittsburgh was that Brazil,
China, India and Russia (the BRIC), would
contribute to credit lines of the IMF in
return for more reform of the IMF.

As you said, the IMF moved slowly. Do you
think the IMF and World Bank have got to
grips with the crisis?

Inside the IMF and World Bank there is
tremendous motivation and determination

What does the future holdfor the G7 and G8?

I think the G8 at the leaders' level is dead. It
can keep on meeting but it is fairly irrelevant
as an institution. The G7 Finance Ministers'
group is probably going to survive because it
is the powerful way for the G7 countries to
coordinate their position within the G20.
They give it more power than the G20. But
if the G7 Finance Ministers continue to
meet, what they risk is pushing the emerg-
ing economies into a similar counter group.
That is what we saw at the G20 Finance
Ministers' meeting in London earlier this

Ngare Woods and Donad Kabeka A an Deveopmen Bank Pesden

Ngaire Woods and Donald Kaberuka, African Development Bank President. cEP

to try to get as much money as possible
to developing countries. What is slowing
the IMF and World Bank down is that the
powerful countries, the member countries,
have been slow to give these institutions
the resources and mandate to act, to move
quickly particularly in respect to the poor-
est countries. The WB has been left trying
to deal with this crisis by simply front-
loading speeding up already agreed loans.
So it has not been given the additional
resources to pump into developing coun-
tries. The IMF was directed by powerful
countries to deal with the financial crisis
in countries in the European area and that
means that some 80 per cent of the money
that the IMF has lent since the crisis began
has gone to countries in the European
area, and only between about two or three
percent has gone, for example, to African

year where the G7 countries had met to pre-
pare their own position. The BRIC also met
to prepare their position. It could polarise
the G20 in two camps.

If the G20 has no real authority, what is the
main interest of countries such as China or
Brazil in being part of this club?

Their interest is to ensure that they can
influence strategic decisions and I think
the fact they have participated to the G20
Finance Ministers' group in the last ten
years has given them an experience of how
to use this kind of grouping, which is prov-
ing interesting. The crisis in 1997 was a
crisis in emerging economies; it was South
Korea, Brazil and so forth and Russia who
were in crisis. But this crisis is different.
The crisis itself is a crisis in the G7, in
United States, Great Britain and Europe. At


G20 and developing countries Dossier

the end of the day the emerging economies
are very well placed, not least because they
have already been in crisis themselves and
are hence able to better protect themselves
against this crisis. When the 2008 crisis
arrived, these countries were in a much
stronger position because they had reserves;
they had taken measures which have pre-
vented the crisis from hitting them too hard;
they have had experience in engaging in the
G20 Finance Ministers' group. We have
also seen emerging economies become more
assertive; which had not been the case in the
global network before then.

Are China, India and Brazil ., ..- standing up
for the developing nations?

You are right. They say that they are but
what strikes me in the G20 leaders' sum-
mit, is that the main voice for developing
countries has actually probably come from
the presidents of the WB, the Managing
Director of the IMF and from the African
Union representative. They have been say-
ing, "Look this is a development emergency,
we have to do something about it". But in
my view, the G20 has not performed well
vis--vis developing countries. They have
done very well in preventing the wealthy
economies from seizing up. They coordi-
nated quickly and they took some decisive
cooperative action. I think they get high
marks for that. They have done a little bit
we can give them 5 out of 10 on financial
regulatory reform. But when it comes to
easing the impact of the crisis on develop-

SBrazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev, Chinese President Hu Jintao and Indian
Prime Minister Manmohan. Reporters

ing economies, I would probably give them
3 out of 10 because they have been high on
promises but low on delivery.

How important was the role played by South
Africa and African Union in the G20 leaders'
meetings? Were they merely spectators?

They were not in a great position of power
particularly because in these first three
meetings the wealthy country governments
have been so focused on their own crisis.
The Pittsburgh summit was focused on the
unfolding economic crisis inside United
States and inside Europe. It has been quite
difficult, particularly for African govern-
ments who are facing a real crisis as a result
of the financial crisis. It has been very dif-

ficult for them to put their needs on the
agenda and have them given priority. H.C.

* Mattli, W. and Woods, N. (co-Author), The Politics of
Global Regulation, Princeton University Press March
**Woods, N. (Co-Author) Inequality, Globalization,
and World Politics, Oxford University Press, 1999.
***Woods, N. (Co-Author), Inequality, GI ;
Explaining International Relations since 1945, Oxford
University Press, 1996.
****Woods,N., ThePoliticalEconomyofGlobalization,
Macmillan, 2000.
*****Woods, N., The Globalizers: the IMF, the World
Bank, and their Borrowers, Cornell University Press,
March 2006.

Ngaire Woods; economic governance;
Oxford; G20; Hegel Goutier.



Dossier G20 and developing countries

International finance

Corporation branches out

Rachel Kyte is Vice-President of Business Advisory Services for the International Finance
Corporation (IFC), the arm of the World Bank (WB) that provides finance and advice for private
investment in developing countries. She joined the Washington-based organisation nine years
ago as an ombudsman, investigating complaints about projects, moving on to become Director
of the Environment Department before her current posting.

I Rachel Kyte. IFC

I n the following interview with The Courier
in Brussels, she tells us that the IFC is seek-
ing new partnerships with bilateral and mul-
tilateral partners because there is now little
money sitting around in public coffers. Rachel
Kyte says that these are :' .. i:. times for
international financial architecture" with a
need for an even sharperfocus on the poor the
least resilient in the crisis and for more innova-
tive instruments.

In the wake of the crisis in October 2008,
a lack of finance for infrastructure quickly
emerged and at the end of 2008, the IFC
also calculated a $US1.8bn shortfall of
financing for the microfinance industry.
Kyte says that since the big trade banks
had repatriated most of their capital back
to Europe instead of putting it into credit
services in emerging markets, the IFC's
Board immediately tripled its trade financ-
ing to $US3bn. A microfinance facility was
also created with the Germans, with a first

tranche of a $US500M which helped extend
finance to 30 highly successful commercial-
ly-based micro-finance institutions around
the world, a special initiative the IFC now
wants to repeat.

What was the IFC's remit following the
Pittsburgh G20 meeting?

In its financial inclusion paragraphs in
Pittsburgh, the G20 expressly asked us
to help. The question was, how do you
extend financial inclusion even at a time of
a retreating global economy? How do you
make sure that the poor do not suffer more?
We are nearly five years away from the
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
and are a long way from achieving them,
so how do you keep fighting poverty at a
time when there are far fewer resources to
go around? One issue is how to increase
the amount of smart regulation that allows
finance to be accessible to the poor. This

is a discussion about how to extend access
both by making smart regulation (such as a
collateral register). Secondly, if more money
were put on the table, it's a matter of help-
ing Small and Medium-sized Enterprises
(SMEs) best channel this through supply
chains by assisting big companies in extend-
ing their backward linkages to create more
jobs in SMEs and also looking specifically
at the needs of women who are owners of
SMEs, but have problems getting access to
markets and credit.

Have you brought in any new instruments in the
wake of the crisis?

There are three big innovations. One has
been to create more funds for our own
account; setting up equity accounts with
more people on board, for example the
equity structure fund with Germany's par-
ticipation. All co-operation partners now sit
down, agree on the problem and co-create.


611f: Rn IMEC InnOURTIOn
The Global Index Insurance Facility (GIIF) ers and vulnerable communities against
is a new joint initiative between the IFC, natural disasters that can wipe out their
European Commission (EC) and the Dutch livelihoods and trap them in poverty. IFC
Government. It provides funds to insure is committed to helping extend financial
against certain catastrophic events, de- products and services to places where
pending on their severity. For example, the private sector is at the early stages of
insurance will be paid out in the event of development, creating more opportunities
a wind storm of a certain category, or an for people that need them the most". The
earthquake registering a certain magni- EC has put E24.5M into GlIFs trust fund
tude on the Richter scale. Jean Philippe which is also supported by the Netherlands.
Prosper, IFC Director for Eastern and
Southern Africa, says, "The Global Index
Insurance Facility will help protect farm- Find out more: www.ifc.org

G20 and developing countries Dossier

The second is the global trade liquidity
pool; it is not a new instrument in itself but
the number of partners and the ambition
are very new. Thirdly, we have created an
asset management company. This is not on
our own account. It is a wholly-owned sub-
sidiary. This allows us to leverage sovereign
funds, public pension funds and privately-
managed pension funds to invest alongside
us. We provide the flow and these funds
will be able to take 50 per cent of equity. It
is another way of bringing more capital into
emerging markets in a responsible way at a
time when it is just not flowing on its own.
We understand there is at least $US5 trillion
worth of public pension funds assets under
management in Europe that have some kind
of requirement of sustainability, as well as
pension funds that need to grow in order that
we can all have our pensions. They have to
produce a return to the beneficiary and they
have to be green which means that over time
they need to be invested more in emerging
markets and in sustainable companies.

Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Sinh speaksatthe 2008 India-frica Forum Summit. Reporters
Ilndian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh speaks at the 2008 India-Africa Forum Summit. 0 Roportors/AP

Can you tell us more about the IFC's initiatives
to promote women's business activities?

We are helping banks invest in them as
entrepreneurs because it's smart business.
We are also about to launch what I call
a new 'public good' -that actually helps

I Young women studying dressmaking in Project Credit Femmes school, Dakar, Senegal. Reporters/LehtikuvaOy

people understand how to ensure that when
they reform the regulatory environment for
SMEs, it is done in such a way that women
in business benefit as well. We have tradi-
tionally been very gender blind in regulatory
reform for SMEs. For example, you can
set up a collateral register but in countries
where women are prevented from raising
collateral, how do you create such a regis-
ter that takes into account the ability of a
woman to collateralise movable assets such
as jewellery, or a fixed asset that might mean
a change in the law around ownership of
land? If you go in with your eyes wide open,
you can have much more effective regula-
tion. Over 60 per cent of SME owners in
Africa are women. We will be launching this
work over the next few weeks. I am hoping it
will be taken up by everybody who is in the
SME business.

Do youforecast a second global crisis?

We see a long, hard road out of this with
complete restructuring of certain supply
chains in some industries that had over-
capacity -including downsizing as a result
of recession, for example, in the apparel
industry. We are concerned about how to
stimulate credit in emerging markets and
how to enable good firms to access credit.
It is not going to be easy. The Organisation
of Economic Cooperation and Development
(OECD) is not the only source of invest-
ment. We have just been to India and were
all struck with the opportunities for Indian
investment in Africa. You are going to see a
lot more south-south investment. D.P.

Rachel Kyte; IFC; global crisis; SMEs;


Mareo e e oe e

we sh e*o' e'

''e a 6180 e e

There wl be dead o un es el conres enl n th
ing proess. This es essentially the i Ew3fS3uembou

Charles Goerens. CEP

You are critical of the G20. Why is that?

The G20 has pretensions of replacing the
United Nations. As it includes just 10 per cent
of the world's countries, it is hardly very rep-
resentative. Ifyou do not belong to the club of
rich nations, you do not have the right to be
heard. Is this good governance?The European
Union could have made the difference. It
should allow the other EU Member States,
and not just the rich ones, to take part in the
initial phase of the decision-making process,
which is not the case at the moment. This is
true for the African, Caribbean and Pacific
nations. South Africa, the only ACP member
of the G20, is not really representative of the
ACP group.

What is the solution?

I believe we should have a G180, which would
include all the nations that have been left
out. I have just returned from a conference
on security and development, a major issue
in these times of crisis (and the subject of
a report by Charles Goerens -editor's note),
because development cannot be achieved
without security, and vice-versa. Everything
depends on a nation's governance and wealth.

Where this is lacking, the system does not
function well enough to allow the state to gov-
ern properly. Poverty is therefore the underly-
ing reason for all insecurity. This is where we
need to start addressing the problem. It is an
arduous, low-profile job, but it helps to keep

the peace. I firmly believe this is the right
approach. Having said that, I still believe that
Africa has never been as well governed as
at present with the exception of regions like
Kivu and Darfur, where freedoms are flouted
and access to wealth is limited. Africa can
be seen as an enormous institutional build-
ing site. We are the only ones who cannot
see this. They need our help. I support the
need to open Africa up to the world, but in

a well-managed way. An Africa which is open
without being sold off.

What can Europe do?

Europe's ability to listen and show prudence
is its strength, but also its weakness. Europe
missed an opportunity to position itself on
the international stage between 4 November
2008 -the date of Barack Obama's election
-and 20 January 2009, the date of his inves-
titure as President of the USA. Europe also
lacks clear vision when it comes to positioning
itself in international organizations, such as
the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and
the World Trade Organisation (WTO). Take
the Chinese, for example, who inundate the
informal African markets with manufactured
goods, thanks to a chronically undervalued
currency, while still adhering to the WTO's
anti-dumping rules. Instead of suppressing
the Africans, we should be helping them get
themselves back on their feet. And Europe can
play its part here by joining forces within the
IMF to address the issue of currency parity.

Charles Goerens; security; development;
G20; G180.


Participants at the 2009 Tax & Development Conference, jointly organized by the EP Development Committee and EU Commission. EP

Fiscal reforms in

developing countries

Organised by Eva Joly, chair of the European Parliament Development Committee, and Karel De
Gucht, former European Commissioner for Development, a conference on good fiscal governance
was held on 9 December 2009. The many experts present included Lszl6 Kovcs, European
Commissioner responsible for Taxation, Abou Bakar Traore, the Malian Minister for Mines,
representatives of the Spanish government, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and
Development (OECD) and international Non-Governmental Organisations.

the starting point for the debate.
While taxation is the best means of
achieving development by enabling
countries of the South to be less dependent
on international aid, in practice these coun-
tries have rarely succeeded in putting into
place an efficient tax system. On the contra-


ry, tax evasion and the flight of capital to tax
havens cause them to lose billions every year
that could have been used to build schools,
hospitals, roads and fund other development
projects. The cause lies in corrupt practices
among Africa's elite coupled with the finan-
cial dishonesty and banking secrecy found in
the countries of the North.

"Victims of tax evasion, fraud when engag-
ing in cross-border trade or the putting into
place of tax incentives aimed at attracting
investment capital, the developing countries
are believed to be losing US$385bn every
year", stressed Joly. "The black economy
which by definition avoids all tax -reduces
the tax base. In Kenya, for example, 60 per

Eva Joly, chair of the European Parliament Committee on Development and Karel De Gucht, former European Commissioner
for Development. CEP

cent ofthe country's tax revenue comes from
just 0.2 per cent of the population, this being
insufficient to collect sufficient resources to
meet the country's vital needs."

Karel De Gucht believes tax evasion cur-
rently represents at least three times the
amount of development aid.

In the face of such a situation, the priority
is to correct the weakness of the tax sys-
tems of developing countries. This requires
long-term investment -a tax administration
cannot be reformed in a year -which is not
only the responsibility of the governments
concerned but also of donors. Currently just
0.2 per cent of public development aid goes
towards improving tax systems.

However, recently there has been some
progress. "We have made more progress
over the past 10 months than in the past 10
years", explained Jeffrey Owens, Director
of the OECD's Centre for Tax Policy and

Administration. Recalling the commitments
made at the G20 in London in April 2009 to
bring tax havens into line, he urged NGOs
to keep up their pressure on politicians.

Another initiative, which is all the more
important as it comes from the South, is that
African countries have decided to take their
destiny into their own hands by launching
the African Forum on Tax Administration
in November 2009. The launch of this
network, with support from the OECD
and European Union, should enable senior
African tax officials to set out Africa's tax
needs and priorities and to develop and
share best practices to strengthen capacities
in this sector.

"I hope that this conference will have
served to generate genuine awareness of
the situation and will force the European
Commission to take more account of 'tax
and development' in its proposals in the
future", concluded Joly. This dynamic MEP

and former magistrate is also determined
to fight to oblige multinational companies
to provide details in their annual reports
of the activities, revenue and taxes paid per
country. A.M.M.


Fiscal governance; Lszl Kovcs; Abou
Bakar Traore; taxation; Eva Joly; Jeffrey
Owens; OECD; Anne-Marie Mouradian;
Karel De Gucht.


ACP-EU Interaction

"Trade talks must reflect

a new global consensus

on hunger"

At the end of 2009, the FAO announced that the number of malnourished people in the world
had hit the billion mark. From Rome where the last Food Summit was held in November to
the Copenhagen Climate Conference in December, the issue of food security was yet again on
the table. To no great effect, despite warnings from UN experts, including Olivier De Schutter,
Special Rapporteur on the right to food. We interview him here.

I I n Rome", explains Olivier De Schutter,
"ail the sensitive questions were brushed
aside. Some difficult questions were
hardly raised at all, often passed over
in silence or put on hold while awaiting the
results of further studies. These were: the
problem of agro-fuels, land speculation in
southern countries and international trade
reforms although I should emphasise that
questions of world trade bear a more com-
plicated relationship to food than people
usually acknowledge".

How do you see the future?

Over the coming months we must look at
these fundamental issues. But with whom
and adopting what approach? These ques-
tions remain unanswered. On the other
hand, what is new, and this should be
emphasised, is that the Committee for
World Food Security is now firmly in place.
It has existed since 1996 but to date had
been ineffective as it only included constitu-
ent states. It was a talking shop that lacked
visibility and took no decisions. It has now
been reformed to include the International
Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Bank
(WB) and the World Trade Organisation
(WTO), along with organizations repre-
senting civil society. It is a kind of mini-
parliament which will provide for increased
coordination through the UNDP (United
Nations Development Programme).

Food security inevitably raises the question of
international trade. How do you regard the


Courtesy ofwww afronline org and Damien Glez

still thorny negotiations on this point within the

I believe that, unfortunately, international
trade will be held up as a panacea when in
fact it risks fooling people. We are confronted
with a declaration that both says we are going
to help 'small countries' and which presents
international trade as a catch-all solution,
when in practice, countries that wish to
increase their exports, and thus their ability
to gain access to foreign markets, create food
insecurity inside their own countries. The
small countries are often the ones that lose
out. If they increase their exports they have
to increase their own investments and small
producers end up being the losers. We are
faced with competition for access to the best

'glezorg I

land and water. The key issue here is protec-
tionism. I suggest a solution that gives coun-
tries the right to protect their agriculture.

The problem is that we are seeing a fall in
tariff protection due to bilateral agreements
and to the demands of donors. Southern
countries have not used all the WTO's
flexible mechanisms. This allows them to
export bananas or cotton, but to what
effect? It doesn't make it possible for devel-
oping countries to pursue more sustainable
agriculture. This is where the main cause of
a lack in food security lies. M.M.B.

Food security; Olivier De Schutter; FAO.

'- P The SSNC study says that the agreements Directorate General for Development to
S * with other nations cost the EU more than take part in future negotiations, rather than
S150M during 2009, or 16.8 per cent ofthe leaving them to the DG for Fisheries and
EU's total fisheries budget, involving some Maritime Affairs. And because ofthe nature
ra718 vessels mainly from Spain, France and of stocks which obviously cross boundaries,
Portugal. It questions whether the agree- it recommends that future partnerships be
ments promote sustainable development drawn up on a regional basis.
mmli based on an assessment of their impact on
--r West African nations -Mauritania, Guinea, The SSNC also wants all EU governments
Senegal and Guinea Bissau. to be actively involved in negotiations -not
just be left to nations with a vested inter-
i 7 e 7 "The concept of fisheries and fish as a est in exploiting stocks -and it says there
r pre-requisite for food security seems to be should be an end to subsidies for EU boats.
forgotten, dominated by the states with big Priority should be given to developing the
commercial interests", finds the SSNC. West African sector and small-scale fish-
Demersal species and other fish stocks have series in particular with local community
been over-fished and the SSNC also casts involvement to prevent further depletion of
doubt over whether the EU money goes to resources. Only when surplus stocks have
Developing the sector in West Africa. been properly documented should com-
Smercial agreements be negotiated: "Should
> "Real partnerships" there be a shortage of fish, it is the West
Africans who have the right ofprecedence to
SThe SSNC wants to see "real partnerships their own fish", says the SSNC study. D.P.
based on coherence between fisheries, devel-
opment and trade policies", suggesting that Keywords
agreements should better manage fish stocks ........... .. ih

A 2009 'green paper' of the Euro-
pean Commission's Directorate
General for Fisheries and Maritime
Resources involved a very public
consultation on the way ahead, including
scientists, civil society and many interested
individuals. The European Commission is
now drawing up an impact assessment on
the CFP, based on the consultation, which
includes the future nature of agreements
with non-EU countries.

EU boats have a long tradition of fishing
in West Africa to meet a dependency on
imported fish which provide two-thirds of
requirements. On joining the EU in 1986,
the bi-lateral fisheries agreements of Spain
and Portugal with African nations were
brought under the EU umbrella. These
agreements -essentially licences to fish
for compensation -were given a facelift in
2002 and renamed 'Fisheries Partnership
Agreements' which placed more of an accent
on developing the artisanal fishing sector in
African nations.

and develop the sector. To make this hap-
pen, it wants the European Commission's

I Fishing boats, Saint-Louis, Senegal. CReporters/Photononstop

s er es agreemnens; we s oce y
for Nature Conservation; Mauritania;
Guinea; Senegal and Guinea-Bissau.


. r(1h.o ITIT. n1T?1

e emanci

:ion cure

It is in keeping with the spirit
of the times. After having
launched the major initiative
of Economic Partnership
Agreements (EPAs) with the
African, Caribbean and Pacific
Group of States, the European
Union has decided to review
the association that links it to
the Overseas Countries and
Territories (OCTs). The new
recommended partnership
has three main objectives:
increased competitiveness,
reduced vulnerability and the
opening up of the OCTs to
other cooperation partners.

I n 6 November 2009 the European Com-
mission presented its communication
on a new partnership between the EU
and the OCTs (http://eur-lex.europa.eu/
:0623:FIN:EN:PDF). This new communi-
cation comes against the backdrop of the
reflection initiated by the Commission in

June 2008 following publication of a 'Green
Paper' on relations between the EU and the
OCTs. It takes stock of these consultations
and presents the components for a new part-
nership with a view to replacing the present
Overseas Association Decision that expires
in December 2013. The aim is to continue
this reflection in 2010 and 2011, in partner-
ship with the OCTs and the Member States
to which they are linked (Denmark, France,
the Netherlands and the United Kingdom),
so as to be able to draw up concrete legisla-
tive proposals to modify the present associa-
tion by the end of 2013.

> Exceptions
In regard to this consultation, the Com-
mission notes that: "A common opinion is
that the current anti-poverty focus in rela-
tions between the EU and the OCTs no
longer corresponds to the reality in the field
and should be replaced by a new approach.
The unique relationship between the OCTs
and the EU should be the cornerstone of
such a new logic. It should take due account
ofthe OCTs' specificities, in particular their
economic and social development, diver-
sity and vulnerability, as well as their envi-
ronmental importance. It should also aim

to strengthen their resilience and enhance
their competitiveness".

There are exceptions, however. In the case
of Anguilla, Mayotte, Montserrat, Saint
Helena, the Turks and Caicos Islands
and Wallis and Futuna, the Commission
acknowledges that maintaining "an anti-
poverty approach might be justified" insofar
as they fulfil the conditions for development

Regarding trade and financial coopera-
tion, the Commission proposes to maintain
current anti-reciprocal tariff preferences
granted to the ACPs, "without prejudice to
any revision necessary". This would be the
case, for example, if an OCT decided to join
an EPA concluded between the EU and a
regional ACP group. It thus notes that "the
Cariforum-EU EPA already allows OCTs
to be brought within the scope ofthe agree-
ment. Should an OCT and its Member State
so request, the Commission would agree to
include that OCT within an EPA". M.M.B.

OCTs; EPA; EU; new partnership; ACP.


Children walk past a dilapidated colonial building, Bissau, Guinea-Bissau. Reporters/AP

Eleven African and two Caribbean countries are the initial beneficiaries of 215M from the
EU's Vulnerability-FLEX (V-FLEX) finance mechanism for African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP)
nations, it was announced in December 2009. They are: Benin, Burundi, the Central African
Republic, the Comoros, Ghana, Grenada, Guinea Bissau, Haiti, Malawi, Mauritius,
the Seychelles, Sierra Leone and Zambia (see table).

S -FLEX', an initiative adopted
by the EU in August 2009
to cushion the impact of the
economic crisis on ACP coun-
tries, has an overall budget of 500M. "The
Vulnerability-FLEX mechanism is the EU's
swift response mechanism to help countries
maintain priority spending, thereby assist-
ing the worst-affected countries to reduce
the social cost of the crisis", said Karel De
Gucht, EU Commissioner for Development
and Humanitarian Aid. EU officials say the
remaining budget will be allocated during

The funds will be injected directly into ACP
governments' budgets so that they can keep
up levels of public spending, particularly in
social sectors, without jeopardising macr-
oeconomic stability. For ACP states which
requested V-FLEX funding, the EU based
its calculations on forecasted fiscal losses and
other vulnerability criteria. EU officials say
the mechanism is aimed at countries with a
high degree of economic, social and politi-
cal vulnerability and with the right policies
in place to deal with the crisis. For the same
purposes, a handful of countries from the


same list of beneficiaries will also receive
further smaller amounts from the European
Development Fund (EDF) and from a

'FLEX' mechanism to support fluctuations
in export earnings (see table below for coun-
tries and corresponding amounts). D.P.

Table: Financinq of fCP countries in response to the crisis [EU sources]

Central African Republic



Comoros 4.70 0.33 2.24 7.27
Ghana 35.00 35.00
Grenada 5.00 0.29 5.29
Guinea Bissau 8.00 3.18 11.18
Haiti 30.00 30.00
Malawi 25.00 25.00
Mauritius 10.90 10.90
Seychelles 9.00 7.50 16.50
Sierra Leone 12.00 12.00




V-FLEX = Vulnerability FLEX instrument
FLEX = Support for fluctuations in export earnings
EDF = European Development Fund

Interaction ACP-EU

Andrei Gromyko (foreground right), then Foreign Minister of the former Soviet Union, meeting with Marcelino dos Santos,
founding member of FRELIMO and then Mozambican minister for development and economic planning, Moscow, 1977. 0 Reporters/Novosti

Bulgaria is a newcomer to the EU-ACP partnership. As an economy in transition, it has itself been
a recipient of foreign aid for the past 20 years. Nonetheless the Balkan state gained experience in
development cooperation when the Communist regime was in power. From the early 1960s until
the end of the 1980s, Bulgaria was a donor of development aid to over 40 countries including some
in sub-Saharan African nations. Some other Eastern European newcomers have similar ties.

the African independence movements
in countries such as South Africa,
Zimbabwe (the former Rhodesia), Na-
mibia, Angola and Mozambique. Although
there were no diplomatic relations at gov-
ernment level, leaders of the Bulgarian
Communist Party actively supported the
liberation movements in these countries
with the aim of encouraging them to incor-
porate socialist policies into their political

South Africa's African National Congress
(ANC) established relations with Bulgarian
government officials and NGOs in the early
1970s. Four years after his appointment
as Secretary General of the ANC, Alfredo
Nzo, who served as foreign minister under
the government of Nelson Mandela, went
on a state visit to Bulgaria in 1973. In subse-
quent years, ANC delegations were regular-
ly invited to party congresses in Bulgaria's
capital, Sofia. The Bulgarian government
provided humanitarian and military aid to
the ANC and on several occasions, publicly
expressed its solidarity.

On the independence of Angola and
Mozambique in 1975, Bulgaria concluded
respective treaties of friendship and co-
operation with both countries. Bulgaria pro-
vided scholarships to African students and
in some countries set up joint enterprises
(i.e. Bulgarian-Nigerian companies).

Most former socialist nations followed simi-
lar development policy goals. In the 1970s,
Poland actively supported the concept of
the 'New International Economic Order'.
Despite being a socialist country, Poland
successfully forged relations with African
leaders who were opposed to Communism.
Other Socialist bloc nations focused more on
partnerships with Communist movements.
The Hungarian Socialist Workers Party,
for example, concluded inter-party co-
operation agreements with Mozambique's
Liberation Front (Frente de Libertaio de
Mocambique -FRELIMO) and Angola's
Popular Liberation Movement (Movimento
Popular de Libertaio de Angola -MPLA).

But are there any connecting factors be-
tween the policies of Socialist governments

decades ago and the development policies of
today's EU newcomer member states from
eastern Europe? The personal career of
the former Slovak foreign minister Eduard
Kukan (in office 1998-2006) suggests that
the answer to this question is yes. Kukan was
a Czechoslovakian diplomat from 1964 until
1991 and dealt mainly with his country's
relations with different African countries.
As his country's foreign minister, he made
use of his language skill in Swahili, which
he learnt while studying at Moscow's State
Institute of International Relations. Hence
today's political leaders may rely on quali-
fications and personal contacts, acquired in
the past, to revive the partnership of their
states with certain ACP countries.

* Freelance journalist.

Bulgaria; Poland; Slovakia; South Africa;


ACP-EU Interaction

Andrea Marchesini Reggiani (.ltiirt l nnlir il

Culture is a fundamental tool
for the EU's external relations.
This is one of the themes that
has been emerging since 2007,
when the Council approved
an Agenda for Culture*, based
on three ambitious sets of
objectives: cultural diversity
and intercultural dialogue;
culture as a catalyst for
creativity; and culture as a
key component in external

planned within this Agenda was
held in Brussels on 29 and 30
September 2009, and addressed,
amongst others, the issue of the rela-
tionship between culture and develop-
ment. This issue was discussed by Odile
Quentin, Director General for Culture, and
Stefano Manservisi, Director General for
Development. Mr. Manservisi described the
shift that has been taking place in this rela-
tionship. Culture used to be last on the list of
importance in terms of development policy,
but now constitutes a transversal approach,
due to the recognition ofits key role in creat-
ing the correct foundations for dialogue.

The workshops of the Forum involved cul-
tural analysts from ACP countries, and
interesting comparisons were made between
the Culture programme (targeted at Europe)
and the ACPCultures programme (targeted
at ACP countries). The ACPCultures pro-
gramme has not been operating for long,
and therefore has less experience, with less
funding available for a greater number of
countries (6M for the 79 ACP countries,
compared to 400M for the 27 European
countries). ACPCultures also has lower visi-
bility among the target audience of citizens.

Francisco D'Almeida (of the Culture and
Development Association) communicated
the impatience of African field operators,
and their desire to witness the concrete
application of local and national policies
which benefit their day-to-day cultural
activities, and also to enjoy a better struc-
turing of national and interregional mar-
kets. The topic of visas for non-European


Operators engage

in networking


operators was also discussed. The European
cultural platforms, which are engaged in
the political lobbying of their governments,
were cited as an interesting model.

Indeed, networking is now a working prac-
tice which is applied to all cultural projects.
At the 3rd World Culturelink Conference,
which was held in Zagreb from 13 to 15
November 2009, discussions were held on
the status of cultural networks in relation to
national and transnational policy-making.
Culturelink Network is an institution which
is funded by UNESCO and the Council of
Europe, and its members highlighted the
importance of the redefinition of cultural
policies in the current period in which tech-
nology facilitates interaction and shapes
cultural practices in a constantly chang-
ing landscape of digital communication.

Key issues concerning the value of cultural
networks in sustainable development strate-
gies were emphasized through examples
from Latin America (The Latin American
Network of Art for Social Transformation)
and Africa (The ARTerial Network).

Therefore, the networking activities carried
out between operators represent a prior-
ity for cultural policy, and are essential to
address the urgent needs of cultural indus-
tries in the south of the world.
* Res. of the Council of 16th Nov. 2007, on a Euro-
pean Agenda for Culture, in The Official Journal of the
EU C 287/1, 29.11.2007.

European Cultural Forum; Culturelink

a lu Il'lI lu

I I1

eratio n which should evIentully lead to greater conIderation of the wishes of both European

loalauhriie ndbeeicar aton he i oms oplnnn E ad


KhalifaSall, Mayor of Dakar, Senegal, at the
'Conference on Decentralised Cooperation', Brussels.
SCommittee ofthe Regions

P participants from all ofthe continents
met in Brussels at the Committee
of the Regions, a European Union
institution, with a view to discuss-
ing projects, programmes and future per-
spectives for decentralised cooperation,
but above all to define the role played
in the whole process by local authorities.
In the opinion of the Commissioner for
Development ofthe European Commission,
Karel De Gucht, "Local and regional
authorities bring with them a valuable view-
point and unique experience and abilities as
far as action on questions of development
is concerned". His view won the backing

of Luc Van den Brande, President of the
Committee of the Regions, who stated that
"NGOs are already highly active in this
field. We should not aim to imitate them,
but rather to focus our efforts on quality of
management of development aid among our
partners at a local and regional level".

On top of the general debate, four round
tables formulated recommendations:

*Effectiveness of aid. A "good" project
is one which is defined by people accord-
ing to their specific needs. It is there-
fore necessary to take local authorities
into account in the drafting of European
development policy.

* Local governance. This implies the par-
ticipation of all local and regional actors,
governments, civil society and the general
population. Local authorities must admin-
ister a portion ofthe aid, which should not,
for example, allow for budgetary aid.

* Energy. Local action is particularly
important as far as protection of the
environment and climate change, is con-
cerned. Examples of this can be found
in the energy independence of the city of
So Paulo, Brazil, which produces exactly
45 per cent of its own energy require-
ments, or the reforestation process in
Paris, France.

* Millennium Development Goals -
Health. Only very rarely do local authori-
ties take part in the planning of health
policy, and it is vital that this should

The immediate decisions announced at the
close of the meeting were the following:
the compilation of an 'atlas' listing coop-
eration programmes and projects involving
European local authorities; the continua-
tion of the process of dialogue following the
initial meeting; and the setting up, among
other initiatives, of an Internet forum on the
subject of European funds for decentralised

In a declaration made by the Director
General for Development, Stefano Manser-
visi, the European Commission made a
significant commitment to work towards a
greater integration of the views of local and
regional authorities in EU policy, within the
framework of United Nations action on the
Millennium Development Goals (MDG) in
2010. H.C.

Committee of the Regions; European
Commission; Conference on Decentralised
Cooperation; WCO; Karel De Gucht;
Stefano Manservisi; Hegel Goutier.


ivil Society on the move


*1 I r

Philippe Lamotte*

sets up in flfrica

Greenpeace activists at the 2007 EU-Africa Summit, Lisbon, Portugal. Reporters/AP

Long established in Europe and the Americas, Greenpeace is now making its presence felt in
Africa, tackling climate change, deforestation and overfishing. The rationale behind this move
is that a better management of natural resources should be beneficial, in the long run, to food
security and combating poverty.

Interview with Michelle Ndiaye Ntab, Greenpeace Africa Executive
Director and expert in governance, health and development

N ews from Greenpeace in recent
months has certainly shown a very
African slant. The South African
Kumi Naidoo, holder of a doctor-
ate in political sciences from the University
of Oxford, was appointed last autumn as
the new Executive Director of Greenpeace
International, while Michelle Ndiaye Ntab,
from Senegal, recently took the helm of the
'rainbow' organisation's three first offices in
Africa: Cape Town, Kinshasa and, opening
soon, Dakar.

What is your image of Africa?

Michelle Ndiaye Ntab: After a long time
as an Afro-pessimist, I now have a more
balanced view. True, there is a stagnating
Africa, an Africa of bad governance and
corruption, one that is desperately short
of visionary governments and whose civil
society, without a sounding board, is not
managing to make itself heard. But there is
also an Africa that is largely neglected by the
media, an Africa that is on the move. Take


I Michelle Ndiaye Ntab. CGreenpeace

Burkina Faso, for example. Landlocked
and over-dependent on cotton, in the space
of a few years this country has managed
to diversify its agriculture to a significant
degree, exporting French beans and cherry
tomatoes to the European Union. And then

there is the Africa group's common stance
a few weeks before the Copenhagen climate
change conference, which was a first, and
the development decisions that have been
implemented since 2000-2001 by NEPAD
(New Partnership for Africa's Development),
in particular as regards motorways and fibre
optics. Africa is changing!

Telephone services, of course. But promoting
motorways in Africa? That will need some expla-
nationfor the Europeans in Greenpeace!

If we want to free regional markets, an
infrastructure must be provided which ena-
bles people and products to move from one
country to the next, especially when there
is no access by sea. It is quite absurd that
goods currently have to be transported via
Belgium or France to go from one African
country to another! If our markets open
up to one another, they will then be able to
freeze out certain products from developed
countries that massively undercut our local
prices. That said, environmental concerns

Civil Society on the move

are also becoming more important within

It is sometimes said thatAfrica needs strong lead-
ers and cannot ia. the luxury of democracy.

If Africa is where it is today, it is because at
one time it was believed that it was not impor-
tant to have strong political institutions.
The important thing was the need to attract
investors and, with their money, to keep the
economy running. The problem is that now
Africa is being asked to do in fifty years what
Europe did in three centuries. The West
sometimes forgets that a nation is always
built in stages. It is my fundamental belief
that the coming of democracy goes hand in

hand with the emergence of a strong civil
society, strong parties and strong leaders.

What are Greenpeace's priorities in Africa?
Willyou adopt the saine methods as those prac-
tised by European and American supporters?

It all depends. In the DRC, for example, we
are working a lot with grass-roots communi-
ties from regions that have, until now, been
spared deforestation. In South Africa, we
are dealing with a more educated and aware
urban and semi-urban population, and so
there we can lobby the government directly.
We denounce certain political decisions or
the scheming of polluting industries, but we
also place a lot of emphasis on the alterna-

tives and their benefits. After just one year,
Greenpeace Africa already has 3,800 mem-
bers, all private individuals, each paying
5.50 per month. In the autumn of 2008
we carried out an extensive communication
campaign via community TV and radio sta-
tions, and it was very exciting to see how
quickly our profile rose across the continent.
If we continue to be so successful, in two or
three years we will be independent.
* Freelance journalist.

Greenpeace; Africa; Michelle Ndiaye Ntab.

flCP ciuil society adopts

networking approach

At its meeting on 10 and 11 December 2009 in Brussels, the ACP Civil Society Forum decided to
set up a vast virtual network for dialogue between ail civil organizations and their focal points
in the 79 countries of Africa, the Caribbean and the Pacific. The aim is to exchange information
on the major challenges facing the ACP at the halfway stage in their cooperation with the EU
within the framework of the Cotonou Agreement.

A t the opening of the meeting, Sir
John Kaputin, Secretary General
of the ACP group at the time,
declared: "Your participation in
the drawing up of regional and national
indicative programmes is vital, as is your

opinion on the analysis being undertaken on
the Cotonou Agreement at the halfway stage,
not to mention the negotiations on the eco-
nomic partnership agreements." Dominique
Delicour, of the European Commission's
EuropeAid cooperation office, invited the

Medical stock from a basic Health Unit in Aftout, Mauritania. EC/Caroina Martin Tirand

participants to take part in the regional
seminar, within the framework of structured
dialogue, which the Commission will hold
this year in Mali. She also invited forum
representatives to read the report drawn up
by the Commission's services on the partici-
pation of civil society (http://ec.europa.eu/

During the meeting -the third since the
forum was established in 1997 -the civil
society representatives complained about
the Commission's "complex and bureau-
cratic" procedures. They also appealed to
the Commission to involve experts from
the ACP more in the programmes concern-
ing them. "The Commission's practice of
sending European experts does not produce
exchange or knowledge transfer; on the
contrary, the numerous reports drawn up
are not used and are a waste of time and
money", pointed out one representative.

ACP Civil Society Forum; Sir John
Kaputin; Dominique Delicour.


MnE i1r



A glimmer of recovery in 2010? Debswana I

Ji W hen Europe, America and
Japan are not buying dia-
monds, it means we have
no revenue. The result
is that we have had to make big cuts in our
budget. Firstly, the year-on-year budget: in
the last one the development part was cut by
5 per cent and the recurrent by 7 per cent.
We have had to forego some of the projects
that we wanted to embark upon", said the
minister. What's more, Botswana's Middle
Income Country status means that access to
international donor funds has become more
difficult over the past two years.

Diamond sales originally fell off in the
run-up to the holiday period at the end of
2008. "We had two periods when not a
single diamond was sold for two successive
months: October 2008 and Christmas 2008.
A number of mines closed and workers were
laid off. It did not make much sense to keep
on producing the diamonds when they are
not being sold and stockpiled. The price

was affected and there were no buyers even
at lower prices. Happily, we have started
selling diamonds again but we have not yet
caught up and are still at 2007 levels", said
the Minister.

Botswana's tenth National Development
Plan has been affected. This six-year devel-
opment plan approved in August 2009 start-
ed late because of revenue uncertainties.
"Even now, we do not think we are yet out
of the woods. The result is that we had to
draw down on our reserves. We are borrow-
ing much more than we have done before",
Minister Skelemani told us. He added that
borrowing was vital to keep on track some
of projects such as the construction of three
big dams in the southern part ofthe country
which has no water or rivers. The Minister,
however, said that spending cuts would not
affect the flow of government funds to pur-
chase of anti-retroviral drugs for the large
number of Batswana infected with the HIV/
AIDS virus.



th -im n e, a er caia in vembr2 .0 Hipedit*e rhe l
tniv buies on a glba sae ba ---eh -en t e in 200 -vhl

say .dd.-. -aad Cie .xcuie sae ... nte- *o **13 b in 2008,

* .eaduat*e in the- Femihtw f frcssasih eo 0.4 pe cent-in

80 pe cen glba make e of th in 200 --ewl poal av ow

rog -im n rd an 50 pe cen of -ni 201 foe ulrcv ntecn

I Diamond mine, Botswana. eDebswana

> aggregation delayed

Since April 2009, the country has been able
to sell its diamonds again but is now looking
beyond government financing to develop its
diamond or minerals 'hub' operated by the
Diamond Trading Company of Botswana
(DTCB). The government has its sights set
on the private sector buying up to 49 per
cent of shares in DTCB. "This is one area
where the private sector should be quite
happy to join in. We had thought this should
basically be a government thing but obvi-
ously we can't go ahead this way anymore",
said the Minister.

The aim is a state-of-the art centre of excel-
lence for polishing, cutting and crafting

diamond jewellery and where aggregation
can also be carried out. Aggregation is the
blending of rough like-for-like diamonds for
sale with those from other parts ofthe world
such as South Africa, Canada, Tanzania
and Namibia with Botswana's. It was due
to get underway in the country from 2009.
"Aggregation has been moved back by one
year precisely because of the instability,
but it is definitely coming because we think
we produce the best gems by value. We do
not see why aggregation should be done in
places that do not produce diamonds", the
Minister told The Courier.

The December 2009 decision by UK-based
Firestone Diamonds plc, which has min-
ing operations in both South Africa and

I Tourism has so far held up. D Percival

Botswana, to start up commercial diamond
kimberlite operations in the BK11 mine in
northern Botswana is a sign of the sector
picking up -although in this case, it is a for-
eign, rather than a domestic concern that is
putting up new money for the mine's devel-
opment. Operations are due to begin ahead
of schedule in the first quarter of 2010 with
full production capacity of 1.5M tonnes of
diamonds to be in place in the third quarter
of 2010. Philip Kenny, the company's Chief
Executive Officer said in a press statement
that the decision was taken due to the pro-
jected shortfall in rough diamond supply
which is expected to drive diamond prices
higher in the coming years.

Botswana's tourism, another big revenue
earner, has so far held up, said Minister
Skelemani. This is in part due to the fact that
people tend to book holidays to Botswana
in advance and do not change plans at
the last minute, and also that the country
has unparalleled landscapes; the Okavango
Delta, the Chobe National Park and the
Central Kalahari Game Reserve. Botswana
is also hoping to reap benefits from the 2010
FIFA World Cup in neighboring South
Africa, having recently extended the airport
in its capital, Gaborone to take long-haul
jets from March 2010. D.P.

Botswana; Phandu Skelemani; diamonds;
DTCB; FIFA 2010.



A tariff deal between Latin American countries and the
European Union (EU) in December 2009 in the World
Trade Organisation (WTO) in Geneva hails the end of
a 15-year banana trade dispute, one of the longest-ever
global trade wars. Eastern Caribbean farmers hit out.

Banana seller. aReporters/AP I

T he core ofthe deal agreed by the EU
and Latin American Ambassadors
is a phased cut in the EU's banana
import tariff from the current rate of
f176/tonne to 114/tonne in 2017 at the earli-
est. It includes an initial reduction of 28/
tonne to f148/per tonne on the signing of the
deal by ail parties, expected in early 2010.

Latin American countries have in return
agreed to demand no further cuts in tariff
when the WTO's Doha Round of global
trade talks resumes. As part of the package,
the United States has also agreed to drop
ail its banana cases against the EU in the
WTO, some of which have been pending
since 1993.

When The Courier went to press, the EU
Council still had to approve the agreement
ahead of the signing the deal with Latin
American countries and the settlement
agreement with the US. Under the recent-
ly-ratified Lisbon Treaty, the European
Parliament must also give its consent. "This
is the best possible deal we could achieve. It
reconciles all parties' legitimate interests. I
know African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP)
producers will face challenges in adjust-


ing to the new situation, but the EU will
do its best to help", said EU Development
Commissioner, Karel De Gucht.

> Compensation

The EU has pledged up to 200M to be dis-
bursed between 2010 and 2013 to improve
the competitiveness, economic diversifica-
tion and mitigate the social consequences of
adjustment in ACP banana growing states.
The EU says what was agreed in Geneva
both gives the ACP countries time to adapt
and will mean more predictability in the
banana market. Eastern Caribbean produc-
ers are not convinced.

"The countries in the ACP group which
export bananas to Europe are far from happy
with the 'deal'", says Secretary General of
the Windward Islands Farmers Association
(WINFA), Renwick Rose. He says that
Latin American exporters, dominated by
the US multinational trio of Dole, Del Monte
and Chiquita, have more than 80 per cent
of the European market for themselves. By
contrast, the Windwards; St.Vincent and
the Grenadines, St. Lucia and Dominica)
only have a one per cent share, posing no

threat to Latin American domination. He
adds: "Lowering the tariffs means that they
can market their bananas even more cheaply
than us thereby forcing our producers out of

Rose fears that the "grossly inadequate"
compensation will take time to flow and
raises questions about whether it will actually
reach farmers. He says the pledged EU com-
pensation pot has to be shared by all produc-
ers in the ACP group including Cameroon,
Cte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Suriname and Belize.

The EU, ACP and Latin American coun-
tries also agreed in December 2009 on a
common approach on the so-called 'tropi-
cal' and 'preference erosion' products in
the on-going Doha Round negotiations in
the WTO where 'tropical products' will be
subject to deeper tariff cuts, while tariff cuts
for 'preference erosion' products of interest
to ACP countries will be conducted over a
relatively longer period. D.P.

Bananas; Renwick Rose; WINFA;
Karel De Gucht; WTO; Doha Round;

With her slender 6ft 2in
frame, beauty, elegance
and intelligence, the Greco-
Gabonese model Gloria Mika,
icon of the couturiers and
designers of luxury beauty
products and muse of famous
musicians, has just seen her
fame take a quantum leap.
Her appeal to the goodwill
of her fellow models in
setting up 'Guardian Angels
for Transparency' to oversee
the Gabonese elections last
August, and in other countries
where the people's choice
was on the point of being
denied, created quite a buzz
on the internet. Since then
Gloria Mika has been much
in demand, and has taken a
stand for a variety of causes,
always with diplomacy,
professionalism and courage,
even if it means making
enemies in the corridors of

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Gloria Mika was born in Libreville, Gabon,
and her family moved to Senegal for three
years when she was six, a period ofher child-
hood which she remembers very vividly. At
the age of 15, she went to the Rocheambeau
French International High School in the
U.S., Washington DC, and three years later
went to live in Paris, where she attended
the Sorbonne University, taking a BA in
Communication and Public Relations. She
went on to complete her studies at the
American College in Athens, specialising
in the management of non-profit-making
organizations, and taking a course in politi-
cal analysis too. She is intending to present
her doctoral thesis on Gene Sharp, the theo-
rist ofthe end ofhistory, and his relationship
with the advocates of non-violence, Gandhi
and Martin Luther King.

At the tender age of 15, she had already par-
ticipated in a fashion show as part of a cul-
tural evening in Gabon. But it was when she
took part, at the age of 17 and just for fun, in
the Miss Metropolitan contest in Washington
D.C., where she was chosen as runner-up,
that she began to attract attention. Within
a short space of time, she was invited to two
relatively high-profile shows, at galas of the
World Bank and then the U.N., where she
met the Nigerian designer Alphadi, with
whom she maintains a close relationship.
When she came back to Paris, she met the

(In July, I met up with

the Tamils to give them

my support, advocating

the basic principles

of my movement,

that is, based on


Senegalese designer, Claire Kane, and then
all of the other major figures in fashion fol-

> H different kind of icon

Gloria Mika has already been involved in
a number of development projects in poor
countries, like, for example, an educational
project in a Haitian shanty town. It was her
disappointment at the turn of events in the
campaign for the elections of 30 August
2009 in Gabon which drove her to take the
crucial decision to temporarily suspend her
modelling work and to launch, on the 20
July, her appeal for the 'Guardian Angels',
first on Facebook and then on her own
specially-created website. Just a few hours
later, the first registrations began to flow in,
and within a few days figures were already
in the hundreds. The time available was too
short to have an significant effect on the
transparency ofthe elections, but the frenzy
of interest sparked off by the appeal of this
iconic beauty led the worldwide media to
reveal the irregularities of the elections and
to publicise the instances of police brutality
with which they were riddled.

Gloria's new activities have well and truly
taken off, and she is now a different kind of
icon, who is listened to as well as admired.
She is careful to establish safeguards to avoid
the 'Guardian Angels for Transparency'
being taken over by individuals with their
own personal agenda or projects of a dubi-
ous nature. Members ofthe association must
be pacifists and must not be affiliated to any
political party. But now Gloria is in demand
everywhere: organizations and personalities
from Guinea, Congo, and the Democratic
Republic of the Congo, intellectuals and
activists, all appeal to her, asking her to take
part in their different activities. She speaks
at conferences and think tanks involving
experts, researchers and politicians, and
at events which even include Tamil activ-
ists. "In July, I met up with the Tamils to

I Gloria Mika in front of La Bastille, Paris, symbol of the
Declaration of Human Rights. Hegel Gouter


give them my support, advocating the basic
principles ofmy movement, that is, based on
non-violence." Elsewhere she continues to
go all out to mobilise as many angels as pos-
sible. For a future campaign, 'Breaking the
Silence', based on the three wise monkeys
who will see, hear or speak no evil and relat-
ing this to the international community in
the aftermath ofthe elections in Gabon, she
enjoys the support of famous designers and
ofher model colleagues who also want to use
beauty in the service of democracy.

So many of the constant barrage of tel-
ephone calls she receives come from sources
worried about her safety that in the end she
asks if they have heard anything about a spe-
cific threat. "I'm not frightened because I
don't have any enemies. I just want to make
my own little contribution as a citizen to
help governments govern better. If anyone
wants to kill me, let them get on with it. The
only thing they'll have left is my corpse and
my disobedience." H.C.

Gloria Mika; Gabon; Guinea; Congo;
elections; 'Guardian Angels for
Transparency'; Elite; Ungaro; Diesel;
Escada; Pierre Cardin; Alphadi; Paul
Mitchell; Kathy Heyndels; Yianos Xenis;
Misu Mitsu; Chris Aire; Cline Dion;
Wyclef Jean; Sweetest Girl; Akon; Wayne;
Hegel Goutier.

I Installation at the 2009 UN Climate Change Conference, Copenhagen, Denmark. Reporters/UPP

The poorest and most vulnerable developing countries came to Copenhagen knowing they had

the least to offer and the most at stake. They came away with little.

Ji W e fought for everything
we came out with and
Sw as you can see we didn't
S come out with much",
Dessima Williams, representing Grenada
and the Alliance Of Small Island States
(AOSIS), told 192 nations in the early
hours of 19 December as the Copenhagen
climate summit crumbled to a close. But,
as did Ethiopia on behalf of the African
Union (AU) and Lesotho on behalf of the
Least Developed Countries (LDCs), she
urged those present to adopt the three-page
'Copenhagen Accord' announced 12 hours
earlier by US president Barack Obama.

The same accord had subsequently been
rejected by several developing nations
including Sudan, whose charismatic leader
Lumumba Di-Aping said it asked Africa
"to sign a suicide pact". Ultimately, the
accord was "noted", not adopted, by the

plenary and world governments agreed to
continue the international climate talks,
albeit with no deadline for their conclusion
or agreement that they should result in a
legally-binding treaty. "I will not hide my
disappointment. Our level of ambition has
not been met. There is no agreement on
the need for a legally-binding agreement",
a tired and defeated-looking European
Commission President Jos Manuel Barroso
told journalists. The accord "will not solve
the climate threat", he said.

> Poorest nations take a stand

The Copenhagen Accord and decisions to
continue talks under both the Kyoto protocol
and broader UN Framework Convention on
Climate Change (UNFCCC) were the main
results ofthe conference. The accord is weak
however, and vague on specifics. It details no
emission cuts, nor what share of long-term

financing will come from the public versus
the private sector. Fast-track funding pledges
currently amount to $25bn, not $30bn.

Explicit references to bunker fuels, a levy
on which could meet up to a quarter of
long-term financing needs according to
green transport group T&E, were scrapped.
Malawi had led LDCs in a push for refer-
ence to such a levy.

Some have suggested the chaotic experience
of the Danish summit could shift the inter-
national climate talks to a new forum, such
as the US-led Major Economies Forum
(MEF) or the G20. This would leave the
poorest without a voice just as that voice is
gaining volume.

Ethiopian prime minister Meles Zenawi,
who led Africa's first-ever joint negotiating
team in Copenhagen, said Africans were


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there to negotiate, not stand by as victims. .. target to 30 per cent, suggesting its strategy
Ethiopia and France presented a financing for securing a meaningful deal had failed
plan calling for a global tax on financial dramatically.
transactions the Tobin tax and taxes on
aviation and shipping. African civil society UN climate chief Yvo de Boer insisted the
was present as never before, with Oxfam Copenhagen Accord was "politically incred-
campaigner, Tim Gore, saying the climate ibly significant" because it had involved doz-
talks increasingly resembled the interna- ens of world leaders in the climate change
tional trade talks. talks for the first time. It is this understand-
ing, that Copenhagen is the beginning of
The chaotic experience of the Danish sum- a beginning rather than an end, which
mit could shift the international climate Protester at the 2009 UN Climate Change Conference, prompted leaders from AOSIS, the AU and
talks to a new forum, such as the US-led Copenhagen, Denmark. Reporters/AP LDCs to back an accord some were ready to
Major Economies Forum (MEF) or the throw in the bin.
G20. This would leave the poorest without a to recognizing the need for substantial long- Freelance journalist.
voice just as that voice is gaining volume. term finance. But the EU, like Africa, failed
to see its ambitions materialise. Ultimately, Keywords
> EU climate strategy fails Europe was relegated to spectator status Climate change; Copenhagen; Africa
dramatitllas the US, China, India, Brazil and South Unione (UA); Least Developed Countries
(LDCs); Kyoto protocol; UN Framework
Africa did the deal. A frustrated Barroso Convention on Clate C amework
The EU and Africa were aligned on many said no one had shown interest in the EU's (UNFCCC); Jos ManuelBarroso; Meles
issues, from pushing for deep emission cuts offer to increase its 2020 emission reduction Zenawi; Yvo de Boer.


eport '

.hni ".'e lit:,


ri hub connecting three worlds

rarely twice the size of Luxembourg. scattered across
ten islands, in a remote corner of the mid-Atlantic and
for the most part consisting of arid landscape (owing
to practically non-existent natural resources) and a
local population often forced to emigrate, Cape Verde has
achieved the great milestone of going trom one of the Least
Developed Countries (LDCs) to a Middle Income Country
(MIC). A poisoned chalice, no doubt, for a country which has
invested the enormous foreign aid it receives (predominantly
from the EU) in its internal development. This alone, however,
is quite an achievement. The secret of its success? Putting
strong governance and human rights at the heart of govern-
ment policy, to the extent that the 2009 Mo Ibrahim index
cites Cape Verde as a beacon of economic success and sound
governance. The real reason, however, or so you will be told
by those in power in the country, is to be found in its only
real resource: human capital whether living on the islands
or away from home. The locals (around 450,000) and those
who have left (numbering around 700,000) have constructed

a network, through which the Diaspora is a major actor in the
Cape Verdean economy.
But the country still faces a number of challenges: all-too-
palpable poverty, high rates ot unemployment, almost total
dependence in terms of tood and energy and a debt made ail
the more difficult to manage by the fact that the country will
not benefit much longer from the advantages which came
with its former LDC status. The answer? Give fresh impetus to
its role as a transit agent, which it has played since its incep-
tion. A road to the Americas, in particular South America, a
subcontinent with which the country has maintained strong
ties since the time ot Amilcar Cabral, and less than 3,000
km ot cabling away. A stone's throw trom continental Africa.
Finally, strengthened cooperation with Europe, thanks to its
belonging to the islands of Macaronesia, including the Spanish
Canaries (as well as the Porutguese Azores and Madeira archi-
pelago) at a mere 1,500km away. This is demonstrated by the
two-year-old Special Partnership between Cape Verde and the
EU, the only one of its kind among the ACP group.


A -

Cidade Velha: in the Sao Francisco convent (restored with the aid of Spanish cooperation). c

A nation born of the first globalisation

eft alone to face the elements for
more than 14 centuries, except for
occasional landings by the Senegalese
or even, it is said, the Chinese, the
Cape Verde archipelago was not settled
permanently until 1460. It was then that
the navigator Diego Gomes took possession
of the archipelago. It became the property
of the Portuguese Crown in 1494. A land
of seafarers recruited for whale fishing and
a port of call for Portuguese vessels bound
for Brazil, from the beginning of the 16th
century Cape Verde also became a hub of
the slave trade between West Africa and
the New World. It is true that this chain of
islands -ten in ail, nine of which are now
inhabited -enjoys an "ideal" location: 600
km from Africa's most western point ("Cap-
Vert" in Senegal) and less than 2,600 km
from Brazil. It was from Ribeira Grande


on the island of Santiago, where the slave
traders had to stop to pay duty and baptise
the slaves, that they then set off for the
Americas. The Cape Verdean settlers also
had slaves brought from the African conti-
nent to work on their plantations. This was
the beginning of a long and unique proc-
ess of the mixing or 'metissage' of the two
populations (European and African) trans-
planted to these virgin volcanic islands.

In 1533, Ribeira Grande became an autono-
mous diocese covering the whole of former
Guinea. The slave trade enabled the cotton
loincloth industry to develop on Santiago
and neighboring Fogo, the only inhabited
islands at the time. It was not until the 17th
century that people started to settle on the

I Cidade Velha : the 'pilhourino' where the recalcitrant
slaves were whipped. 0 Marie-Martine Buckens

report Cape Verde

In Porto Novo (Santo Antto island). O Mare-MartneBuckens

islands of So Vincente and Sal. The French,
Dutch and English traders, who were com-
peting for the monopoly on the African
coast granted by the Portuguese Crown,
used the loincloths as currency for procur-
ing slaves on the continent. In the middle of
the 17th century, Cape Verde's status as a
slave centre declined as the traffic moved to
the Guinean port of Cacheu. Thus deprived
of its principal source of revenue, Ribeira
Grande suffered its final blow in 1712 when
Jacques Cassard, the French pirate, sacked
the town. The capital was moved to Praia,
15 km from Ribeira Grande, now known as
Cidade Velha ('old town').

The 1866 Abolition of Slavery Treaty and
the separation of Guinea-Bissau from Cape
Verde was the death knell for the islands'
economy and sparked mass voluntary emi-
gration to the United States and -under
constraint of the Portuguese -to planta-
tions in their colonies of Angola and So
Tom and Principe. The departure of the
Portuguese colonialists enabled the Creoles
and the Blacks to accede to senior posts in
both religious and secular institutions.

Following the serious droughts of the early
20th century the archipelago entered one of
the darkest periods in its history, with the
Estado Novo ('New State') ofthe Portuguese
dictator Antonio de Oliveira Salazar (1889-
1970 and who ruled from 1933 to 1968). It
was under his regime that the 'greenshirts'
of his political police repressed any voices
raised in opposition, whether in Portugal or
in the colonies. Torture and deportations to
the 'death camp' of Tarrafal, on the island of
Santiago, became common. Despite the ban
on emigration, thousands of Cape Verdeans
managed to flee during the 1950s and
1960s, mainly to France, the Netherlands
and Belgium. It was in these countries that

most of the leaders of the Cape Verdean
independence movement were educated.

In 1956 in Bissau, along with four Cape
Verdean and Guinean patriots, the agricul-
tural engineer Amilcar Cabral, a native of
Santiago, founded the PAIGC, the African
Party for Independence of Guinea and
Cape Verde. Four years later, disregarding
UN General Assembly resolutions, Salazar
refused any dialogue on independence for
Cape Verde and Guinea. February 1963

The artistic village of Porto Madeira (Santiago
founded by the Cape Verdean artist Misa.
Marie Martine Buckens

saw the start of the armed struggle for
national liberation in Guinea-Bissau. The
Cape Verdeans and Guineans joined forces
in the resistance movement. Tarrafal prison
was soon full of African nationalists from
Cape Verde, Guinea and Angola.

On 20 January 1973, Amilcar Cabral was
assassinated in Conakry by traitors from
within the PAIGC. The perpetrators were
probably in the pay of the PIDE, the politi-
cal police of the fascist regime, although
this was never confirmed. In 1973 Guinea-
Bissau proclaimed its independence, fol-
lowed two years later, after the 'carnation
revolution' in Lisbon and the end of the
colonial war, by Cape Verde.

The adoption of the First Constitution,
which confirmed the PAIGC as the single
party, came in 1980. The coup d'etat in
Bissau in November saw the end of the plans
for a union of Guinea and Cape Verde. A
year later the PAIGV became the PAICV
(African Party for the Independence of
Cape Verde), with Marxist allegiance. In
February 1990, the PAICV announced that
it would be opening up to democracy. A
year later, the Movement for Democracy
(MpD), a party of more liberal persuasion,
demanded free elections that it went on to
win, appointing Antnio Mascarenhas as
president and Carlos Veiga as prime minis-
ter (currently leader of the opposition).

r The PAICV was returned to power in 2001
with Pedro Pires as president and Jos
r M Maria Neves as prime minister. Mr. Pedro
S Pires was re-elected in February 2006, beat-
-~'- ing former Prime Minister Carlos Veiga, the
I PAICV retaining a majority in the National
: Assembly. In his inaugural speech, Mr.
Neves restated his government's priorities:
S to encourage the growth and competitive-
. _. ness of the economy, to modernise the state
through civil service reform, to provide
training and jobs, to improve the health
d system and, finally, to recognize the family
as "the cornerstone of society". To facilitate
its vital relations with international financial
institutions, in 2006 Praia launched an aus-
S terity programme and, moreover, appointed
Cristina Duarte, previously president of
SCitibank in Angola, finance minister, and
Jos Brito, a former oil engineer, economy
minister and then foreign minister in 2009.

Diego Gomes; Cidade Velha; Amilcar
island) Cabral; Tarrafal; Salazar; Carlos Veiga;
PAICV; Pedro Pires; Jos Maria Neves.



Cape Verde report

for development

The special partnership dating from November 2007 with Cape Verde sets the standard
for the way forward for every signatory of the Cotonou Agreement keen to strengthen its
cooperation with the European Union, states Josep Coll i Carbo, head of the European Union
Delegation in Praia.

hli par!nrship". C',ll i (.arb.j
:xplain'd, "'\\a' set up a[
thc rtLqu,.:t of ap .: Vrtdc in
[Ihu hlituf [iha [th1 ( .'[tonou
Agrccinin[ could bc lurlier >ic-cv.ip'd
t'ap: \V'.:rdJ sulihL [' linlk up -wilh Lhc
cl"."ctL, m1t.4l pr,,per'rus iani me.,- .ultur-
ali\ fliiiiliar arca I s[,ibiliiv. [thl luropean
Ilnlion. "l'hc lI wl s nEt [lthe ,nl\ i'rgalni nl
[L, rcsp 'nd p,'-it~e:, l,. [t is ili'llivi.e. nid
niLihcr stuishat: eulso sli.h.'n immi[iI lcnt
lu [he: inii[ia[\i c. al[hou)h for hsl[trical rea-
sIns P'ir[uaIl. Spain. FIran,.. IuxeLmbourg,
[hI Ntc[lhcrljiids and Aus[ria have -hiun [ht:
rea[i-[ iri ulviiie[il" i.primarilv Jue [L. [li
lIrge iumbhrs f .( qi'c VerJten- living in
[heSe n:[ins. ItJ r's, I. 'IJ

Ib i ".t i & .i' &. 7 lt i. 'i t'i J i,' p ir'" 'P in
! ",.,i,,h;


I.: us nak. iL l,.:a.r ithai ih partnership \\a
based nil thll Co(tL u u A\grcclinc, }hicih
nliakL-s il pisi."hlI to sLL up n11\,- miilitiv.',
l'fr cL,,operatlin wh' .'h liadi no1 pr,:'iOulv
bhcn cmviagti \n'c ork Logclther ai .:quals.
puttinIg 'ur iI'Imm".n initrcs- n t he tahible
lhec lEuri'cpean Union >learl\ has tiratlcgi
initlrctL, boih cLnon'niL anti .',lnintLrcial.
Ir. Jdcfcni, buI in lEurpc iLhcrc i' a LcnJC'Ien
[.,rJis Ltrtuin c,,'nL..p[uIl disttriin -if
our rtlatioln- %ilh .\lrii. l'ht Eciiu o nit.
Par[neirship r n.\ct:imiin[- i EIPAs. ha[ \\
are in [lih pritcs- if nIeiup[Ia[Inl ;%vith [he
A(:C' mro,'up form part 'of [hi- ii[iai'.i, and
i\im 'vl hringing ths c., minf iciCs up ti date
,and ii iaki it po-_siblie, [lirugh v.in-irn
aireemntsni. ti g bpi' iiod [Lie d In r rcla-
[,nsliiip'. .'Cape \VerdJ is a true bridgelicad
for contin[tlen[ai \tri,.a and bn..ef is trin
a -[ra[ci. ,prescnti in [lie middle e ,t [he
Ailun[tc hcl1ping t.reuiie a ./'ne of s[abilryv
he[.een [lie tlirie. u.'n[inell[- n ils stuhili},.




The end of 2007 marked Cape
Verdes arrr.al on the international
stage and its promotion from the
grouLI of Least De eloped Countries
Vo the status of a iniddle-inc.ome
nation according to \i orld Bank
criteria The country also became
the 153rd member of the WV/orld
Trade Organisation iWTOi and
more importantly signed a special
partnership .'.ith the European Un-
ion ..,.hich should e..entuall / en-
able C:ape verde to deal .,.ilh Euro-

report Cape Verde

pean operators on an equal footing
Instead of piecenmeal actions this
partnership makes il possible to
better organise our technical and
normati e con ergence .'. .ih EU leg-
islation on the basis of si' pillars
e. plains Jose Luis M.onteiro Deputl
[Jational Authorising Officer for the
European De elopment Fund iEDFi
in the Cape Verde go ernment .I-
thoLigh normati e con ergence is
one of these si' pillars Praia prefers
[o ie Il as forming part of the other
fi e pillars namely good go..ern-
ance secuirit cooperation regional
integration the information and
kno,-ledge society and the combat-
ing of po erty This strategy is fLin-
damentally political in nature and in
addition to enhancing political cul-
tural and social cooperation aiis to
achie. e greater economic integration
, ith the outermost Atlantic regions
of the European Union in particular

One disappointment according to
Monteiro is that ..e ,.ere e. pecting
additional funds for this partnership.
but the only resoiirce earmarked for
this is the EDF .'.hich has not been
increased Despite that e -ill man-
age Cape Verde is also watching
, ith great interest the EU-Morocco
.Mssociation .Agreement the last
meeting of which resulted in a true
Cqualitati.e leap that Monteiro be-
lie..es should e...entually g,..e Moroc-
co a forin of semi-membership of the
European Union

. The pro Isic,Oil IroIralmiia Cl Euiiroc:-ean
,- miiiuniiv alJd I Caiie .erri i pro i.Je
11 il 5 mr..Iii rn l:ir Ihe- si;e1n l I r:. niii;rs.ih.p:. I
.,j i ,l 1f 51 mIalloii f[.r Ihe period :00o -
2013 ,.:,rresp )cniJ j ,ir. ihr. lOir EDFi
For deIgilI ul lihe lih EDF see Ihe [ullo'
.'.j a l..: le

however, is currently seriously endangered
by illicit trafficking, in the form of illegal
emigration, arms or drug smuggling and
money laundering. Major players have set
their sights on this region to enable them to
get closer to the West, but fortunately Cape
Verde has reacted to this danger with fore-
sight, and the government has, with the help
of our funding, set in motion a thorough
awareness-raising campaign and overhauled
its security systems.

This partnership is also -and I would like
to stress this point -an excellent exercise in
improving coordination between member
states and the European Union, imbuing
the action of each with greater coherence. As
such, a framework has been created which
benefits ail parties, and the EU Delegation
in Praia, with its newly-acquired status of a
Delegation in its own right, is now also able
to play a full part in this process.

You've talked about relations between the
European Union and Cape Verde, but what
about relations between the latter and the rest

Cape Verde can bring to West Africa and
ECOWAS (the Economic Community of
West African States) an Atlantic dimension
which compensates in part for the difficul-
ties posed by being part of a continent,
and adds a new dimension to the notion of
territoriality. In terms of the EPA negotia-
tions, Cape Verde has concentrated on the
services sector, while other members of
ECOWAS are more raw materials-focused,
which may in the long run enable a variable-
geometry agreement. Let us not forget that

Cape Verde also enjoys a strong relation-
ship with the Outermost regions (OR) of
Macaronesia, in particular the Canaries,
with which the archipelago shares impor-
tant synergies. The Frontex mechanism has
made it possible to significantly reduce the
illegal flow of emigrants via the Canaries.

What are Cape Verde's weak points?

Access to water and sanitation, on the one
hand, and on the other energy. These are
two areas in which the European Union is
providing support. Improvements in eco-
nomic performance have also resulted in a
greater divide between rich and poor, and
the Cape Verdean government is very much
aware of this.

And its strengths?

The ability of the Cape Verdean people to
function effectively anywhere, at home and
abroad. On a political level, I would high-
light the insight with which the government
has managed to 'de-ideologise' its foreign
policy. The political class is equally at ease
with representatives from the United States
and from China, to mention just two major
countries, and the fact that US Secretary
of State Hilary Clinton and the Deputy
Leader of the Chinese Communist Party
have recently visited Praia is proof of the
importance that these countries, in particu-
lar, attach to Cape Verde.

Josp Coll i Carbo; Cotonou Agreement;

Left to right: Stefano Manservisi, European Commission Director General for Development, Jos Brito, Cape Verde's Foreign
Affairs Minister and Josep Coll i Carbo, Ambassador and Head of the EU Delegation to Cape Verde, during a reception
organised in Praia for Europe Day, May 2009. EC


Cape Verde report

for continental


M ar tine Buckens

Interview with Jos Brito, Cape Verde's Minister of Foreign Affairs,
Cooperation and Communities

Cape Verde has decided to
deploy substantial funds
to attract investment. But
where, exactly? Primarily
in infrastructure ports,
airports, high-speed
communications to
transform the country into
a bridgehead for investors
attracted by the nearby
continent ofAfrica, which
has a predominantly young
population and is under-
equipped. Such investors will
core from the Americas, with
Brazil leading the way, as well
as from Europe and Asia.

t comes as no surprise to hear, by way
of introduction, Jos Brito explain that
against this background foreign policy
"represents a key instrument not just
in terms of development, but also with
regard to implementation of the strategy
to transform the country". Outlining his
approach, the Minister of Foreign Affairs
said: "Our nation has a stable political sys-
tem underpinned by a judicial system, which
is consistent and perfectible, and a public
administration which, due to the absence
of corruption, is an asset rather than an
obstacle to investment." The government is
focussing on its good management qualities,
widely recognized by the international com-
munity, to win over future partners. This
is because, in other respects, the country
hardly has an abundance of riches. "Human
resources are our only natural resource",
conceded Jos Brito.

Are you aiming to turn Cape Verde into an
international service centre?

What is Cape Verde? An archipelago with
a surface area of 4,000 km2 and a maritime

area of 550,000 km2 located at the cross-
roads between various continents. We want
to take advantage of our geostrategic loca-
tion. Cape Verde was one ofthe first nations
to embrace globalisationn" in the days ofthe
slave trade. The level of technology at the
time forced ships -and later aircraft -to
make a stop in Cape Verde. We would now
like to revive this historical situation in a
modern context. Look at maritime trans-
port, for example. Ports, in particular those
on the African continent, face increasing
difficulties receiving large containers. Our
country could act as a transhipment hub. We
also plan to make increasing security levels a
priority. This will serve us well, particularly
in trading with the US, which demands that
goods pass through secure ports.

This strategy also covers the fishing sec-
tor. I would like to turn the country into a
regional base for fishing services. We don't
have a continental platform and the species
of fish are essentially migratory. Pre-catch
is therefore not a profitable activity. Instead,
we aim to focus on upstream activities like
freezing and marketing. Essentially doing


report Cape Verde

what Iceland has done buying, packaging
and re-selling fish products. The Chinese,
in particular, have a strong presence in this
sector. If we were able to sell our services to
their fleets and they were able to make my
strategy profitable, then why not?

New information and communications
technology (ICT) is another key element of
the strategy. There is already extensive fibre
optic coverage between the islands, and new
cables to South Africa, Europe and America
will be laid by the end of 2010, providing
us with access to a wide range of databases.
I have just returned from a trip to India,
where I put forward a strategic partnership
in ICT. There was interest in this. In this
context, our human resources -our only
natural resource -are vital in providing
added value for Cape Verde products. It is
essential that we strengthen our capacities
in this area to achieve our aim.

Is that to become a bridgehead for the sub-region?

Cape Verde only has a population of half a
million. That is not going to attract much
interest. The continent of Africa is therefore
of great importance to us strategically. We
are close to the West African market, which
has enormous potential for future growth.
Our integration into the sub-region is based
on this vision, which is actually nothing new.
It is something that Amilcar Cabral under-

stood. Achieving victory in Guinea Bissau
automatically meant independence for Cape
Verde. In this sense, the stability of the
sub-region is of fundamental importance.
Investors are not interested in regions where
there is unrest. This is where Cape Verde's
diplomacy plays a major role. Don't forget
that most of the agreements concerning
southern Africa -such as those on Angola
and Namibia for example -were negotiated
here. At the time of Apartheid, Cape Verde
allowed the aircraft of South African Airlines
to land in spite of the embargo. The same
for the Cubans en route to Angola. Lots
of issues have been resolved amicably in
the hotels of Praia, where everyone would

We are now applying this experience to
combating drug trafficking. Cape Verde was
the first African nation to successfully tackle
mafia networks. We have made this experi-
ence available to other western African
countries. This has produced an action pro-
gramme, which has become a 'bible' in the
fight against drugs. African countries are
more aware of the dangers of drug traffick-
ing. While they are transit countries today,
they risk becoming consumers in view of
their young populations. It is this way of
being 'useful' -also with regard to the issue
of people trafficking -which is of interest to
the European Union in the context of our
special partnership.

However, this opening up to the continent
is only possible now that Brazil has adopted
a genuine African policy, which will allow it
to diversify its exports.

Cape Verde does not have any natural resources,
but it could obtain some. You startedyour career
as an oil engineer, what is your view of oppor-
tunities in that sector? Has prospecting already
started along your coasts?

As far as that is concerned, I prefer to adopt
a prudent approach and tell myselfthat "our
human resources are our oil and these are
what should be refined." In view of environ-
mental issues in the developed world, there
will also be increasingly less demand for
polluting activities.

F', .i. what about your relations with China?

As elsewhere in Africa, China has a pres-
ence here. Whatever one might say, China
offers Africans an alternative option. The
days when only French or UK companies
operated here have gone. Today, options are
beginning to open up for Africa and it must
protect its interests. M.M.B.

Jos Brito; Cape Verde.


m mu

I Mindelo harbour (Sao Vicente island). Marie-Martine Buckens



through the crisis"

Meeting with the Finance Minister of Cape Verde, Cristina Duarte

'itaic n in a rmcinolu area o.f llih
Atintk ti can, 'wIh \-urv lit-
llc fru'i w-atur, C .ap \' Verdi il
htuilvilv dicp,.n:diLii t'i h oulsid
w.rdi. hbith lfinaniiailv idiret f'Treigii
inversiniiiii aicuunts It r t 1 per cenit or
tl;)P, Inlli."n, -'iit hoiime hb., t.mirani's_
12 per ccnt anid dc-velopmicnt aid 11
pur Lcnit,, j.as vll ius r als 'upplics
% ilh Iiniiiiied fisllini and aori.ulture:
rcsuurcc,, [his .o'unirv inlade ulp 'It
griup ,t' i-lnds a is f'rccd tw 'nipouri
fiiod [ ii c Iter miore [h [;.vo-hirls ut'
ilt ncds Thie servit sctor 72 pecr
Lent t s c[.'n 'ml rcli- hei'il, i n
[lurism. ;vhilc Iintri-trui.uri dlcp,-ildis
on public l.'on.l ssiiniarl, hli. o [heilm-l
Seltes relv -mn ueuTeriial a,id. hilei i ,s
htpeuJ liha recn2t:lly dllnn un:.'cd pri. a-
rli-'ati'ns' illh v a pi- ilc-t' iiL npli.l In
',p'iLu l ail hcc handicaps. ini tilihanki
lr. a'unid nianagcnicnL iLt l' inJani4 c,
li th o.unrrv ha' hicn abile Lt rLetiii [tl-H
ontliJinutc ,'f maltr J''ii'r'. al',t are
cru ui l it iL ii dlnl,.: iale 'ur\-i'til.

I7i,, ha, rip, iird' ,''a alt_,'J M h\ lu,'
SIn ijt .ia" li '.itsi

C apc. VcrJ ia snail '.unlr\ cvath an
op.In tc.n.m. A\, suit, it '_as boundi [k
suftcr trr'nm the cI-fIlfe.s [ue ric -i-, niiamtcl
[hrougih lower rutenue in [thi ke,, sc.t,'rs
Lot dirci. fi'rign ilecstmenlt, [ourismi und
:-p',or[s. Still, Iv Itai'.'i naiageud i- r.ciatih-
cr thb -[rnr bv' iniaintuiiii our sirtn.;,,
,iadptt:i in 211,11, 't rigp'ro'us ini.agni-crl[
o t'public tunds lcf'.rc then, ur tinantc.is
',re in a J ar, suate. Ini 2t101, wve put in palui.t
.o'ndi[iliins that ['atour grti., llt, allit, inc us
tL athict, sustaincJ ccononiiii qr'c'krh over
ith past [hrce vears

1"Uati Jid Yt J. '?

We ii i'tk a,.itni orn s.ciral t'rints r ,\ sa\ "i-
muardedti [hie hudmit. ui particular hb, ligin-
uiLr internal prieu- 1,ane;:,, luel ,riand L
ivith uiilcrnaiiina il nllc s W't: ,lsi pr'te.t.icLt
vulncrable p.'rpulati'ns bh, doubling s,,.ial
peLnsitons. salarcs and rcducin li ih la
burdcn on u tiilic- In addition. ,c imple-
inintte.J ,i ccr;, amnbitiiou- public, itinr cscnint
prigranimme, doubling ii in [hrcet vstar- In
211ii0. veW -ignitr.iantl, rltduct.d business
ta\es. We tii'tk st ,.eral [cps tio tfsct [ias

los' in LJX r.3-Vnu. nl ,Labhv bv liarnls'-
inl add.iitinal resturLces bv hiuntli-
111. aii ippleal t[' .ur parinert' iii lith
iiillrnatii.nal conimmunil, 111 particular
Ihe lEur-,pcinn Unit-n. 'l' t recp,'ndcd
bh pro\-iding budIlt,.arv aid All lthes
nia-iur- arc b'ilsiered hb, t'iipruihtn-
silt mianaement:ll.i nif public. Ulainaccs
,inJ ,i ltaible ionll tar; p lit'.,, alklis tn
niion, [,i be -cint lihine [to fanmilics hb
[hb."cv b''hob hbc leti [hte L.uni[r',, whlici

IL',. J, \i', e ih s h,1'i/ t i i ii fr-tu -,

Our p.i' s,, lis cer[,ainl., hornei truin In
200'' ,iali dishurstmniens .-rt: ,.hiet:d.
A-s tiar ,as 2i1il aIs .Inccrn1d, W; have
a budget chich i, hbLi prudnt and
aaibuitu'. l'rudcnt. a"s wct f'rcsce an
S increa'c in current cX'cpnJiture +4 2
per tcni 1citLhin mnianagiuablu hlintis
I AnIJ imbi litu, as ,ur public in'.-1t-
InLIi -lltulJ nll.rC .a hv 21' 1 per cLIII
.,mplinrcd 1r. 2'0 PubliL d:bt hlitulJi
hlit'.-r art-unJ 12 per >.cnr. Ttins i' hillh.
'" agr d. but 'u Ltaain.abl]. a, il itri.:'
Ire',ii inv'.:-c L .'n! prt4llgraniniU a In l ult
Ireaiii opcradling budigtcs As far il' funid-
inm gos., nec aiun to pr rfit lfroiii ".'nie.s-
sionar\'' b' rrt wing t,'niid ains. lfro in cii li
wv. will L.onminute to beinctii flir ,nortier frI.
yvars (,!cn though ithie couunirv ia- gone
trmiin being an m iftKiall, poorr t.iuntrvy t a
inidJIe in.i'onit.e .,luntrv' [MIC] EIJ .

S-I l a I Dlh le. lt..ape' % (le Iiii.lite -.
tl l~l~


; r1l,". M,, [l,. r.

report Cape Verde


To optimise its strategy. the government
has set up an agency, Cabo Verde Inves-
limentos, headed by the Cape Verdean
Ministry of Econonic Affairs. Its mission
is to attract potential investors by extol-
ling the archipelago as a safe destination.
'Our assets. explains Carlos Rocha,
head of the agency "are good macro-
econonic data and a currency, the es-
cudo, that is pegged to the euro". The
objective, he continues, is to 'develop a
major industrial centre the key parts of

which are in the process of being put in
place a major transfer port on the island
of So Vicente along vvith a new interna-
tional airport to supplement those on the
islands of Boa Vista and Sal The latter
are primnarly destinations tourist another
sector the government is building on "In
this particularly thriving sector the bulk of
investments are European' Europeans
are also appearing in another expanding
sector. ICTs


I N-n roasc ,,n t rinl AniiiA.. i und l ted t bl EUi < M.,i hanii..... i i.

Nearly 90 per cent of the development aid
allocated to Cape Verde by the European
Union (through the European De'elop-
ment Fund; EDFi is budgetary support
This record rate is proof of the confi-
dence Europe places in the economic
and budgetary management of the Cape
Verdean authorities, and deservedly so
It is above ail thanks to the European
Union, and also the Netherlands, that the
government has been able to improve its
system of governance and its budget",
explains Jos Luis Monteiro "This was
a fundamental action If Cape Verde is
better managed it is thanks to this fully
computerised, transparent system that is
also directly linked to the Court of ALdi-
tors Even the United States would like to
have it'

The bulk of this budgetary aid is to sup-
port Cape Verde's Growth and Poverty
Reduction Strategy (GPRSi and its good
governance programme The key objec-
tive of the GPRS is to ensure access to
basic social services such as health care,
education, water and sanitation for the
very poor, to reinforce vocational training
and to develop a social welfare strategy
At least E32 6M were set aside for the
GPRS and the governance programme
under the 10th EDF for 2008-2013 (the
total of which amounts to E51 M)

The E11 5M allocated to the special part-
nership should enable Cape Verde to
improve its secLirity system in order to
deal with the new rise in illegal trafficking
(drugs, people, money laundering, etc I

and to identify cooperation projects with
the other Macaronesian islands Madeira,
the Azores and the Canariesi

A total of El 1M must go toward funding
good governance initiatives in the five
Portuguese-speaking African countries
(PALOP) and Timor Leste

Two million euiros will help support the
non-state sector and El 8M should help
fund research and technical assistance
not included in the projects not to men-
tion the E'2M in reserve

In June 2008, the European Union and
Cape Verde signed a mobility partnership,
the first of two agreements ithe second one
being Moldovai to be signed by the Euro-
pean Union with a third country The aim
of the partnership was to strengthen legal
migration and better manage illegal emi-
gration from Africa to Europe, notably via
Fronte., the agency for the management
of the European Union's external borders
In parallel, a Schengen visa centre should
open in Praia in February Managed by
Portugal, it should initially represent coun-
tries such as Belgium Slo'enia Luxem-
bourg and the Netherlands ias France and
Spain have signed bilateral agreements
The visa facilitation centre should make it
possible for those, Cape Verdeans prima-
rily such as sports people and artists to
travel easily to Europe on short trips


CapeVerde report

achieving its objectives"

Meeting with Carlos Veiga, leader of the Movement for Democracy

(MpD), the principal opposition party.

"The government has set
itself clear objectives for the
fight against unemployment
and poverty as well as for
growth. But it is a long way
from having achieved them."
The reasons, according to the
leader of Cape Verde's main
opposition party, essentially
lie in distrust of the private
sector on the part of the
governing party, the PAICV.

hen it comes to the objec-
tives, Carlo Veiga has no
complaints. He advocated
them himself when he was
prime minister, between April 1991 and
July 2000. It is how to achieve them that is

the problem. And the man who narrowly
lost the 2001 and 2006 presidential elec-
tions is determined to apply his methods if
the people give him their backing in 2011,
as he believes they are ready to do. Carlos
Veiga sees proof of this in his party's victory
in the 2008 municipal elections, in which
his MpD also won control of the capital
Praia. But the man who gracefully accepted
defeat at the hands of the PAICV in 2001
"political peace" is a reality in Cape Verde
-acknowledges that positive results have
been achieved "since the country's inde-
pendence". "That is clear", he says, "but
we want to go further". For example? "A
fair allocation of funds between central and
local government. At present 90 per cent
is controlled by the former and 10 per cent
by the latter, when it is to the local council
that most people go with their problems. We
want to reverse present government policy
that focuses on consumption, public aid or
indebtedness and imports, and concentrate
on production, investment and exports.

"IVlalle"Vlal unI"e umens
Even though much has been done to guar-
antee basic education, we must also promote
high quality education and create an envi-
ronment conducive to private investment."
One particularly urgent issue is to ensure
the viability of Electra, the public water and
electricity company, by setting up a public-
private partnership. M.M.B.


Most of the water consumed by the
Cape Verdeans comes from desalinated
seawater This is a major burden on the
Electra budget that is 100 per cent de-
pendent on crude imports to produce its
electricity Yet the archipelago does have
water reserves even if the groundwater is
confined to small and heterogeneous de-
posits trapped within a complex network
originating in former lava flows Over the
past year Cape Verde has started using
energy produced by solar panels to pump
the water from these underground depos-
its storing it in water towers pnor to distri-
buLtion to the villages A number of such
projects have been carried out, thanks to
EU support, in the interior of the island of

Santiago and on Sao Nicolao Another
promising option is the building of dams
to retain runoff A dam has been built on
Santiago with the help ofthe Chinese, and
others are planned with the assistance of

The ECOWAS Centre for Renewable En-
ergy has just set up its headquarters in
Cape Verde at a time when this energy
is slowly starting to make its appearance
in the archipelago Four wind parks have
been built or scheduled iSantiago, Sao
vicente, Sal, Boa Vistai for the produc-
tion of around 28 megawatts, equal to 18
per cent of the archipelago's total energy


I l i % -Irr M.

ii iT, .-- ii ri lia qo i z la ri rJ pa

Informal settlements, Praia. 0 MarieMartine Buckens

'Working together' In less than 20 years, Praia has seen

its population more than double, and is today home to
almost 140,000 people, a quarter of the archipelago's
population. The constant arrival of people from the countryside, leaving behind what is essentially
a form of subsistence farming, presents certain problems. The main social challenges, which the
Cape Verde government is attempting to overcome with the support of the EU, are concentrated
in the 'unofficial' districts springing up along the dried up river beds.

n February 2007, the local authority
launched a pilot project in the unofficial
districts of Praia with the help of the
Italian NGO, Africa'70, supported by
the European Development Fund (EDF).
The unemployment rate here is high, illegal
buildings do not have sewage systems, and
access to water and other services is at best
arbitrary. The project is based on three
approaches: social integration -with the
support of the highly active district associa-
tions -support for urban management, and
infrastructure -Africa'70's field of activity.

Gian Paolo Lucchi of Africa'70 said: "After
carrying out a diagnosis of the social and
technical requirements, we concentrated
our efforts on construction of retaining
walls, which enables all kinds of other
infrastructure work, such as construction
of access roads and routing of water. They
also help hold back flood waters in the rainy

Africa'70 is a member of Cape Verde's
NGO platform. With 220 members, this
platform also receives EDF support. Mrio


Dengue fever hit Cape Verde for the first
time in November 2009, infecting 12,000
people, six of whom died from this mos-
quito-transmitted virus, which thri-ed
after a particularly heavy rainy season
The measures taken by the healthcare
authorities held the epidemic in check
The opening of fiwe healthcare centres
in the capital a year ago funded by the
EU, for which healthcare is a priority in
its cooperation with the country provid-
ed relief for overrun hospitals Marganta
Cardoso, Director General at the Min-
istry of Health, explained "Apart from
the epidemic these centres enhance
primary healthcare in particular, which

is extremely important for rural immi-
grants confronted with urban life This
enables us to tackle the problems of the
least advantaged directly Around 3,000
people visit these centres each month'
Similar centres are planned for other is-
lands a measure, which together with
the improvement of the education sys-
tem, aims to settle the population on the
islands VWihat are the main challenges to
be overcome? She said 'The renewed
outbreak of transmissible diseases at a
time when we are starting to curb non-
transmissible diseases A lack of human
resources, in particular specialists"

Moniz, the platform's executive secretary,
said: "With a presence on all the islands,
the NGOs work with the 700 highly active
community associations. Working together
'djunta m' -is a deeply embedded tradi-
tion in Cape Verde". What is the platform's
role? Mario Moniz said: "To provide the
NGOs with the tools to identify and set up
projects. We have just approved the 2010-
2015 agenda, and have adopted a code of
ethics for the first time". What are its priori-
ties? Mr. Moniz explained: "Healthcare and
education, with the emphasis on professional
training". In the field ofhealthcare, the plat-
form is the main recipient, together with the
Ministry of Health, of a US$12M project
from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS. This
scourge has so far spared the archipelago,
which has an HIV rate estimated at 0.8 per
cent in 2005. M.M.B.

Margarita Cardoso (second from the left) with the team
of a health centre in Praia. O Marie MartineBuckens

Praia; least advantaged districts; Africa'70;
NGO platform; healthcare centres.


Culture is everything, Manuel Veiga, Minister of Culture, tells us. We have no other natural
resources. An interview.

What do you understand by 'culture'?

Culture is essential, not just as art, but as
a way of life, a way of seeing things, and a
means of making contact, which is vital in
our part of the world. It's extremely impor-
tant because we have emerged from great
cultural dialogue. The fact that Cidade
Velha was recently given world heritage
status by Unesco says a great deal. A new
anthropology has been born out ofthe ongo-
ing exchange between Africans, initially as
slaves, and Europeans. We stay true to our
Creole culture, but remain open-minded.
We never show contempt for other people,
provided they conform to certain values,
because we are, in one way, 'other people'
too. Conversely, foreigners love us because
they find a thread here that leads them back
to their own culture.

Would the music be the thread?

Yes, it may well be, even though music came
after our language. Cape Verde Creole devel-
oped from Portuguese, and what I would
call an underlying structure of African lan-
guages, as the black slaves were ethnically
dispersed across the Portuguese colonies to
prevent them from communicating. But all
human beings possess an internal strength,
when faced with constraints, which enables
them to display creativity, with the need
to communicate being the strongest. The
Creole language is the fundamental char-
acteristic of our identity. Having said that,
we are renowned for our music and Cesaria
Evora is our ambassador. M.M.B.

Culture; Manuel Veiga; morna; batuque;
coladeira; funana; Santo Antao; Mindelo.



'The bare-footed singer had to take Lis-
bon, and then Paris by storm in order for
the West to discover 'morna', the music
inspired by the PortLigLiese fados But
Cesaria Evora is not the only performer
to sing it. Ail Cape Verde islanders talk
with great feeling about lido Lobo who
died in 2004 at the age of 51 He vvas
regarded as the islands' greatest singer.
Coladeira' emerged in Mindelo. Cape
Verde's 'capital' of song in the 1930s.
An upbeat version of 'morna mixed

with polka, it is often played at carnival
time Funana comes from the island of
Santiago. and has a much more Afncan
sound. It wasthe music of the slaves, and
of rebellion Probably the archipelagos
oldest musical genre 'batuque cones
from African music and dance rituals,
and is mainly performed by vomnen Lots
of young singers have been captivated
by its charm, including Mayra Andrade
Lira and Tchake


The volcanic island of Santo Anto nses
majestically opposite Mindelo, the capi-
tal of Sao Vicente Arriring by boat in
Porto Novo, the island seemsto be noth-
ing but steep and and ridges From the
port you take the new road (photo page
48i, which was opened with great cer-
emony on 9 May 2009 in front of a crowd
which e'en included members of Cape
Verde's diaspora who had returned for
the occasion Funded by the European
Union, and with the support of Luxem-
bourg, Italy and the Cape Verde gov-
ernment the road runs along the coast,
which is wild and magnificent, connect-
ing the north and south of the island The

long-term benefits it offers are twofold
Firstly, itenables farmers because once
you leave the coast, there is a fertile hin-
terland where sugar cane, bananas and
lots of other products are grown to ex-
port their products to the other islands
Secondly, it will attract tourists inter-
ested in natural surroundings Some are
already here, travelling the roads that
criss-cross the hinterland, alongside the
old dormant craters at the island's cen-
tre Manuel veiga explained 'People
do not just come here for the sunshine
Through culture and meeting the people,
we can strike the right balance and turn
tourism into a development tool '

discovering Europe

H ?'
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oldest inhabited city

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I I -


1-1.:. .: discovering Europe

to be


D Percival

Name Europe's oldest
inhabited city. Athens, Thebes
(Greece), Cadiz (Spain) or
Larnaca (Cyprus)? Few would
pick Bulgaria's second city,
Plovdiv, which lies 150 km
south east of capital Sofia,
also listed as the sixth oldest
inhabited city in the world in
the Time Out Guide* The
World's Greatest Cities. All
its fascinating layers of history
which date back between
6,000-8,000 years await your

rom Thracian times to the Bulgarian
revival of the 19th Century, Plovdiv,
which lies astride the banks of the river
Maritza, has changed its name more
times than it has hills. It was originally known
as 'City of the Seven Hills' although one has
since subsided.


Archaeologists have discovered fine pottery
and other everyday objects dating back to
the Neolithic age and it was already an estab-
lished settlement in the 7th Millennium BC.
The Thracians called the city Eumolpias; it
was known for its production of wine and
honey and jewellery crafting. In 342-341
BC, the town was conquered by Philip II of

Remains of Roman Stadium, Plovdiv.

Macedonia and given the name Philippopolis
and subsequently Pulpudeva. The Romans
conquered the city in the first century AD
and renamed it Thrimonzium (referring to
the fact that it then lay on three hills). The
excavated Roman amphitheatre now incon-
gruously overlooks a busy highway. In the
hot summer months (winters can be bitingly
cold), it stages open-air concerts, opera and

classical drama. A Roman stadium is also
partially visible in the city centre.

The Huns ruled the town in the 447 AD and
in the 6th Century the Slavs settled in the
Balkan peninsular and gave the city the names
Pulden and Plundiv. In 815 AD, Khan Krum
of Bulgaria seized the city's fortress and it
was fully incorporated into the Bulgarian
Empire in 834 AD, only to be reconquered
by the Byzantine Empire. The five centuries
that followed saw it change hands between
Bulgaria and Byzantium. Plovdiv was also on
the path of the crusades, the city demolished
and plundered by crusaders on their way to
Mecca. In 1385, the town fell to the Ottoman
Empire and the city was known as Phillibe.
It was to remain part of the Empire for the
next 500 years. At that time, the city had over
55 mosques. The Dzhumaya Mosque which
still stands in the centre is one of the oldest
Ottoman buildings in the Balkans.

In the 19th century, Plovdiv was at the
heart at the Bulgarian renaissance from the
Ottoman's cultural oppression, including the
opening of the first Bulgarian publishing
house in 1855 from which printed books,
newspapers and magazines were circulated

I Mural, Plovdiv, depicting Ottoman presence.

D D Percival

discovering Europe Plovdiv

around Bulgarian lands. The Bulgarian revo-
lutionist,Vassil Levski, organised a revolution-
ary committee in Plovdiv. During this period,
wealthy merchants built houses in a Bulgarian
Renaissance style with unique ceilings carved
in wood which have been exquisitely restored,
and are breathing life into Plovdiv's OldTown.
The ethnographic museum, in the house ofA.
K..- r: ... :.. -...: ., gives an insight into the city's
riches at this time.

The city was liberated from the Ottomans
by the Russians in the battle of Plovdiv,
1878. The Treaty of San Stefano of the same
year founded the Principality of Bulgaria,
gathering ail lands with a predominantly
Bulgarian population. Plovdiv was declared
the capital of the new state and the centre
of the new Russian temporary government.
However, the Treaty was subsequently modi-
fied in Berlin and the newly liberated country
was divided into Bulgaria with Sofia as its
capital and Eastern Rumelia Province with
Plovdiv as capital -under the military and
political control of the Turkish sultan while
Macedonia was returned to Turkey. This
carve-up was short-lived. The Unification
of Bulgaria was proclaimed on 6 September
1885. In 1892, the first international fair -
Bulgarian exhibition was held in Plovdiv
with international participants. This tradition
has kept on and Plovdiv International Fair
now has a permanent building in the city and
each year hosts many exhibitions attracting
international participants.

I Houses of wealthy merchants, Plovdiv. D Percival

Detail on 19th century merchant's house, Plovdiv Old
Town. CD Percival

During the Second World War (1939-
1945), the pro-Nazi Bulgarian government
announced in 1943 the deportation of all
Bulgaria's 50,000 Jews. Thanks to the cour-
age of a number of individuals including
Archbishop Krill of the Orthodox Church,
the government finally backed down. The
bulk of the country's Jews chose to emigrate
to Israel following the war.**

When the Nazis left Bulgaria in 1944, the
country came under Communist power and
formed a very close relationship with the
former Soviet Union. A monument of a
Russian soldier still starkly sits on one of
the city's peaks. Another layer of Plovdiv's
history was laid when it staged a major anti-
Communist demonstration, one ofthe events
which led to the toppling of the Communist
regime in November 1989. This is why city
is sometimes referred to as the 'blue' (demo-
cratic) capital of Bulgaria.

Another layer of the country's history is
now being laid post-Communism and since
Bulgaria's membership of the EU in 2007**.
* Time Out Guide, The World's Greatest Cities. Sep-
tember 2009, 350 pages, Edition 1.
** 'Beyond Hitler's Grasp: The Heroic Rescue of Bu-
larian Jews' by Michael Bar-Zohar, 1998.

Plovdiv; Bulgaria; Thracians; Ottomans.


The Scifia-based European Insttiute .. as
set up in 1'i'iT, P ith the financial suLppcort
of the founder of the Open Soci:et. Insti-
lult Georga e Sros Il as one of the first
non-go erniiental bodies campaaigning
for EBulgarias European integration Iro.
financially independent it is working on a
nuLlber of pIroje.ts to pass on its e peri-
ence of the process of accession [o the
EU good and bad to its Balkan neigh-
boaur epilains its Director Lubo Pa-
na c.to...a P ho is a former depl. ut finance
minister in her country

Its '.ebsite *, Europe bg is cne of the
inost consulted in EBulgaria on European
niatters At the beginning the idea as
to collect t ail sorts of information about the

negotiation process says Lub'.. Pana-
yatco a VVith the European Parliaments
iEPi financial support the Institute has
aiso set up an interact .,,.,ebsite lunk-
ing upLI Bulgarian and other members of
the EF in contact ith the pLublic .,.. '.
europarliament europe bg

It is aiso pro hiding technical support to
Bulgaria s rtlinistr, of Regional ,.oo.pera-
tion under a cross-border .ooperation
project ,,.i,,h rlacedonia" whichic h is gu..ing
assistance and training to its neighbour
*on ho. t.o generate projects ideas and
apply for grants fie, projects in the pipe-
line include job inaps e< plains Borsial..
lMa..1ro the Institute s Director of Interna-
iic.nal Prograuummes and Frojects to Inafe

it easier for Romanians and Bulgarians
to find jobs in the market of its neighbour
throuLgh the help ofa '.ebsite

The Institute has a long eperience in
anti-discri.rnnaltin issues and is currentlyy
workingg on a project to counter gro u ing i-
olence .n schools Lubo Fanayatc a says
that iclence is especially incited throuLgh
message sent by mobile phones She
part, puis this do n [o recent transfor-
mnations in Bulgarian society E erything
is changing but not oni/ for the g.cd she

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Valley of the roses near Plovdiv. Reporters

The province of Plovdiv is historically a vibrant commercial centre and at a trading crossroads
between the European Union and to the east, Turkey and the Middle East. It has gained a repu-
tation for the manufacture of non-ferrous metals, fertilisers, pharmaceuticals, food and wine and
rose oil. Over the past 20 years, like the rest of Bulgaria, the region has adapted from a state-
run economy and since 2007, to the more exacting production and import standards as a result
of EU membership, says Angel Hronev, Head of the Information Centre of Plovdiv's privately-run
Chamber of Commerce and Industry, in an interview with The Courier.

traditional industries such as food, Sofia. A phenomenon of EU membership is
wine and tobacco are all adapt- that young people do not stay and farm in
ing to the EU market. Due to a Bulgaria but now go to other parts ofthe EU,
huge amount of cheap diesel from where wages are higher, to work as seasonal
.,. the former Soviet Union, in the late 1980s, farm labourers.
Bulgaria was the number one in Europe for
the production of greenhouse vegetables."We >
1 had a very good state-run cooperative sys-
tem prior to 1989 especially concerning the 'The Valley of the Roses', north of Plovdiv,
planting of vegetables and grain", explains is planted with rose bushes which produce
Angel Hronev. Pre-accession to the EU, the rosa damascana (damask rose), tradition-
Bulgaria received funding from the EU from ally picked in June. As many as 3,000-5,000
SAPARD (Special Accession Programme for kg of flowers (more than a million flowers)
Agriculture and Rural Development) which are needed to produce just 1 kg of rose oil.
h bas helped the country adapt its agricul- "Because ofvery specific conditions, the qual-
ture to new EU rules and regulations, to ity of rose oil can be found nowhere else in the
enhance efficiency and competitiveness and world", says Hronev. A variety of local rose
boost employment in the sector. "Although products include shampoos and rose jam!
there were a few shortcomings with the
programme, it brought new cultivation and Also rapidly gaining an international reputa-
introduced new technologies, especially in tion are wines of the Thrace valley in Plovdiv
irrigation", says Hronev. Even so, there has province. During the era of the state-run
Angel Hronev, Head of the Information Centre, Chamber been a rural exodus and 1.5M of Bulgaria's economy, one or two state-run companies
of Commerce and Industry, Plovdiv. CD Percival 7.5M population now live in the capital, had a monopoly and produced cheap wines,


1 Tobacco growing. Reporters

especially for the market ofthe former Soviet
Union, explains Hronev. In the late 1980s,
Bulgaria was the second largest exporter of
wines. The country now faces strong com-
petition from Chile, Argentina and South
Africa which are even found on supermarket
shelves in Bulgaria -particularly 'whites' since
Bulgarians still prefer domestically-produced
'reds'. "The issue is to improve quality",
explains Hronev. Recent years have seen a
glut in Bulgaria's wine production since mak-
ing your own wine has been in vogue and is
almost second nature to Bulgarians. "Wines
were produced for which there was no mar-
ket", says Hronev. To improve the quality of
wines for the EU and other markets, experts
were sought and now some very good local
wines are produced in Plovdiv province in
the 6-8 bracket. They include the Castra
Rubra winery's Via Diagonalis, developed
with the help of French wine consultant,
Michel Rolland. The Bessa T.1.-. % winery, just
40 kilometres from Plovdiv, has developed
the Enira label with German investment and
technical expertise. With the added cachet
that Dionysus, God of wine, was from the
Thrace valley, Hronev also sees the provinces
huge potential for wine tourism.

The profile of the typical investor in Plovdiv
has changed since Bulgaria's became part
of the EU in 2007. Whereas in the 1990s,
investor money largely came from neighbour-
ing Greece and Turkey, Hronev notes more
interest from EU member states further
to the west, largely because overheads and
labour still remain cheaper in Bulgaria. "Italy
is one of the few countries that have a spe-
cial nationally-funded programme to transfer
business from one region ofthe EU to anoth-
er", says Hronev. "Italians feel comfortable
here and invest in cosmetics and perfumery,
food, coffee, ice cream and machinery", he
adds. Under a similar German government
programme, one businessperson is producing
machine building parts for German industry.

With its huge historical interest (see arti-
cle on history), Plovdiv's tourism potential
remains relatively untapped but its expansion
will depend on improved infrastructure such
as better road connections inside Bulgaria
and with the rest of the EU, and improved
frequency of low-cost flights into Plovdiv
if it intends to grab the EU short vacation
destination market. A new road crossing with
Greece has just opened up which puts the

Greek coastline within two to three hours
reach of Plovdiv but there is still no fast high-
way between Plovdiv and Bulgaria's coast-
line to the east, popular with holidaymakers
from other parts of the EU. The Rhodope
Mountains in the south of the province have
both ski and spa resorts.

Despite the financial crisis having affected
Bulgaria's construction industry which was
booming two to three years ago and resulted
in unemployment below zero per cent, at just
6.76 per cent, the city nevertheless still has
one of the lowest rates of unemployment in
Bulgaria. "Plovdiv is going to develop. If we
manage to take advantage of all the oppor-
tunities we have, it will do very well", says
Hronev. D.P.

Plovdiv; Chamber of Commerce and
Industry of Plovdiv; Angel Hronev;
Plovdiv International Fair; VINARIA;
Michel Rolland; FIFA World Cup.


South frc..s is to participate as an organising partner country
in Pic. di s annual International E hibition o.f 'ine-Gro ing and
\JUne Producrtion I,'IIJARIA 1.4-17 March 2010 to be held in
preirnses of Plo...di s international fair ',oulh African ines are
increasingl, popLilar in the EiBulgaran imariket VVine is c:urrentl
third in the list of ScO ith Africa s global eq, ports and ranks ninth in
the Iust of top ine pr oducingL couLintries n the ..orld th an an-
nual production of 10r hectolitres L,'IJ ARIA is expected to boo: t c.
relations bet..een Bulgaria and South Africa The organisers
say that vlIJARIA-oers ,.ill be able to taste the ine in hosen b.
South Africa for the FIFA \ Jorld C up
. ., :i r b,:l -n ,, ni un.,iriuj ,' e .: ,, j-..'i lle. ,- m W "i u- l 'b. .l :l. 'll "' ''l l" l- lI- ";, '1 ': .',' "


S discovering Europe

discrimination of the Roma?

The Roma in Bulgaria make
up the country's second largest
minority or 4.7 per cent of the
population. According to official
figures, the Stolipinovo area of
Plovdiv has one of the largest
concentrations of Roma. Non
Governmental Organisations
(NGOs) claim discrimination
against the Roma, whereas other
commentators say that feeling
of antagonism between Roma
and the Bulgarian majority
population derives more from a
Romani reluctance to integrate
into modern society.

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J--&crering Europj, A' M EIUTO UIPABJ CIT

*'""E IL'.

Bulgaria's government was
poised to give the go-ahead
to its first-ever bi-lateral
development strategy when
we visited the Ministry of
Foreign Affairs in Sofia mid-
January 2010. Going to press,
an "ordinance paper" was
awaiting the approval of
Bulgaria's Council of Ministers
at the start of 2010. This is
expected to lead to approval
of funds by the country's
Ministry of Finance for pilot
development projects in six
countries bordering Bulgaria,
earmarked to be the initial
beneficiaries of the country's
new policy.

'iflU Tii

programme on

the launch pad

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Bulgaria discovering Europe

Macedonia*, Kosovo and Serbia; and to the
east, Moldova, Armenia and Georgia. Boyan
Belev told us that thought had been given to
including a sub-Saharan African country
on the list -Angola, with which Bulgaria
has former ties -but this plan has been
dropped for the moment, partly because
Angola is seen to be an "aid darling", and
partly because at this kick-off stage, Bulgaria
does not want to spread its funds too thinly,
believing that it can be more useful in coun-
tries which whom it has special cultural
affinity and experience such as the transfor-
mation of state-run economies.

With a limited number of personnel, the
country's Development Department cur-
rently has its work cut out. Since becoming
an EU member, it has to prepare and partic-
ipate in the EU's Ministerial meetings with
the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP),
in EU Development Ministers' meetings
and those of General Affairs as well as relat-
ed working parties, meetings on the EU's
neighbourhood policy** and on the stability

Presently Bulgaria commits just 0.06 per
cent of its GNI (figure for 2008) to develop-
ment aid. Boyan Belev indicated that the
country would be unable to meet the target

of 0.17 per cent of GNI by 2010, although
the GNI level is expected to rise this year
since the country will be a first-time con-
tributor to the 22.682bn 10th European
Development Fund (2008-2013) for ACP
states. The total estimated contribution of
Bulgaria to the 10th EDF is 31,754,800, to
be staggered over the next three years.

The country's bi-lateral policy may still be
awaiting lift-off, but it does provide some
funding currently to the EU's general devel-
opment activities through the amount paid
into the EU's overall budget. Bulgaria pro-
vides 4.5 per cent ofthe EU kitty.

Boyan Belev says that venturing into the bi-
lateral development field is a "learning exer-
cise" for his country. The "ordinance paper"
on the table of Bulgarian Ministers follows
a draft strategy paper on development policy,
published in the same year that the country
joined the EU. The draft highlights that the
country's development policy should based
on achieving the Millennium Development
Goals (MDGs) in poorer countries and that
Bulgarian international development coop-
eration be consistent with political com-
mitments made in the framework of both
the UN and the EU. It states Bulgaria's
support for poverty eradication and sustain-
able development and the strengthening of
developing countries' economies.

Boyan Belev says that his country does not
lack experience in development policy. In
the mid-1980s, it was an important donor
to over 40 countries in Asia, Africa and
Latin America and the country's state-
owned companies were present in all three

Sub-Saharan Africa and other countries
may eventually join an expanded list of
recipients, particularly given the EU's com-
mitment to steer 50 per cent ofthe increased
development aid to the continent, indicated
Boyan Belev. D.P.

* On the concerns of Greece, the European Union
recognizes the Republic of Macedonia as the "former
Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia".
** The neighbourhood policy covers co-operation
with: Algeria, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Egypt,
Georgia, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Moldova,
Morocco, Occupied Palestinian Territory, Syria,
Tunisia, and Ukraine. Find out more: http://ec.europa.
eu/world/enp/index en.htm
*** The EU's instrument for stability was adopted
in 2007 and provides support for conflict pre-
vention, crisis management and peace building.
Find out more: http://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/what/
index en.htm
To find out more about BPID: www.bpid.org

Boyan Belev; Bulgaria; TRIALOG;
CONCORD; Presidency Fund.


. ..

'il ',, P ,i 11,I ,1 -- 1 , ,1.r I I Im n, 1.

Dimitar Soaire is the ery .O'mmitted
part-time head of the Bulgarian Flarforni
for International De elopment I BPIDi set
Lup at the beginning 2009 for lion Go..-
ernmental De elopinent Organisations
iNJGDOsi The BPID as originally fLind-
ed by the EU s former Presidenc FuLnd
and TRI.L CiG the umbrella 1JGi plat-
forni for EU ne.. comer states. Ils current
financial support until April 2010 comes
from the European o[Jn Go ernmental
Organisation Confederation for Relief
and De..elopment iC.J.CORDi of hich
Bulgaria is seeking membership Dinitar
Sotiro fully supports the aim of Bulgar-
,a s de..elopment policy in not aiminng too
big al the start bit adds that a strategy
in place and a specialised de..elopiment
policy '.ith more personnel to direct it
are both ital

The burgeoning E.PID currentl/ numbers
20 members They inclde CA4PE BuLl-
garia Caratas BuElgaria the Bulgarian
Ped C'oss and the Bulgarian Gender
Pesearch Foundation Dimitar 'otiri
says that the Bulgaria can iimpart a lot of
kno ,.ledge to its de..eloping nations such
as the processes in ol..ed in merging
ith EU economies The plarformi orks
On such Issues as de..elopment educa-
tion health gender issues en ironment
and sistainabilit/ In c lober 200C9 the
BPID organized a round table on the
Participation of Bulgarian Cr..ii l ocety
in EU De elopment Cooperation ., here
other couLntries suLch as Japan and the
UK. ere in...ted to share ,,th Bulgarian
participants details of ho they organise
bi-lateral de elopment police.
S.-e in..re b|ld J.r.l



c~- r

Sandra Federici

Hf meeting Place

for fifrican Culture

Creative Africa Network (CAN) provides a virtual platform which connects creative operators
both within Africa and throughout the world, giving visibility to talented people in the fields of
architecture, dance, design, fashion, film, fine art, literature, music, new media, performing arts
and photography.

CAN* is a puma.creative initiative,
and is sustained by this famous
sport-lifestyle factory. It is based
on 2.0 technology and is one of
the most lively, up-to-date and frequented
of ail of the virtual platforms on African
culture. The project aims to connect the
African creative world to an interdiscipli-
nary network, which extends throughout
Africa and beyond. Through the principles
and technologies of today's information
society, it also aims to provide shared and
free self-produced content and information.
This social networking website has an intel-
ligent and intuitive structure which allows
users to create their own profiles, with text,
photos and links. In this way the website is
producing itself and is growing every day.
It is interesting to see who is there, who is
not there, and who is a fan of whom. When
consulting the profile pages of projects,
institutions, individuals or exhibitions, the
viewer can "become a fan". The "calendar"

section is one of the most useful, featur-
ing news of events, art and film festivals,
awards, reviews, calls for artists and other
opportunities, as well as providing profes-
sional information and updates on cultural
liaisons, which are valuable to both estab-
lished and emerging artists.

The 'library' section contains information
on 300 important books and brochures, as
well as the profiles of around 200 'librarians'
They add their names to the page dedicated
to the books they own. The website aims
to create a true "shared, non-centralised
library", through the "lending and borrow-
ing (of books) by members". It is not clear,
however, how well this works.

Christine Eyene (former Publishing Director
of the French journal Africultures) is the edi-
tor of CAN. She updates the site with infor-
mation on the main cultural events and,
along with Mark Coetzee, Chief Curator

of puma.creative, promotes collateral ini-
tiatives. One important project promoted
through Creative Africa Network is "The
puma.creative Mobility Awards", which aims
to facilitate the participation of both emerg-
ing and established artists, art professionals
and arts organizations in major national and
international art events.

Amongst the numerous winners ofthe 2008
and 2009 Mobility Award are important art-
ists such as Barthelemy Toguo and Goddy
Leye from Cameroon, the Nigerian curator
Bisi Silva and the two most important Afro-
American artists: Kara Walker and David
* CAN is a partner of the Creative Caribbean Network.

African Culture; virtual platforms;
contemporary art; Christine Eyene; Mark





The 8th Bamako
Encounters the
Biennial Exhibition
of African
which took place
from 7 November
to 7 December
2009 in Bamako,
were organised
by the Ministry of
Culture in Mali,
in collaboration
with Culturesfrance
(Paris), with finan-
cial, technical and
media support
from many local
and international
corporate bodies.


cy~wul Ub

Arican photography; borders; art;
Iuture; exhibition; award.

.. .. .. . .. .. .... .. .. .








Words from Readers

Science can have a place in the economic
development ofACP countries.

It is not possible to continue saying that sci-
ence is out of reach of developing countries.
Investments, funding and science are the
rights ofACP countries.

Juan Antonio Falcn Blasco

Furthermore, on his death bed in 1998,
the discoverer revealed he held another
Ishango rod. It was only in 2007 this second
Ishango rod was made public. And still few
people know about it. It certainly is not a

Dirk Huylebrouck

Dear Sir/Madam,

Dear Sirs,

You wrote "It [the Ishango rod] would
become the darling of archaeologists". The
opposite is true: the rod was kept on the
19th floor of the archaeology museum for
about 50 years, and nobody paid attention
to it. Until mathematicians revealed it and it
was finally put in exposition.

This is to comment on Eritrea, my country of
origin. I also have UK citizenship and I live
and work in London. I strongly oppose any
interference on the internal matters of my
country by any outsider for any reason as the
ambassador of Eritrea to the EU countries
rightly said that Eritrea is the most stable and
peaceful country in the whole of Africa.

Now, what are the problems with religion,
race and human rights in Eritrea? None.
Human rights are abused widely by the
superpowers such as USA and the UK in
Iraq, Afghanistan and many other places ...
Please do not try to blame Eritrea for any-
thing as the country is trying to build its life
back from ruin to recovery as priority.

Thank you,
Kelati Measho (Eritrea)

We are interested in your point
of view and your reactions to the
articles. So do tell us what you think.

zoo- i- -7 -i -s s : :-. p.



> 26- 5th Meeting of Spanish
28/3 and African Women World
for a Better World
Socio-cultural event to be held in
Valencia, Spain.

> 27/3 18th session of the ACP-EU
1/4 Joint Parliamentary Assembly
Magma Confernce Centre, Costa
Adeje, Tenerife, Spain

> 23/4- Edition II 'Africa lives'
June Festival celebrating the 50th

anniversary ofthe independence of
African countries. Opening
ceremony in Barcelona, Spain.

> 21- Africa-EU Energy Partnership:
23/4 Ministerial High Level Meeting
Vienna, Austria

> 27/4 14th Africa-EU Ministerial
Luxembourg, Luxembourg

> 28/4 Workshop on employment,
social protection and decent
work in Africa
Organised jointly by the European
Commission and the African Union
Commission, in cooperation with
interested EU and AU member
states, Nairobi, Kenya.

) 19- Better Training for Food Safety
23/4 regional workshop
Kampala, Uganda

> 19- IST-Africa 2010 Conference &
21/5 Exhibition
Fifth in an annual ICT conference
series bringing together senior rep-
resentatives from leading commer-
cial, government & research organi-
sations across Africa and from
Europe, Durban, South Africa.
Conference2010/default. asp



iii ~ 1111 II

The lists of countries published by The Courier do not prejudice the status of these countries and territories now or in the future. The Courieruses maps from a variety of sources.
Their use does not imply recognition of any particular boundaries nor prejudice the status of any state or territory.

l .

Antigua and Barbuda The Bahamas Barbados Belize Cuba Dominica Dominican
Republic Grenada Guyana Haiti Jamaica Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint
Vincent and the Grenadines Suriname Trinidad and Tobago

- -- -- ---- -- -- ----------- -----------

Cook Islands Federated States of Micronesia Fiji Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru Niue
Palau Papua New Guinea Samoa Solomon Islands Timor Leste Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu

Angola Benin Botswana Burkina Faso Burundi Cameroon Cape Verde Central African
Republic Chad Comoros Congo (Rep. of) Cte d'Ivoire Democratic Republic of the
Congo Djibouti Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon Gambia Ghana Guinea
Guinea-Bissau Kenya Lesotho Liberia Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Mauritius
Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria Rwanda Sao Tome and Principe Senegal
Seychelles Sierra Leone Somalia South Africa Sudan Swaziland Tanzania Togo
Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe

Austria Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France
Germany Greece Hungary Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Netherlands
Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden United Kingdom

: .

i :. .' i :.. .i....
x.... .... .. ..



J6 A




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