HIGHLIGHTS OF CURRENT RESEARCH ACTIVITIES
DEPARTMENT OF POULTRY HUSBANDRY
FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
March 7, 1957
High Protein Pearmt Oil Meal For Broilers
J. Clyde Driggers
Preliminary broiler feeding trials with a Florida produced, high protein (55%)
peanut oil meal replacing soybean oil meal as the primary source of protein have indi-
cated that this product would not produce satisfactory results unless supplemented with
lysine as well as a fermentation solubles concentrate.
Results at 4 weeks of a current trial using a Menhaden fish meal with condensed
fish solubles added (Hi-seas brand) replacing the non-supplemented Menhaden fish meal
in the University of Florida broiler formula are as follows:
GRAMS OF FEED PER
LOT BODY WEIGHT GRAM OF BODY WT.
1 Control Soybean oil meal 472.62 1.728
Menhaden fish meal
2 Peanut oil meal 378.4 1.791
Menhaden fish meal
3 1/2 Soybean oil meal 451.89 1.731
1/2 Peanut oil meal
Menhaden fish meal
4 Soybean oil meal 482.25 1.685
Hi-seas fish meal
5 Peanut oil meal 430.56 1.698
Hi-seas fish meal
6 1/2 Soybean oil meal 473.0 1.666
1/2 Beanut oil meal
Hi-seas fish meal
These results indicate that one-half of the soybean oil meal might be replaced by
the high protein peanut oil meal with reasonably good results. As yet, no explanation
for these improved results has been forthcoming. It is possible that the lysine avail-
ability from the Hi-seas fish meal is greater than for other fi w the con-
densed solubles added* o
SEP 18 1957
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FEEDING TURKEYS TO MARKET WEIGHT
Little information is available as to the rate of gain during successive weeks
and the amount of feed required to support this gain in growing turkeys. To get more
information along this line so as to advise turkey producers how long they can afford
to keep turkeys before marketing them when using modern feeds,89 Bronze, 59 Beltsville
White and 20 Broad White poults were fed to approximately 28 weeks of age. The results
from this trial indicate that Bronze and Broad Whites should be dressed for market
earlier than an average weight 8 pounds while the Beltsville Whites should be dressed
for market earlier than when they reach 10 pounds in body weight. Pounds of feed
required per pound of gain thereafter preclude the possibilities of profit at current
From 12 to 24 weeks of age one-half of each of the breeds received whole clipped
oats free choice as a source of carbohydrates while the other half received whole corn.
In each instance the oat-fed pens ate more feed than the others and although the birds
were slightly heavier at the conclusion of the trial, the amount of feed per pound of
gain was so much greater than in the corn-fed pens that the feeding of oats at current
price levels is not justified.
These data were of such economic importance that this trial will be repeated*
HIGH EFFICIENCY RATIONS FOR LAYERS
J. Clyde Driggers
All mash laying rations high in essential nutrients have given a slightly in-
creased egg production on significantly less feed per dozen eggs over the past two
years at this Station. Interior egg quality and particularly thin whites has become
a problem within the State in recent months. Recognizing the possibility that some
of the feeds used in the State are high in certain essential nutrients but not ade-
quate in others and as a result might be influencing this quality, an experiment has
been undertaken recently to use the best of the high efficiency formulas previously
used and measure productivity and egg quality of it in comparison with feeds similB
in every respect except varying levels of methionine and vitamin A. This experiment
involves 10 pens of 50 laying birds each.
THE HORMONIZING EFFECT OF TANGERETIN AS
COMPARED WITH DIETHYLSTILBESTIDL
WHEN IMPLANTED IN WHITE PLYMOUTH ROCK COCKERELS
Pilot experimental work conducted at the Lake Alfred Station suggested the
possibility that tangeretin, a glucoside from the peel of tangerines, might possess
some feminizing hormonal activity.
To test the possibility with chickens, 15 mgm concentrations of tangeretin
were pelleted with lactose and injected subcutaneously at the base of the comb of
16-week-old White Plymouth Rock cockerels and compared with similar injections of
diethylstilbestrol. Eight cockerels were placed in 6 lots and were treated as follows:
Lot 1 Control (No implant)
Lot 2 15 mgm diethylstilbestrol (1 pellet)
Lot 3 30 (2 pellets)
Lot l 15 tangeretin (1 pellet)
Lot 5 30 n (2 pellets)
Lot 6 45 n (3 pellets)
All birds were kept on the trial for three weeks.
Maximum feminizing effect of the diethylstilbestrol was observed at the end of
three weeks but there was no noticeable affect from the tangeretin.
On the basis of this observation, there appears to be no feminizing hormone in
tangeretin which affects chickens.
POULTRY MANURE AS A FERTILIZER
Charles F. Eno* and J. Clyde Driggers
Quantitative measurements of poultry manure were taken and, based on wet (fresh)
weight, broilers produce 10.03 pounds or based on dry weight, 2.2975 pounds of
droppings to market weight of three pounds in 9 weeks.
Single Comb White Leghorn hens produce 71.029 pounds of wet droppings or 19.214
pounds of dry droppings per year.
At $5.00 per ton of dry weight, 1000 S. C. White Leghorn hens would produce
approximately $50 worth of manure per year.
* Soils Department
PROCESSING YIELDS OF TURKEYS
A preliminary study was made on the dressed, eviscerated and prepackaged yields
of 49 Beltsville Whites, 17 Broad Whites and 39 Bronze turkeys which were approximately
50 percent toms and 50 percent hens. These birds were slaughtered with an electric
poultry stunning knife with care being exercised to sever only the carotid artery and
jugular vein. After the scald (1400F.), plucking, and evisceration, the carcasses
were chilled in crushed ice for 24 hours prior to packaging and freezing.
The Broad White toms and hens exhibited greater live weights, dressed yields and
eviscerated yields than did the other two breeds. In all cases the turkey hens had
greater increases over the eviscerated yields than did the respective toms after 24
hours in crushed ice. The Bronze toms and hens exhibited greater increases over
the eviscerated yields than did the other two breeds. The prepackaged yields were
comparable with all breeds.
EGG QUALITY STUDY
Recently egg quality work was initiated at the Florida Random Sample Test at
Chipley, Florida. Data collected include egg weight, shell thickness, albumen height,
yolk index, Haugh units and blood spots. The data are recorded from a 40 percent ran-
dom sample over two days production for each of the four seasons of the year forth
twenty entries of pullets.
Data from the first observation showed the following ranges, namely egg weight
had a high of 57.5 grams and a low of 52.5 grams, shell thickness with shell membranes
had a high of .385 millimeters to a low of .343 millimeters, the shell thickness with-
out membranes had a high of .356 millimeters to a low of .325 millimeters.
The albumen height ranged from a high of 8.43 millimeters to a low of 6.72 milli-
meters while the Haugh units ranged from a high of 91.7 to a low of 83.2. The relation-
ship of the yolk height and width exhibited a ratio from a high of .48 to a low of .t3.
The percent blood spots ranged from 0.00 percent to 32.46 percent.
In the past few months there has been a preponderance of problems dealing with
egg quality in various sections of Florida. They included (1) off-odors in eggs
due to certain insecticides, (2) mottling of egg yolks, (3) blood spots and (u)
thinning of the albumen. Some of these problems are now being investigated wnile
the others are to be investigated shortly.
EGG QUALITY AND SIZE
Eggs processed through a commercial egg packing plant handling only Florida eggs
1\ for the year 1954 revealed that 54.1 percent of the total eggs handled were classified
as grade "A-Large"; 28.5 percent, "A-Medium"; 10.3 percent, "A-Small"; 1.8 percent
"A-Pee-Wee"; 0.8 percent, "thins & B's"; 3.3 percent, "Crex"; and 1.2 percent, "Spots".
The percentages of large, medium, small and PeeWee eggs varied from week to
week and were influenced by the time of year that pullets came in production. The
smallest percentages of large eggs and the largest of PeeWee eggs made their
appearance during the late sumner months. A higher percentage of "thins" and/or B
eggs were processed during the months of June and July. The percentage of cracks and
spots of 3.3 and 1.2 percent were rather uniform throughout the year.
Considerable variation of quality and size was noted from records of individual
THE BUSINESS OF CULLING
Daily trapnest egg records for 546 S. C. White Leghorn pullets entered in the
27th Florida National Egg Laying Test were studied as they relate to a culling pro-
gram of a 50 percent rate of lay during each 14 days and/or each month allowing va-
riable grace periods. These data were evaluated with generally accepted quantitative
and price figures. This study revealed the facts that (1) the percent rate of culling
is lower today than 25 years ago, (2) it does not appear that a 50 percent rate of
lay in 14 days or each month can be used as the only basis for the removal of birds
from the laying flock, (3) a waiting period of five or six months before culling
starts is indicated from these records.
It is suggested in the development of a culling program that a logical approach
would be (1) an understanding of the use of culling characteristics, (2) removal of
obvious poor layers, (3) culling to beat mortality, and (4) the use of prices of
feed and eggs to determine production necessary to pay feed costs.
SOME FACTORS INFLUENCING COSTS AND RETUThS OF PRODUCING BRDILERS
The cost of feed, feed efficiency, percent mortality and price of meat are some
factors influencing costs and returns. Tables were prepared using the above factors
as variables. These tabulations indicate that a 0.1 pound improvement in feed effi-
ciency, a reduction of 16 cents per 100 pounds of feed, a reduction of 2.5 percent
mortality, or an increase of 1/2 cent per pound in price of meat are of approximately
equal importance in affecting costs and returns.
THE INFLUENCE OF PRODUCTION, MORTALITY, AND PRICES ON POTENTIAL INCOME
Tables have been prepared showing the effect of changing egg prices, egg produc-
tion, and mortality on potential income for a 1000 bird flock. As a point for illus-
tration with egg prices at 48 cents per dozen, egg production of 15 dozen per bird,
bodyweight 4 pounds and price of meat 20 cents a pound, potential income would be in-
creased $300 per 1000 birds with each increase of 2 cents per dozen, and decreased
$80 per 1000 birds with each increase of one percent in mortality. These differences
are greater per 1000 birds when production, prices and mortality are above the average
and conversely so when below the average.
DEPRECIATION COSTS ON LAYERS
Tables have been prepared for a 1000 bird "All-Pullet Flock" showing the influence
of rate of mortality, weight of birds, price of meat, and cost of producing pullets on
the depreciation charge against the laying flock. As an example, a 1000 bird "All-
Pullet" flock averaging four pounds each with meat prices of 20 cents a pound sustained
a loss of $800 in marketable meat for each increase of one percent in mortality. A
change of ten cents in cost of raising a pullet, 21 percent mortality in the laying
flock, three cents a pound in market price of meat, 0.6 pounds in body weight have
about the same effect in influencing the depreciation charge against the flock. These
differences are greater when the cost of raising a pullet, percent mortality, price
of meat, and weight of bird are above the figures cited above and conversely so when
the figures are lower*