Title: Highlights of current research activities
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00095007/00001
 Material Information
Title: Highlights of current research activities
Physical Description: 9 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Driggers, J. Clyde, 1917-
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station. -- Dept. of Poultry Husbandry
Donor: unknown ( endowment ) ( endowment )
Publisher: Department of Poultry Husbandry, Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1957
Copyright Date: 1957
Subject: Poultry -- Research -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Poultry -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "March 7, 1957."
Statement of Responsibility: Department of Poultry Husbandry, Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00095007
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 436872721

Full Text

March 7, 1957

High Protein Pearmt Oil Meal For Broilers
J. Clyde Driggers

Preliminary broiler feeding trials with a Florida produced, high protein (55%)

peanut oil meal replacing soybean oil meal as the primary source of protein have indi-

cated that this product would not produce satisfactory results unless supplemented with

lysine as well as a fermentation solubles concentrate.

Results at 4 weeks of a current trial using a Menhaden fish meal with condensed

fish solubles added (Hi-seas brand) replacing the non-supplemented Menhaden fish meal

in the University of Florida broiler formula are as follows:


1 Control Soybean oil meal 472.62 1.728
Menhaden fish meal

2 Peanut oil meal 378.4 1.791
Menhaden fish meal

3 1/2 Soybean oil meal 451.89 1.731
1/2 Peanut oil meal
Menhaden fish meal

4 Soybean oil meal 482.25 1.685
Hi-seas fish meal

5 Peanut oil meal 430.56 1.698
Hi-seas fish meal

6 1/2 Soybean oil meal 473.0 1.666
1/2 Beanut oil meal
Hi-seas fish meal

These results indicate that one-half of the soybean oil meal might be replaced by

the high protein peanut oil meal with reasonably good results. As yet, no explanation

for these improved results has been forthcoming. It is possible that the lysine avail-
ability from the Hi-seas fish meal is greater than for other fi w the con-

densed solubles added* o
SEP 18 1957

t.,,,^/ 9 A < ^


Little information is available as to the rate of gain during successive weeks

and the amount of feed required to support this gain in growing turkeys. To get more

information along this line so as to advise turkey producers how long they can afford

to keep turkeys before marketing them when using modern feeds,89 Bronze, 59 Beltsville

White and 20 Broad White poults were fed to approximately 28 weeks of age. The results

from this trial indicate that Bronze and Broad Whites should be dressed for market

earlier than an average weight 8 pounds while the Beltsville Whites should be dressed

for market earlier than when they reach 10 pounds in body weight. Pounds of feed

required per pound of gain thereafter preclude the possibilities of profit at current


From 12 to 24 weeks of age one-half of each of the breeds received whole clipped

oats free choice as a source of carbohydrates while the other half received whole corn.

In each instance the oat-fed pens ate more feed than the others and although the birds

were slightly heavier at the conclusion of the trial, the amount of feed per pound of

gain was so much greater than in the corn-fed pens that the feeding of oats at current

price levels is not justified.

These data were of such economic importance that this trial will be repeated*

J. Clyde Driggers

All mash laying rations high in essential nutrients have given a slightly in-

creased egg production on significantly less feed per dozen eggs over the past two

years at this Station. Interior egg quality and particularly thin whites has become

a problem within the State in recent months. Recognizing the possibility that some

of the feeds used in the State are high in certain essential nutrients but not ade-

quate in others and as a result might be influencing this quality, an experiment has

been undertaken recently to use the best of the high efficiency formulas previously

used and measure productivity and egg quality of it in comparison with feeds similB

in every respect except varying levels of methionine and vitamin A. This experiment

involves 10 pens of 50 laying birds each.


Pilot experimental work conducted at the Lake Alfred Station suggested the

possibility that tangeretin, a glucoside from the peel of tangerines, might possess

some feminizing hormonal activity.

To test the possibility with chickens, 15 mgm concentrations of tangeretin

were pelleted with lactose and injected subcutaneously at the base of the comb of

16-week-old White Plymouth Rock cockerels and compared with similar injections of

diethylstilbestrol. Eight cockerels were placed in 6 lots and were treated as follows:

Lot 1 Control (No implant)

Lot 2 15 mgm diethylstilbestrol (1 pellet)

Lot 3 30 (2 pellets)

Lot l 15 tangeretin (1 pellet)

Lot 5 30 n (2 pellets)

Lot 6 45 n (3 pellets)

All birds were kept on the trial for three weeks.

Maximum feminizing effect of the diethylstilbestrol was observed at the end of

three weeks but there was no noticeable affect from the tangeretin.

On the basis of this observation, there appears to be no feminizing hormone in

tangeretin which affects chickens.

Charles F. Eno* and J. Clyde Driggers

Quantitative measurements of poultry manure were taken and, based on wet (fresh)

weight, broilers produce 10.03 pounds or based on dry weight, 2.2975 pounds of

droppings to market weight of three pounds in 9 weeks.

Single Comb White Leghorn hens produce 71.029 pounds of wet droppings or 19.214

pounds of dry droppings per year.

At $5.00 per ton of dry weight, 1000 S. C. White Leghorn hens would produce

approximately $50 worth of manure per year.

* Soils Department


A preliminary study was made on the dressed, eviscerated and prepackaged yields

of 49 Beltsville Whites, 17 Broad Whites and 39 Bronze turkeys which were approximately

50 percent toms and 50 percent hens. These birds were slaughtered with an electric

poultry stunning knife with care being exercised to sever only the carotid artery and

jugular vein. After the scald (1400F.), plucking, and evisceration, the carcasses

were chilled in crushed ice for 24 hours prior to packaging and freezing.

The Broad White toms and hens exhibited greater live weights, dressed yields and

eviscerated yields than did the other two breeds. In all cases the turkey hens had

greater increases over the eviscerated yields than did the respective toms after 24

hours in crushed ice. The Bronze toms and hens exhibited greater increases over

the eviscerated yields than did the other two breeds. The prepackaged yields were

comparable with all breeds.


Recently egg quality work was initiated at the Florida Random Sample Test at

Chipley, Florida. Data collected include egg weight, shell thickness, albumen height,

yolk index, Haugh units and blood spots. The data are recorded from a 40 percent ran-

dom sample over two days production for each of the four seasons of the year forth

twenty entries of pullets.

Data from the first observation showed the following ranges, namely egg weight

had a high of 57.5 grams and a low of 52.5 grams, shell thickness with shell membranes

had a high of .385 millimeters to a low of .343 millimeters, the shell thickness with-

out membranes had a high of .356 millimeters to a low of .325 millimeters.

The albumen height ranged from a high of 8.43 millimeters to a low of 6.72 milli-

meters while the Haugh units ranged from a high of 91.7 to a low of 83.2. The relation-

ship of the yolk height and width exhibited a ratio from a high of .48 to a low of .t3.

The percent blood spots ranged from 0.00 percent to 32.46 percent.


In the past few months there has been a preponderance of problems dealing with

egg quality in various sections of Florida. They included (1) off-odors in eggs

due to certain insecticides, (2) mottling of egg yolks, (3) blood spots and (u)

thinning of the albumen. Some of these problems are now being investigated wnile

the others are to be investigated shortly.


Eggs processed through a commercial egg packing plant handling only Florida eggs

1\ for the year 1954 revealed that 54.1 percent of the total eggs handled were classified

as grade "A-Large"; 28.5 percent, "A-Medium"; 10.3 percent, "A-Small"; 1.8 percent

"A-Pee-Wee"; 0.8 percent, "thins & B's"; 3.3 percent, "Crex"; and 1.2 percent, "Spots".

The percentages of large, medium, small and PeeWee eggs varied from week to

week and were influenced by the time of year that pullets came in production. The

smallest percentages of large eggs and the largest of PeeWee eggs made their

appearance during the late sumner months. A higher percentage of "thins" and/or B

eggs were processed during the months of June and July. The percentage of cracks and

spots of 3.3 and 1.2 percent were rather uniform throughout the year.

Considerable variation of quality and size was noted from records of individual



Daily trapnest egg records for 546 S. C. White Leghorn pullets entered in the

27th Florida National Egg Laying Test were studied as they relate to a culling pro-

gram of a 50 percent rate of lay during each 14 days and/or each month allowing va-

riable grace periods. These data were evaluated with generally accepted quantitative

and price figures. This study revealed the facts that (1) the percent rate of culling

is lower today than 25 years ago, (2) it does not appear that a 50 percent rate of

lay in 14 days or each month can be used as the only basis for the removal of birds

from the laying flock, (3) a waiting period of five or six months before culling

starts is indicated from these records.

It is suggested in the development of a culling program that a logical approach

would be (1) an understanding of the use of culling characteristics, (2) removal of

obvious poor layers, (3) culling to beat mortality, and (4) the use of prices of

feed and eggs to determine production necessary to pay feed costs.


The cost of feed, feed efficiency, percent mortality and price of meat are some

factors influencing costs and returns. Tables were prepared using the above factors

as variables. These tabulations indicate that a 0.1 pound improvement in feed effi-

ciency, a reduction of 16 cents per 100 pounds of feed, a reduction of 2.5 percent

mortality, or an increase of 1/2 cent per pound in price of meat are of approximately

equal importance in affecting costs and returns.


Tables have been prepared showing the effect of changing egg prices, egg produc-

tion, and mortality on potential income for a 1000 bird flock. As a point for illus-

tration with egg prices at 48 cents per dozen, egg production of 15 dozen per bird,

bodyweight 4 pounds and price of meat 20 cents a pound, potential income would be in-

creased $300 per 1000 birds with each increase of 2 cents per dozen, and decreased

$80 per 1000 birds with each increase of one percent in mortality. These differences

are greater per 1000 birds when production, prices and mortality are above the average

and conversely so when below the average.


Tables have been prepared for a 1000 bird "All-Pullet Flock" showing the influence

of rate of mortality, weight of birds, price of meat, and cost of producing pullets on

the depreciation charge against the laying flock. As an example, a 1000 bird "All-

Pullet" flock averaging four pounds each with meat prices of 20 cents a pound sustained

a loss of $800 in marketable meat for each increase of one percent in mortality. A

change of ten cents in cost of raising a pullet, 21 percent mortality in the laying

flock, three cents a pound in market price of meat, 0.6 pounds in body weight have

about the same effect in influencing the depreciation charge against the flock. These

differences are greater when the cost of raising a pullet, percent mortality, price

of meat, and weight of bird are above the figures cited above and conversely so when

the figures are lower*

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