Group Title: Immokalee ARC research report
Title: Disease forecasting report I
Full Citation
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 Material Information
Title: Disease forecasting report I bacterial wilt of tomato
Alternate Title: Immokalee ARC research report ; SF1976
Bacterial wilt of tomato
Physical Description: 2 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Blazquez, Carlos H.
Agricultural Research Center (Immokalee, Fla.)
Donor: unknown ( endowment ) ( endowment )
Publisher: Agricultural Research Center, IFAS, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Immokalee, Fla.
Publication Date: 1976
Copyright Date: 1976
Subject: Tomatoes -- Diseases and pests -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (leaf 2).
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "April, 1976."
Statement of Responsibility: C.H. Blazquez.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00095004
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 436447364

Full Text



Disease Forecasting Report 1
Bacterial Wilt of Tomato

C. H. Blazquez

Tomato plants grown in the tri-county area of Lee, Collier, and Hendry Counties
have consistently been attacked by the bacterium Pseudomonas solanacearum E. F. Smith
during the fall growing seasons of the past ten years.

Tomato plants are most susceptible during the seedling stages up to 6 inches (15 cm)
and while they are young (from 7 to 15 inches [17.5 cm to 37.5 cm]) and brittle. Early
symptoms of the disease could be confused with those of damping-off (caused by other
organisms) but can be distinguished from them by the partially shrunken stem at the margin
of the dark water-soaked lesions The pith near the ground level is dark and slimy, while
the pith bordering the healthy tissue has a desiccated fluffy appearance. Advanced symptoms
observed on stunted survivors are different than the early symptoms. The pith is dis-
tinctly hollow, giving the stem a shrunken outward appearance. The earlier dark discoloration
of the pith changes to light brown from the crown of the plant to the margin of the healthy

* Bacterial wilt of tomato may cause severe damage in wet areas where drainage is poorest
in fields where the soil moisture is kept at a high level. Bacterial wilt also attacks
pepper, potato, eggplant, and tobacco.

Bacterial wilt of tomato has bean observed during the past ten years only during the
fall months of September, Octobtr, and Novenber. Only one report wasre.cived during late

The:Bacte~iAii..has been reported to thrive on weeds such as nightshade and is considered
to be indigenous to native soils.

Weather and disease records during the past ten /ea 6 iatdtithat the disease
rc:ains semi-dormant during the cooler months of theft ear whe&tr e/peratures re-ain
between 54* to 680F. Plants infected and growing during the coo 6 eb., Mar., Apr.)
will not show wilt symptoms while young and growing. As tgfremnperatur'a up and the
plants become nature, their stems harden so that bacterium foe--pot cause a great deal of
damage. Any damage caused is of less importance cflrc the plant' ocesse are primarily
involved in producing fruit, rather than growth. Th&lQt ium temperature anga for rapid
growth of the disease organism is 59* to 85F. /

During the summer when temperatures become quite warn, t phbe;v crops in the field,
so that no wilt is observed.

After the rainy season in June, July, and August, favorable moisture conditions coupled
tth hot temperatures create a favorable environment for wilt development.

As tomato seedlings are placed in the field from mid-August to mid-September, the wilt
will develop in those areas where it has been reported over a period of years.

ease Forecasting
SA scanning of the temperature and rainfall records, as observations of wilt on plants,
suggests that an outbreak of wilt may probably occur this fall (1976) whenever tomato
plants reach a height of 6 to 12 inches (15 cm to 30 cm).

The disease may occur first in the wettest areas of fields in the North Haples areas
(where it has been repeatedly reported previously) with the following coordinates:

Township Range Section Site
48S 25E 27 North end
49S 25E 26 Eastern end
50S 26E 30 Eastern end

The disease nay continue to occur until the first day with temperatures below 58*F in
late October or early November.

Although there is no practical control, repetitive planting or resetting of seedlings
as replacanents for dead plants succeeded on one occasion as the tanperature dropped to
54*F after the plants had been reset. Replacement plants developed normally and gave a
good yield although they were growing in infested soil.


Jones, J. P., G. F. Weber, and D. G. A. Kelbert. 1969. Tonato diseases in Florida.
Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 731:16-18.
2. Plakidas, A. G. 1957. Diseases of sone vegetable and fruit crops and their control.
La. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 357 (Revised):61-62.
3. Rolfs, P. H. 1907. Tomato diseases. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 91:22-24.

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