9lr 9I .I 9 9 9~~ I1 H I
--R7N T' 0F F E -0:
1- EXTENSION MOVES AHEAD
A B C D A Big Change in Dade!! ............................................ 1
Three Hats .................................................................. 3
I. AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
Corn Joins the Tourists in Dade County .......................................... 5
A Story of Two Strawberry Fields ............................................... 7
Salty Lettuce................................................................. 8
Quail Production A New Industry? ............................................ 9
Come Down From the Hills ..................................................... 11
Ill. AGRICULTURAL MARKETING
Tropical Plants Invade the Northland ........................................... 12
Well What Do You Know? About Marketing, That Is! ............................ 13
Pole Bean Marketing Goes Modern .............................................. 14
Microbes and Milk ............................................................ 15
Youth Development .......................................................... 16
V. COMMUNITY AND PUBLIC AFFAIRS
Saving for a Dry Day .......................................................... 18
20-20 Fly Sight ........................ ................. ...................... 21
VI. EXTENSION IN ACTION
Your Soils Laboratory and the Tourist Attractions ................................. 22
VII. STATISTICAL AND PERSONNEL
Organizational Chart and Personnel ............................................. 23
Staff Photo and Agricultural Program Emphasis ...... .. ...................... 24
Every day we see many people arrive in the Dade
area by air, sea and land.
These families, who take up permanent residence
in Dade, come from other counties in Florida and from
all states of the United States. Those who come from
rural areas expect the same helpful information from
the County Agents and Home Demonstration Agents
that was available to them back home.
This same information is even more helpful to those
who come from urban areas. Many have not had, until
now, the opportunity to know what it is to grow plants
and spend so many hours out of doors each day.
Those who have had experience in gardening in
other areas soon realize that changes must be made in
order to meet local conditions of rainfall, humidity, soil
fertility, different plant materials and the insect and
disease pests that must be controlled.
Personnel of the County Agricultural Agent's Office
have been changing their methods to satisfy this ever-
increasing demand for agricultural information.
Since the 20's and 30's we have learned to appreci-
ate a higher standard of living. We are no longer satis-
fied to live and rear our children in a home that does
not have a few well placed trees, shrubs along the
foundation of the house, border hedges to enclose our
gardens, and a well maintained lawn.
In order to maintain these plantings, home owners
soon realize that considerable "know how" as well
as hard work is essential in order to reach this goal.
Many home gardeners must be familiar with the same
materials that the farmer uses to produce and harvest
his crops. Both must know the value of fertilizers, in-
secticides, plant materials and how to grow these
While there are many sources of basic gardening
information, there are thousands of Dade residents who
rely directly upon our Extension office for help with
These requests for information come to us mainly
by phone calls and letters. The questions usually can
be placed in one of the four following categories:
1. Plant identification
a. "Please identify and describe the growth habits
of the enclosed leaf, branch or fruit specimens."
b. "Can the plant be obtained at a local nursery
and what are its cultural requirements?"
2. Insect and disease identification
a. "What are the enclosed insects and how can I
effectively protect my plants or household be-
longings from them?"
b. "What are the best materials to use and how are
these to be applied?"
3. Cultural requirements
a. How to plant? When to water? When to prune,
fertilize, harvest, etc? How to propagate? Plant
in sun or shade?
4. Landscape use
a. What varieties of landscape plants do best in the
Miami area shade and fruit trees, shrubs, etc?
b. "How can I use these plants to develop my home
grounds in the most effective manner?"
Many methods are used to bring this needed infor-
mation to the people of Dade County. Problems that
can not be solved by giving information over the phone
or by mailing printed materials are handled, as in the
past, by home visits.
News letters reach commodity groups such as nurs-
erymen, fruit growers, vegetable growers, poultrymen,
dairymen and home owners receive indirect informa-
tion through their nurserymen and garden center deal-
ers. The latest agricultural information comes from
specialists of the State Extension staff and Experiment
Station as well as the current information that is pre-
pared and presented by members of our county Exten-
Through garden club meetings and special schools
and training meetings, needed information is reaching
Because gardening tips are needed by ever increas-
ing numbers, the trend is to get this information to large
groups by means of the mass media facilities that are
available to us.
In Dade County daily and weekly radio programs are
presented that deal with all phases of agriculture.
Many thousands also are reached through the sched-
uled television programs that emphasize home garden-
ing, with emphasis on proper care of the tropical orna-
mentals and fruit trees of the area.
It is very satisfying when we are told by so many
that they use and appreciate the many aids that come
to them through the efforts of the Dade County Agents.
John D. Campbell
There is a story told of a farmer who, working a-
long with a hired hand and a team of mules in a corn
field, decided that he was not getting ahead. He told
the field hand to keep cultivating with the team and
he sat down in the shade of a big oak and began think-
ing and planning. That was the turning point. He was
on his way to becoming a successful farmer, a manager
and a business executive- and the man with three hats.
Mr. Farmer, today, is not the man of a few years ago
who laboriously till e d the soil to provide food and
other necessities of life for his family. A successful
farmer today must be familiar with the many principles
and methods of production, but even more important,
he must be able to manage efficiently a large and com-
Good management is an essential part of any farm-
ing operation. Farmers must properly combine the fac-
tors of production soil, capital, seed, fertilizer,
labor, pesticides, etc. to produce. The product must
then be harvested, prepared for market, shipped and
sold. It must return a profit as in any other successful
The farmer thus finds himself in one of the most
complex businesses known today.
=7v, 1 M_ ------ -----
Communications important to business operations of Dade
County growers whose fields are frequently miles apart.
In Dade County many farmers operate from a modern,
well equipped office. They supervise field operations
from a pickup truck or station wagon using a two-way
radio or telephone. They usually have several key em-
ployees well trained in handling technical problems.
Yet, and most important, the progressive farmer is
continually learning. He must keep. up with changes
and technical developments in the wide area of his
operations. Some of these advances are about as ex-
traordinary as space travel and recent electronic
The U. S. Department of Agriculture, the Land Grant
College System, the Florida Agricultural Experiment
Stations and the Florida Agricultural Extension Service
are the cooperating agencies that have developed many
of the technical advances and encouraged their adop-
The Dade County Agricultural Agent's Office, as
a part of this team and by cooperating with other coun-
ty, state and federal agencies and private business
firms, has been instrumental in helping Dade County
farmers wear three hats.
,' *'*s- 'II
Nolan L. Durre
Production of hybrid seed corn is big business in
Dade County. Very few people realize that Dade County
is of major importance to Iowa, Illinois, New York, and
the other 47 states, when they talk about the corn vari-
eties that are producing more bushels of grain per acre
of cultivated corn.
A small army of researchers from universities and
commercial seed companies come to Homestead every
winter and work, rather than play, in the sun. Our warm
winters permit these people to plant a crop of corn at
a time when their northern test plots are under a blan-
ket of snow. The seeds are usually planted for breed-
ing purposes and are selected because they have
promise of producing a larger ear of corn, more ears
per stalk or better quality of grain.
Sweet corn varieties are also developed and im-
proved in these research nurseries. Tenderness of the
kernels, sweetness, husk cover of the ears, color of the
husk, placement of the ear on the stalk and adapta-
bility to mechanical harvesting are the things looked
for and emphasized in sweet corn breeding.
A newly planted corn nursery. Stakes mark the different rows
of breeding stock.
Seed corn nursery. Bags have been placed over ears of corn
seed that has been hand pollinated in a breeding program for
hybrid seed production. This nursery is near Goulds, Florida.
The area of the seed corn nurseries is small, in
comparison to other crops produced, but the money in-
volved is rather astonishing. The workers in the field
are outstanding Ph. D.'s and others experienced in
plant breeding. It has been said that every bushel of
corn released to the growers for volume production of
seed is worth over $200.
This represents money invested in transportation,
culture, salary for the researchers and other costs that
can be assessed for each bushel of seed produced. The
seed is of such value that it is guarded in transit by
the researchers. Each lot has a number assigned and
if this is lost, or the lots are mixed, the seed is de-
stroyed. Some of the seed is even moved by planes so
that time is not lost between one harvest and the next
The army of corn breeders are accustomed to cul-
tural practices for other areas of the United States and
are aware that, not only does Dade County have a dif-
ferent winter climate than their home states, but it also
has different soil conditions. They realize e that in
order to produce the best seed, they must follow the
recommended practices of this area.
The County Agent's staff provides guidance on the
fertilizers to use and the insect and disease control
programs that are adapted to this area. Some of the corn
breeders have been coming to this area for several
years but still find it advisable to consult the Assist-
ant County Agent for soils and the Assistant County
Agent for vegetables when cold ground, hot humid
weather, or some other change of environment affects
their crop. The corn breeders believe in the oft-used
expression "see your County Agent" when any cul-
tural problems arise with which they are not familiar.
Insect and disease resistance of the varieties are
studied. Resistance is ever increasing in importance.
Some of the newer varieties have this characteristic
built-in as a sales feature.
Growth habits are included in the studies. Is it tall?
Is it short? Is it stocky? Is it slender? Will wind blow
the stalk over? Will a man have to stoop to pick the
ears? Is the ear too large for a mechanical picker? Is
there too much husk to discourage birds from eating the
kernels? All of these questions are asked by the re-
searcher as he studies and evaluates each lot of corn.
We can truthfully say that of the many varieties of
field and sweet corn produced in North America, a
vast majority spent the winter in Dade County with the
Total United States production of vegetables for
1959 was $1,272,843,605 on-farm value. $533,217,147
or over 40 percent of the total value was contributed
by Irish and sweet potatoes.
This field shows consistency of stand and uniformity of
growth and high yield. Two to two and one-half times as
many berries were picked from this field compared to the
Attractive strawberries from a well managed field being sold
to a tourist.
A STORY OF
TWO STRAWBERRY FIELDS
J. D. Dalton
The story of early soil preparation of all strawberry
fields is essentially the same. However, as the growers
add fertilizers, set out transplants, irrigate and cul-
tivate, the lives of the plants thereon differ greatly.
This story tells of two strawberry fields that were
fertilized differently last season.
Mr. Frank Hallada took advantage of the soil test-
ing laboratory at the County Agricultural Agent's of-
fice. He added fertilizer nutrients to the strawberry
plants as the soil tests indicated they were needed.
As a result of this and other good management prac-
tices, Mr. Hallada obtained a good stand of healthy
plants which were highly productive.
Another grower neglected to have soil tests made.
He, therefore, did not know that there remained a high
amount of residual fertilizer in his fields. The normal
rate of fertilizer application resulted in excessive
fertilizer salts in the soil. This resulted in death of
a great number of plants, poor growth, and delayed
fruiting in the rest.
The story of the latter strawberry field could have
been like that of Mr. Hallada's if the grower had a-
vailed himself of the soil testing service provided by
the County Agricultural Agent's office.
Excessive residual and applied fertilizer salts resulted in
poor initial stand and uneven subsequent growth; thus rela-
tively low yield.
This field was abandoned even after the plastic was put down
because of poor stand and unsatisfactory growth. Soil tests
could have been used to prevent this situation.
J. D. Dalton
Lettuce with salt is a good combination on the
family table. However, it is an undesirable combination
in the field.
Recently a grower complained that very few of his
planted lettuce seed were germinating, even though the
seed was highly viable. This call was of great con-
cern to our office because the grower had spent his
time, seed and money to plant his crop. His report of
less than five percent germination was not a bright
That day the grower's lettuce field was visited.
The crop history was discussed with the grower, as
well as his management practices. Since visual obser-
vations were not conclusive, several soil samples were
were taken in the lettuce field as well as adjoining
In order to point out the suspected trouble, the soil
samples were taken in a somewhat unusual manner. A
soil profile sample was taken. The first sample was
taken off the surface or crust layer to a depth of ap-
proximately one-fourth inch. The next sample was taken
directly beneath the first and to a depth of three inches.
The third sample was taken directly beneath the second
and to a depth of six inches from the surface.
The results of the chemical analyses showed that
the soluble salts and chloride contents of the soil
varied from top to bottom. Of prime importance was the
fact that the greatest concentration was near the sur-
face where the lettuce seed were normally planted.
This concentration was too great to allow the seed to
The grower was advised to plow the field so that
the portion on the lower level would be turned to the
top. After following this ad vi c e and seeding within
twenty-four hours thereafter, Mr. Wilbur Vick was able
to get a satisfactory stand and to ship quality vege-
tables from his fields last winter.
This is another of the many problems encountered
and solved by your County Agent's office personnel.
This lettuce field has been left to weeds because of the lack
of sufficient germination. This was due to high salts. Note
only two lettuce plants compared to the many healthy weeds.
A lettuce field free of high salts; thus,a good stand of plants
and high yield.
.. .. .
QUAIL PRODUCTION A NEW INDUSTRY?
Roy I. Champagne
How can agriculture provide recreation for urban
Quail production for wildlife preserves is the
answer, says Mr. Ivey L. Jones of 14301 N.W. 13
Ten thousand quail were produced in 1962 by Mr.
Jones, a banana salesman, and Mr. Louis Spaeth, N.W.
135 Street, Opa Locka, a retired dairyman.
The production of quail by Mr. Jones was started
three years ago when he bought 16 pairs for breeder
stock. During the second year he acquired a modern
self-turning incubator and increased his flock to 300
pairs. This year he contacted Mr. and Mrs. Spaeth, who
agreed to care for the breeders and the young stock
The management of the birds and hatchery proved
so successful that they were almost over-run with tiny
Every nine days over 1,000 quail were produced un-
til over 18,000 were hatched. Some were then sold, and
2,000 young ones died from chronic respiratory disease
leaving about 10,000 at this date.
The breeders were kept in pairs in a converted
dairy milking parlor and were fed bananas as well as
grain. Clean, airy surroundings combined with ex-
cellent care by the Spaeths, contributed to very good
Since the main cost of producing the quail is feed,
Mr. Jones decided to use bananas that were not fit for
sale. He peeled and fed them directly to the birds.
This Spring the County Agent's office assisted the
venture by helping Mr. Spaeth with production difficul-
ties. The poultry diagnostic laboratory was also con-
tacted for help in diagnosing the death of the young
This agent is attempting to assist the producer in
developing a market for his birds. Stimulation of in-
terest for hunting preserves was observed this year
in South Dade when fields were seeded to millet for
dove hunting preserves.
This interest might be extended to include similar
preserves for quail.
If urban hunters do develop interest for quail pre-
serves, Mr. and Mrs. Jones, Mr. and Mrs. Spaeth, and
local farmers could become welcome partners in the
outdoor recreation business.
Mr. Ivey L. Jones inspects a quail.
Good care and management pays off
in healthy quail .
Part of the 10,000 quail enclosed
in a wire pen at the Spaeth farm.
Wood shavings were used for litter for the quail .
The 300 quail breeders were cared for by Mr. Louis Spaeth
In a converted milking parlor near Opa Locka.
Regular poultry waterers and feeders were used in enclosed
houses covered with palmetto fronds.
The quail were fed bananas and grain and thrived very well
on this feed. Mr. Jones used waste bananas to help save
"Farm a flat field and you will eliminate a lot of
your problems." This statement has been made many
times throughout the world by agricultural engineers
and farmers alike. Here in Dade County many people
think we have such a condition naturally.
The A.S.C.S. L1 and the County Agent's staff were
so sure that the land in our fields should be leveled
further, that cooperatively a demonstration of land lev-
eling and preparation was carried out on one of the
potato farms of the East Glade area. The farmers who
attended the demonstration were convinced of the merit
in land leveling. They all indicated that they plan to
prepare their land in a similar manner to that demon-
Shallow ditch through a field that has been leveled. A wide,
shallow ditch will give rapid runoff when heavy rains occur.
Shallow ditches are easily crossed by equipment and still
drain the field rapidly.
Potato harvest in a level field. Note the uniform pattern of
bagged potatoes. This is characteristic of fields without
dips or low spots in the field.
Farsouth Growers Cooperative Association furnish-
ed the land used for the demonstration. They were con-
vinced that land leveling would improve their fields
and that they would get a greater return from level
acres planted to potatoes.
W. W. Bethea of Farsouth Growers Cooperative,
took the advice of the County Agent. He leveled the
field and prepared shallow ditches that carry the ex-
cess water away from his field. Field roads along the
ditches give him access to all parts of the field at any
August Burrichter, one of the farmers attending the
demonstration, is "sold" on land leveling. He has done
considerable land filling and leveling on his farm. In
a discussion one day, he stated that it is his belief
that a depression of one inch or more can determine
whether a crop will make a profit or loss. August went
away from the demonstration with additional ideas and
information that he is putting into practice on some
"new land" that he recently included in his farming
The Extension Service through the County Agent
encourages farmers to carry out practices to control ex-
cess water. Leveling land, improving ditches and dig-
ging new ditches where needed will benefit the farm by
greater productivity from the same acreage.
The A.S.C.S. /L1 also encourages these practices
and has a program of cost sharing to help defray the
expense of carrying out this work. The A.C.P. L2 is
not a give-away program, but rather it is based on the
government cost-share to farmers who help themselves.
We might say it is a boost to the farmer who would like
to improve his farm but can't afford to do as much im-
provement as he knows that he needs.
L1 Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Ser-
12 Agricultural Conservation Program (of A.S.C.S.)
INVADE THE NORTHLAND
Louis I. Daigle
Soon after World War II a young man with his family
came to Dade County to establish a tropical division
of Vosters Nurseries and Greenhouses. Jim Vosters,
along with more than a dozen growers of foliage plants,
had one thing in mind -.how to supply the growing de-
mand for tropical house plants.
With years of experience with his father in green-
house culture in Pennsylvania specializing in azaleas,
with a degree in botany from Penn State University
under his arm, a large amount of determination under
his cap, and a level business head, he could proceed
in only one direction forward.
Jim knew that cultural conditions in South Florida
would be different. He didn't know how different or
how to make adjustments from growing azaleas under
glass to growing nephthytis, philodendron, palms, cala-
mondins, pineapples and ficus either under Saran shade
or in the open field in South Florida.
During the decade from 1950 to 1960, Vosters Nur-
sery developed into a major foliage operation in South
Florida. Jim was able to recognize and solve the many
problems, one at a time.
It has been known for many years that a miniature
fruiting tree that could be grown indoors would be im-
mediately popular with housewives everywhere. The
calamondin, a dwarf citrus fruit, was rated ideal if it
could be produced in quantity.
Some nurserymen in Florida tried to produce cala-
mondins from seeds or by grafting onto severenia root-
stock, but seedlings did not bear fruit for years and
grafting was a time-consuming method.
Jim was determined to develop a procedure to mass-
produce this miniature fruiting tree.
He developed the misting or fogging method of prop-
agation which turns out small trees by the thousands.
The development of optimum soil conditions along
with other factors still remained unsolved. Jim left no
stone unturned in his attempt to catapult this promis-
ing plant into mass production. He asked the local
County Agents for assistance. Bill Llewellyn and Sey-
mour Goldweber worked with him for many months.
After many trials and numerous soil tests, the kinks
were slowly worked out and Jim soon produced hun-
dreds of thousands of miniature fruiting trees. These
plants are sold in 6-inch plastic pots and have from
20 to 40 fruit per plant. Mr. Norman Roff, General Man-
ager of Vosters Nurseries, counted 115 fruit on one
Jim reports that the life blood of his operations is
the introduction of new plants. In 1952 he introduced
the very popular Ficus decora; then came the Green
Gold Nephthytis, followed by the calamondin. Very re-
cently Jim has released his latest a dwarf fruiting
Loading Ficus decora air layers.
Reduces many hours of hard labor.
Dwarf fruiting pineapple.
New champion at Vosters.
He has a playful twinkle in his eye when he speaks
of this one. It was developed through his own efforts,
and to this date he is the only one who knows how to
fruit this fine plant in a size suitable for house plant
Recently Jim made a trip to the Orient searching
for the plant that will next ride the crest of popularity
as the pineapple is now doing. He came back with seven
plants, among them a dwarf apple tree which shows
With Jim all is not "peaches and cream", or should
we say "pineapples and cream"? The big problem pre-
sents itself again: How to develop the system that will
enable him to produce in large volume a new and ex-
An important step forward was to mechanize his
production process. (Illustration shows how he
has accomplished this).
This year, many soil samples from Vosters Nurser-
ies have been processed in the Homestead laboratory.
The Extension Service in Dade County assists Jim
(and all nurserymen) with problems pertaining to prop-
agating, soils, fertility, etc. Most of the Agricultural
Agents in Dade have worked with Jim in one capacity
or another. We wish him all success and are proud to
share with him in his tropical venture in South Florida.
WELL WHAT DO YOU KNOW?
ABOUT MARKETING, THAT IS!
Aaron A. Hutcheson
Local vegetable growers want to know more about
marketing. This was evidenced by their attendance at
a Vegetable Marketing School last spring.
The school, at the request of growers, was con-
ducted by the County Agent's office. Speakers, rated
tops in Florida, were from the University of Florida
Agricultural Economics Department, the Florida Agri-
cultural Extension Service, and the Florida State De-
partment of Agriculture.
Subjects discussed ranged from the Historical De-
velopment of Marketing to Expected Changes in Vege-
table Marketing in the years ahead. The first meeting
was held March 8 and continued one night per week for
eight weeks. A looseleaf note book containing mimeo-
graphed material on each e s s on was distributed to
everyone attending the school.
Growers and handlers from nearly all commodity
groups tomatoes, pole beans, strawberries, squash,
leafy vegetables, etc. plus representatives of the avo-
cado and lime industries, attended the meetings.
Dr. H. G. Hamilton, Head of Agricultural Economics at the
University of Florida, discussing "Todayk Marketing Pro-
Typical of topics discussed, and perhaps the most
meaningful, was TODAY'S MARKETING PROCESS,
by Dr. H. G. Hamilton, Head, Department of Agricul-
tural Economics, University of Florida. A summary of
Dr. Hamilton's talk follows:
The Position of the Consumer She is a relatively
wealthy person, demanding excellent shopping condi-
tions, built-in maid services, a wide and continuous
choice of products, and prices competitive with other
stores. She buys more and more on the basis of brands,
because of their uniform, high-quality contents.
The Position of Chain Stores They handle about
84 percent of all retail food sales, and cater to the de-
mands of the consumer. Because of this they make de-
mands upon the marketing channels which supply them
with their products. These demands include a uniform
product for brand sales, a high quality product to satis-
fy the consumer's purchasing power, a large and con-
tinuous supply to stock all their stores regularly, and
satisfactory delivery to meet their exacting schedules.
The Position of the Farmer Farmers are excep-
tionally efficient in production, more than any other
industry. Today's farmers produce food for themselves
and 27 others. They are achieving this efficiency with
ever-decreasing manpower and with larger and more
specialized farms. Competition is keen. Not only is
there competition among products and between produc-
tion areas, but every product has competition between
What can be done? Through cooperative efforts
growers can concentrate a large supply to attract buy-
ers; small farmers can achieve a uniform quality prod-
uct by packing at a central location; sales can be
limited to high-quality products; and most important
of all growers can develop an organized supply.
(End of summary)
Such recent marketing efforts as the Everglades
Sweet Corn Exchange and the South Florida Vegetable
Exchange (for pole bean marketing) reflect the fact that
growers' knowledge of marketing is increasing. The
Vegetable Marketing School was a successful step
toward this end.
POLE BEAN MARKETING
Aaron A. Hutcheson
Pole bean growers in Dade County have progressed
to "modern marketing" by organizing the South Florida
Vegetable Exchange. The Exchange, a voluntary co-
operative marketing effort by a big majority of local
pole bean growers, is designed to stabilize the market
and improve grower returns.
Initial interest in cooperative marketing of local
pole beans was stimulated by Eric Schmidt, one of the
younger growers here. He attended the Vegetable
Marketing School L1 last Spring, and became convinced
that the present marketing system could be improved.
Eric discussed his ideas, and what he had learned from
the school, with other growers. With their approval, he
requested the County Agent's office to arrange a meet-
ing to study the situation.
Marketing specialists from the Florida Agricultural
Extension Service, the Florida State Department of
Agriculture and the Florida Fruit and Vegetable Asso-
ciation were contacted. At the first meeting of growers
and marketing specialists in May, the status of the pole
bean industry was discussed.
Approximately 40 growers produced roughly
2,000,000 bushels from about 8,000 acres in the 1961-
62 season. The four handlers who marketed the vast
majority of this production had no direct market com-
petition from other areas. It was agreed that the nature
of local pole bean production and marketing constituted
favorable conditions for a cooperative marketing effort.
Eric Schmidt seated second from left signing exchange
papers with other growers.
Growers attending the initial meeting elected an
Incorporating Board of Directors. This Board worked
with marketing specialists in preparing incorporating
papers necessary to formally organize the Exchange.
After the Articles of Incorporation were registered in
Tallahassee the real work began. By-laws, grower con-
tracts and handler contracts had to be prepared. The
Incorporating Board and marketing specialist met many
times to accomplish this. At each meeting, new ideas,
procedures and problems developed but each was
resolved. Everyone realized that the success of the
Exchange depended upon honest, conscientious and
competent organizational efforts by all involved. Grow-
ers and handlers were constantly kept informed of prog-
ress made and often called upon for suggestions.
At a meeting on the evening of October 8, the In-
corporating Board of Directors finally presented their
proposed South Florida Vegetable Exchange to 25 pole
bean growers and four handlers present. The discussion
period was brief. An invitation to membership in the
Exchange was issued by the Board of Directors. One
hundred percent of growers and handlers present joined
the Exchange. Since then others have joined. As a re-
sult, more than 90 percent of all pole beans grown in
Dade County in 1962-63 will be marketed through the
Growers realize that the South Florida Vegetable
Exchange may not solve all their problems. It is a new,
modern approach; an example of "the modern marketing
process", and Dade County pole bean marketing is go-
L 1 See Article "Well What Do You Know? About
Marketing, That Is!"
Participation with enthusiasm in one of the highlights of the
school tasting samples of milk that had been prepared for
off-flavors and odors.
MICROBES AND MILK
Good, clean, wholesome MILK! Do you ever really
stop to think about our most nearly perfect food? Or,
are you one of those who take for granted the careful
handling and processing of the fluid milk that comes
to your door? What happens to the raw milk after it
leaves the cow?
It is fascinating to trace the flow of milk from the
milking machine to the refrigerated cooling tank, to the
insulated tank truck, and then to the dairy plant.
At the plant it is transferred to large holding tanks
that are refrigerated to prevent the growth of undesir-
able bacteria. Samples of the milk are tested for odor
and flavor and cleanliness. A highly trained laboratory
technician makes tests for the amounts of butterfat and
solids non-fat and also does cultures for bacteria
Next, the milk is piped to a clarifier, a centrifugal
machine that removes any foreign matter that might be
present. This machine also has a filter designed to re-
move sediment. The milk then is pasteurized to kill any
disease-producing bacteria. It may be homogenized be-
fore pasteurization. Homogenization is the process by
which the butterfat globules and milk solids are finely
dispersed by a high pressure machine, eliminating the
The sterilized milk is bottled or put into disposable
cartons without ever having been exposed to contamina-
tion by air or touched by human hands and is ready for
delivery to your doorstep or your favorite grocery.
The dairy plants of Dade County, in cooperation
with your Agricultural Extension Service, and allied
dairy industries, sponsored a school for dairy plant
personnel last spring. The school, held May 15-16,
and May 22-23, 1962, was for the purpose of discussing
major problems and solutions in dairy manufacturing
processes. A program committee and the County Agent's
office, working with Howard Young, assistant Exten-
sion dairyman, University of Florida, scheduled a group
of speakers from the dairy industry and the University.
The speakers presented excellent information on:
1. Dairy products
3. Off-flavors in milk
4. Identifying off-flavors from prepared samples
5. Radioactive fallout
6. Processing milk, including receiving, clarifying,
pasteurizing and bottling
7. Personal appearance, good housekeeping and
cleaning and sanitizing of dairy plant equipment
8. Care of bottling machines
The program committee included: Messrs. George
Tworoger, John Evans, D. A. Hatcher, Gene Medlin,
Herb Dunlap and George Scott.
Plant personnel from all levels attended on their
own time. The average attendance for the four nights
was 148 persons. Response to the school was very
good, and the participants requested a similar program
The movement of fresh milk from dairy farm to con-
sumer is an exacting process. It calls for skilled help
and trained workers to assure a nutritious and health-
ful product. The dairy school was just one more exam-
ple of continuous efforts for improvement in another
agricultural industry that is very important to Dade
Dr. L. E. Mull, Dairy Technologist with the University of
Florida, Agricultural Experiment Station, discussed "Off-
flavors and Odors of Milk Their Causes, Prevention or
A sample view of the variety
of activities of Boy's 4-H Clubs
The West Flagler 4-H Club-a typical community club. These
members have projects in poultry, dairy, ornamentals, home
beautification and gardening.
Bruce Roberts is very proud of his registered Holstein dairy
heifer. He is in his third year of 4-H Club work and also
raises chickens for show and for layers.
Mickey Macomber examines one of the dozens of plants he
grew and used in a home beautification project.
Sunset Express 4-H members made and assembled an exhibit
layout that was used at the Youth Fair and in a South Miami
store windowduring National 4-H Club Week.
The Dade County 4-H Egg Judging Team being presented the
Florida Egg Commission trophy by Mr. Frank See, poultryman,
and Egg Commissioner. From left to right: Mike Umble, Hank
Christen, Frank Willis, John Hunter, Frank See.
Delegates to the annual Boy's 4-H Short Course, at the Uni-
versity of Florida, admiring their certificates of recognition.
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Graham's Dairy, Pensuco
October 20, 1947
SAVING FOR A DRY DAY
John D. Campbell
Fifteen years ago (1947) South Florida experienced
disastrous flooding. Dade County losses were tremen-
dous in both agricultural and urban areas. In the great-
er Miami area, 298 square miles were inundated. Depths
of flooding to four feet were experienced in a large
portion of this area.
It was several months before flood waters com-
pletely subsided. Damage ran to $9,618,000. Addi-
tional damages suffered in the Perrine, South Dade
and other areas pushed the county total well over $10
million. North of Dade County millions of acres were
also flooded, as far north as Orlando and Cape Ca-
naveral. Total damage was $60 million in central and
Agricultural interests guided by County Agent
Charles H. Steffani (now retired) appealed for state and
federal assistance in overcoming their staggering
losses. They also joined with other county and state
agencies in requesting flood control measures to pre-
vent the recurrence of such a catastrophe.
Agricultural losses and property damages were tre-
mendous. Flood waters continued to rise in Dade Coun-
ty, even into the second week, as overflowing water
moved southward from the Lake Okeechobee area. Crop
and livestock losses were estimated and photographs
were taken to further illustrate reports that were made.
Production data and values were assembled and re-
Temporary disaster relief was granted by the state
and federal governments. Still more important, steps
were taken to develop a comprehensive flood control
project. This project was to prevent the recurrence of
severe floods and to conserve the water resources of
the central and southern Florida areas.
The District Engineer of the Jacksonville District
Corps of Engineers, after public hearings, submitted
a report to a higher federal authority on December 19,
1947. It recommended a comprehensive program in the
interest of "flood control drainage and related pur-
poses". The governor of Florida approved the plan for
the state in February, 1948 and congressional approval
followed on June 30, 1948 as a part of the Flood Con-
Poultry Form Hialeah police and fire
Tamiami Trail at 707th Ave. station
FLOOD SCENES, OCTOBER 1947
Flooded dairy farm
iew site of Carol City)
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The Central and Southern Florida Flood Control
District was created in 1949 by the Florida Legislature,
and the first construction was started in 1950 by the
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Project works in Dade
County developed slowly with increased activities in
the late '50's. When floods came again in 1957 and
1960 the effectiveness of primary works was demon-
strated where they were completed in the North Dade
and South Miami areas.
In 1959 no work was completed in the South Dade
areas. Water was moving down from the Lake Okeecho-
bee (Everglades farming) area into Conservation Area
III in Northwest Dade. The incomplete Conservation
Area III was inadequately diked and the flood waters
moved southward. Flooding was extensive and pro-
longed in the South Dade areas.
The situation was unbearable for many Dade Coun-
ty farmers and other residents. Surveys were made by
the County Agent's office to determine the extent of
agricultural losses and other effects from the severe
flooding. Records of agricultural production and values
that had been prepared and released annually proved
very useful at this time.
The Flood Control District, supported by the Water
Resources Control Council of the Miami-Dade Chamber
of Commerce, responded to the situation. The Dade
County Commission gave its full support. Plans were
made to request special appropriations for controlling
the water in Conservation Area III. The FCD, the
Council, the County Commission Chairman, County
Water Control Engineer and the County Agent testified
April 12 and 13, 1960, before House and Senate Appro-
priations Committees of the 86th United States Con-
gress. They were successful in obtaining approval for
the five million dollar project which, for the most part,
was completed early this year.
Salinity control structure
Construction of Levee 67-A
The County Agent's office has furnished production
information and salt intrusion data for public hearings,
and the County Agent has presented testimony to indi-
cate water control needs in the Cutler Drain, South
Dade and Southwest Dade county areas.
Congressional authorization was received for the
South Dade and Cutler Drain projects in October of
1962. Costs of building the new programs are estimated
at $4,195,000 for the Cutler Drain area and $20,464,000
for South Dade water control.
Today in those areas where primary canals, with
their salinity and their water level control structures,
are located the prospect looks very good for effective
water control. Overdrainage must at all times be avoid-
As additional facilities which are authorized are
completed, flooding and severe drought should become
less of a problem. It is estimated by the Flood Con-
trol District that the South Dade and Cutler Drain pro-
grams will prevent $2,230,000 in flood damages per
year on the average. South Dade works should return
$3.60 in benefits for every dollar now invested in the
program. These benefits will include land enhancement
as well as flood prevention. Cutler Drain works should
return $5.80 in such benefits for every dollar spent to
build works in that area.
An advisory committee, organized this year, works
with the County Agent in making water control recom-
mendations for the South Dade County area to the Flood
Control District and County Water Control Engineer.
Long range planning and cooperation between many
county, state and federal agencies are beginning to
show results. Water is being controlled, conserved
and saved for a dry day.
20-20 FLY SIGHT
The ominous news that Mediterranean Fruit Flies
had been found in Dade County on June 8, 1962 shook
the entire fruit and vegetable industry of the state.
This was the third time in the history of Florida that
this had occurred. This infestation, in spite of wild
rumors which spread through this areawas reported by
the Florida State Department of Agriculture, Division
of Plant Industry to be relatively light.
When the Medfly first appeared here in 1929 its dis-
covery came after a widespread infestation had been
established. The infestation of 1956 also was widely
established in peninsular Florida before the first Med-
fly was reported. The first infestation resulted in ex-
tensive and rather extreme methods for control of this
insect. The 1956 infestation and its relatively short
campaign evidenced the effect of continuing research
over the years between 1929 and 1956. Continued re-
search since 1956 has resulted in highly efficient
means for discovering an infestation before the Medfly
can be come so widespread as to threaten the entire
fruit and vegetable industry of the state.
The research program, which continues in line with
its many accomplishments, resulted in the use of the
Steiner trap for early detection of adult Medflies. It is
a simple cylindrical plastic container with a Medfly
attractant bait sponge and a dry insecticide in the bot-
At the height of the Medfly campaign in 1956 some
4,000 traps were located on host fruit trees to deter-
mine the level of infestation in Dade County. Control
measures were carried out by aerial bait spraying and
by spraying from the ground in certain areas as well as
using ground applications of granular dieldrin insecti-
cides to control larvae. Inspection and fumigation of
certain fruits was also necessary for movement out of
After the Medfly was eliminated at that time, trap-
ping was reduced, but despite protests on the con-
tinued cost of maintaining a system of traps, some 800
traps were kept in operation. This program, carried out
Sat relatively minor cost when compared to expenses for
S control measures after an infestation becomes estab-
lished, resulted in finding the first fruit fly in Dade
County almost as soon as the flies migrated from their
original point of the 1962 infestation. With only the
800 traps mentioned, a major infestation, which could
have spread through peninsular Florida as it did be-
fore, was prevented by constant vigilance.
In addition to the constant surveillance of traps
and inspections at ports of entry in Florida, the USDA
Plant Pest Control Division and the Florida State De-
partment of Agriculture, Division of Plant Industry had
formulated plans to move against the Medfly at any
time that an infestation was discovered.
Therefore, when on June 8, 1962, the first Mediter-
ranean Fruit Fly was identified here, a small army of
inspectors from the Division of Plant Industry, Florida
State Department of Agriculture were rushed into Dade
County from other counties throughout peninsular Flor-
ida. Specialists for the Division of Plant Industry,
Gainesville, also moved into our area. The USDA Plant
Pest Control Division brought in experts and key work-
ers from all over the southeastern region of the United
States. Dr. L. F. Steiner, Investigations Chief from the
Hawaiian Laboratory of Fruit Fly Investigations, also
arrived to assist in trapping and control measures.
A regulated zone within a quarantine area was es-
tablished immediately. The Medfly campaign was car-
ried out successfully through a cooperative effort by
the below listed agencies and associations with the
help of the local county and municipal authorities.
Florida State Department of Agriculture
Federal-State Inspection Service
Florida Game & Fresh Water Fish Comm.
Tropical Fish Association
Florida Nurserymen & Growers Association
Federal Aviation Agency
Agricultural Stabilization & Conservation Office
USDA Plant Quarantine Division
Turnpike Authority of Florida
University of Florida Experiment Station
Tropical Entomology Society
Florida Agricultural Extension Service
To facilitate and cooperate in the Medfly control
campaign, the County Agent's office in Dade County
assisted in printing and disseminating regulations es-
tablished by the regulatory section of the Division of
Plant Industry and the USDA Plant Pest Control Divi-
sion. In addition, Dade County fruit growers and han-
dlers assisted in the control program by observing the
Since the Medfly appeared at the beginning
of the mango season (the mango is a preferred host for
the Medfly) it was imperative that mango producers and
handlers exercise extreme caution in moving this fruit
in or out of quarantined and regulated areas.
Foresight was the key to the short and successful
campaign of 1962. In dollars and cents the 1962 Med-
fly infestation was controlled at an estimated cost of
one million dollars in State and Federal funds compared
to the eleven million dollars expended in 1956-57.
The campaign against the infestation of 1962 was
successfully concluded in Dade County with the lifting
of the quarantine on the 23rd of October. This was the
result of the combined efforts of the above mentioned
agencies with the cooperation of the citizens of Dade
County. In retrospect, experience and continuing re-
search from each campaign against the Medfly have im-
proved techniques and preparations to prevent major
infestations of this serious pest in Florida.
YOUR SOILS LABORATORY
THE TOURIST ATTRACTIONS
I. D. Dalton
It is true that the Dade County Agricultural Agent's
office plays an important role in helping to assure
beauty and recreational facilities for our tourist trade.
Hialeah Park, with natural beauty and an excellent
racing track, attracts more than a million visitors year-
ly. The park offers 200 acres of year round beauty, as
well as seven weeks of thoroughbred racing on a track
that is excelled by none in its physical qualities.
To help keep Hialeah Park a top attraction, the
personnel of the County Agent's office run physical
and chemical tests on the soil from the track as well
as from the gardens and grounds. Recommendations are
made from these tests. Other recommendations are made
to prevent or cure diseases as well as to prevent or
cure animal and plant pests.
Instructional aid is given by the County Agent's
office during construction of golf courses for the resi-
dent as well as our welcomed tourist. One current ex-
ample is the course being built in the King's Bay area.
Since this is being built so close to salt water, soil
tests were made at intervals for salt concentration.
When the salt was at a safe level, grass was seeded
and, in some areas, sodded. To prevent salt from coming
to the root zone from the subsoil, a three to four inch
layer of small builder's gravel was used beneath the
top soil layer to break the capillarity of the salt water.
This prevented salty water from moving up into the root
zone of the grass.
Soil analyses are also made and used for recom-
mending the kind and amount of fertilizers to be applied
to the grass prior to and after it was established.
The Dade County Parks Department, as well as
other tourist attractions, are served also by your County
Agent's office personnel in solving problems and main-
taining an attractive Dade County, Florida.
The Hialeah track is considered the tops. Chemical and
physical properties are identified at the County Agent's soils
laboratory to detect any change in soil quality.
The beauty of the gardens is enjoyed by the fans at Hialeah
Track as they hurry to watch their favorite sport.
This stately row of palms and beautiful gardens welcome
those who visit Hialeah Park. Proper soil management aided
by soil tests result in perfection in gardening.
U. S. Government
U. S. Department
University of Florida
State of Florida
University of Florida
(Land Grant College)
College of Agriculture
University of Florida
Metropolitan Dade County
Board of County Comm.
University of Florida
Dade County Agricultural
John D. Campbell
Dade County Agricultural Agent
2690 N.W. 7 Avenue
Roy J. Champagne
Asst. County Agri. Agent
Ralph E. Huffaker
Asst. County Agri. Agent
Louis J. Daigle
Asst. County Agri. Agent
Marshall E. Smith
Miss Margaret Hutton
Mrs. Harlene Thompson
Miss Norma Auerbach
1102 North Krome Avenue
Nolan L. Durre
Asst. County Agri. Agent
Asst. County Agri. Agent
Aaron A. Hutcheson
Asst. County Agri. Agent
Joseph D. Dalton
Asst. County Agri. Agent
Mrs. Lena Cowart
Mrs. Mary D. Stewart
Left to right Nolan L. Durre, Louis J. Daigle, Joseph D.
Dalton, John D. Campbell, Roy J. Champagne, Aaron A.
Hutcheson, Ralph E. Huffaker and Seymour Goldweber.
EXTENSION TEACHING AND
Total Man Days Worked ....................
Days Devoted to:
Adult work .............................
Youth work .............................
Days Devoted to:
Extension organization & planning..........
Crop & horticultural services .............
Livestock & poultry .....................
Soil & Water Conservation &
Insect & diseases .......................
Farm business management ...............
Agricultural engineering & equipment ......
House & grounds ........................
Community development & public affairs......
All other work ..........................
Consulting Visits By Agents.................
Office Calls ..............................
Telephone Calls ..........................
News Articles ............................
Radio Programs ...........................
Television Programs .......................
Bulletins Distributed ......................
Circular and Commodity letters .............
Training Meetings for Leaders
Adult work: Number ......................
Youth work: Number .....................
Other Meetings Held or Participated in
Adult work: Number .....................
Youth work: Number......................
Meetings Conducted by Leaders
Adult work: Number ......................
Youth work: Number .....................
COUNTY AGRICULTURAL AGENT