Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 Front Matter
 Rose culture
 Selection and use of roses
 Site selection and soil prepar...
 Planting and early care
 Rose pests and their control
 Control procedures
 Rabbits and moles
 Appendix I
 Appendix II

Group Title: Bulletin
Title: Roses in Florida
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00094957/00001
 Material Information
Title: Roses in Florida their culture, and disease and insect control
Series Title: Bulletin - Florida Agricultural Extension Service ; 180A
Alternate Title: Roses in Florida
Physical Description: 55 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: McFadden, S. E ( Samuel Edgar )
Miller, H. N
Kuitert, L. C ( Louis Cornelius ), 1912-1999
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Publisher: Agricultural Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1967
Copyright Date: 1967
Subject: Roses -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
General Note: "June 1967."
General Note: "Revision of 180; 1963."
Statement of Responsibility: written by S.E. McFadden, H.N. Miller, L.C. Kuitert.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00094957
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 434841583

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Front Matter
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Front Matter
        Page 4
    Rose culture
        Page 5
    Selection and use of roses
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Site selection and soil preparation
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Planting and early care
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Rose pests and their control
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Control procedures
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Rabbits and moles
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
    Appendix I
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
    Appendix II
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
Full Text

IWV 1 lft NOV 2 3 1978
JUN i ..., 1^





JUNE 1967


their culture, and

disease and

insect control

Written by

The authors are, in the order listed: Assistant Horticulturist, Agricultural
Experiment Stations; Plant Pathologist, Agridultural Experiment Stations;
and Entomologist, Agricultural Experiment Stations.

(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
United States Department of Agriculture, Cooperating
M. O. Watkins, Director


Rose Culture -------.............. .....------------- ------------- 5
Selection and Use of Roses ..--....-.........-------. ----------- 6
Selecting Varieties ............ ...... ...... ..... ............... ...... 6
Placement and Spacing ............ .............. ........................................ 7
Buying Plants ................................. ... ... .. ............ ........ .......... 9
Site Selection and Soil Preparation .................- ............... 11
Soil Amendments .......... ......... ........ ........ .. ...................... 12
Fertilization ................................ ...... .... ..... ...... .. ........... ... 13
Soil Fumigation ........................................ ...... .... 13
Planting and Early Care ............ .......... .............. 13
Dorm ant Plants ..................................... ......... .......... ................. 13
Container Plants ....................................................... 15
Protection from Wind Damage ............. ............................ 15
Maintenance ........................-. ..............-- 17
Irrigation ..................... .................... ...... .. ... ............................. 17
Fertilization ................................ ........ ..... ... ................ 18
M ulching .................... .. ........................ ... ........ ... ....... 20
Pruning and Grooming ................ ............. .............. .. ..... 20
Cutting Flowers ... .......... ...... ................................. ... .. ........ 24

Rose Pests and Their Control ................--.......-- -.............. 25
Rose Diseases .....----.... ....-.---................. 25
B lack Spot .................................................. ............................................. 25
Powdery Mildew .. .. ............. ............................... ............. 25
Cercospora Leaf Spot ............................................... 26
R ose M osaic ...... .................... ... .............. ....... .... .... .. 28
Rose Rust ................. ....... ....... ................................... 29
D ieb ack ............................................................................................... 29
Cankers .. ............................... ............. .......... ....... ................ 29
Crown Gall ... ............................ ........ ..... .................. 30
Nematodes ........... .....----- ........-.......- --------- 30
Insects and Mites ......................... ........ .................... 31
Aphids ............ ....... ........... ............ .................. .............. ..... 31
M ites ......................... ............... ................. ............ ......... 34
Flower Thrips ....................................... .......................................... .. 34
Scale Insects .............. ....... ..... ......................... ... ....... 35
Stink Bugs and Plant Bugs ........................................ ........................ 36
Beetles and Grubs ............. ......... .......... ................... ........ 36
C caterpillars ................ .... ............................................................. 38
Leafcutting Bees .......................... ... .. ...... ................................ 40
Stem Borers ............. ...... ........................... .......- ...... 40
Control Procedures ..........------.......... .......... ---41
Spray Equipment ........................................ 41
Application Methods ....... ........ ........................... ....... ...... 44
Rabbits and Moles .................. ......... ........-.. 45

Rose Varieties by Growth Habit and Flower Color .............................. 48-50
Control of the Common Diseases of Roses .................... .......... ....... 51
Control of Nematodes that Injure Roots of Roses ................................. 53
Control of Insects and Mites ..................... ...... ..... ............54
The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of pro-
viding specific information. It is not a guarantee or warranty of the prod-
ucts named and does not signify that they are approved to the exclusion of
others of suitable composition.

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Rose Culture

The rose continues to be
one of the world's most popu-
lar flowers. For centuries,
roses have been cultivated for
garden landscaping and as
plants supplying cut-flowers
for the home. Improved va-
rieties available today have
increased this long standing
appreciation of roses as flow-
ering shrubs.
In Florida's year-round gar-
dening climate, the rose is an
evergreen shrub that will con-
tinue to increase its flower
production for at least five
years. Roses grow and bloom
all year in southern and cen-
tral Florida. They bloom at
least nine months of the year
in northern Florida, keeping
some foliage through the win-
ter months.
A rose bush can supply
more blooms suitable for cut-
ting than any other flower-
ing shrub. Each year plants
produce from five to seven cy-
cles or "flushes" of bloom-
of one to two weeks' duration
-and a few flowers between
In Florida roses are high
maintenance plants. Plenti-
ful supplies of high quality
roses can be obtained only
when the plants are cared for
properly and allowed to reach
mature size. Plants require
grooming over a long bloom-
ing period and they require
weekly applications of fungi-

cide to control the leaf dis-
ease blackspot. But, for those
who like to spend time in the
garden each week, growing
roses can be a rewarding hob-
Except for grooming and
pest control differences, cul-
tural practices for growing
roses in Florida are similar to
those for growing other flow-
ering shrubs. While most fea-
tures of Florida rose culture
are the same as in other re-
gions, there are some differ-
ences. Plants grow larger
here and should be given more
space than in colder climates.
Winter protection practices
such as deep planting or cov-
ering the tops are not neces-
sary, but the practice of an-
choring taller varieties to re-
duce wind injury is necessary.
Here, as elsewhere, success
depends upon the selection of
varieties and rootstock which
are suited to local conditions.
Everblooming varieties graft-
ed on Rosa fortuniana root-
stock are recommended, but
everblooming varieties with
other kinds of root systems
can be grown successfully.
The information in this bul-
letin is based on experimental
work done at the Florida Ag-
ricultural Experiment Sta-
tions, Experiment Stations in
other states, and observations
of rose growing throughout

Roses grow large in Flor-
ida. This 6-year-old speci-
men of the variety Helen
Traubel on R. fortuniana
rootstock measures 8 feet

Selection and Use of Roses

Selecting Varieties
Roses can be used many dif-
ferent ways in landscaping be-
cause of the wide range of
plant and flower types adapt-
ed to Florida. Plantings
which include an assortment
of varieties give a more con-
tinuous display of color, since
each variety has its own char-
acteristic flowering cycle. The
gardener's preference and the
growth habit of each variety
must be considered in deter-
mining the number of plants
and their placement in the
Flower color combinations

can be chosen to fit almost any
landscape need, garden set-
ting, or decorative situation.
For example, Spartan and
White Bouquet might be se-
lected because of their color
relation to a coral and white
building within view of the
garden. For a red and white
color combination, one gar-
dener might choose Crimson
Glory and Snowbird because
of their fragrance, while an-
other might prefer Red Pin-
nochio and Summer Snow be-
cause they produce more flow-
ers and a better color effect.
The form or size of the

flower may be a factor in se-
lecting plants. Wild r o s e
types-s u c h as Chuckles,
Dainty Bess, Green Fire and
Lilac Charm-have few pet-
als and open centers. Varie-
ties which produce double,
high-centered blooms-s u c h
as Anne Letts, Christian Dior,
Columbus Queen, Confidence,
Memorium, Peace, To w n
Crier, Tropicana and Virgo-
are useful where large exhi-
bition blooms are desired.
Low-growing varieties-such
as The Fairy, Mothersday,
Orange Triumph, and Golden
Salmon-produce clusters of
small, double flowers. The
smallest flowers are produced
by dwarf varieties such as
Cinderella, Midget and Red
Imp, and these might be the
choice of a gardener with a
small planting area.
Some of the most popular
rose varieties are listed in
the Appendix on pages 48-50.
These are grouped by flower
color and growth habit rather
than by horticultural class.
This type of grouping has
proved more useful in choos-
ing material for individual
garden sites.

Placement and Spacing
Except when featured as
specimen plants, rose bushes
are usually grouped in the
same area rather than in scat-
tered plantings. Grouping
roses in beds makes a more
attractive display of flowers,
and simplifies soil preparation

and maintenance. These beds
can be rectangular in outline
or curved to conform to land-
scape contours. The garden-
er may curb or flag edges to
maintain well-defined bed
Beds four to six feet wide
are recommended for single
and two-row plantings. Plants
should be spaced alternately
so that both sides can be
reached easily. Beds with
three or more rows of plants
are difficult to maintain after
the first year. Leave at least
a three foot aisle between
Roses grow much larger in
Florida than in states where
the a v e r a g e temperature,
light intensity and humidity
are lower. Therefore, recom-
mended s p a c i n g intervals
within rows are eight feet for
climbers; four feet for tall va-
rieties; three feet for medium
and low growing varieties;
and two feet for dwarf varie-
ties. (See Appendix on pages
Gardeners who use varie-
ties of different heights gen-
erally have the best displays.
Tall varieties should be used
as background for low grow-
ing varieties so the small
plants can be seen.
For a pleasing variation in
height, combine tree and bush
forms of the same kind of
rose. Margo Koster and sim-
ilar low growing, compact va-
rieties are especially well suit-
ed for this combination. This

grouping creates an interest-
ing "bank" display of one
On small properties, a sin-
gle row planting of one or
more s i m i a r-sized roses
makes an effective border for
a driveway or divider for the
garden area. Dwarf (knee
high) varieties such as China
Doll, Pygmy Gold, Cinderella,
Midget and Red Imp are es-
pecially effective for this land-
scape use. Attractive me-
dium height (waist high) in-
formal hedges can be grown
with varieties such as Red
Pinnochio, The Fairy, Margo
Koster, Improved Lafayette
and Summer Snow.
The use of roses for head-
high screening is quite popu-
lar. Traditionally, climbing
roses on a fence or trellis have
been used for this purpose.
Only a few climbing roses pro-
duce enough flowers in Flor-
ida to justify weekly care.
Varieties such as Climbing
Etoile de Hollande, Climbing
Pinkie, Climbing Snowbird,
Blossomtime and Crepuscule
bloom satisfactorily through-
out the growing season in
Florida. Spring-flowering va-
rieties-such as Blaze, Paul's
Scarlet and White American
Beauty (Frau Karl Druschki)
-that require cold weather
to set flowers usually do not
bloom in central and southern
Florida. And, even in north-
ern Florida, they flower pro-
fusely only after unusually
cold winters.

Large bush varieties-such
as Amarillo, South Seas,
Queen Elizabeth and Louis
Philippe-can be trained
against a fence as informal
espaliers to produce a color-
ful tracery. As fence espa-
liers, roses can be spaced
about eight feet apart to cre-
ate a screening effect with
minimum plant material.
In preference to climbing
varieties, Florida landscape
designers often form screen-
ing elements in the garden
with free-standing or partial-
ly-supported hedges, using
one or more of the upright,
head-high varieties, li k e
Queen Elizabeth, Mount Shas-
ta, Tropicana, Roundelay, El
Capitan and some of the old-
er shrub varieties, such as
Louis Philippe. These varie-
ties produce many main canes
which hold their lower foli-
age well. Hedges of Louis
Philippe have been used for
landscaping in northern and
central Florida for m a n y
Another interesting use of
tall growing roses is to alter-
nate wooden or masonry pan-
els with plantings of roses.
This makes a continuous divi-
sion that is less monotonous
than either a solid wall or a
straight line of plants.
All rose borders and hedges
should be planted in open lo-
cations which provide access
to both sides of the plants for
ease of maintenance.

Three spring-flowering rose
varieties, Multiflora (Rosa
multiflora or the Japanese
Rose), Ragged Robin (also
known as Red Robin or Gloire
de Rosamanes) and Dr. Huey
(also known as Shafter Rob-
in), have been sold widely for
use as a "Living Rose Fence".
These varieties are not sat-
isfactory for ornamental use
in Florida. Everblooming va-
rieties are much more satis-
factory for hedge or screen
plantings in Florida.

Buying Plants

An important consideration
in buying rose plants is the
kind of root system present.
Florida Agricultural Experi-
ment Stations tests have de-

termined that roses grafted
on Rosa fortuniana rootstock
grow larger, more vigorously,
produce more flowers and live
several years' longer than
plants grown on any other

Grafted plants are com-
posed of two different roses;
one forms the root system
(rootstock) and the other the
top (scion). Most rose plants
sold have been grafted on one
of three different rootstocks.
Of the three standard root-
stocks, Fortuniana, (Rosa for-
tuniana, Double White Cher-
okee or Evergreen Cherokee)
gives the best results. Dr.
Huey (Shafter) is second best
and Multiflora (Rosa multi-
flora) the least satisfactory

Rootstocks affect the amount of top growth. The variety Hap-
piness is shown grafted on (from left to right) Dr. Huey, R. multi-
flora, and R. fortuniana. January appearance of 2-year-old plants
before pruning shows the growth advantage of the plant on R.
fortuniana stock.

1 r

rootstock because it is short-
est-lived under Florida condi-
tions. Plants referred to as
"tree roses" are grafted on
one to three-foot stem lengths
of the rootstock variety rath-
er than on the six-inch lengths
used to produce bush form
Plants on their own roots-
tops and roots from the same
cutting-are on the market
and are satisfactory for the
older shrub varieties. Dwarf
varieties are frequently sold
on their own root, but per-
form better when grafted.
With the exception of the old-
er shrub varieties, plants
grafted on any of the stand-
ard rootstocks live longer and
produce more flowers than
when grown on their own
Rose bushes sold in Florida
come from two main sources:
locally propagated plants
grafted on Rosa fortuniana
rootstock, and field grown
plants shipped in from other
states, which are grafted on
one of the less desirable root-
Locally propagated plants
in containers are now avail-
able from some Florida nurs-
eries. These plants are mar-
keted in bloom seven to nine
months after propagation,
and are usually smaller than
older field-grown plants. The
customer benefits by receiv-
ing a young plant which forms
most of its main root branches
after it is transplanted.

Field-grown plants, one to
two years old are available
from out-of-state sources be-
tween October and March.
They are marketed by mail-
order and local sources, either
as dormant, bare root plants
or as container-grown plants
by local nursery and sales
yards. Nurserymen trans-
plant dormant plants into con-
tainers, maintain them for
about three months, then
market them in bloom. Much
of the risk involved in early
handling of dormant field-
grown plants is absorbed by
these nurserymen.
Rose plants marketed from
one source are not all equally
well formed. Grading serves
to distinguish the better
plants from poorly developed
ones. The superior grade
plants give better results than
inferior grades. There are
two different grading systems
for roses in Florida, one for
dormant bare root plants and
one f o r container-grown
plants. Dormant rose plants
are graded number 1, number
11/2 and number 2, based on
size and number of canes.
Grade number 1 is best.
Container-grown rose plants
are graded by standards that
have been defined by the Di-
vision of Plant Industry
(Gainesville) for each of three
grades-"Florida F a n y,"
"Florida No. 1" and "Florida
No. 2." Plants which do not
conform to standards for one

of these grades are not eligi-
ble for any Florida grade la-
bel. Under these standards,
the kind of root system must
be stated on the label. The

best quality rose plant ob-
tainable is a "Florida Fan-
cy" container-grown p plant
with Rosa fortuniana root-

Site Selection and Soil Preparation

Plant roses where they will
get direct sunlight for at least
six hours during the day.
Where some shading cannot
be avoided, locations which
supply morning sunlight are
preferred. Morning sun will
dry dew on the leaves and
thus the chances for black-
spot infection are lessened.
Roots of nearby plants will
compete with those of roses
for available nutrients and
moisture and open locations
are preferred for this reason.
Tap-rooted conifers, such as
native pines, can provide high
background with least surface
root competition.
The best soil for growing
roses is one that has good
drainage which allows ailr and
water movement to and from
roots, and will hold an ade-
quate supply of moisture and
nutrients. Nutrients are most
readily available to the roots
in a moderately acid to slight-
ly acid soil (pH 5.5 to 6.5).
Most Florida soils do not have
all the desirable properties so
they must be provided artifi-
Although most inland soils
have a satisfactory pH, many
coastal soils are too alkaline

for best growth of rose plants.
They require acid-forming
fertilizers, mulches and soil
amendments to reduce pH in
the root area. Roses are rel-
atively tolerant of salt spray
and can be grown satisfactor-
ily near salt water with ade-
quate soil preparation and
Roses should not be planted
in poorly drained bog or
marsh areas unless agricul-
tural drainage tile is installed.
Minor drainage problems of
low areas can be improved by
ditching or raising the bed
level several inches. Some
soils have a "clay pan" or
"hard pan" layer near the soil
surface which should either
be dug out or broken and
mixed with the other soil.
Most native sandy soils
have low water and nutrient
holding capacities and nutri-
ents are easily leached beyond
the roots by heavy rains. As
a result, plants may suffer
from drought only a few days
after rain or irrigation, and
from nutrient deficiency only
a few weeks after fertiliza-
tion. Such soils can be im-
proved with soil amendments.

Soil Amendments
Materials can be added to
soil before planting that will
increase the water holding
capacity, improve the nutri-
ent balance and change the
soil reaction (pH). Preplant-
ing soil amendments not only
improve plant growth and
beauty but reduce the effort
needed to keep plants grow-
ing well. Soil amendments
can be included either in the
entire bed area or in the
planting hole for each plant.
Organic amendments used
to increase aeration, water
holding capacity and mineral
nutrient retention include
compost, leafmold, p e a t,
muck, sawdust, wood shav-
ings and manures. As much
as a 4-inch layer of any of
these materials or any com-
bination of two or more will
improve most soils. Mix
amendments thoroughly and
evenly to a depth of 12 inches.
These materials are especially
beneficial when added to light,
sandy soils and to soils which
compact easily.
Each of these amendments
has some disadvantage. Com-
post takes time to prepare.
Peat, muck and manure often
have large numbers of weed
seeds and should be fumigated
to kill weed seed. Some na-
tive peats are very acid in re-
action and require the addi-
tion of lime to raise the pH.
Muck may be very alkaline in
reaction and require sulfur to

lower the pH. Some imported
peats contain toxic levels of
salts and may require leach-
ing before use.
Undecomposed materials
such as sawdust may produce
temporary nitrogen deficiency
unless extra nitrogen is added
during the first year after soil
is amended. In addition to
the maintenance fertilizer
schedule, three or four appli-
cations of ammonium sul-
phate at the rate of 1/2 pound
per 100 square feet should be
made during spring and sum-
mer months.
Vermiculite is an inorganic
material that can be substi-
tuted for organic matter be-
cause it has similar soil im-
proving properties. Vermic-
ulite is more expensive than
organic materials but it is
long lasting and contains no
weed seeds.
The soil reaction should be
tested after adding the above
amendments. Further amend-
ment with dolomitic limestone
will be needed if the pH is
less than 5.5, or with sulphur
if the pH is greater than 6.5.
On acid sandy soils each 100
square feet will require the
addition of 6 pounds of dolo-
mitic limestone to raise the
pH one unit, or 2 pounds of
sulphur to lower the pH one
unit. On very alkaline or
very acid soils additional ap-
plications of these materials
may be needed after planting
to maintain a suitable soil re-
action. Your county agricul-

tural agent can have soil test-
ed for pH and fertilizer
amendments needed.

Where need is indicated by
a soil analysis, phosphorus
should be mixed with the soil
before planting because it
moves downward slowly from
surface application in all ex-
cept strongly acid sandy soils.
Use superphosphate at the
rate of 4 pounds per 100
square feet of area. Bone
meal is a less satisfactory
source of phosphorus than
superphosphate for most lo-
cations because it raises soil
Slow release and natural or-
ganic fertilizers (such as Ag-
rinite, cottonseed meal, cas-
tor pomace, Milorganite, Ure-

aform) may be added at
planting time if desired. Reg-
ular applications of additional
fertilizer as described under
"Maintenance" should d be
started as soon as new shoots

Soil Fumigation
Soil fumigants are neces-
sary when crown gall organ-
isms or large populations of
parasitic nematodes are
known to be present (see Ap-
pendix on page 53. Pre-
planting fumigation with ma-
terials such as methyl bro-
mide will aid in controlling
disease organisms, nematodes
and weeds. Most lawn and
garden maintenance com-
panies have the equipment
needed for fumigating soils.

Planting and Early Care

Dormant Plants
Dormant bare-root plants
which are available from Oc-
tober to March will be in
bloom about 10 weeks after
planting. Planting is best de-
layed in northern Florida un-
til December or January be-
cause in this area repeated
freeze injury to new shoots
exhausts stored food and can
kill plants which do not have
well established root systems.
Most failures of healthy
dormant plants result from
insufficient water. Since rain-

fall is light during winter
months, plants should be wa-
tered daily until growth
starts, and weekly after
growth starts. A temporary
soil mound will help keep low-
er parts of canes moist. Dor-
mant canes that have failed
to produce shoots within two
weeks after planting should
be covered with burlap, Span-
ish moss or transparent plas-
tic and kept moist. Covers
should be removed when new
shoots start to develop.
Occasionally dormant plants










fail to grow because of cold
injury in storage or in transit.
If injury is suspected, peel
away a small piece of the out-
er bark along the cane. If the
inner bark is brown rather
than normal green, the canes
will soon shrivel and die.
Most nurseries will replace
plants damaged in storage or
in transit.

Container Plants
Leafy container-g r o w n
plants can be transplanted
whenever available without
disturbing the .roots. If wilt-
ing occurs after planting de-
spite daily watering, either

prune the plants, pick off some
of the leaves, shade, or spray
with a film-forming emulsion.
These practices reduce water
loss from the plant and aid
root growth.

Protection from Wind
Plants should be tied to a
well anchored stake or trellis
support to protect them from
wind damage. Metal stakes
made from pipe sections, elec-
trical conduit or reinforcing
rods are quite satisfactory.
Ties of some durable, soft ma-
terial such as plastic clothes-
line should be used.

"Florida Fancy" grade plants of Christian Dior (left) and Spar-
tan (right) on R. fortuniana rootstock. Container-grown plants,
sold in bloom, are ready for planting.


The diagram above shows proper planting depth to locate the
crown of the plant above soil and mulch level without exposing
roots. The photo below shows a "head" of water used to settle
soil around the roots after.planting.

'1j .
:9 S ,




Florida's high light intensi-
ty, warm temperatures and
mild winters cause roses to
make some growth all year
and more growth during warm
months than in northern
states. Therefore, mainte-
nance is required during the
entire year. Since winter in-
jury to mature wood of estab-
lished rose bushes rarely oc-
curs, even in northern Flor-
ida, severe pruning and cover-
ings used in colder regions to
prevent freeze injury are not
needed. More flowers are pro-
duced during summer than
during cooler seasons, but dur-
ing the cooler season the flow-
er color is more intense and
there are more petals.
In Florida, average yearly
rainfall is about 50 inches.
Rainfall is heaviest during the


warm summer months and
lighter during cooler months.
Occasional heavy rains which
cause soil flooding for two or
more days leach fertilizer
from the soil and interfere
with soil aeration, causing
plants to drop older leaves.
Healthy plants, however, re-
cover quickly.

Applications of water es-
pecially are needed during the
dry winter months and dur-
ing drought periods which can
occur any time of year. Ac-
cumulation of water soluble
salts in root area and the re-
sulting injury to roots is pre-
vented by thorough irriga-
In most locations, roses
should be irrigated with one

inch of water once each week
unless a similar amount of
rain falls. Two applications
per week may be necessary on
unamended sandy soils. Wa-
tering should be scheduled the
day before the weekly pesti-
cide spray is applied as plants
well supplied with moisture
are less susceptible to injury
from pesticides. Water is
best applied to the soil sur-
face to avoid washing the pro-
tective coating of pesticides
from the leaves. When over-
head sprinkling must be used,
water early enough for leaves
to dry before sundown.
Plants should be washed
with water immediately after
broadcasting commercial fer-
tilizers as the chemicals will
burn leaf and stem parts if
left on the plant.

For detailed information on
fertilizers see Agricultural
Extension Service Bulletin
177, Know Your Fertilizers.
The three primary plant
food elements (also called ma-
jor or macro-elements), nitro-
gen, phosphorus and potas-
sium are contained in most
commercial fertilizers. The
analysis numbers on a ferti-
lizer label indicate percent-
ages of these primary ele-
ments in the above order. For
example, an 8-4-5 fertilizer
contains 8% nitrogen (N),
4% phosphorus (P205) and
5% potassium (K20) ; this ap-

proximates a 2-1-1 analysis
Regular applications of
commercial fertilizers are
needed to replace supplies of
primary plant foods as they
are used by the plant and
leached from the root area.
Phosphorus is likely to ac-
cumulate to toxic levels when
applied as frequently as nitro-
gen and potassium (potash).
Alternating applications of
two commercial fertilizer mix-
tures, one containing no phos-
phorus, is recommended. A
fertilizer such as 10-0'-10 or
one with a similar 1-0-1 anal-
ysis ratio should be used for
the first two applications on
soil amended with superphos-
phate before planting. In
routine fertilizing, each appli-
cation of the 1-0-1 ratio ferti-
lizer should be followed after
10 weeks with an application
of a fertilizer such as 8-8-8
or one with a similar 1-1-1
analysis ratio.
A commercial fertilizer
should be applied to rose beds
five times each year (every 10
weeks). The amount of fer-
tilizer applied each time to
100 square feet of surface
area is determined by the per-
centage of nitrogen (the first
analysis number): two pounds
for less than 10% nitrogen;
one pound for 10% to 15%
This fertilizing schedule
may be varied depending on
season, location, or the size
of plants. Roses may be fer-

tilized as often as once a
month, but the amount of fer-
tilizer for each application
should be reduced proportion-
ally. More frequent applica-
tions are needed during sum-
mer months when fertilizer
may be leached from the soil
by heavy rains. The stated
amount of fertilizer should be
reduced for small plants. In
northern Florida, fertilizer
should be applied lightly be-
tween November 1 and Feb-
ruary 1 since tender new
growth-stimulated by ferti-
lization and warm weather-
is susceptible to freeze dam-
age in this area.
Natural organic fertilizers
-such as manure, castor
pomace, Milorganite, Flora-
ganite and Agrinite--contain
nitrogen which is slowly
available and lasts longer than
soluble commercial fertilizer.
These materials are often add-
ed to commercial fertilizers to
supply a percentage of the to-
tal nitrogen from organic
sources. Check the label to
be sure all or most of the or-
ganic nitrogen is labeled "Wa-
ter insoluble" to determine
whether natural organic
sources have been used in the
mixture. Natural organic
fertilizers also supply some
secondary plant foods (also
known as minor or micro-ele-
The required secondary
plant fobds are usually sup-
plied in sufficient quantities
by the addition of organic

soil amendments before plant-
ing and are replaced by the
use of organic mulches and
fertilizers a f t e r planting.
Their availability to the plant
is insured by maintaining a
moderate to slightly acid soil
In some locations a short-
age of one or more primary
or secondary elements will
occur despite attempted soil
improvements, a deficiency of
any one element may result in
poor growth of plants. Cer-
tain characteristic symptoms
make it possible, in some in-
stances, to identify the scarce
Persistent deficiency symp-
toms should be corrected as
soon as noted. Temporary
shortages of one element in
the plant may be caused by
excesses of another element.
When a balance of elements
is re-established the symp-
toms disappear. Iron defi-
ciency symptoms often appear
during the summer months on
plants with Multiflora root
systems, then disappear in
the cool fall months.
Iron is the only element
known to be deficient fre-
quently in garden roses in
Florida, other than the three
primary plant food elements.
Based on observations of
other plants, magnesium, cop-
per, and boron may also be-
come deficient in certain soils.
Symptoms of manganese or
zinc deficiencies might appear
if pesticides containing these

elements are not used regu-
Be cautious in applying
chemical preparations to cor-
rect deficiency of an element,
since excessive amounts are
also harmful to the plant.
Excessive amounts of a par-
ticular element (or combina-
tion of elements) occur more
readily in soils containing
large amounts of soluble salts
from sources other than ferti-
lizer-such as salty wells or
intrusion of sea water. Toxic
.effects can be caused by fre-
quent or heavy application of
commercial fertilizers or sec-
ondary elements. For exam-
ple, borax, used to supply bo-
ron should be applied at the
rate of not more than one
ounce per 100 square feet, and
no more often than twice each
year. Excessive amounts of
boron can result also from ap-
plications of manures treated
with borax for fly control or
wash-water containing certain
household detergents.
The choice of preparations
(or materials) to correct min-
eral deficiencies, the method
of application-spraying the
foliage or applying directly to
the soil-and the rates to be
used are based on the nature
of the soil and condition of the
plants. Some materials may
injure the plants and should
be tested on a small scale be-
fore general use. Consult
your county agent in correct-
ing persistent nutrient defi-

Maintaining an organic
mulch (soil covering) will re-
duce loss of soil moisture, re-
duce weed growth and provide
some nutrients to the plants.
After planting, apply a two-
inch layer of compost, hay,
sawdust, pine needles, pecan
shells, sugarcane bagasse or
other available natural mate-
rials to the surface of the bed.
Replenish it as it decomposes.
Baled hay which is spoiled
for animal feeding is suitable
for plant mulching. Peanut
shells should not be used un-
less fumigated since they may
contain parasitic nematodes.
Thin layers of leaves or grass
clippings can be used as a soil
covering, but are best decom-
posed first; thick layers tend
to form a thatch which will
shed water. Compost (mix-
tures of partly decomposed
vegetable matter) can be pre-
pared either in open bins or
in closed garbage cans.
Remove weeds in rose beds
by pulling or cutting with a
hoe. Spading may damage
roots which develop immedi-
ately under the mulch.

Pruning and Grooming
Grooming is a regular fea-
ture of rose culture. It con-
sists of selectively trimming
at monthly intervals to keep
plants healthy, attractive and
productive. Removing faded
flowers after each flush of


bloom improves plant appear-
ance and prevents fruit devel-
opment. This conserves food
material for additional
To produce exhibition flow-
ers, remove the lateral flower
buds as they form, allowing
one bud to mature on each
stem. To regulate the time
of bloom for a particular va-
riety pinch out all flower buds
as they form until 28 to 34
days before flowering is de-
Flower buds should be re-
moved for the first two
months after planting to en-
courage growth and help to
establish a new plant. The
first flowers allowed to devel-
op should be cut with short
stems to leave as much foli-

age as possible on the plant.
Plants should be well estab-
lished before flowers are cut
with longer stems, and then
only cut the length of stem
Remove suckers ( leaf y
shoots) that develop from the
rootstock below the graft
union by breaking them off
rather than by cutting in or-
der to remove all basal buds.
Rootstock suckers can be rec-
ognized by their location and
their different leaf appear-
Remove dead wood and
canes showing stem disease
symptoms when they are first
noticed. Cut the affected part
back to healthy wood and re-
move the affected part from
the garden area.

Pruning should be done
once each year during Decem-
ber or January in central and
northern Florida. In southern
Florida pruning may be need-
ed twice each year to keep
plants to a manageable size.
These two prunings can be
scheduled during March and
late August to avoid inter-
rupting winter flowering. Ma-
jor yearly pruning consists of
removing some healthy top
growth as well as twigs and
branches that are dead, dis-
eased, injured, unsightly or
thin and spindly. Shortening
main canes and lateral branch-
es, removing small twigs and
some of the oldest canes im-
proves the plant's form. It
also regulates height and
produces better light condi-
tions within the plant. Leave
at least half the length of
each main cane that is one
to three years old. The first
flowers can be expected eight
to mine weeks after pruning.
To avoid dieback and en-
courage rapid healing, prun-
ing cuts should be made just
above a dormant bud (eye)
and wound surfaces larger
than thumb size should be pro-
tected with a pruning paint.
When an entire branch is re-
moved, make a smooth cut
at the point of juncture.
Three types of pruning
paint are used to seal large
wounds. Asphalt compounds
(DeKaGo, Treekote, Bartlett's
Tree Paint) are most satis-
factory. Orange shellac is

** -.w -. -a-
Removing weak canes from
the crown is winter pruning
practice. Cut surfaces at the
crown should be coated with a
wound-sealing paint.


Axillory bud
at base of


less harmful to plants than
asphalt paints, but is not as
long lasting and does not pre-
vent the stem pith borer from
entering cut branches.
Cutting Flowers
When cutting flowers con-
sider the arrangement in
which they are to be used.
Larger, more open flowers to
be used low in the container
need less stem length than
tighter buds to be used for
Cut buds after the green
sepals fold back toward the
stem and the outside petals
loosen and start to unfurl.
Blooms cut in tighter bud will
fail to open.
Use a sharp knife or prun-
ing shears for cutting flowers
and make a clean cut just
above a well developed five-
leaflet leaf. Dieback may re-
sult from leaving a ragged
cut or a long stub above the
dormant bud.
The condition or culture of
a plant affects the life of its
cut flowers. Flowers cut from
healthy plants last longer.
Buds cut late in the afternoon
will last longer than those cut
in the morning. Flowers of
some varieties, such as The
Alamo and Christian Dior,
open more slowly and last
longer than others. Flowers
of a few varieties, notably
Montezuma and Tropicana,
tend to remain in the stage at
which they are cut.
The cut bloom lasts as long

as its store'of food reserves
last. Flowers use their food
reserves faster when placed
in warm rooms than when
placed in cool ones. The aver-
age flower lasts from three to
five days at normal room tem-
Excess spray deposit on fo-
liage can be removed with a
soft dry cloth. The appear-
ance of some specimens is im-
proved by removing mal-
formed or discolored outer
Immerse the cut stems in
water as soon as possible after
cutting and put them in a
cool, dark place (such as the
lower part of the refrigera-
tor) for several hours. Wilt-
ed stems can often be revived
by submerging the entire bud
and stem in warm water for
one hour. Water intake is im-
proved by making a long slop-
ing cut on the base and by
scraping bark from the stem
in several places, extending
about four inches above the
base. Keeping the lower part
of the stems covered with wa-
ter is the only care required
Commercial preservatives
such as Everbloom and Flora-
life will extend cut-life of
roses when added to the water
in which they are stored and
Flower arrangements
should be placed where they
are least exposed to drafts,
and away from heating units.

Rose Pests and Their Control

Florida's relatively mild
winters and warm wet sum-
mers, favor the development
of pests on roses.
Although some varieties are
less susceptible to diseases
and insects, there are no com-
pletely pest-free varieties.
There are many potential dis-
eases of the rose. Fortunate-
ly, only a limited number of
these occur in Florida. Black
spot and mildew may be lim-
iting factors in the produc-
tion of roses in this state and
lack of adequate control prac-
tices may result in failure.
Other diseases common in
some localities, such as downy
mildew, leaf rust and anthrac-
nose, are seldom observed
here. Rose diseases may per-
sist over longer periods of
time and be more difficult to
control in Florida than in
other parts of the country.
Mites are a major problem
on roses. They are usually
present every month but may
be especially bothersome in
the spring and fall months.
Heavy summer rains tend to
reduce the mite population.
Japanese beetles, especially
damaging in some areas, do
not occur in Florida.
Root injury by parasitic
nematodes seldom kills roses,
but these organisms can re-
duce vigor and flower produc-
tion considerably.
Descriptions of rose pests

and recommended c o n t r o
measures are given in Ap-
pendix II on pages 51-55.

Rose Diseases
Black spot (Fig. 1), a fun-
gus disease, is the most con-
tinually damaging disease of
roses in Florida. Infected
leaves characteristically turn
yellow and fall from the plant
long before they would from
age. When the attack is se-
vere and allowed to continue,
repeated defoliation occurs,
greatly weakening the plant,
spoiling the appearance and
eventually leading to death.
Spores of the fungus are
spread mainly by splashing
rain or water. The spores
germinate and infection takes
place only when water re-
mains on the leaves for pe-
riods of six hours or longer.
Typical leaf spots develop
within 5 to 10 days.
Powdery mildew (Fig. 2).-
This fungus disease occurs in
Florida during the spring and
fall. It is not usually a prob-
lem during the mid-summer
months when black spot is at
its worst. The fungus causes
lasting distortion of the leaves
but does not cause defoliation.
Spores of powdery mildew
are not spread by splashing
water, but are wind-borne.
They germinate under condi-
tions of relatively high hu-




Fig. 1.-Blackspot lesions (A) showing all stages of develop-
ment; (B) effects on an unusually resistant variety (left) and a
typically susceptible variety (right); (C) leaflet from the resistant
variety showing pin point lesions that do not develop full size as on
the leaflet from the susceptible variety (D).

midity but, in contrast to the
spores of the black spot fun-
gus, germination is hindered
by the presence of free water.
The vegetative part of the
mildew fungus grows almost
entirely on the outside of the
leaf and therefore may be in-
jured or entirely inhibited by
frequent rains. Mildew is also
i n h i b i t e d by temperatures

above 85' F. These facts ex-
plain the cycles of develop-
ment of powdery mildew in
Cercospora leaf spot (Fig.
3).-Characteristically, Cer-
cospora leaf spots have dis-
tinct gray centers with pur-
plish or reddish brown bor-
ders. This characteristic can
be used to distinguish the dis-

Fig. 2.-Powdery mildew of rose (A) on leaf-note curling and
distortion of leaflets-and (B) on flower buds and stems

Fig. 3.-Cercospora leaf spot of rose showing different sized
lesions on three roses-(left) Multiflora; (center) Ma Perkins;
(right) Betty Prior.

Fig. 4.-Rose mosaic symptoms expression on three varieties-
(left) Marie Van Houtte; (center) Bravo; (right) Red Pinnochio.

ease from black spot. Infect-
ed leaves may hang on the
plant for some time, but usu-
ally turn yellow and drop be-
fore they would normally.
The appearance of Cerco-
spora leaf spot is often associ-
ated with faulty or poor grow-
ing conditions. Where drain-
age is poor, or where proper
feeding and general cultural
care is neglected, it is likely
to appear during any season
of the year.
Rose mosaic (Fig. 4)-This
disease is caused by a virus.
In Florida the expression of
symptoms varies a great deal
with the season. At certain
times the plant, although in-
fected, may not show symp-
toms at all. Usually symp-

toms are most prominent dur-
ing late spring and early sum-
The type and intensity of
symptoms may vary consider-
ably on different varieties,
and the effect on the plants
may also vary. There may be
no reduction in vigor or on
the other hand the plant may
become stunted or dwarfed.
Rose mosaic spreads only
through propagation. No in-
sect vector is known which is
capable of transmitting the
disease from infected to
healthy plants. For this rea-
son an infected plant in a gar-
den is not a menace to sur-
rounding plants.
Mosaic infected plants
should not be bought or used

for propagation. Severely in-
fected plants which are stunt-
ed by the disease should be
dug and destroyed.
Rose rust.-This fungus
disease has not been a prob-
lem on roses in Florida, al-
though it is a very serious dis-
ease in some parts of the
country. It has occurred spo-
radically in this state, appear-
ing on plants recently brought
in from elsewhere. Rust is
easily recognized because of
the bright orange pustule-like
spots which occur on the un-
dersides of leaves. The spots
appear light yellow when
viewed from the upper sur-
face. Long narrow spots may
be found on young canes. It
is questionable whether rust
will persist for long periods of
time in Florida. However, it
is becoming more widespread
and may be a problem in some
areas. If it does occur, con-
trol measures should be taken.
Weekly applications of 11/2 to
2 teaspoons of zineb wettable
powder and 1/2 to 1 teaspoon
of detergent per gallon of
spray has given good control
of rust in other locations.
Dieback (Fig. 5).-T his
condition occurs as a dying
back of the canes or shoots
from the tips, following a
pruning wound or an injury.
A fungus is usually associated
with dieback of roses in Flor-
ida. This is a weak parasite
and enters the stems through
injuries, pruning wounds or
insect punctures, or attacks


Fig. 5.-Dieback of rose
canes and twigs. Note margins
of canker or dead areas and
withered shoots.

plants that have been weak-
ened by some other cause.
Dieback is often more preva-
lent on plants that have been
defoliated by black spot.
Plants that have been grow-
ing in poorly drained areas or
suffering from poor nutrition
may be more susceptible to
this condition. Infection of
plant roots with crown gall
or nematodes may predispose
the plants to dieback.
Cankers (Fig. 6).-Cankers
on roses occur as localized dis-
eased areas on the canes. If
a canker is allowed to remain
and the disease spreads down
the cane, the entire cane and
lower branches may be killed.
Cankers do not appear as
troublesome in Florida as they
may be in other regions. Def-
inite canker symptoms are
seldom noted. This is partic-

ularly true on rose bushes
that are sprayed regularly
throughout the year for black-
spot control.
Crown gall (Fig. 7) is a bac-
terial disease somewhat com-
mon on roses. Weakened or
dying bushes are sometimes
found to have a large gall
near the crown. Small galls
may appear on roots. The bac-
teria live in the soil where
they may survive for at least
two years in the absence of
plants. They enter the rose
through injuries made in
grafting or cultivating or by
rodents or insects. Only crown
gall free plants should be
planted. Wounding of plants
should be avoided.

Nematodes are microscopic
filiform worms (Fig. 8) which
live in the soil and are capable
of causing various plant dis-
eases. Roses may fail or grow
unsatisfactorily because the
soil is heavily infested with
nematodes which feed on the
plant roots. The danger of
nematodes to roses cannot be
over-emphasized because of
the damage they can do. Sev-
eral nematode types may at-
tack roots. The most impor-
tant of these nematodes are
root-knot, lesion, and sting.
Root-knot nematodes cause
small, nodule-like galls on the
fibrous roots of roses (Fig. 9).
Yellowing of the foliage,
stunting and gradual decline

Fig. 6.-Brown canker on
rose cane.


Fig. 7.-Crown gall of rose
-(left) gall on cane, and
(right) severely galled roots.



Fig. 8.-(Right) Root-knot nematode larvae (150X); (left) an-
terior portion of larva. Note head region with stylet or spear used
to puncture plants (900X).

of the plant results. Any
plants from a nursery which
show galling should be re-
Lesion nematodes do not
produce galls on the roots, but
kill the feeder roots back from
the tips. Many new short fi-
brous roots may be formed,
resulting in a bunching or
witches' broom effect. Die-
back, stunting and death of
the plants may occur.
Other nematodes feeding on
or in .the roots may cause
stubbiness of roots, various
types of root lesions, and
death of roots.
Unhealthy plants in a plant-
ing should be checked for
nematodes and if found infect-

ed, treated according to rec-
ommendations given in the
Appendix on page 53.

Insects and Mites
Aphids (Fig. 10).-Aphids,
or plant lice, are soft-bodied,
sucking insects. They may
be greenish, yellowish or black
in color. They are usually
less than 1/8-inch in length
and most aphids are wingless.
They live in colonies on the
succulent new growth and
their continuous draining of
plant juices causes the buds
and leaves to become stunted
and distorted. Aphids excrete
a sweet liquid called honeydew
which is attractive to ants
and makes an excellent me-

Fig. 9.-Specimen of a miniature rose variety propagated on
its own root and transplanted into soil infested with the root knot
and other parasitic nematodes: (upper) the top growth with de-
cline of vigor, large portion of dead wood, invasion of fungi associ-
ated with die-back seen on the cane at left; (lower) the roots with
small galls and other malformed growth resulting from nema-
tode feeding.


Fig. 10.-Aphids feeding on new growth.


Fig. 11.-Spider mite injury and webbing.

dium for the development of
a black fungus called sooty
Mites (Fig. 11).-Spider
mites, commonly called "red
spiders," are frequently seri-
ous pests. They are closely
related to the spiders, ticks
and scorpions. Mites are ex-
tremely small-1/50-inch or
less in length-and are soft-
bodied and oval-shaped. They
are reddish or yellowish with

dark spots. They have needle-
like mouth-parts with which
they puncture the leaf and
suck the plant sap and chlor-
ophyll, causing a bronzed or
stippled condition. Heavy in-
festations will cause the
leaves to drop prematurely.
Flower thrips (Fig. 12).-
Adult thrips are about 1/8-
inch in length. They are
slender insects, yellowish to
brownish in color, and have

bristle-like wings. For sev-
eral weeks during the spring
they migrate from the flowers
of weeds and grasses to the
roses. Infested buds fail to
open or the flowers are de-
formed. Thrips puncture the
plant tissue, suck the exuding
sap and deposit excrement,
causing spotting and discolor-
ation of the petals. Thrips are
very active and when alarmed
will turn up the tip of the ab-
domen as if to sting. Flowers
suspected of infestation
should be shaken over a sheet
of white paper to detect the

Scale Insects (Fig. 13). Sev-
eral species of scale insects-
including r o s e, dictyosper-
mum, soft brown and cottony
cushion scales-are frequent-
ly serious pests. Old stems
sometimes become encrusted
with the rose and dictyosper-
mum scales, while soft brown
and cottony cushion scales
prefer newer growth.
The adult female rose scale
is circular or oval when crowd-
ed. Its diameter varies from
1/10 to 1/8-inch. It is usually
white or dirty white and has a
dull yellowish exuvium or nip-
ple near the margin. The

Fig. 12.-Flower thrip injury. Note darkened areas near
base of petals and in center of flower.


Fig. 13.-A cottony-cushiony scale on the petiole under a leaf.
Lower left leaflet shows injury from a chewing insect-grasshop-
per or leaf beetle; lower right leaflet shows mechanical injury from
contact with thorns.

adult female dictyospermum
scale is similar but somewhat
smaller, grayish in color and
has a ringed nipple near the
center. The adult female soft
brown scale is oval, 1/10 to
1/16-inch in length. It is a
yellowish or greenish brown
color. The adult female cot-
tony cushion scale is brick red
or orange and the posterior
portion of the abdomen is cov-
ered with a loose, flutted,
white, cotton-like material. It
is about 1/3-inch in length.
Stink bugs and Plant bugs
(Figs. 14 and 15). These in-
sects, although seldom numer-
ous, are serious pests. They

have sucking mouthparts and
the front pair of wings is
thickened. The wings are
folded flat over the back when
at rest. Both the immature
and adult stages suck on the
buds and tender shoots. Feed-
ing on the shoot often causes
it to wilt and die while feed-
ing on the flowers causes dis-
coloration'of the petals.
Beetles and Grubs (Fig.
16). Both the immature and
adult stages -of beetles feed
on roses and both have chew-
ing mouthparts. The adult
beetles have a hard shell and
vary from 1/10 to more than
an inch in length. Usually


_a, I



Fig. 14.-Stinkbug feeding
causes deformed buds and flow-

Fig. 15.-Leaf footed plant
bug. Its feeding causes discol-
oration where the petals have
been punctured and malforma-
tion of the flower.


Fig. 16.-Beetle damage to rose bud.

adults feed on the foliage and
flowers while the larvae or
grubs feed on the roots. Many
beetles are beneficial and all
gardeners should learn to
recognize t h e s e beneficial
Caterpillars (Fig. 17). Cat-
erpillars are the immature
stage of moths and butterflies.
They have chewing mouth-
parts and are very destructive

during certain periods of the
year. The body is cylindrical
in shape and may be either
slender or robust. They have
three pairs of jointed, true
legs on the front and usually
four pairs of unjointed, soft,
fleshy projections called "pro-
legs" on the abdomen, with a
fifth pair at the end. The
prolegs have tiny hooks with
which it holds onto the twig

Fig. 17.-Caterpillar
injury to rose buds:
(A) young corn ear-
worm larvae and feed-
ing holes; (B) larval
feeding holes may ex-
tend to interior; (C)
portion of bud com-
pletely destroyed.

or flower. The corn earworm,
fall armyworm and measuring
worm feed on the flowers
while armyworms and cut-
worms attack the foliage.
Leafcutting Bees (Fig. 18).
These solitary hairy wasps are
responsible for the circles and
ovals cut from the margins of
rose foliage. They are me-
dium sized and usually black,
metallic blue or green in color.

The circular and oval pieces
of leaves are used in forming
thimble-shaped cells found in
hollowed out stems of pithy
plants, in holes in wood, and
sometimes in neglected gar-
den hoses. Upon completion
of the nest, the wasp deposits
provisions and places an egg
on the supply of food.
Stem Borers (Fig. 19). If
rose stems have been cut or

Fig. 18.-Leaf cutter bee in-
jury to foliage. Circular sec-
tions cut from the margin of a
leaflet by the adult bee are used
to line its egg nest.

Fig. 19.-Wasp injury to
rose canes which it uses to en-
case its egg nest: (A) top view
of a pruning cut in the stem
where the adult enters, forming
a tunnel by removing pith from
the center of the stem; (B) cut
away section of three stems
show short tunnels in each with
nests 2 to 4 inches below the
entry cut; (C) longer tunnels
are made in some canes with the
egg nest as much as two feet
below the entry cut.

damaged several species of
small wasps may tunnel into
the pith. The wasp constructs
a cell at the base of the tun-
nel. It then provisions the
nest with small flies and de-
posits eggs in the cell. When
the eggs hatch the young lar-
vae have a ready source of
food. Stems which have been
hollowed out appear healthy
for several weeks but eventu-
ally die. Treat the cut ends
of pruned canes with tree
wound paint to prevent infes-

Control Procedures
Spray equipment.-A satis-
factory, inexpensive sprayer

for use with a few bushes con-
sists of a weighted suction
foot which drops into a buck-
et, about four feet of hose,
and a trombone-action pump.
A two to five gallon tank, hand
pumped compressed air spray-
er is better (Fig. 20). These

sprayers should have a long-
reach hose and boom with an
angled or swivel nozzle. They
can be bought with a galva-
nized or stainless steel tank.
For easier cleaning, the wide
mouth tank is preferable.
Small sprayers should operate

at a minimum pressure of 60
pounds per-square-inch for
satisfactory results. Pres-
sures much lower than this
will not deliver the desired
fine uniform mist.
The most satisfactory gar-
den sprayers are the power-
driven piston-pump ty pes
(Fig. 21) which will deliver
100 to 200 pounds pressure,
and are equipped with 50-75
feet of pressure hose. Power
sprayers provide some type of
agitation for the solutions in
the tank, which is essential.
Small sprayers must be

Fig. 20.



shaken frequently while
spraying to keep wettable
powders uniformly suspend-
ed. The sprayer head on any
equipment should have an
angled or adjustable nozzle so
that the spray can be di-
rected upward, from near the
ground, to the under surface
of the foliage.

Fih 2I.-I'oer . home contructed unit (upper) utilizing garbage can
for tank with back-flow agitator; and (lower) Com-
mercial unit with 15 gallon tank.

There is considerable inter-
est in hose-on sprayers for
garden use. This equipment
is relatively inexpensive, and
easy to use and maintain.
While it is satisfactory for
applying soluble fertilizers,
soil drenches and fumigants,
it is not adequate for spray-
ing foliage. The nozzles pro-
vided and the pressure obtain-
able from a garden hose will
not produce a constant, uni-
form, fine spray.
Application Methods.-As
noted in the section on Rose
Diseases, black spot and
powdery mildew are major
problems in Florida. These
diseases can be controlled ef-
fectively by spraying. Black
spot should be prevented, not
cured; therefore, spraying
should be started as soon as
the first leaves appear after
planting and must be con-
tinued on a regular basis.
Other diseases occur inter-
mittently or sporadically.
They are described in the
hope that the gardener will
recognize the trouble and in-
itiate the control steps as re-
Control materials for in-
sects and mites can be com-
bined with the spray for black
spot, so that the problem is
mainly one of prompt recog-
nition of the pest, and addi-
tion of the proper insecticide
to the spray. The spray ap-
plication for insect control
should be repeated after 7 to
10 days in order to kill the

new hatch from eggs un-
harmed from previous spray-
Apply sprays in a very fine
mist. The plants should be
thoroughly covered, including
the canes and both top and
bottom surfaces of the leaves.
Spraying the ground around
the base of the plants is help-
ful, particularly if there are
fallen, diseased leaves there.
Start spraying at the bottom
of the bush with the spray
nozzle directed upward, and
work from side to side toward
the top. At the top, turn the
nozzle downward to finish
coating the upper surfaces of
the top leaves. There will be
enough fall-back from the
mist to cover the tops of fo-
liage low on the plants. If
feasible, spray in the morn-
ing while it is cool.
Follow the manufacturer's
directions for mixing spray
materials carefully. The in-
dicated amounts of wettable
powders should be accurately
measured or weighed and
placed in a small container.
Thoroughly mix just enough
water with the chemicals to
give a thin smooth paste or
slurry. While stirring, add
this mixture to the remainder
of the water needed. Rose
leaves, especially new growth,
are noticeably hard to wet.
To improve plant coverage,
add a small amount of a wet-
ting agent to the spray solu-
tion. Several commercial wet-
ting agents, such as Du-

Pont Spreader-Sticker, Ortho
Spreader-Sticker and Triton
B1956 are available. Remem-
ber: Use according to manu-
facturer's directions. Dreft,
Vel or similar detergents used
at the rate of 1/4 teaspoon per
gallon of spray mixture will
improve wetting.
When spraying is finished,
clean the equipment thorough-
ly and store in a dry place.
Discard any left-over spray
mixtures. Many materials
do not keep well (longer than
6 to 12 hours) after being
combined with water. Do not
use weed killers in rose-spray-
ing equipment. Even after
careful cleaning sufficient res-
idue may remain to cause ex-
tensive plant damage.
While insecticidal dusts
may be used for insect con-
trol where feasible, dusting
with fungicides generally has
not been satisfactory for dis-
ease control in Florida.
Chemical pesticides are a
necessary part of successful
rose culture. In general most
pesticides do cause some di-
rect injury to the plant. Some
chemicals may, under certain
conditions, cause severe leaf
injury (Fig. 22). When prop-
erly applied, this injury to
the plant is slight, and the
benefit to the plant resulting
from the control of the pest
organism is great.
Spray materials that con-
tain oil should be avoided.
These can cause severe injury
to rose leaves. New growth

turns black, resembling cold
damage. Compounds contain-
ing mercury will cause severe
injury; those containing cop-
per will injure foliage when
applied during cool weather.
Sulfur, applied when tempera-
tures are above 85 F, may
result in severe leaf drop.
The pesticides and methods
of application that are listed
in the Appendix on pages 51-
55 were selected considering
their safety to the user and
to the plant as well as their
effectiveness in controlling

Rabbits and Moles
Frequently, during the win-
ter months when the normal
food supply is limited, rabbits
cause considerable damage to
roses by cutting off tender
twigs or gnawing the canes
near the ground. To prevent
repeated injury place a screen
made of hardware cloth or
other suitable wire mesh
around the plants. Traps can
be used to capture them. A
commercial rabbit repellent
sprayed around the base of
the plants also is effective, but
has objectionable features.
Moles are found throughout
the state. Their diet is made
up almost entirely of insect
larvae and other animal mat-
ter; however, in searching for
food their constant digging
and tunneling beneath rose
bushes damages roots and ex-
poses them to air drying. Wa-

Fig. 22.-Chemical spray injury to foliage: (A) A superficial
blackening of areas on the upper surface of the leaf; (B) tip burn-
ing resulting from concentration of chemical in water droplets;
(C) leaf spotting and distortion.

ter applied to such plants will
run down the burrow and be
of little value to the plant.
These effects are especially in-
jurious to young plants. Wet-
ting and tamping soil to col-
lapse the burrows is a first aid
Trapping with harpoon and
choker traps is generally con-
sidered the most satisfactory
method of destroying moles.
Other methods involve using
poison gas and poison baits.
(See Experiment Station Cir-
cular S-86).

Four Keys to
Pesticide Safety

Mole activity has been re-
duced considerably when an
effective insecticide has been
applied to the soil before
planting to control soil in-
sects. Materials effective in
controlling soil insects include
aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin, and
DDT. The treatment also can
be applied as a drench when
preparing the soil for plant-
ing. The use of a soil fumi-
gant such as methyl bromide
before planting would also re-
duce the food supply and limit
mole burrowing.




LABELED CONTAINERS, away from food ,
or feed. Keep them out of the reach of chil.
dren, pets, and irresponsible people. /





Appendix I. Rose Varieties B)

Representing the wide rangt

I. TALL VARIETIES producing flowers that are suitable for
cutting. Allow at least 4 feet (preferably 5 feet) spacing
between plants.
Red medium or dark, red blend
Americana *El Capitan *Roundelay
Avon Happiness *Starfire
Better Times *John S. Armstrong Suspense
*Christian Dior Mirandy Tapestry
Chrysler Imperial Mister Lincoln Trade Wind
Red Glory (semi-dbl.)
Pink, pink blend, deep pink or light red

Anne Letts
Charlotte Armstrong
Chicago Peace
Countess Vandal
Dainty Bess (single)
Editor McFarland
First Love

Garden State
Helen Traubel
Honey Favorite
Kordes Perfecta
Michele Mielland
*Mission Bells
Pink Masterpiece
Pink Parfait

Yellow, yellow blend, apricot
Arlene Francis Garden Party
Bettina Golden Girl
Beaute Invitation
Champayne King's Ransom
Ebb Tide Lady Elgin
*Eclipse Lady Hillingdon
Faust (Dr. Faust)
White or near white
Blanche Mallerin Burnaby
K. A. Victoria
Mauve, lavender
Orchid Masterpiece Simone

Orange, orange blend, orange red

Aztec Malibu
Baccara Mojave
Hawaii Montezuma
*Heat Wave Orange Flame
Lucky Piece
*tall roses producing greatest number of blooms.

Pink Peace
*Queen Elizabeth
Red Radiance
Royal Highness
Snow Girl
South Seas
Tom Brenneman

Little Darling
McGredy's Sunset
Summer Sunshine
Town Crier
Vassar Centennial


Sterling Silver

San Francisco

Growth Habit and Flower Color

>f roses adapted to Florida

able as bush or tree forms for adding color in garden display.
Allow at least 3 feet spacing between plants.
Red medium or dark, red blend
Banzai Impr. Lafayette Red Pinocchio
Crimson Glory (semi-dbl.) Rumba
Garnette Lilli Marlene Valentine


Wild Fire

Pink, pink blend, deep
Belle Blonde Pink Chiffon
Bonnie Pink Pink Garnette
Fashionette Pink Rosette
Little Pink Pinocchio


Ivory Fashion

Lavender Girl


pink or light red
The Farmer's Wife

Yellow, yellow blend, apricot blend
Gold Cup Small Talk
Golden Garnette Rochester
White or near white
Sincera White Bouquet
Snowbird White Queen
Mauve, lavender
Lavender Princess Lilac Charm (single)
Orange, orange blend, orange red
Fusilier Ol
Ginger Sarabande (semi-dbl.)
Woburn Abbey

Producing heavy clusters of flowers
red: pink: color abbreviated:
Eutin Chuckles (semi-dbl.) Elizabeth of Glamis ob
Orange Triumph Daily Sketch Golden Salmon ob
Pink-a-boo Summer Snow w
Pinkie Violet Carson ob
The Fairy
Globe-form flowers in clusters
Mothersday Dick Koster Margo Koster ob
Dick Koster Fulgens Margo's Sister Snow White w


Trailing habit, suitable for ground covering,
for weeping-tree forms
Otto Linne Sea Foam

Appendix I. Rose varieties by growth habit and flower color
III. DWARF-SIZE VARIETIES suitable as bush or tree forms
for adding color in patio-size gardens, or for small scale
features in larger gardens. Allow at least 2 feet spacing
between plants.
red: pink: yellow: white:
Dwarfking Baby Betsy McCall Pigmy Gold Cinderella
Red Imp China Doll Yellow Doll
Scarlet Gem Marilyn mauve:
Midget orange: Purple Elf
Rosada Coralin
IV. CLIMBING (Cl.) VARIETIES that need to be trained on
a fence or trellis for support. Allow at least 6 feet (pre-
ferably 8 feet) spacing between plants.
red: pink: yellow: white:
Don Juan Blossomtime Cl. Circus Cl. Summer Sn
Clair Matin Golden Showers White Dawn
Cl. Picture Royal Gold Cl. Snowbird
C1. Pinkie Cr6puscule
New Dawn Rave d'Or
Cl. Maman Cochet
Older Climbers:
Eugene E. Marlitt
(Rock Rose)
V. OLDER BUSH VARIETIES that have remained popular in
Florida. Some of these are known by various local names.
They survive when care is neglected, but like the newer
varieties they are seen at their best only when kept free
of leaf diseases. Allow at least 4 feet spacing between plants.
Cecil Brunner (Sweetheart rose) light pink
Duchess de Brabant (Guava-scented rose) medium pink
La Marne (French sweetheart rose) (semi-dbl.) light pink
Louis Phillippe (The Florida rose) light red
Mrs. Dudley Cross (The thornless rose) yellow blend
Rosa chinensis viridiflora (The green rose) green
The Bride-white or light pink
William R. Smith-pink blend
VI. VARIETAL DIFFERENCE in pest susceptibility. Each
rose pest is likely to appear first on certain host varieties.
Very susceptible Very susceptible Very attractive
to blackspot to powdery mildew to mites
Most of the tall Christian Dior All globe-forms
varieties group I; Crimson Glory in group II
some in other groups Granada Golden Salmon

Sterling Silver
Summer Snow

The Fairy


Appendix II

Control of the Common Diseases of Roses

Disease Description Fungicide sprays Amount/gallon Remarks
of water

BLACK Black spots or patches
SPOT with irregular or feathery
margins on leaves. Leaves
turn yellow and fall from

POWDERY Whitish irregular blotches
MfLDEW on leaves, twigs and flow-
er buds. Rolling or dis-
tortion of leaf edge. In-
fected areas covered with
powdery growth.

Dithane M-45
(80%) wettable
Maneb (80%)
wettable powder
Phaltan (75%)
wettable powder
Daconil 2787 (75%)
wettable powder

Actidione PM

Karathane (25%)
wettable powder


Phaltan (75%)
Other black spot

1 level table-

2 level teaspoons-

1 level table-

2 level teaspoons-

2 level table-

% to 1 teaspoon-

1 level table-

Remove infected and fallen leaves. Spray
at weekly intervals; use sprayer that will
produce fine mist and adequate pressure
for covering both leaf surfaces thorough-
ly and uniformly. More frequent appli-
cations may be needed during the "rainy"
season when black spot is most trouble-

Spray at weekly intervals for disease
clean-up or during periods of heavy black
spot infection. Biweekly applications are
adequate during dry weather or when
black spot infection is not heavy.

Effective as a mildew eradicant. Can
be used to clean up heavy infection. 4
to 6 applications at weekly intervals
usually sufficient. Repeat if mildew
again becomes a problem.

Spray at weekly intervals when mildew
is a problem. May be combined with
most other sprays.

Gives good to fair control if used regu-
larly and before mildew builds up. Will
not clean up heavy infections.

Appendix II (Continued)

CERCO- Brown spots with gray
SPORA centers, regular margins.

DIEBACK Blackening of stems and
dying back from tip or
pruning cut. Sometimes
wilting of shoots.
CANKER Localized diseased areas
on stem. Gray lesions
with reddish, regular mar-
gins or indefinite light
brown areas.
CROWN Somewhat rounded galls,
GALL with rough, irregular sur-
faces on stems near
ground line, on roots, oc-
casionally on aerial parts.

Dithane M-45
(80%) wettable
Maneb (70%)

1 level table-

1 tablespoonful

This disease is most serious on poorly
grown plants. Fungicides only partially
effective. Improve growing conditions.
Regular spraying for black spot usually
Remove by pruning, cutting well below
infected wood. Paint cut with pruning
compound. Improve growing conditions.

Same as DIEBACK. A regular spray
program for black spot control will keep
these diseases in check.

Control by exclusion. Plant only gall-
free new plants. Remove infected plant,
dig out surrounding soil and replace with
new. Fumigate areas known to be in-
fested before replanting. Fumigation
will also kill weed seed. See directions
for methyl bromide use under section
on nematode control. Use plants grafted
on R. Fortuniana rootstock.

Rose spraying should be done carefully. Follow recommendations. Measure pesticides accurately.
Plant injury may occasionally occur from the use of a pesticide. Some varieties are more sensitive than others. If injury is excessive, reduce pesti-'
cide rate or try other materials.
A few drops of wetting agent or spreader-sticker may be added to a spray solution to improve wetting of plant foliage and distribution of"
pesticide. Do not add wetting agents to Phaltan sprays.
Most fungicides and insecticides recommended can be combined in a single spray.

Appendix II (Continued)

(use only
ONE of
these during Formulation
any single

(Toxic to hu-
mans as well
as plants).



V-C 13

When to apply
to the soil

Liquid in Four weeks
pressurized BEFORE plant-
containers. ing, allowing
time for traces
of bromide to
escape from


50 '** by


At time of

After planting,
once each year,
during March
or April.

After planting,
once each year,
during March
or April.

Preparation for
material to soil

Form an air-tight
tent covering the
area to be treat-
ed by burying
edges of a dur-
able plastic film
that is supported
in the center.
No preparation
of material is re-
quired. Sprinkle
granules over
area and rake
into soil.
Mix required
amount with wa-
ter in a sprink-
ling can and
drench over en-
tire area.
Mix required
amount with wa-
ter in a sprink-
ling can and
drench over en-
tire area.

sq. ft. sur-
face of soil

1 pound


The liquid is injected under the plastic
tent using equipment sold by manu-
facturer of this pesticide. The liquid
vaporized within the enclosed air
space, and the gas moves into the soil.
The tent is removed 24 hours after ap-

5 ounces This material is effective if mixed
with soil at time of planting. It is
less effective than soil drench treat-
ment for older plants.

3 tea-

5 tea-

Irrigate before and
is applied to carry
the root area.

Irrigate before and
is applied to carry
the root area.

after soil drench
the material into

after soil drench
the material into

*DBCP-Dibromochloropropane-available under the following trade names: Nemagon (Shell Chemical Co.), Fumazone (Dow Chemical Co.)
**Most commonly available formulations.



Concen- gallon
Pest Description Insecticide* tration** of water Remarks

Flower thrips


Scale Insects:
Soft brown,

Lygus bugs

Feed is flowers;
cause spotting and
discoloration of

Adults feed by
sucking on succu-
lent new growth.
Cause distortion of
flower buds and
young leaves.

Appressed to older
stems. Feed with
sucking mouth-
parts. Found on
younger stems and
Suck flowers; cause
spotting of petals.





43.5% E.C. 1 teaspoon Most prevalent in late spring and
ear'y summer when they migrate
from wild hosts to cultivated plants.
18.6% E.C. 2 teaspoons May have to treat weekly or more
frequently during this period. Fre-
25% W.P. 1 tablespoon quently have second "peak" in the

43.5% E.C.

57% E.C.



Most troublesome in early spring,
although they may be found any

25% W.P. 1 tablespoon

43.5% E.C. 1 teaspoon Seldom very serious when plants are
treated for controlling other insects
and mites. May be present at al-
57% E.C. 2 teaspoons most any time of year.

43% E.C. 1 teaspoon When only a few plants or insects
are involved, they can be hand-

50% W.P.

25% W.P.

2 tablespoons

1 tablespoon

Appendix 11 (Continued)


Pest Description Insecticide* Concen- of water Remarks
tration** (level
Caterpillars: Some moth larvae DDT 50% W.P. 2 tablespoons Most troublesome on flower buds.
Corn ear- eat holes in flower or Treat promptly as small larvae are
worm, buds; other kinds Sevin 50% W.P. 2 tablespoons much easier to kill than large ones;
Tussock feed on foliage, or occasional specimens can be hand
moth cat- Lindane 25% W.P. 1 tablespoon picked.
erpillar Gauze saturated with spray material
can be fastened over individual
flower buds to prevent moths from
attaching eggs to developing buds.
Flower beetles, Adults feed on fo- DDT 50% W.P. 2 tablespoons Occasional specimens can be hand
Leaf beetles liage and eat holes or picked.
in flower buds. Sevin 50% W.P. 2 tablespoons
Chlordane 44% E.C. 2 teaspoons
Two spotted Cause bronze dis- Aramite 15% W.P. 2 tablespoons Weeds and annual flowers are also
mite coloration and light or hosts for spider mites. Destroy or
Red spiders stippled areas on Kelthane 18.5% E.C. 1 teaspoon treat neighboring hosts to prevent
leaf; tiny animals or reinfestation.
barely visible to Trithion 46% E.C. 1 teaspoon Usually feed on lower leaf surface,
naked eye; usually or sprays should be so directed. Make
on lower side of Tedion 25% W.P. 1 tablespoon 4 applications 3 to 4 days apart,
leaf; silk strands or alternating 2 miticidal materials
present when nu- when a single material fails to give
merous. control.
Dimethoate 43.5% E.C. 1 teaspoon Use two teaspoons when mite popu-
(Cygon) lation is heavy.
Meta Systox-R 23.5% S.C. 1 teaspoon

*These compounds are sold under several trade names. To reduce the number of sprays applied, insecticides and fungicides can be combined in a
single spray. Several general purpose mixtures are available which contain 3 or more of the above insecticides and miticides.
**W.P. = Wettable Powder E.C. = Emulsifiable Concentrate (Liquid). The most commonly available formulations are given. If the formulation
applied is more concentrated (higher percentage), use proportionally smaller measures for each gallon of water.
tA wetting agent should be added for all wettable powders (W.P.). Emulsifiable concentrates (E.C.) contain wetting agent.

Appendix 11 (Continued)




Professional training in scientific FLORI-
CULTURE can be obtained at the University
of Florida College of Agriculture. You can
prepare for a rewarding future as grower,
researcher, teacher, consultant, greenhouse
manager or other positions in a challenging
high income specialized field concerned with
the most scientific physiological and bio-
chemical aspects of plant growth.

There's a career
in agriculture for you
For further information, write
Dean M. A. Brooker, College of Agriculture
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida

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