Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 The breeding herd
 The breeding program
 Care of bred sow and gilts
 Care of sow and pigs - farrowing...
 Feeding the sow after farrowin...
 Marking of pigs
 Weaning pigs
 Young growing hogs make economical...
 Feeds for hogs
 Mineral mixtures
 Feeding fattening hogs
 Common diseases of swine
 External parasites
 Internal parasites
 Prevent losses

Group Title: Bulletin
Title: Swine production in Florida
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00094955/00001
 Material Information
Title: Swine production in Florida
Series Title: Bulletin - Florida Agricultural Extension Service ; 138
Physical Description: 35 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Sheely, Walter J.
University of Florida -- Agricultural Extension Service
Donor: unknown ( endowment ) ( endowment )
Publisher: Agricultural Extension Service
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1948
Copyright Date: 1948
Subject: Swine -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics."
General Note: "A revision of Bulletin 111."
General Note: "December, 1948."
Statement of Responsibility: revised by Walter J. Sheely.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00094955
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 82275387

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Front Matter
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    The breeding herd
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    The breeding program
        Page 11
    Care of bred sow and gilts
        Page 12
    Care of sow and pigs - farrowing to weaning
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Feeding the sow after farrowing
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Marking of pigs
        Page 17
    Weaning pigs
        Page 18
    Young growing hogs make economical gains
        Page 19
    Feeds for hogs
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Mineral mixtures
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Feeding fattening hogs
        Page 25
    Common diseases of swine
        Page 26
        Page 27
    External parasites
        Page 28
    Internal parasites
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Prevent losses
        Page 34
        Page 35
Full Text

Bulletin 138

(A revision of Bulletin 111)

(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)

Swine Production in



- .I I; ~T' ,j
.. .-..

Fig. 1.-Making hogs of themselves.

Single copies free to Florida residents upon request to

December, 1948


J. THOS. GURNEY, Chairman, Orlando
J. HENSON MARKHAM, Jacksonville
THOSE. W. BRYANT, Lakeland

N. B. JORDAN, Quincy
W. F. POWERS, Secretary, Tallahassee


J. HILLIS MILLER, Ph.D., President of the University'
H. HAROLD HUME, D.Sc., Provost for Agriculture'
H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., Director of Extension
MARSHALL O. WATKINS, M.Agr., Assistant to the Director

Agricultural Demonstration Work, Gainesville
CLYDE BEALE, A.B.J., Associate Editor'
RUBY NEWHALL, Administrative Manager'
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent
K. S. MCMULLEN, B.S.A., District Agent
H. S. MCLENDON, B.A., Soil Conservationist
R. S. DENNIS, B.S.A., Executive Officer, P. & M. Admin.2
R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boyis' Club Agent
A. L. SHEALY, D.V.M., Animal Industrialist'
C. W. REAVES, B.S.A., Dairy Husbandman
N. R. MEHRHOF, M.AGR., Poultry Husbandman'
WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Animal Husbandman
F. S. PERRY, B.S.A., Asst. Poultry Husbandman
A. W. O'STEEN, B.S.A., Supervisor, Egg-Laying Test, Chipley
L. T. NIELAND, Farm Forester
C. V. NOBLE, PH.D., Agricultural Economist'
CHARLES M. HAMPSON, M.S., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management1
D. E. TIMMONS, M.S.A., Economist in Marketing
F. W. PARVIN, B.S.A., Assistant Economist
JOHN M. JOHNSON, B.S.A., Agricultural Engineer
FRED P. LAWRENCE, B.S.A., Acting Citriculturist
W. W. BROWN, B.S.A., Asst. Boys' Club Agent
A. M. PETTIS, B.S.A., Farm Electrification Specialist'
JOHN D. HAYNIE, B.S.A., Apiculturist
V. L. JOHNSON, Rodent Control Specialist2
F. S. JAMISON, Ph.D., Vegetable Crop Specialist'

Home Demonstration Work, Tallahassee
MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., State Agent
RUBY McDAVID, District Agent
ETHYL HOLLOWAY, B.S., District Agent
MRS. EDITH Y. BARRUS, B.S.H.E., District Agent
ANNA MAE SIKES, M.S., Specialist in Nutrition
JOYCE BEVIS, M.A., Clothing Specialist
BONNIE J. CARTER, B.S., Home Improvement Specialist
GRACE I. NEELY, M.S., Asso. Economist in Food Conservation
LUCILLE RUSS, M.S.P.H., Rural Health Improvement Specialist

Negro Extension Work, Tallahassee
FLOY BRITT, B.S.H.E., Negro District Agent
J. A. GRESHAM, B.S.A., Negro District Agent

1 Cooperative, other divisions. U. of F.
2 In cooperation with U. S.


SUMMARY ...... ...........- .. .............. ----. -............. 4
INTRODUCTION ........................................................................... ... 5
FOR ECONOMICAL PRODUCTION ................................................... .................... 7
THE BREEDING HERD .................-----------..... -----... .............. .. 7
The Boar ............-.. --............----.............................. 8
The Sow .............. ................... ......... ................. 9
Feeding and Growing Out Gilts ......-............. .. .....--- -....--... 10
THE BREEDING PROGRAM .................. ............................ ......... ............. 11
CARE OF BRED SOW AND GILTS ........................................ ......... ......... 12
CARE OF SOW AND PIGS FARROWING TO WEANING .....................-.............. 13
FEEDING THE SOW AFTER FARROWING ............................. ... ................. 15
CARE OF P IGS ............................. ......................................... ........... .......... 15
MARKING OF PIGS ...----.. ............ --- --.......-- .................................. 17
W EANING PIGS ................--.. .. ... .. -- ....... .................. 17
Growing Out Weaned Pigs ...........--...-......-- ...-....--.......----...........- 18
Cost of Pigs at W meaning Time .................................... ..................... 18
YOUNG GROWING HOGS MAKE ECONOMICAL GAINS .................................... 19
FEEDS FOR H OGS ............... .............. .................. ..................................... 20
MINERAL MIXTURES ....-..-..-- --.... ....... -...--....- ........- -...-. ............ 22
SHADE AND W ATER ................................ ......... -...................-. 22
FEEDING FATTENING HOGS ..............-------- --..--............-............--.. 25
Grain ......................... ...- .................. -. .. ..... ... 25
Protein Supplement -------.................... ...................... 26
COMMON DISEASES OF SWINE .................................................... 26
Hog Cholera ........-- --....--............ -------....----.. --....-.------..... 26
EXTERNAL PARASITES .......... .. ...................................... ...................... 28
H og Lice ..................... .......... ................. ......-...-......... 28
Mange ..----........- -- ----- ........ ..... ........... .............--..-- 28
INTERNAL PARASITES ....................-..... ... ........... .................... 29
Round W orms .......---................- .....................--......... ......... 29
Controlling Kidney W orms ...................--- .....-- ................... 32
PREVENT LOSSES ..............................-----.................... 34
M ARKETIN G ....... .................................................................................... 35

For success with swine in Florida, it is important to raise
healthy pigs. Raising healthy pigs on grazing and fattening
crops in a field free of parasites reduces death loss in young
pigs, increases the number of pigs raised per sow, and produces
maximum pork for the food consumed. Raising healthy pigs
embraces the following recommendations:
1. Purebred boars used on good high-grade meat-type sows,
and farrowing time arranged to agree with crop maturity and
2. Sows farrowed in fields that have been cultivated in crops
since hogs were on them last.
3. Pigs protected from disease and parasites by keeping them
away from old hog lots and water holes and furnished abundant
supply of clean water.
4. Sows and pigs run on grazing crops supplemented with
corn and protein feeds.
5. A mineral mixture furnished for sows and pigs. Shade
is essential.
6. Grazing crops such as oats, millet, soybeans and crimson
clover for winter and spring grazing; peanuts, corn, sweet po-
tatoes and chufas to be provided for fattening.
7. Pigs to be weaned when eight to 10 weeks old and all ani-
mals kept vaccinated against cholera. Pigs castrated while
8. The starving period in the spring and early summer to
be prevented by grazing oats, rape, millet or other crops dur-
ing this period.
9. Weaned pigs kept growing on forage crops and furnished
with plenty of shade and supplemental feeds. Spring pigs
should be ready to go on fattening crops of early peanuts and
corn to finish out for August and September market.
10. Raising pigs healthy and free from parasites reduces feed
costs 15 to 30% and saves 20 to 40% more pigs per litter. Two
sows will do the work of three and pigs will be ready for market
30 days earlier, if kept healthy and free from parasites.

Swine Production in Florida


Hogs are grown in many counties of Florida. The main pork
producing areas are in the counties producing corn and peanuts
(Fig. 2). By gathering their own feed, hogs save labor and
utilize crops of corn, peanuts, sweet potatoes and chufas and
glean other fields of feed that would otherwise be wasted. Hogs
will adapt themselves to almost any situation in which they
are found, from the open range and marshes to the well-balanced
organized farm.
While the swine industry in Florida is small compared with
that of the nation, it furnishes a part of the food supply for
nearly all farm families, and a market for corn, peanuts and

. COUNT IE. wAVINm, THAT 10,000

COu,.)w- HAV'IN MOIL,; THAN 15.000
"OQIS A.0 0.. j^P 1. qSa

-ouec-- D.PT --rrCOMMfC&
Ci,. u .5 ACBJCULTUg4, 1q45.

Fig. 2.-Hogs and feed crops go together in
Florida, as elsewhere.

Florida Cooperative Extension

other grazing crops. It also is a cash crop of considerable
Florida grows approximately 1,000,000 hogs per year. It
is believed that this number could be materially increased by
reducing the annual death loss of pigs, by increasing the num-
ber of pigs per litter, and by otherwise cutting the cost of
production. Each year 25 to 30% (215,000 to 250,000) of the
pigs farrowed die before weaning time. This loss is caused by
accidents, disease and parasite infestations and starvation.
Low prices that hogs command some years make it impera-
tive that the farmer decrease cost of production if he hopes to
make pork production an important and economical part of his
farm program. Cutting the cost of production operations is
highly essential if Florida farmers expect to make a profit on
hogs during periods of low prices. They must get the maximum
pounds of pork per sow and per acre if they desire hog produc-
tion to be an economic business of the farm.
Any good plan of economical swine production must be simple
and practical, although it must consider breeding, feeding, sani-
tation, fencing and management. It should include:
Adjusting hog numbers to feed supply and home and market

Fig. 3.-An example of the intermediate type hog.

Swine Production in Florida

Prevention of spring and early summer starving period.
Controlled breeding-having sows farrow at the most con-
venient season.
Raising healthy pigs on grazing crops in fields free of para-
Controlling disease and parasites and thus saving pigs.
Furnishing protein and mineral supplements.
Providing adequate shelter and necessary fencing.

For Economical Production
Well-bred breeding animals of intermediate type (Fig. 3)
are essential for profitable hog production, in both purebred
and grade herds. A good meat hog will have a good sire and
a good dam. Sows that farrow and wean large litters of pigs
cut cost of production. Healthy pigs free of internal and ex-
ternal parasites make faster and more profitable gains. Inocu-
lating all hogs and pigs against cholera saves animals, feed and
money. Preventing the spring and early summer straving
period with grazing crops pays in pounds of pork.
High yields of feed and grazing crops per acre, and hogs
themselves harvesting such crops, lower cost of production.
Experiments and successful farmers have proven that hogs
make most economical gains when given access to green graz-
ing crops. Home-grown feeds are the basis of economical hog
production. Protein and mineral supplements are also essential
to profitable swine production. '
Hogs bought from stockyards should be inoculated for cholera
and kept in separate pens for two weeks before being mixed
with the other hogs.

The Breeding Herd
The breed that suits one's fancy is the one to use. Special
points, such as set of ears, color markings, shape of head and
various other characteristics (that distinguish one breed from
another) are of minor importance in commercial hog produc-
tion, when "pounds of pork are the goal." More important are
inherent ability to utilize feed in making economical gains and
the tendency to farrow and raise large litters. Of equal im-
portance is the type which finishes at an early age (into No. 1,
180 to 225 pounds) and produces a carcass which will cut out
into hams, shoulder, loin and bacon demanded by consumer.
These are the desired characteristics transmitted from one

Florida Cooperative Extension

generation to another and should be considered when selecting
boars and gilts for the breeding herd.

The Boar
The boar should be a purebred (Fig. 4). He should be of
the approved medium or intermediate meat type and a good
representative of his breed. This holds true whether he is to
be used on purebred sows of the same breed, or grade sows,
or for crossing on another breed. The purebred boar is more
potent than the grade, crossbred or scrub and will transmit
more good qualities to his offspring than either grade or cross-
bred. The boar should come from a prolific line that constantly
farrows and weans large litters of healthy pigs. "The boar
is half the herd," and should be treated accordingly. One litter
of pigs, even when sold for pork, may easily pay the .difference
between a poor, mediocre boar and a good one.
The boar should be of medium or intermediate type, able to
transmit rapid gaining qualities and sire pigs that will finish
for market at 180 to 225 pounds. He should be well grown
for his age and should be exceptionally well developed in the
region of the higher priced cuts-the hams, loins, and sides.
The hams should extend well down toward the hock and be

Fig. 4.-This is a desirable type boar for the breeding herd.

Swine Production in Florida

long, deep, wide, thick and heavily muscled. The sides should
be long, deep, even and free from wrinkles.
The herd boar should not be disturbed unnecessarily nor
allowed to run with the sows during breeding season. The
breeding pen should be convenient to his lot. He should be
kept on green grazing crops or pasture and fed sufficient grains
and protein supplement to keep him in a healthy, thrifty con-
dition. The grain ration should be increased two weeks before
the breeding season. Any one of the following grain mixtures
can be used:
1. Corn ................................................... 90 pounds
Fish meal or tankage ....................... 10 pounds
2. Corn ................................ .... 90 pounds
Fish meal or tankage ....................... 5 pounds
Cottonseed meal or peanut meal.... 5 pounds
3. Corn ............................. .... 60 pounds
Shorts ..................... ................ 30 pounds
Fish meal or tankage ...................... 3 pounds
Peanut meal ..................................- .. 4 pounds
Cottonseed meal .................................. 4 pounds
Mineral mixture should be accessible at all times.
A bountiful supply of pure water must be accessible to the
boar if he is to be kept in fine breeding condition. Shade dur-
ing hot weather, and shelter and bedding for bad weather, are
necessary for the boar's comfort and wellbeing.
Growing Out the Young Boar.-From weaning to about 100
pounds, young boars may be fed by self-feeder. From then
until the boar is eight months old give a liberal ration but not
heavy feed and furnish plenty of green grazing crops. The
following is a satisfactory concentrate mixture: 60 pounds
corn, 30 pounds ground oats, 5 pounds tankage, 5 pounds cotton-
seed meal or peanut meal.
The boar should not be used for breeding until he is about
eight months old and then only one service a day. In this way he
can serve 12 to 15 sows per season.

The Sow
Whether for the production of slaughter hogs or for purebred
breeding stock, the type is of supreme importance. The sow
and gilts should possess the type and conformation that pro-
motes economical pork production. The medium or intermediate
type (Fig. 5) usually will meet these requirements and be the
most profitable to keep. This type has good length of body,
medium length of legs, and large but not coarse bone. The

Florida Cooperative Extension

whole form of the ideal brood sow or gilt denotes smoothness,
quality and femininity, and well developed udders with at least
six teats on each side. Sows of this type usually farrow large
litters, are good milkers, and when bred to the right type boars
produce pigs which make economical gains and yield most de-
sirable carcasses. The sow or gilt that is to be placed in the
herd should come from a line of breeding that produces and
weans large litters of healthy pigs. Purebreds for foundation
sows should be of known ancestry. The cost of a sow's keep
on the farm is approximately the same, regardless of the num-
ber of pigs she raises; therefore, the more good pigs she raises
the more profitable she will be. As in the case of the boar, only
strong, thrifty individuals well grown for their age should be
To insure continued herd improvement the farmer should
look over his pig crop each year and select a few gilts from his
best sows that will be an improvement in the herd. Select gilts
that have at least six teats on each side.
Feeding and growing out gilts from weaning to breeding age
may be the same as for young boars. Gilts should have access

Fig. 5.-This sow is of a desirable type.

-VI~^B'^-K-- ^

Swine Production in Florida 11

to green grazing crops and be supplied with a liberal ration con-
taining protein and minerals. Some of the protein should be
from animals and may be supplied from tankage or fish meal,
supplemented with cottonseed or peanut meal. Gilts should
develop bone and muscle and attain good growth rather than
get too fat.

M. .5

S.'" .. ;.'

Fig. 6.-Brood sows that bring prolific litters are desirable.

The Breeding Program
Each sow should produce two litters of pigs per year to cut
cost per pig and give higher return on investment. It is more
convenient to handle together pigs that are about the same age
and weight. This can be accomplished by breeding the sows
so $hey will farrow near the same time. Late winter and early
spring, and late summer and early fall, are desirable times for
sows to farrow.
Well developed gilts can be bred at eight or nine months of
age. The breeding schedule should be arranged so that the pigs
will be farrowed at seasons best suited to the method of farm-
ing and yet reach market weight as near the season's peak of
prices as possible. Since hogs are fattened in Florida by "hog-
ging off" such crops as corn, peanuts, chufas, oats and sweet
potatoes, the breeding period should meet the average dates of
maturity of these crops.
Pigs farrowed in January and February can finish out on
early corn and peanuts for fall market. Pigs farrowed in
August can be finished for spring market on runner peanuts,
chufas, corn and sweet potatoes.

Florida Cooperative Extension

The period of gestation is 112 to 115 days. The chart in
Fig. 7 shows breeding and marketing cycle. On this basis
farmers can figure when to breed the sows.

Fig. 7.-Diagram showing breeding, farrowing and marketing cycle.
Outer circle shows months, middle circle shows cycle for spring litter, and
inner circle shows cycle for fall litter.

Care of Bred Sows and Bred Gilts
The success of the "pig crop" depends largely on the manage-
ment and feeding of the sows and gilts during pregnancy. If
they are not properly conditioned for farrowing the pigs will
not get a good start and consequently cannot make the growth
and profit they should.
Bred sows and gilts should not be fed with the hogs being
fattened for the market but should be carried in a fair condi-
tion of flesh-not too fat and not too poor. They may be fed
the same grain and protein mixture as the boar. The pregnant

Swine Production in Florida

animals must be in good condition at farrowing time so as to
have a reserve of flesh and vitality for the subsequent suckling
period. This condition can be controlled by the amount of grain
fed per day. Bred sows and gilts should have access to green
grazing crops and each animal should receive 1/4 to 1/2 pound
of protein per day.
Bred sows can be used to clean up fields where fattening hogs
have hogged down the crops. Mineral mixture and water should
be provided at all times. Shade and shelter are essential to
protect animals from the weather.

Care of Sow and Pigs Farrowing to Weaning
A few days before farrowing time sows should be moved to
clean pastures or fields and furnished with clean water and
good shelter. These fields should be free of old hog wallows and
other sources of worm infestations and parasites. Sufficient
grazing crops should be supplied as grazing for the sow and
pigs. The A-shaped hog house made on runners (Fig. 8) or
a colony house with side rails to prevent mashing pigs (Fig. 9)

Fig. 8.-The A-shaped hog house is desirable for use with sow and
pigs and grazing shotes.

Florida Cooperative Extension

Fig. 9.-The colony house is constructed on skids in two five-foot sec-
tions which may be transported easily. Three stove bolts are used to hold
the tin roofing securely where it overlaps in the center of the house.

will serve the purpose. These houses can be floored with clay
or planks. Very little bedding is needed at farrowing time.
Most sows have no trouble farrowing. Therefore, during far-
rowing time the sow should not be disturbed. Meddling may
injure both the sow and pigs. The sow should have all the
fresh water she desires at farrowing time but should not be
fed for 24 hours after farrowing.

Fig. 10.-Interior of farrowing house. Note the guard rails around the
edge of the pen for the protection of the pigs.

r: -~ 1Ea 'I

Swine Production in Florida

Feeding the Sow After Farrowing
Sows should be on half rations until the pigs are one or two
weeks old. After pigs are two weeks old the sows should be
fed daily on all the grain they will clean up. Sows and pigs
should be on grazing crops (Fig. 11).

'. ", .

Fig. 11.-Sows and pigs like a winter pasture of oats.

Since the main purpose in commercial hog production is to
sell home-grown feeds to the best advantage, sows may be given
any one of the following rations, using home-grown feeds and
sufficient protein supplement to balance.
1. Corn 90 pounds
Tankage or fish meal-5 pounds
Cottonseed meal or peanut meal-5 pounds
2. Hog down corn and furnish with protein supplement in self-
3. Hog off oats and furnish each sow % pound protein supplement
of equal parts tankage and peanut meal.
4. Ground feed-corn 60 pounds
Ground feed-oats 30 pounds
Tankage or fish meal-5 pounds
Cottonseed meal or peanut meal-5 pounds

Care of Pigs
Young pigs begin to eat when they are two or three weeks
old. Since pigs make their most economical gains and growth
during the suckling period, and since well developed pigs receive
less setback at weaning time than poorly developed pigs, they

Florida Cooperative Extension

should be creep-fed (Fig. 12) on a balanced grain ration (corn
and protein supplement). Pigs should be furnished this kind of
feed from the time they begin to eat until they are weaned.
Where several litters of pigs are fed together, a small self-
feeder (Fig. 13) can be used to a decided advantage.

Fig. 12.-A creep should be provided for the young pigs as soon as
they begin to eat.

Fig. 13.-A small self-feeder for pigs.

Swine Production in Florida

If pigs injure each other or the sow's teats with their sharp
teeth, these little teeth can be removed by breaking them off
just above the gum with a small pair of pliers.
All boar pigs except those selected for breeding purposes
should be castrated when four or five weeks old. Pigs should
be kept in clean quarters and carefully watched to prevent
screwworm infestation until the wound heals.

Marking Young Pigs
Purebred pigs kept for breeding should be marked to keep
breeding records correct. Where there are several litters the pigs
in each litter should be marked by a V-shaped cut in the edge of
the tip of the ears (Fig. 14) and a record should be kept in
the herd book. A hand notcher can be purchased from supply
houses. This notcher will make a clearly defined notch about
1/4 to 3/8 inch deep and provide easy identification. Each notch
in the ear represents a number (Fig. 14) to identify the pigs
in each litter.


40 50 5 4

30 3
2 i0 I 2

Fig. 14.-A method of marking pigs with ear notches. (After Day: Pro-
ductive Swine Husbandry, Lippincott.)

Weaning Pigs
Weaning time is a critical period in the life of a pig. The
proper age to wean pigs depends largely on how they have been
fed, their size and vigor. Well developed, healthy pigs may
be weaned at eight weeks, otherwise weaning time should be
deferred until the pigs are 10 weeks old. In weaning pigs,
separate them from the sows and feed them three times daily-

Florida Cooperative Extension

morning, noon, and night-on corn and protein supplement.
The following makes a good feed:
Cracked corn 60 pounds
Shorts or oats 35 pounds
Tankage or fish meal 5 pounds or
Peanut meal 5 pounds

Feed troughs should be kept clean and free from left-over sour
feed. Shelter, plenty of fresh water, and an abundance of green
grazing should be provided.
Growing Out Weaned Pigs.-Pigs make the most economical
gain and growth when they have all the green grazing crops
they can handle. Growing pigs on full feed of grain or fatten-
ing crops should be supplied with mineral and protein supple-
ment. Green grazing crops furnish a high quality protein that
is readily assimilated by the pigs. Consequently, pigs on green
grazing crops require less grain and less protein supplement
for 100 pounds gain.
Cost of Pigs at Weaning.-This cost depends on the number
of pigs weaned in the litter. The cost of boar service and the
feed cost of keeping the sow on the farm are approximately
the same, regardless of the number of pigs she farrows.
Table 1 shows that the number of pigs raised per litter is a
determining factor in the feed and money cost of pigs at wean-
ing age.

(From Circular 68, Alabama Extension Service.)

2 5 5.0 40.0 31.5 895.8 448 9.36
02 W44 4 0

5 p g Q 6 w6
1 a2 41 0g

2 5 5.0 40.0 31.5 895.8 448 9.36
3 14 5.4 55.1 31.8 872.70 291 6.08
4 16 7.1 56.3 34.8 904.04 226 4.72
5 22 8.3 60.2 28.9 950.82 190 3.97
6 22 9.2 65.2 31.4 920.34 153 3.21
7 33 8.3 84.3 27.0 952.24 136 2.84
8 15 9.0 88.9 27.4 948.28 119 2.48
9 13 9.7 92.8 26.5 968.10 110 2.29

Corn @ $1.13 per bushel; wheat shorts @ $38.00 per ton; and tankage @ $69.00 per ton.

Swine Production in Florida

The above table shows:
6 sows raising 4 pigs per litter raise 24 pigs on 5,424.24
pounds of feed.
6 sows raising 6 pigs per litter raise 36 pigs on 5,522.04
pounds of feed.
6 sows raising 7 pigs per litter raise 42 pigs on 5,713.44
pounds of feed.
On this basis, 36 pigs cost only 97.8 pounds of feed more than
the 24 pigs.
Some sows consistently farrow and raise large litters of pigs,
while other sows, because of inheritance and the lack of the
mother instinct, raise small litters. Therefore, it is important
to keep sows that raise large litters and to select from their
pigs the gilts to replace the sows in the herd.
Sows and gilts that have had green grazing crops, have been
furnished with enough grain to keep them in medium flesh, and
supplied with protein supplement and mineral mixture, will
farrow larger and stronger pigs and thus cut down on pig losses.

Young Growing Hogs Make Most Economical Gains
A series of experiments have shown it is desirable from a
standpoint of feed utilization to feed light weight young hogs
and dispose of them at 180 to 225 pounds, rather than to carry
them to heavier weights.
Table 2 shows economy of gains of pigs of different weights.
The table shows the advantage of feeding young hogs in
saving of feed and producing the maximum amount of pork.

Fig. 15.-A uniform lot of feeder shotes. (Courtesy Atlantic Coast
Line Railway.)

Florida Cooperative Extension

(From Morrison's Feeds and Feeding, 20th Edition.)
Feed Daily I Feed for ] Dressing
Weight of Pigs Feed per per 100 Lbs. I Daily 100 Lbs. I Percent-
Head Daily Live Weight Gain I Gain I age
lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. I Percent
Birth to 100 lbs. 2.2 4.2 0.81 304 77.7
100 to 200 lbs..... 6.1 4.0 1.70 359 83.4
200 to 300 lbs..... 7.6 3.0 1.83 415 86.4
300 to 400 lbs.... 7.8 2.8 1.71 470 88.1
400 to 500 lbs..... 8.0 1.6 1.58 510 88.2

It is cheaper to grow meat than it is to produce fat. However,
where lard is needed, a few heavy hogs may be grown out for
the home.
Feeds For Hogs
The use of field crops for grazing in pork production is im-
portant for several reasons. Losses from intestinal parasites
are reduced to a minimum and the brood sow and young pigs
will make more rapid gains when succulent feed is supplied.
The breeding herd is kept in better physical condition when
provided with green feed. Shotes make more economical gains
when grazed on such crops as peanuts, corn, chufas, and sweet
potatoes than if fed in the dry lot. Labor costs are reduced
also, since the hogs gather their own feed.
One of the weakest spots in hog production in Florida is the
starving period in April, May and a part of June. Growing and
grazing such crops as oats, millet, cowpeas and, in some cases,
rape and soybeans will prevent this starving period.
By systematic planning it is possible to have some grazing
crop available every month in the year. The outline in Table 3
will suggest some of the more important crops suitable for this
purpose. Other crops may be added for different localities.
By adjusting the breeding and farrowing time to fit in with
the farm cropping system, hogs can be a source of profit. Pigs
farrowing in late winter and early spring can graze on oats,
crimson clover, rye, millet, rape, cowpeas and soybeans, and
fattened on early corn and spanish peanuts. This plan will have
the pigs ready for early fall market. Pigs farrowed in late
summer and early fall can be finished for the winter markets
on corn, runner peanuts, chufas and sweet potatoes. In some
cases bred sows and pigs can be used to clean up the peanuts
and early corn left by the fattening hogs.

Swine Production in Florida

Fig. 16.-Millet provides good grazing for hogs.

Month in
Grazing I Grazing Crop Planting Date
Crimson clover October & November
Oats October & November
January Rye October & November
and Rape October & November
February Runner peanuts May and June
Chufas May and June
Oats October & November
March Rye October & November
Rape October & November
Oats-late grazing September, October & November
April Rape November & December
Millet-early grazing March
Millet March and April
May O ats October & November
Early corn March
June Spanish peanuts March
and Cowpeas April
July Soybeans April
Corn March & April
August Spanish peanuts March & April
and Cowpeas April & May
September Soybeans April & May
Chufas May & June
Corn April
October Runner peanuts April & May
and Sweet potatoes May & June
November Velvet beans April & May
Early oats October
Rye October
Corn April
December Runner peanuts April & May
Sweet potatoes May & June
Velvet beans April & May
SRape October

Florida Cooperative Extension

Mineral Mixtures
A higher return of pork per acre can be had from feed crops
if hogs are supplied with a mineral mixture. Since none of the
hog feeds furnish all the
1 r m minerals needed, it is
necessary to supply these
minerals to the hogs at
all times. Some farmers
feed mineral mixture di-
rectly with the grain,
while others put min-
erals in a covered box
or trough to which hogs
have access at all times.
SHogs eat only as much
of the mixture as they
arble d need. Wooden box es
Should be constructed so
as to keep the mineral
dry and not be easily
Fig. 17.-A sheltered mineral box. upset (Fig. 17).
The Florida Experi-
ment Station has used and found the following mineral mixture
Steamed bone meal .......................................... 50 pounds
Marble dust or slaked lime ................................ 50 pounds
Common salt ........................ ........ ............. 25 pounds
Red oxide of iron ..................................... ....... 25 pounds
Pulverized copper sulfate -................... ........... 1 pound
Cobalt chloride or cobalt sulfate ........................ 1 ounce
This mixture in the above proportions can be secured from
various feed companies and feed dealers.
Hogs of all ages should have access to minerals. The amount
consumed by each animal will be small and returns in increased
growth, pounds of pork produced and saving of feed will far
exceed the cost of the minerals.

Shade and Water
Since it is essential to provide shade during the hot weather
when hogs are grazing off crops, a cheap shelter of a temporary
brush arbor (Fig. 18) or a shelter of tin roofing (Fig. 19) can

Swine Production in Florida

be easily constructed. During winter hogs should have shelter
and bedding.
An adequate and wholesome water supply is essential to hog
production. Brood sows with young pigs need fresh water in
clean places, away from old hog wallows and polluted water
holes. Hogs on fattening crops need an abundant supply of
good water in order to convert the feed into pork. The feed
and water should be close together. Fattening hogs that travel
long distances for water lose weight and time in the field when
they should be eating and resting.

Fig. 18.-A brush shade is satisfactory if no other is available. It is
easily and cheaply constructed.

A sanitary hog waterer (Fig. 20) will pay for itself many
times in providing clean water free from disease germs and
parasite eggs, thereby preventing loss of little pigs. Filthy
mudholes are often responsible for digestive disorders in pigs
and serve as a source from which they become infested with
internal parasites. With a sanitary waterer such ailments and
infestation are prevented in a large measure.
The hog waterer can be made with an air-tight barrel and
2" x 8" boards. Build a water-tight trough large enough to
admit the barrel with room on the side from which hogs can

Florida Cooperative Extension

Fig. 19.-A plain shelter of tin roofing will provide shade for the hogs.

Fig. 20.-A sanitary hog waterer, such as is shown here, helps keep
the hogs healthy.

Swine Production in Florida

drink. See directions in Bulletin 101, Hog Lot Equipment, for
details of construction.

Feeding Fattening Hogs
Turning hogs in the field on fattening crops and furnishing
them with mineral mixture, protein supplements, fresh water
and shade is the most economical way to finish hogs for market.
Where hogs are fed grain in the lot, the self-feeder (Fig. 21)
method is the best way to feed grain to them. It helps to keep
feed clean and saves labor and feed. This is an ideal way to
utilize dry feed and enables each pig to select his own ration.
If nursing sows are self-fed the pig will learn to eat from the
feeder before weaning time.

Fig. 21.-A large self-feeder.

Grain.-Corn is the standard grain for feeding hogs but any
of the small grains may be used in the self-feeder. Shelled
corn does not need grinding for hogs, but it is best to crack
or grind the small grains to a medium degree of fineness. Corn
may be fed to hogs shelled in the self-feeder or be fed in the
shuck or ear (on a feeding floor) and save the cost of shucking
and shelling. The hogs should have a supply of corn before
them, be furnished with a protein supplement in a self-feeder,
and have access to the mineral box at all times.

Florida Cooperative Extension

Corn and peanut meal can be successfully fed to fattening
hogs. The proportion of corn and peanut meal used in fatten-
ing hogs will depend on the prevailing supply and the price of
the two feeds. Following are two suggested rations:
Corn-3 parts Corn-2 parts
Peanut meal-1 part Peanut meal-1 part
Free access to minerals Free access to minerals
If tankage or fish meal is available, it may be used in the
proportions as shown under protein supplements.
Protein Supplements.-Various experimental results show
that a mixture of proteins of both plant and animal origin pro-
duces economical gains in fattening hogs. The animals should
be furnished with protein supplement (in self-feeder) of digester
tankage, fish meal or a mixture of animal and plant protein as
1. 100 pounds tankage + 100 pounds cottonseed meal.
2. 50 pounds tankage + 50 pounds peanut meal + 50
pounds cottonseed meal.
Fattening hogs should have access to minerals at all times.
Green grazing crops have a beneficial effect on hogs and
reduce the cost of feed and protein consumed. Permitting hogs
to graze and select their feeds from the self-feeder produces
cheap gains.
The feed, the protein supplements, the mineral mixture, the
water supply, the shade and the shelter should all be conveniently
close together to prevent the fattening hogs from traveling
long distances. The object is to keep the hogs comfortable,
quiet and satisfied to insure profitable gains. A comfortable,
quiet, well-fed hog makes the fastest and cheapest gains.

Common Diseases of Swine
Hog Cholera
Hogs are subject to many diseases, but cholera causes a larger
annual loss to the swine industry than any other disease. It is
very contagious and spreads rapidly through the herd, causing
the death of practically all hogs infected. Quite often it appears
in widespread epidemics and in such outbreaks it is responsible
for the death of large numbers of hogs. Such epidemics are
especially apt to occur when swine raisers decide to take a
chance and do not vaccinate their hogs against the disease.
It will be found that the cost of vaccination over a period of

Swine Production in Florida

years is far less than the financial loss resulting from hog cholera
outbreaks in herds not vaccinated.
Control.-All hogs should be vaccinated against hog cholera
when the pigs are eight to 10 weeks old (Fig. 22). There is
no medical agent useful in treating the disease. When cholera

Fig. 22.-Vaccinating a pig against cholera.

Florida Cooperative Extension

is first observed in the herd the well hogs should be separated
from the sick ones. All hogs that die of the disease should
be buried deeply or burned, preferably burned.
Hogs bought from stockyards and country places should be
vaccinated against cholera. They should be held in separate
pens 21 days before they are placd with other hogs.
There are other diseases and conditions that resemble hog
cholera. These may be confused with cholera or go unnoticed
during hog cholera outbreaks. The safe course is to vaccinate
all hogs against cholera. To play safe, when hogs show symp-
toms of disorders or diseases, such as digestive troubles, stag-
gering walk and loss of appetite, call a veterinarian.

External Parasites
The hog louse is the most troublesome external parasite in-
festing hogs. This parasite is a blood sucker and lowers the
vitality of infested hogs, making them susceptible to dis-
eases. Lice also produce skin eruptions which become serious
in severe cases.
The female lays from three to six eggs on the hair of the
hog. These eggs hatch in about 14 days. They reach sexual
maturity within 10 to 14 days after hatching, at which time
the females begin laying eggs and the cycle is repeated.
Lice can be observed quite readily as they move over the
skin and through the hair of infested hogs. They are found
most abundantly in the region of the flanks, at the base of the
ears and on the shoulders.
Treatment.-To control lice, clean up old bedding and all places
where hogs sleep. The following treatments are effective in
controlling lice:
1. Waste crank case oil from garages.
2. Spray with 11/2% DDT. Use 1 pound 50% DDT wettable
powder to 4 gallons of water. Wet the animal all over. Two
or three treatments 14 days apart should free the animal from
Mange is a very troublesome parasitic disease affecting swine.
There are two types of mange, the sarcoptic or common mange
and the red mange or demodetic type. Common mange is caused

Swine Production in Florida

by very minute mange mites which burrow into the layers of
skin and produce small galleries in which the female mite lays
eggs. A female lays from 15 to 25 eggs and then dies. The
eggs hatch within these galleries in about a week or 10 days.
The young mites undergo several molts and reach sexual ma-
turity in about two weeks. These newly hatched mites crawl
out of their galleries, move about over skin surface of the in-
fested hog, and finally burrow into the skin on other parts of
the body.
Treatment.-Since the mange mites burrow into the skin and
hair follicles, it is very difficult to apply effective treatment.
In treating mange, the scabs over the diseased areas should be
removed by bathing the parts with an antiseptic solution, using
a stiff brush to remove scabs.
The coal tar products are very effective in treating external
parasites, hence these products could be used advantageously
in making up the antiseptic solution. Add three or four ounces
of any reliable coal tar product to one gallon of water in pre-
paring the solution. After washing the areas thoroughly, allow
them to dry for a few hours, then apply either of the following
1. Sulphur .................. 4 ounces 2. Sulphur ................. 4 ounces
Kerosene ....- ............. 1 pint Kerosene ............... 1 pint
Raw linseed oil ...... 1 quart Lard ............... 2 pounds
Crude petroleum and waste oil from garages are used in treat-
ing mange, but these products are not as efficient as the mixtures
above mentioned. It may require three or four treatments at
intervals of a week or 10 days to cure mange. Red mange is
practically incurable.

Internal Parasites
Round Worms
The large round worm or ascarid is the most common, the
largest and causes the greatest loss of parasites infesting pigs.
It causes digestive troubles, retards growth and development
and interferes with the wellbeing of the pigs. Each year hun-
dreds of little pigs die and many others are made runts by in-
festation of this worm.
Sources of Infestation.-Round worms are found in the in-
testines of many grown hogs. It is estimated that one out of
three hogs of breeding age are infected. These worms lay eggs

Florida Cooperative Extension

that are voided in the droppings in old lots, hog wallows and
hog pens. Sows, therefore should farrow on clean land.
Pigs become infested by swallowing the worm eggs. These
worm eggs are of microscopic size and are found in the manure
of the infested hogs, in old hog lots, water holes and hog wallows
and other places where hogs feed, graze or congregate. The
round worm, while small, travels through the body of the pig
causing trouble all the while.


Fig.23-Pitorial tory o/af /thvsseli/fe tyl ofg taae sroundwom.
grow to msatnri/r /o bofy 2moninh. !yw/y f/nufe/o/a/vi /esA/vw
and froduc minMcnof, f d(%.fte A.7)

Worm elys conlraimi t~iwdy m r su mahnre
are picfedup/ fwno tdandsw' worms I /~ rmnin i4nfe A pa)ss

hMiV' W-. .

Fig. 23.-Pictorial story of the life cycle of the round worm.

The worm eggs are swallowed by the pig and hatch in the
intestines. These young worms go by way of the blood vessels
to the liver and then to the lungs. Here they leave the blood ves-
sels and enter the air passages and go up the windpipe to the
mouth and are swallowed. From here they return to the in-
testines, where they develop to adult worms, and the female
worms produce eggs which pass out in the manure and start a
new journey through the pig which swallows them.
From the above it is easy to see that old hog lots and other
places occupied by hogs are most likely to be heavily laden with
eggs of intestinal worms. It is readily understood, in view of

Swine Production in Florida 31

Fig. 24.-Pig heavily infested with worms. (From Livestock and Poultry
Diseases. Courtesy The Macmillan Co.)

their habits, how pigs kept in such places may become infested
with large numbers of worms.
On account of worm infestation, many pigs are lost or fail
to grow properly when raised under ordinary methods of hog
management. Unthriftiness usually is caused by poor breeding,
poor feeding, or parasites. A worm-infested pig is a sorry
specimen (Fig. 24).
Control for Round Worm.-A week before farrowing, sows
should be cleaned up and moved to clean fields, free of old hog
lots, old hog wallows, mudholes and any other source of in-
festation. Sufficient feed crops, clean fresh water and shade
and shelter should be furnished for sow and pigs. After wean-
ing, pigs should be moved to other clean fields of grazing and
fattening crops. When pigs are four months old or older they
do not suffer so badly from worm infestation. Hence the pigs
should be protected from infestation at least until they are four
to six months old.
Control methods are more satisfactory than trying to treat
pigs for worms by dosing them with this or that. However,
two treatments shown below will clear up some of the infested
Medical treatment: Withhold all feed from the pigs for 18
to 24 hours prior to treatment. However, give them all the

Florida Cooperative Extension

fresh water they desire. Keep all feed and water from the
pigs for a least three hours following treatment.
Oil of chenopodium is one medicinal agent used. The dose of
oil chenopodium is 1 dram, or approximately 1 teaspoonful, for
a shote weighing 100 pounds. The drug should be mixed with
2 ounces, or approximately 4 tablespoonfuls, of castor oil for
the 100-pound shote. A 50-pound shote should receive approxi-
mately 1/2 teaspoonful of oil of chenopodium and 2 tablespoon-
fuls of castor oil. In drenching the pig it is advisable to use
a large spoon so the danger of strangling the pig or getting
the drug into the lungs will be reduced.
Sodium fluoride is another chemical used against round worms.
Feed the pigs for one day on a dry mixture containing 1 percent
of sodium fluoride (technical grade)-1 pound sodium fluoride
and 99 pounds dry ground feed. The sodium fluoride should
be thoroughly mixed in what feed the pigs will clean up in one
day. It should not be fed with garbage.
Two treatments will be needed, one when pigs are two to
three months old and the other when they are four to six
months old.
Controlling Kidney Worms
The kidney worm of swine is one of the most serious obstacles
to profitable swine production. Since these parasites are located
in the liver, kidney fat, kidney tissue proper, blood vessels and
other parts of the body outside the digestive system, they can-
not be removed by any known medicinal treatment. The only
hopeful method for the control of these parasites is a system
of management designed to protect hogs from the infective
larvae of the worms.
These larvae develop from eggs eliminated with the urine of
infected hogs. Swine become infested by swallowing the larvae
in contaminated feed and water and also by the larvae burrow-
ing through the skin. The larvae are carried by the blood
stream to the liver, lungs and other organs. When they reach
the liver they begin to burrow through the tiny blood vessel
walls and liver tissue, finally passing through the glistening
capsule that covers the liver. They wander over the surface
of the liver and continue their journey within the abdominal
cavity. The larvae may burrow into the tenderloin muscle in
the region of the kidney or into the kidney fat, or they may
form cysts or abscesses along the ureter-the tube leading from

Swine Production in Florida

the kidney to the urinary bladder-and may even penetrate the
kidneys. Only the worms that form cysts along the course of
the ureters succeed in forming small channels to these tubes.
Eggs pass through these channels to the ureters and are carried
to the urinary bladder with the urine as the urine passes down
the ureters from the kidneys.
Kidney worms damage the liver tissue as the result of migrat-
ing through this organ. Large grayish to blue spots are often
observed on livers through which kidney
worms have migrated. Such diseased
livers are unfit for human consumption.
Control and Preventive Measures.-
The elimination of muddy hog wal-
lows and all litter and trash is
important in efforts to control
kidney worms. The eggs
and larvae are destroyed
in a short time when ex-
posed to the sun. .
The use of annual
crops in providing graz-
ing is important in con-
trolling kidney worms.
Annual crops may be
provided each month of
the year (see page 21).
When these crops are
grazed it is desirable to
provide a bare strip of
land at one end or side
Sthe id or i Fig. 25.-Kidney worms often are found
of the field on which the along the course of the ureters.
shelter or hog house, pig
creep and sanitary waterer are kept. If possible, the bare area
should extend around the field. The strip may be only three feet
wide, except for the area on which the equipment is kept, which
should be 30 feet wide. The purpose of this bare area is to control
the kidney worms by killing the eggs and larvae through ex-
posure to the sun. In practically all instances the eggs will
be passed out on the bare strips, since the sow will go to these
areas in voiding urine. The brood sow and pigs should be fed
There is no medicinal agent useful in controlling kidney worms.

Florida Cooperative Extension

Prevent Losses
A producer should figure on this pig business and save every
pig and hog. Every pig and every hog that dies and fails to go
to market is a dead loss as follows:
A pig that dies at farrowing time means a feed loss of 140
A pig that dies at weaning time means a feed loss of 260
A pig that dies at 17 weeks of age means a feed loss of 360
A pig that dies at 25 to 26 weeks of age means a feed loss of
602 pounds.
A pig that dies weighing 200 pounds means a feed loss of
995 pounds.
Good management practices such as saving pigs from worm
infestation, inoculation against cholera, and preventing lice and
mites will save much feed and many pigs and increase the meat

Loss Prevention from Farm to Market
Careful handling and management of hogs from farm to mar-
ket will pay dividends. Rough handling will result in bruised,
crippled and dead hogs. Hogs should be driven carefully and
chutes should be used to load hogs into trucks. Sticks, clubs,
prod poles or whips should not be used-they bruise and injure
the hogs.
The most valuable part of the hog gets most of the bruises.
The percentage of bruises are hams, 10%; belly 4%; back 3%;
and shoulder 3%. Even a slight bruise lowers the grade of
prime cuts and hurts the sale of hogs and is the producer's loss.
Safe Delivery of Healthy Hogs to Market Pays in Meat and
Money.-A 200-pound healthy hog at 20 cents = $40.00; a 200-
pound dead hog = 50 cents. Prevent bruised, crippled and
dead hogs at market. Produce healthy hogs. Bed cars and
trucks with sand. Don't overload. Load and unload carefully.
No Clubs- No Sticks- No Kicks. Truck drivers, avoid sud-
den jerks, swerves and sudden stops and deliver hogs to market
on their feet.

Swine Production in Florida


The Southeastern market hogs are sold according to weights
and finish. The most used classifications are:

Barrows and Gilts:
Medium to Choice Grades
Medium to Choice Grades
Medium to Choice Grades
Medium to Choice Grades
Medium to Choice Grades
Medium to Choice Grades
Medium to Choice Grades
Medium to Choice Grades
Medium to Choice Grades
Medium to Choice Grades
Sows (Slaughter):
Medium to Choice Grades
Medium to Choice Grades
Medium to Choice Grades
Medium to Choice Grades
Medium to Choice Grades
Medium to Choice Grades
Medium to Choice Grades
Medium to Choice Grades
Medium to Choice Grades

...................... 120
...................... 140
...........-......... 160
..................... 180
...................... 200
...................... 220
...................... 240
...................... 270
..................... 300
..................... 330

.................-... 160
...................... 180
...................... 200
...................... 220
..................... 240
..................... 270
...................... 300
...................... 330
...................... 360

to 140 pounds
to 160 pounds
to 180 pounds
to 200 pounds
to 220 pounds
to 240 pounds
to 270 pounds
to 300 pounds
to 330 pounds
to 360 pounds

to 180 pounds
to 200 pounds
to 220 pounds
to 240 pounds
to 270 pounds
to 300 pounds
to 330 pounds
to 360 pounds
pounds up

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