Title Page
 Exploratory-archelogical progr...
 General observations
 The archeological study of the...
 Masonry stair enclosure, stone...
 Exploratory work within the...
 Glazing and fainting
 Comments on general character of...

Group Title: Historic St. Augustine: Llambias Block 39A
Title: The Restoration of The Llambias House on St. Francis Street in St. Augustine Florida
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00094868/00009
 Material Information
Title: The Restoration of The Llambias House on St. Francis Street in St. Augustine Florida
Series Title: Historic St. Augustine: Llambias Block 39A
Physical Description: Report
Language: English
Creator: Moffett Barnette, Stuart
Physical Location:
Box: 7
Divider: Block 39A
Folder: Llambias B39A
Subject: Saint Augustine (Fla.)
31 Saint Francis Street (Saint Augustine, Fla.)
Llambias House (Saint Augustine, Fla.)
Fernandez-Llambias House (Saint Augustine, Fla.)
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida -- Saint Johns -- Saint Augustine -- 31 Saint Francis Street
Coordinates: 29.887768 x -81.310887
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00094868
Volume ID: VID00009
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: B39A

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
        Foreword 1
        Foreword 2
        Foreword 3
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Exploratory-archelogical program
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    General observations
        Page 7
    The archeological study of the architectural remains
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Masonry stair enclosure, stone arcade, and second floor gallery
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Exploratory work within the building
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    Glazing and fainting
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Comments on general character of materials and construction techniques employed in restoration
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
Full Text



0 F



St. 4evmre Street




Undertaken by the






The restoration of the historic Lambias House

may be regarded as a pioneering venture in at least

three instances. It is (a) the first instance in St.

Augustine where a thoroughly professional approach to

the rpstorqtion of a historic building was undertaken;

(b) it is the first time the restoration of a house of

Spanish nri ;in in the South-Eastern part of the United

States has ever been attempted; and (c) it constituted

the initiation of che first major effort to organize

the scanty and widely dispersed historic documentary

mt'.crial on ?panish colonial architecture located in

the so'.th-esat rn United Staies. In the o-inion of the

author it iF truly a nmomnntus occasion, the importance

of vahich will not be recognized for some time to come.

It w1ll, I hope, merk the beginning of a scholarly,

professional approach by 7t. Augustinians to the cul-

tural problems and opporiunites for civic improvement

which confront that ancient and ..till charming city.

During my repeated visits to the historical archives

of the Librarv of Congress and the Hispanic Society

where I sought to supplement the research efforts of

-ur historians I was repeatedly advised that little was

knrwn eb-ut the architecture of colonial Florida. A

rich and promising op-ortunity awaits reseqrhists in

this field.

As in all ;l.oneering ventures mnny new and unexpected

obstacles were iet by those directing the restoration pro-

-ram. There i. no doubt that the solutions which v.ere

devised to overcome them can ,:nd ,.ill be improved upon

in future undertakings of this nqttutp.

The Llnmbias 'Tr:~ e re, toration mpy then be properly

regarded as -,,rTot'ing in the nature of a -ionumcnt to

the idr-ls an'-'o a-,i .. -,,'..ns of ih-',... ..ho r'oognl ze th-

culturail :n: economic v.l'u.e of t. ., ur. inol hi ucoric

nrchiLtectu ,e. 'Til.s w-or;: was in lbot}h ccmiplRc:d in the

face of con-
In view of the reference conditions the relatively

successful reTtortion of this building should be regard-

ed with considerable apprccivtion and pride. Local,

national, and oven '.nter-national esteem for the r-sults

of this undertaking vill, I believe, increase ',ith time

if the property .s ;-roperly ad:iini.ste-ed and maintained.

It can nnd sh-,u'.d b.cc-ni one of the fev. lovely cultural

oae.s thaUt r,,mrin in city presently f .-lingj rovingig

r-ins". Tho otent.l lly lev~-l; ,:reoi : ei-Rily be

made a regional pttrcction anc become a :.'ecca for those

wh' wish to *".'ijoy robreat from the T.y:'rmannie and c-'m-

inlsions wh'_ ch : ,(omproamiri thU' daily lives of :mot of us.

The potential -ivic service f'-cilities offered by the

S.,- "qbric of the house are many and v:ill, I

hope, he -drvntaeously exploited.

The foll.ow:'i.n r-- ,- 'houl i br recognized as a

docuirn'nt :.-:'king nnd r-'fl.ctin- q tr'ns i: :~ n l i '-riod

in thi- -nr4'n -' ti'^ of iC- -' rnd ''cii ie" o f b s-

to "lcrll: :ind! 1 ,t. \-~ ini ns. It 'ill frr ,one
d,'.l'r,,] -' v t' i .'. . 'ci. is
.. ...l.sel .Ct i ': 7.-i s '2 :-" f. ilitiF s

f ... L b fc 1. r" *:I" oh "'.' r 't '. ; 8<' tL r'n-cal

o.'. .... not r' o 't- cor .-ts will s. 1 ov.rlve," .'ninpgly and

unne cess a.:-' co 0:1 o ":l i c i.e. 1,.

'ie are- .'.,.,:ct ,-vid t s'-- ,,. - .n ; t. :, plen:::'.:nu

th-n, 1; heivvy rv1ponsibility o.f i.: pro-rmn r-.cocnize

th va' i, 1it .y of both such p L.ri 5tsal s. ',e therefore

offer both tho h'use as it ':iu h-'r restored and this

report as yrHsent-.ed t"h thU ri 'lelul feeling that

both c,--;lnono t-': Li.Lns or' -e .on ibi~l ste-'sardship

_v'^"i'h 'n -" c,,nscintl 1iously b.een di:-chl'-ied nn2, whV.ch has

a-inr'illy ,n;l:,loyevd nI] th flacilitJic n t our dis- osal.

S. 1. 3.

4 W


The following documentary re-ort is designed to substan-

tiate the architect'ss professional deductions and designs

which giulded the restoration of the historic Llambias

House on St. George Street in St. Augustine, Florida.

The report contains a general account of the prob-

lems which confronted the St. Augustine Historical Fre-

serv'ciion and Restoration Association and their architect

Stuart Bprnette at the beginning of the program. Herein

are described the theories and methods which were employed

in solving them.

In the main, the contents of the report are restricted

to those matters which are of purely architectural nature.

This includes the "interpretation" of references to arch-

itectural characteristics found in historic documents and

of similar interpretation of Thysical architectural remains

made available to the architect by the Association or

itz agents. It in no way attempts to puthenticate The

source or character of the information so provided beyond

evaluation through the application of practical profess-

ional architectural experience.

All information pertinent to this subject which was

formally trFmnmitted to the ai t' .t ,h "; :..cinted

by the s iton t st t r ; -f h'tori


research, is included in the main body of this report,

in its Appendix, or in accompanying parcels.


Before any construction operation was initiated

which would in any way disturb the architectural evidence

in the building proper, a tentative policy was formulated

to guide the restoration program throughout its duration.

This policy which was finally adopted with the Restoration

Committee of the St. Augustine Historical Preservation and

Restoration Association was basically similar to that

recommended by, and generally adhered to, by the National

Park Service and other prominent restoration agencies.

In "essence" it may be defined as follows -

I. To survey and to prepare an accurate and detailed

record of the building as it existed prior to any struc-

tural changes.

II. The inauguration of an archeological and/or explora-

tory program designed to disclose any information of

importance in the environment of, or in the fabric of

the main building.

III. The institution of a program of historical research

to be conducted by appointees of the Association, designed

to uncover information of importance relating to the

character of the Llambias House and/or of buildings of

similar architectural character.

IV. The study and interpretation of the evidence so

6 *

disclosed, in the light of the architect's professional

background and previous association with historic archi-


V. The synthesis of the information resulting from the

aforementioned programs including: "recording", "archeo-

logical-exploratory", "historical-research", and "inter-

pretation". This synthesis to take the form of architec-

tural drawings permitting restoration.

VI. In connection with various stages of preservation,

repair, and restoration another page was taken from the

excellent policies advocated by the National park Service.

This has been stated as follows: "Better preserve than

repair, better repair than restore, better restore than


VII. It was decided that since the purpose of the restor-

ation was to serve as an educational program for the

Public, that when possible all restored features would

disclose the character of ancient building materials and

construction techniques.

VIII. In view of the fact that the house would become a

"Public Building" certain practical compromises with

maintenance problems and "Tublic Safety" would have to

be made.

Since these compromises will no'doubt be immediately

apparent to students of early American architecture

it would be well to designate such features at once.


w 9

Included in this group are: (a) Frovision of electrical

outlets for emergency heat, light, and maintenance

equipment including a street light to serve night-time

public functions; (b) Added safety factors in material

sizing to insure safe usage by the Public; (c) Provision

for the access of large service vehicles to the garden

area by the provision of a gate for which no historical

precedent was found through research.

IX. 'When the results of research failed to be specific
in the nature of recommendations and offered several

"possibilities" or "choices" of designs, the design which

promised to be most interesting to the Public was

generally incorporated in the restoration plans.

During preliminary conversations between the Assoc-

iation and the architect conducted prior to the signing

of the contract for professional services, the following

needs were agreed upon by both parties: (a) The need for

an architectural historian to conduct the program of

research and (b) The need for a "Clerk of the Works"

to superintend the procurement of building materials and

the execution of plans during the absence of the archi-


The committee informally assured the architect that

such service cr.onnel ..ould be made available.

Mr. Carver Harris acted as Clerk of the Works from

the initiation of the restoration in March, 1952, to


around May, 1954. Judge David R. Dunham accepted the

responsibilities for these duties from that date until

the completion of the work. During this period Mrs.

Eleanor Barnes was engaged to prepare a geneology of the

Llambias House fan ily and other owners of the property.

Mrs. Marion R. Moulds, librarian of the St. Augustine

historicall Society undertook to conduct the research

program and to provide the architect with documentary

information of an architectural nature. Only information

Ipossessed by ?rs. "oulds could pay appropriate tribute

to those who assisted her in this undertaking. The con-

tribution of Miss 'nily ilson, Mr. Ned Lawson, Mr. Albert

Manucy, and others were however of extreme importance.

Mr. Carver lanrris and Jr. Charles Olson took most of

the original photographs in this report. Mr. John Griffin

generously provided the author with reproductions of

photographs in documents owned by the St. Augustine

Historical Society.

Mr. Fred Stone was in charge of building operations.

Te was ably assisted by Mr. Victor Guiseman, Mr. Phillip

McLeod, Mr. Louis Salano and many others.

Whatever degree of success the restoration and this

report achieves is due in great part to the interest

and cooperation of many public spirited citizens of St.

Augustine and especially the riembers of the St. Augustine

Historical reservation and Restoration Association.



On March 26, 1952, when the restoration program was

started the Llambias House was in verypoor physical con-

dition. It had been untenanted for a long time and neg-

lect and decay had taken their toll. Window panes were

broken or missing, blinds were damaged or had disappeared,

the original plaster stucco finish on the walls had been

patched and replaced with cement stucco, the street

balcony hRd been struck by passing trucks thereby weaken-

ing both balcony frame and coquina masonry supporting

the balcony beams, the chimney cap was loose and needed

pointing, floors and partitions were rotting as the.

result of dampness in short it was obvious that a pro-

gram of repair and stabilization alone would be a consid-

erable undertaking. (Plates 2, 3 4 )

However preliminary to the initiation of such a

program, a recording survey was in order. The architect

in a Preliminary Teport prepared at the behest of the

Association recommended that such a survey proceed any

form of restoration activity. Detailed architectural

records were therefore prepared of every feature of the

building as it existed on the date the program was ini-

tiated. This record included architectural notes covering

both early and late architectural features. The archi-

tectural records were supplemented by photographic

records and by samples of building materials and paint


Our search for evidence of the aforementioned

architectural features as well as for others, was grat-

ifyingly rewarding. I shqll fully describe the work

undertaken throughout the building and its immediate

environs, under the following appropriate headings.


An area contained within a rectangle extending six

feet outside the main walls of the house was designated

for exploration using archeological techniques. This

area was excavated thoroughly to a depth of two feet.

The earth removed was carefully screened through /14"

mesh hardware cloth. The fragments of articles discovered

while seemingly of little importance were placed in the

possession of the Association. No unusual stratifications

of earth or other materials were observed during this work.


Several feet to the south and east of the late two-

story wing the remains of an old coquina-walled well were

discovered. By carefully removing the earth around the

remains a crumbling portion of a circular wall which

presumably originally carried above grade, was disclosed.

(Plate7 8). Careful examination of the masonry walls

showed evidence of continual abrasion on the inside of


a @

these walls at a point nearest the house. This evidence

was interpreted as wear caused by water-filled well

buckets rubbing against the wall of the well-wall as these

buckets were drawn therefrom. It also provided the archi-

tect with information necessary to locate the walk between

house and well and to determine the radius of the circu-

lar architectural super-structure of the well which was

eventually restored as part of this well.

FILL It was a common practice when "elosing-up" domestic
IN WELL hazards such as are presented by open but obsolete

wells, to deposit household trash of a contemporary nature

in cavities thus presented. In the hope of exhuming evi-

dence of importance from the "fill" used in closing this

particular well, the material taken therefrom was care-

fully screened. The material which failed to pass a screen

of 1/4" hardware cloth consisted of miscellaneous fragments

of glass and china, an old cast-iron "iron" and an early

piece of architectural hardware. This latter itemrwas a

HARDWARE piece of blind hardware used to hold blinds
FOR BLIND in position against the wall. It was a real

"find". Its design identified it as probably being the

product of a local blacksmith. It was of a design which

was popular as early as 1820. It doubtless was used to

hold back blinds similar to the early examples remaining

on the house. When, during the process of restoration

operations no other evidence was uncovered which indicated

w 0

a different design might have been used, this oatch was
carefully reproduced and used wherever blinds were
replaced in the restoration. (Plate45).



The reference records were.accurate enough to permit

a detailed restoration of "any" feature of the structure

were it to be inadvertently or otherwise damaged or

destroyed and found later to be of importance in the

final restoration picture. Such records were also made

to enable the architect or the Association to refute

claims that might later arise crediting them with having
removed or destroyed architectural features of historic or

archeological importance.

In addition all early or otherwise important

architectural features wiich might conceivably be damaged

or have to be removed and replaced, were marked with an

indelible symbol which would facilitate accurate replace-



In the Preliminary Report which the architect

prepared for the Association he identified the most sig-
nificant changes in the architectural evolution of the

Llambias House. A graphic conception of what it was

expected the final restoration would look like is shown

on Plate 5 This is a reproduction of an architectural

rendering prepared by the architect before the restoration

program was initiated.

While the similarity between this rendering and the


w 0

final restoration indicates that the architectural

appearance constituted a good "guess", it is equally

obvious that there is considerable disparity between

the two.

In presenting this report the author has taken the

liberty of recounting the respective phases of the

restoration in a sequence that is not strictly chrono-

logical. This liberty is taken to enable the reader to

follow more easily the "unfolding" of the evidence used

during this program.


It was recognized by all concerned that a thorough
and comprehensive archeological program was desirable.

However, neither monetary considerations nor appropriate

consideration for the time element involved,permitted us

to initiate such a program. Instead, in view of these

limitations, it was determined necessary to restrict the

geological limits of such investigations to an area six

feet outside the foundations of the building as it appeared

in 1953 when the restoration was started.

This program of preliminary investigation work may

then not be properly considered "archeological" in the

strictest sense of the word. It should be considered rather


@ 0

of "exploratory" nature. It is believed, however, that

attention to the most important details of archeological
techniques were employed during this operation and to

the knowledge of the architect, no important evidence was


The Llambias House as it appeared in March, 1953,

seemed to lack architectural features supporting the

claim that at least "part" of it was built during the

first Spanish period. As the direct result of my assoc-

iation with the restoration of the Governor's Palace

in San Juan, Puerto Rico, and my studies of Spanish arch-

itecture in Spain and elsewhere, I had learned-to look for

certain architectural features characteristic of Spanish

architecture which were not superficially visible in

the Llamabias House.

Most prominent among the architectural characteris-

tics found in Spanish and Minorcan-Spanish houses are

the arcades, galleries and balconies which permit the

occupants to enjoy the cooling breezes yet be protected

from the hot rays of the mid-day sun. Both of these

features were almost invariably placed so that they

were physically inaccessible to persons in the street

without the express invitation of the resident. The

arcades and galleries were usually placed on the rear of

the house within a high garden wall. The balconies were

usually raised above the street so as to interfere as


little as possible with the passing Tedestrians, horseback

riders, and vehicles. Both galleries and balconies were

accessible from the second floor chambers. These archi-

tectural spaces were used as out-of-door living rooas.

They usually contained chairs and benches and inevitably

included cages for birds and pots for plants and flowers

which are so common in Spain. (See also page 1 in the


John Bartram's diary confirms the reasonableness of

the expectation that evidence of these architectural

features would be discovered and be identified as an

early fe-ture of this house. Bartram's remarkable document

provides us with one of the most valuable and presumably

accurate descriptions of St. Augustine as it appeared when

he visited it in 1788. Later in this report I will

identify those other features in the final restoration

which are also referred tolim in his description of the

early architecture of St. Augustine.



Excavations were then begun in the garden at the

east end of the house. Here was disclosed the remains of

a coquina curbing several feet long and approximately

four inches. wide. Such curbing apparently marked the

boundary of a flower bed or a garden walk. Curbing of this

nature was probably made from scrap taken from coquina

quarries or was made from discarded blocks of coquina

considered unsatisfactory for structural walls. Photographs

in the possession of the library of the St. Augustine His-

torical Society show several examples of this curbing

which may even have been cut especially for this purpose.

Some of these photographs illustrate curbing of consid-

erable refinement.

No particular date has been assigned to this prao-

tice. Thephotographs in the library indicate that it

was used in the last half of the century but it doubtless

was used much earlier and is still used today.

Several photographs in this report will show how

this type of curbing was used as a border for the flower

beds and walks which were incorporated in the restoration

picture finally offered to the Public.

Further to the north and east the remains of what

appeared to be a coquina gravel pathway leading from the

street to a point about five feet south of the south-east

corner of the main building. It is believed that this was




a walk providing the principal access to the house through

the garden. On the basis of this evidence the entrance

wqlk and gate were located in the position they now

occupy as part of the final restoration.




The most important discoveries of all were of course
those which disclosed the one-time existence of what has

been identified as a stairway enclosure, arcade, and

gallery. A veritable sequence of discoveries confirmed
our expectation that such elements would be discovered

and identified as a part of the building during an early

stage in its development.

ARCADE The first of these substantiating discoveries
came when a portion of the floor of the 20th century wing

was removed to permit exploratory excavations at a point
where the wall was "expected" to be found.
STAIRWELL It was with considerable satisfaction therefore
when we almost immediately struck the foundation of a
wall confirming these expectations. It was eleven inches

in thickness (the Spanish measurement corresponding to
our twleve inch foot) and continued for about eight feet
in a line with the west wall of the house proper. (Plate ).
This wall was not bonded at the point where it Joined

the corner of the main body of the house. This indicated

of course that it was not built at the same time that
the main body. of the house was erected but was in all
likelihood a later addition.


w *
PIERS We preceded to follow this wall and found
OPENINGS that about eight feet from the main building
it turned at a right angle eastward and continued in
that direction for a distance of approximately ten feet,

(Plate JO). At this point the footing was stopped by a
large square piece of coquina stone which appeared to

be part of what had once been a stone pier. (Plate 10)
At this point a row of brick stretchers laid flat and
placed side by side continued eastward in the same line
for a distance of six feet. (Plate 1). This row of
bricks was at that point interrupted by another large
square of stone.
This alternating pattern of brick border and stone
piers repeated itself three times (Platei it and 1)
and then when it reached a point opposite the east end
of the building turned abruptly north at a right angle
and returned to the house in line with the east wall of
the house proper. (Plate 14). This evidence seemed to

leave little doubt that we had discovered the foundation

of what was once the stairway enclosure arcade. Our

archeological evidence indicated that in the Llambias
House this had constituted a semi-enclosed living space
completely enclosing a stairway at the west end and pierced
by large openings flanked by stone piers at the east

end. This had at one time doubtless been an important

architectural element of the house and probably supported

a second floor gallery.
Further excavation disclosed the fact that between

FLOOR the brick border _nd the house proper a tabbly floor

had existed. (Plate 15).

The remains of a brick walk was discovered to the

south of the row of bricks at the west end of the series

WALKS of alternating brick borders and stone pier founda-
tions. (Plate It). This evidence was interpreted as being

the remains of a brick walk which presumably led from the

arcaded section of the house to the well and possibly
to other buildings which may have once stood within the


0 0

A search for evidence designed to substantiate our

belief that a gallery had once surmounted the stone

structure below was subsequently instituted.
The results of this search were also gratifying.
When the stucco was removed from the rear wall of the house
GALLERY evidences of floor and roof framing of an
early type were disclosed. At a point approximately ten
feet from the west end of the building the hand-hewn
plate surmounting the south first-floor masonry wall was
notched to receive a large wooden member entering from
the south. Thereafter a series of similar but smaller
notches appeared in the plate approximately four feet on
center. (PlateA4#). These may reasonably be interpreted

as mortises for floor framing members of an early gallery.
The first and larger mortise which appeared nearest the

west end was interpreted as accommodating a rough framing
member supporting the gallery fteia and the well stringers.
Since the spacing of the other floor framing members was
not close enough together to give the supported floor
boards adequate stability the need for transverse members

was recognized. The only additional members which could

be used would be purlin-type members. Purlins were used

extensively during the eighteenth and early nineteenth

Evidences of early roof framing for the gallery

area were discovered at the south ends of both the east

and west masonry walls of the main building at the upper-

most position on these walls. These were holes which had

obviously originally accomodated roof framing members.

Relatively late construction had also used.the same holes

to provide bearing for late roof members but the later

members were so light in section that much wedging and

plaster had to be placed about them to anchor them securely
in the walls. A thin coat of early lime plaster remained

in these large cavities and thus permitted us to determine

the approximate size of the original roof framing members

which occupied these positions. l~tes27, O, and L,3

show the restored members in place. Plate shows the

eighteenth century architectural precedent used in the

preparation of restoration drawings. Plate 3 and Plate 25

indicate the similarity between precedent and actual restor-


The removal of areas of late stucco immediately below

the holes mentioned above revealed holes in the masonry

which it is believed accomodated hand, foot, and inter-

mediate railings contemporary with prototypes popular

during the mid-nineteenth century. (Plate J ). This

*ldence was not followed in the restoration due to the

fact that the architect felt that unjustifiable confusion

would result from combining nineteenth century railings

and balusters in a gallery that otherwise was composed of

details peculiar to the eighteenth century.


w 0

A summary of the results of the exploratory work
which was conducted OUTSIDE the main section of the
building area and which has just been described is
shown on Plate 6. Plate 18shows a conjectural rest-
oration of the rear of the house which was maie upon
completion of the reference exploratory work.

Vw 0


FLOORS Exploratory work was then undertaken within
the walls of the main part of the building.

The late wooden floor was first removed and a floor of

modern concrete was discovered beneath it. When the

oonorete floor was removed beds of oyster shell which

might have once provided a sub-grade fill for an earlier

tabby floor was discovered. The character of the fill

lying "between" the concrete and the oyster shells con-

tained generous amounts of a poor grade of shell-lime.

It is therefore reasonable to asmsme that this may have

been the remains of a tabby floor.

FLOORS That a floor of concrete had originally
existed was proven by the vertical extent

of the wooden door frames and trim which extended isto

the late concrete floor. (Platee),

Part of a tenon remained on the reference door

frame. Apparently this tenon had been mortised into a

wooden shoe placed upon an early floor possibly the

original floor of tabby. By graphically reconstructing

such a method of construction we were able to determine

the elevation of this early floor.

FIREPLACE The estimated elevation of this early floor
was confirmed by the vertical location of the fragmentary

evidence of a brick hearth at first floor fireplace.

The size of the brick fragments of this hearth correa-


pounded to the aile of the bricks found outside the building

between the stone pier foundations. Obviously the refer-

ence hearth had been installed at or near the same time

the brick borders placed outside in the arcade openings,

had been laid.

No other information of importance or pertinence

was discovered during the digging below the level of the

floor. The excavations carried to the bottom of the footings

of the masonry walls of the house proper.


FIREPLACE It was'next decided to remove the late plaster
on the inside of the coquina walls to see if
the information so disclosed would provide us with more
information concerning the original door and window
openings in the masonry walls as well as other information

of importance.

The removal of the late mantel-piece and the plaster
at the fireplace on the first floor showed that several

fireplaces had existed prior to the present one. In fact,
each new fireplace had become succeedingly smaller. (See
20t 21
Plates L gj, and 3 ). The earliest fireplace was dis-

covered to have been constructed entirely of coquina
and originally had no architectural treatment of a dec-
orative nature. The relieving arch was of elleptical
form and composed of vousoirs of quite small size.

(Plate .5).
CACHE? Much excitement attended the examination of this
fireplace and the chimney serving it. At one point

it was thought that we had uncovered a hitherto undib-
covered secret cache. Our imaginations permitted us to

visualize the discovery of untold wealth from the galleon
of Spanish conquistadors. Unfortunately, our excitement
was unjustified. What we thought might prove to be a

cache turned out to be a patch closing a relatively

late stove thimble.
However several very significant finds were made



shortly after this incident which in the opinion of the
architect more than compensated for the previous disapp-

BARLY The first of these occurred when the plaster
OPENINGS was being removed from the masonry wall above
(SPANISH?) the fireplace. At one point (Platef2l the
plaster pointing in the stone joint looked peculiarly
smooth. A study of the stereotomy in this area (Plat*.b.
led to the prediction that an opening had existed at this
point prior to the construction of the fireplace.
This prediction proved to be correct for the "upper"
part of an early splayed-Jamb opening (Plate $1) was
disclosed when the plaster and masonry which had concealed
it had been removed. This opening was left exposed in
the final restoration to permit its examination by scholars

and others interested in early American architecture.
(Plate s).
WINDOW Subsequently fragmentary evidences of "other"
OPENINGS early openings in the first floor walls of the
house were discovered. These openings had pre-

sumably been closed during subsequent remodeling operations
on the building. These openings probably constitute part
of the fenestration of the house during a much earlier
period. They were all carefully photographed and measured
but the reconstruction of this evidence uncovered consti-.
tutes a study far beyond that contemplated by the current

restoration program. Plates and show some of.

the evidence so disclosed. One of these openings was in

such poor condition that it was considered almost imposs-

ible to preserve it in place. The salvagable vousoirs were
therefore removed and carefully stored so that at same

STEREOTOMY future date the Association may re-erect

them as part of a later restoration program.

The stonework which surrounded two of these early

openings discovered in the south wall on the first floor

of the house were also left un-stuccoed to permit exam-

ination by students of early American architecture, his-

torians and others.

Another discovery of major importance was made after

we had removed the late plaster from the inside of the

south wall near the west end. At one point the pattern

of the coquina stone AND tabby masonry in this wall seemed

unusually complex. Large areas of this wall also appeared

to have been "laid-over" with plain mud or plaster with

a very low grade lime content. It was indeed such a "poor"

mix that it could be dusted away with a whisk broom.

LINE OF By continuing to carefully dust away this coating
STAIRS of mud the masonry pattern shown in Plate was

revealed. It will be seen that a very clear

pattern resembling steps is shown. The character of the

tabby below this line was not dissimilar enough to that

above to enable the author without benefit of chemical

analysis to determine which was the earlier. However the

fact that a large stone shown in the extreme right hand
edge of Plate 34had been artificially "notched" in such

a way as to provide a bed for a stone which, it is believed,

once constituted one of the steps in an outside stairway,

led the architect to graphically reconstruct an arcade

stair starting at this point and working downward to the

east, Following the general line indicated on the reference

photograph. It was found that such a graphic reconstruction

provided a stairway which would provide outside access

to the second floor and would (a) stay within the walls

tentatively identified as an early stair enclosure; (b)

provide a relationship between rises and treads which

would meet both the level of the arcade floor and also

the level of the second floor; (c) would locate the gal-

lery facia and balustrade at the point indicated as

probably original by the mortises discovered in the early

plate and in a position which would not interfere with a

second floor window opening discovered during the Prelia-

inary Investigation; (d) locate the lower run of steps

in a position which would not interfere with the restora-

tion of a first floor window located slightly above and

to the east of the lower run of stairs. The presence of

this last mentioned window was indicated in the masonry

and disclosed by the removal of plaster near the point

where the line of steps indicated in the masonry was

BEAMS During the reference Preliminary Investiga-
SECOND tion the author predicted that if the plaster
concealing the joists of the second floor were
removed it would be found that they were originally

exposed. Plates 40, show the various stages of con-

firmation resulting from exploratory work. Plate 39 shows

the beams completely revealed; the window referred to

in the previous paragraph restored; and the new lim.-

plaster on the wall which revealed the pattern of the

outside steps. A portion of the restored tabby floor also

appears in the lower right hand corner of the photograph.

BEAM The exposure of the early beams allowed us
SUPPORTING to study them to seek more information of an
FIREPLACE archeological nature. Our studies revealed
two more important pieces of information.

The second beam from the west end contained a notch

approximately five inches deep extending across its top

face for a distance of about five and one half fed .

Anyone familiar with mid-nineteenth century house con-

struction would immediately identify this notch as pro-

viding bearing for a wooden floor to support a brick hearth

for the second floor fireplace above. This notch was not

disturbed but was incorporated in the restoration of

the hearth. This evidence is quite visible to anyone who

wishes to see the justification for the size and con-

struction of the hearth restored to the reference

0 0
fireplace. This same evidence of course also justifies
the removal of the concrete hearth which served this

fireplace before the restoration program was started.
MANTEL The mantel of this second floor fireplace
FIREPLACE which was somewhat mutilated (Plate7 ) at
the time the restoration program was initia-

ted, was eventually carefully repaired. This mantel
resembled very closely one of those to be seen on the
second floor of the Patio House. Many of the mouldings
incorporated in both of these mantels seem to have been

run by the same knives. Perhaps one day research will
discover that the interior woodwork in both of these
houses was milled and installed by the same craftsman.

BRICKWORK The construction of the fire-PLACE indi-
FIREPLACE cated both by its design as well as by the
size of the bricks and means of supporting

the flat arch of the opening, that it was not installed
when the chimney was originally built. In fact this

fireplace makes use of the generous flue serving the
fireplace below, instead of providing a new flue. The
presence of an larger iron lintel above a lower one
(Plate 48) indicated that the original fireplace at this

point was larger than the one open when the restoration

started. This also accounts for the mutilation of the
bases of the mantel as shown on Plate47. Plate 4 shows
the mantel as restored.

0 0

BALCONY The exposed first floor ceiling beam or
second floor joists, as one may wish to iden-

tify them, also contained some very important data on the
method of supporting the balcony overhmaging St. Francis

Street. By carefully examining Plated4 one may see in
the third beam from the top two holes piercing the old
beam dear its upper edge. Holes similar to those pierced

all these old beams except tt'ose at the extreme east and
west ends of the building. These were identified as holes

which permitted cantilever beams which pierced the wall
to support the balcony overhanging the street. The cor-

rectness of this assumption is supported by both historic

precedent offered by Spanish homes in the Old World as
well as the New, and by the size of the holes in the
masonry wall facing the street which it is believed ori-
ginally provided bearing and passage for such beams. The

extent of the horizontal sequence of the beams containing
these holes provided us with a reasonably accurate esti-
mation of the length of the original balcony. (Plate 2).
Plate4Cf shows the new restoration in place.
BALCONY We continued to look for further evidence con-

cerning this early balcony by studying the late
balcony and the main b-dy of the building immediately

adjacent thereto.

I BALCONY The late balcony contained only one piece of
what is believed to have been part of the

original balcony. This was a piece of four and one half

inch by four and one half inch plate. It however contained

some valuable information which showed how such members

were spliced both at intermediate points and at the

corners. This member which contained the marks of a cir-

cular saw was hand-dressed on three sides. It also con-

tained evidences of its original coat of paint. The color

BALCONY was a red, sometimes identified as TUSCAN red.
COLORS On the soffit of the plate there were some ommis-

alons approximately four and one half inches square

located at equal intervals of about seven feet. These

were identified as marks locating the original balcony

posts. Such spacing however divided the total length of

the balcony into four equal spans. This evidence proved

BALCONY that the late "three"-bayed balcony had not in
its construction followed the earlier balcony

v.ry closely in the number and location of these posts.

The design used in the restoration however followed

this eqrly evidence very closely and employed a four-

bayed balcony.

BALCONY When the exterior stucco plaster at the ends
of the estimated original extremities of the

balcony were removed sealed holes in coquina masonry

were revealed. The shape of the holes and the plaster


anchoring them enabled us to approximate the shape,( Plait 5)

size end location of the hand and foot rails. There was
also discovered a wedge shaped hole with point placing
inward halfway between the upper and lower rails which
indicated that the earlier balcony had fitted the baluster-
panels with the classical motif shown on the house in

Plate 53. This obviously justified the rejection of the
latter vertical rectangular wooden balusters with which

most St. Augustinians are familiar. Plates 52 and 54
show the hand, foot, and intermediate decorative rails as
BALCONY It was not necessary to remove the late stucco
PITCH in this area to determine the angle of the roof
of the original balcony. If the reader will

examine Plates 55and 56 closely it will be noticed that

the back-band mouldings of the exterior window trim
are clipped at an angle which indicates that originally
the presence of a roof rafter and probably a plastered
ceiling had interrupted them at points where they are
clipped. Plates 57 and 58 show the roof restored. The

architect recommended that this balcony be sealed as
was the custom during the mid-nineteenth century and in

BALCONY conformance with the evidence in the building.
Representatives of the Association however
asked that the ceiling be not restored, in order to sim-
plify maintenance problems.



.BALCONY Plate 59 shows an interior view of the balcony
before it was restored. Plate 61 shows the

restored balcony. The flooring used was taken from the

interior flooring and was identified as being of mid-

nineteenth century character; this flooring was salvaged

from the old flooring found in the second floor chambers.

The method of r-ugh sawing and milling will be identified

by lumbermen as being peculiar to that employed in the

mid-nineteenth century. The floor framing follows the

construction indicated in numerous photographs and

drawings in the Historical Society library and presently

remaining in the balcony of the Fatio House.

PLASTER Upon the completion of exploratory work assoc-
LATHES iated with the balcony, a study of the lathes

and plaster on the second floor walls and ceilings

was undertaken. The first thing that was noticed when

the examination was begun was the presence of hand-split

lathes throughout the entire building wherever plaster

was not on masonry. It was impossible to identify the

age of these lathes by superficial examination. However

the nails used in applying them we-e cut nails of a type

in popular use during the first half of the ninetenth

century. When it became necessary to remove areas of

plaster which was supported by these lathes they were

all carefully salvaged and re-used in the final restora-

tion. An area of the wall in the west chamber of the


w 0

second floor was left unplastered to permit visitors

to the building to examine them. The time element and

scope of the research program did not permit a chemical

analysis of the plaster. However fragments of unburned

shell-lime indicated that it was manufactured before the

perfection of lime burning. This would allocate the

plaster also to mid-nineteenth century.

ROOF The next architectural feature coming under
our scrutiny was the roof. Of course the roof

covering had long since disappeared and been replaced

many times. Only a piece of one plate was hand hewn and

may have remained from the original hip roof. This was

at the east end of the building. All other roof members

contained marks of the circular saw and therefore may

be identified as having been cut after 1835.

ROOF A study of the plaster bed provided for this
plate indicated that it was originally set over

the inside face of the interior plaster. This was all the

information offered by the framing found in the building.

ROOF However we then went to the west chimney to see
if it contained any marks which might provide

some indication of the pitch of the early roof. Only one

piece of evidence was discovered here. This was a reglet

cut in the wall of the chimney and which contained a

piece of what is believed to be early flashing. The line

of the reglet did not correspond to the line of the


w 0

last roof. (Plate 60). It was located "above" the late

roof line.
This evidence justified the conclusion that little

if any of a roof constructed prior to 1`35 remained on

the building.

In restoring the roof the precedent set by the English

during the late half of the eighteenth century was fol-

lowed. This called for all roof members to be hand-hewn

and set in a hipped roof at a forty five degree pitch.

It also called for the plate of the roof frame to be

set-"in" so that it would receive the interior plaster on

the inside face of the walls of the upper chambers and for

the exposure of the bottom beams of the roof truss. The

room was finally sealed by the floor boards of the attic

storage space.

ROOF The reglet discovered in the chimney top was
interpreted as indicating the presence and

angle of "outriggers" on this early roof.

These outriggers were used by the English during the

eighteenth century throughout their colonies in the

West Indies and particularly in Bermuda. Their purpose

was two fold: first, to "kick" rain water running down

the roof slope away from the plaster face of the house

wall below, thus preventing excessive dampness within

the house, and second, to minimize damage to the roof

by hurricanes. These outriggers were made of lighter

sections Ilh'n l.thr mIin rof tj.mbers proper n-.. cou.l

therefore be blo'wn w .'.ay y Vtrenuous winds ca'uing turbu-

lence under the eaves w.ich micht in convrntiu n.l roof

constru-ction blow away -hr entire r-'of.

ROOF 'o evidence of roof dormers was contained in
the .'rrming of tih roof which wps replaced by

this r-'sto'-atin program. Howe.vcr attics of eqrly houses

were almost univerally rFc:(gni-ed by ;,u;eir owners as

"ovidrng vql-1ible str.-;e .fce. The lir-htin-. and

ventilation of such ~a srace ws the before very important,

':e the-efore decided to rrevi:le at leost one dormer to pro-

vide minimum lih117L nd v-ntilw.ti.n.

The Jormer 'wliich .vaSs incor- rated in the Llimbias

.*-HCe w:ps patterned after that presently existing in the

Sancheos 7TOu-c and aft-r ths-e so'.vn on numn.rous sketches

and phttograpths of building ,s in Lh, possession of the

-3t. Augustine Historic .l Society library. Flat roofed

dormn-s of this tyre ve -r -uit common in the rivhteenth

centur- houses throughouit the SEn!,glish Colonies.


SThe Preliminary Report which I had prepared for the

Association had .previously identified the majority of
the windows, doors, mantels, blinds, sash and other archi-

tectural millwork as well as see hardware as being of

mid-nineteenth century origin.

Except for sporadic studies of isolated parts of

the building this in the main concluded the exploratory

work on the architectural fabric of the building.

In the meantime as has been mentioned before, Mrs.

Marion Moulds, Librarian of the St. Augustine Historical

Society library, was conducting a research program designed

to uncover information concerning the architecture of

early St. Augustine. The information transmitted to the

author is contained in the Appendix of this report.

Despite the unselfish devotioh of this lady to a

truly difficult task it is only realistic to recognize
that little new information of material value in restoring

this particular building resulted from these efforts.

At the same time Mrs. Eleanor Barnes was preparing a

geneology of the owners of the Llambias House. Again I

am sincerely and regretfully obliged to say that these
studies proved of little value to the architectural

restoration of this house.

There is little doubt however that the effort of

these individuals has supplied St. Augustine historians

with the nucleus of a study which heretofore has been

almost entirely ignored. Despite the scarcity of the

information disclosed which was pertinent to the Llambias

House, much information of probable value to future his-

torical studies is contained in these reports. The value

nf a "professional approach" to problems such as these

in which so many have so unselfishly participated, is

alone noteworthy and salutary.

It is also only fair to point out that historical

research on the Llambias House was for both of these

individuals only a collateral responsibility.

Therefore in the interest of progress it was nec-

essary for the architect to share the responsibility for

historical research normally assigned to historians.

Fortunately the result of the combined efforts of us all

were productive enough to keep the work progressing

at a reasonable, if not gratifying pace.

The exploratory studies of the Llambias House proper

had in the meantime given us much information of value.

We were from the results of both these studies able to

summarize these "finds" as follows.

The character of the masonry walls of the first floor

contained evidence of early openings which incorporate

a stereotomy design that is almost without identification.

Such designs cannot be identified as belonging to any


particular period of culture. They have been used since

time memorial and are in use today.

Only two bits of evidence seem of value in estimating
the age of the openings.

The first and most important of these is the size

of the rabbets in the masonry. These are of such a size

as to preclude the possibility that they may have origi-
nally accomodated double-hung sash. In the opinion of the
architect they could only accommodate casement sashes or

wooden grills similar to those described by John Bartram

in his description of St. Augustine. However the height

and width of the opening precludes the possibility that
it was either a casement sash or a double-hung window.

The second piece of evidence Is the presence of splayed

jambs. While these are quite common in Spanish houses and
in many eighteenth century houses in the English Colonies

in American they were virtually abandoned in the nineteenth
century in domestic architecture.

In the opinion of the architect these openings

originally contained grills similar to those shown on
Plate A.This is a design that is definitely of Spanish

origin. It was found in an early house in Cuba.

The fact that a definite break appears in the masonry

around the first floor fireplace opening and the fact
that the r mains of a window opening still appears above
itindicates that the chimney is of laber origin than is

0 0

this and other splayed-Jamb openings in the masonry. P//eC

In his diary John Bartram says that fireplaces were intro-

duced in St. Augustine by the English after 17`3. It is

therefore probable that these openings belong to the FIRST

PERIOD Spanish house.

The architectural character of the old beams which
now support the first floor are without sufficient

architectural character to identify their period. The

architect believes that they may well have formed the

supports for the first, and probably the flat, roof of

the original house. Facilities for identifying the age
of the wood of these members by scientific analysis was

not at the disposal of the architect.

There is little doubt in the light of the informa-

tion that was disclosed by the archeological work that an

arcade supported gallery ending in a stone enclosed
stairway once formed part of this house. That such houses

were once familiar in St. Augustine as late as 1876 is

supported by sketches reproduced in that year in the

New York Daily Graphic. (Plates 4 and65).

That this arcade, gallery, and stairwell feature was

constructed at a date later than was the original house

there is little doubt since neither the footings or wall

above,of the stair well was bonded into the stonework of

the main building.

Documentary information supporting this theory is

presented by maps in the possession of the St. Augustine

Historical Society library. All the maps prepared before

1788 show the building in block form as an extended

rectangle. However the rectangle indicating the building

on a map prepared by Mariano de la Roque in 1788 more

nearly approaches a square and clearly indicates the

addition of a long architectural element running entirely

across the south side of the building. This element is

of the same relative size and shape as the foundations

excavated and which the architect tentatively identified

as that of an arcade, gallery, and stairwell.

Since de la Roque's map was prepared after the first

British occupation of St. Augustine these architectural

elements may reasonably be attributed to the English.

A survey of English architecture in the West Indies con-

ducted in 1923 by Prof. John S. Humphreys of Harvard

produced the photographs shown on Plate6$. It is a

picture of Glasgow Lodge built in St. George, Bermuda,

circa 1760. Not only does this photograph show an arcade

surmounted by a wooden gallery but one can define a chim-

ney top similar to that which was eventually restored in

the Llmbias House.

That arcades of Aimilnr architectural character

once existed in St. Augustine i testified to by numerous

sketches and photogrP. h; presently in the files of the

Historical Society library. Unfortunately our histor-


ians have been unable to date most of this information.

Two of these have been reproduced and are shown on Plates

and Although thesh sketches were rmde in 1876 these

houses were at th'-t date identified as "old" houses.

Accompanying the sane set of sketches were other

closer views of semi-enclosed architectural spaces which

it is rea-onable to presume were made of the same houses.

These sketches are reproduced and presented as Flates 66

and 68. Both of these sketches indicate balusters of crude

shape. while e such bluasters may in fact have been used

they certainly are not in character with the otherwise

handsome architectural features indicated by the artist.

Likewise they Pre not similar to other blusters usually

produced or designed by Englishmen in either domestic or

colonial architecture. It is the opinion of the architect

thnt the artistic limitation of the artist who prepared

these sketches precluded reasonably accurate indication of

the typo of balusters which were actually incorporated

in these structures.
'o reinforce this opinion we started studying St.

Augustine's oldest buildings.

In the Fatio House there is an exterior stairway

and a single gallery front reinining from an early period.

These architectlrql fe-tures are by local historians

credited e- being psrt of the original house reportedly

built during the nineteenth century. The architectural

characteristics of most of the millwork in this house

substantiates this claim. However the author believes

that the design of the reference stairway and the gallery

post do not do so. If they "were" fabricated and installed

during the tineteenth century architects will recognize

that they were certainly copied from designs more pecu-

liar to the late eighteenth century. The closed string

handrail and tie baluster contours and other details

support such a theory.

The architectural character of the reference details

as well as accounts contained in John Bartram's diary; the.

graphic plan of the Llambias House in Mariano de la Roque's

map of 1788; and the size and shape of the brick found in

the architectural remains led me to accept the conclusion

that the arcade, gallery, and stairwell, and chimney and

fireplaces of both the Fatio and Llambias Houses were

originally built by the English. I therefore began

studying prototypes built b' the English elsewhere in

semi-tropical regions.

A survey of the historic architecture of Charleston,

South Carolina, failed to provide information of impor-

tance. My theory had received no support in the way of

concrete examples. All examples of historic architecture

on the mainland south of Charleston were equally unin-

formative. I therefore turned to a study of the islands

in the West Indies settled by the English.


. i'


GALLERY Finally I ran upon the design of a gallery
BALUSTERS post built by the English on the island of
Antigua in a dockyard once commanded by Lord

Nelson. This post is almost identical with the ones remain-
ing at the Fstio House. Not only are the posts in this

example and the Fatio House similar but a marked similar-

ity may be observed in the shape of the balusters remain-

ing in both the structures. These examples in Antigua

exist in the gallery of the Officers' Quarters near the
drydock in English Harbor. These quarters have been iden-

tified by an English architect, A.W. Acworth, as having

been built in 1746.

These similarities are indicated in the accompanying

photographs. (Plates 7f, 73 ,74). The success with which

they were incorporated as part of the Final Restoration

of the g-llery posts, rails, and balusters in the Llambias

House, may be udged from the accompanying photograph.
(Flate 74 .
GALLSRY The stairway between the arcade and the gallery
was in general, based ppon the same evidence.

This evidence was modified only by the evidence uncovered
by exploratory work which indicated that at least the

first run of steps was probably of stone bearing 6n the west

wall of the main house.

A map dated around 1850 which was discovered in

Tallahassee by Mrs. Moulds contains a sketch of the floor


plan of the Llambias House which would indicate that half

of the west wall of the stairway enclosure remained at

that time. This evidence leaders one to believe therefore

that only the trim of steps which was flanked on the west
by the section of wall indicated as remaining at the time,

was of stone. Had the entire stairway been built of stone

as were those described by Bsrtram it is likely that evi-

dences of the second run would have appeared in the arch-

eological remains or house remains as late as 1880 and

been indicated on the reference map. The second run of

sueps was therefore constructed of wood and the space

underneath treated in the typical fashion of the period.

GALLERY The details of the shed roof of the gallery were
also modeled after an approximate English proto-

type to be found in an early home called the "COCOON" in

Warwick, Bermuda. The date the cocoon was built is still

the subject of disagreement. However architects and his-

torians, according to Prof. John S. Humphreys of Harvard,

agree that it was constructed prior to 1750. r/ fdA i3

GALLERY- The windows restored to the stairway enclosure
WINDOWS are typical examples of features of this type
built throughout the colonies by the English

during the last half of the eighteenth century.

GALLERY No evidence of the kind of facing which was
originally incorporated as the outside skin of

the south wall of the second floor of the main house

W 0

remained at the time the restoration was started. Sev-

eral considerations however recommended its restoration

as a frame wall.

The first of these was the fact that we had two doors

and an early window complete with existing frames which

were over a hundred years old. To -Tomove these and

replace them with new openings based on conjecture seemed

unjustifiable. To change or remove these items would

destroy the unity of the interior architectural features.

Since an early plate still supported the mid-nineteenth

century studs of this wall it is reasonable to assume the

earliest wall may also have been of frame.

It was therefore decided to finish the exterior of

the wall with sheathing of an early type to be found in

St. Augustine. The feather-edged boards which appear on

the east face of the exterior wall of the Oldest House

under the balcony was accepted as the nearest local

exampt' of such a finish. This type of wall facing was

also popular during the eighteenth century in rural areas

of other southern states as well as in New England.

ARCADE The restoration designs of the arcade with its
ARCHES stone piers and arches were based on a combina-
tion of eighteenth century English precedent

in Bermuda, seventeenth century Spanish precedent in

Puerto Rico and Cuba, at the Mission of San Juan Capistrano,

and an undocumented precedent in St. Augustine. (Plates ,76-7TST


It willbe noticed that the piers in the restored

arcade of the Llambias House do not have chamfered edges.

This is because I believe that these chamfers were not

part of the original design. I believe that they were

introduced after the sharp arrises which they originally

contained had been knocked-off by domestic accidents or


SEAT IN A seat of Spanish design was included in the
restoration to assist in the completion of the

"picture". Such seats were described by Bartram in his

diary. The only such seat (of Spanish origin) which remains

in this country w.th which the author is familiar is shown

on Plate85. This originally stood in the arcade of the

Mission of San Juan Capistrano in California, built in

1776. A coquina base was incorporated in the Llambias P/Vk ~d

House seat instead of brick shown in the photograph

because Bartram's diary described the ones he saw as

having been built of stone, and because it is probable

that this material was more readily available at the time

than was brick.

INTEI'R In restoring the woodwork on the interior of
the building all such items as were in sound

condition were replaced exactly asthey were removed.

Only in a few instances was it necessary to replace

such millwork. Several window sash were replaced and also


the two doors leading from the chambers to the balcony.

These were copied from early ones remaining in the house.

HARDWARE At the beginning of the restoration program
only one lock remained which could be identified

with the mid-nineteenth century interior door on which it

was mounted. It was however possible to determine the size

and character of the first locks which had originally

been placed on these doors by studying the marks of such

locks left under the successive coats of paint. This evi-

dence was carefully recorded and locks appropriate to

the period were manufactured placing the keyholes, keepers,

and knobs where the holes in the doors indicated they had

originally existed. The size of the box also corresponded

to the evidence left on the door which provided this in-


LOCKS Mr. Elmer Pratt of the W.C. Vaughn Company of

Boston, Mass., identified the evidence as indi-

cating that these locks were made by a local blacksmith

after English precedent. He also identified t'em as typi-

cal of the period 1840-1860. The Vaughn Company made much

of the hardware used in the restorations at Williamsburg.

BUTTS Originally cast iron butts were used on there doors

but the cost of reproduction of such items was

considered prohibitive. It was therefore considered

appropriate to use brass butts of a design similar to

those of the cast iron originals. Cast iron butts were


also popular in the mid-nineteenth century.
SCREWS All interior hardware was installed using point-
less screws as was the practice during the
reference period. Wve were of course obliged to use modern
tapered screws and cut off the points.

W 0

A "general summary" of my professional opinion

regarding the architectural development of the Llambias

House which will in the main be supported by architec-

tural findings and some historic documents may be out-

lined as follows.

A. The original house as my deductions indicate, it

probably appeared when built by the Spaniards is shown"

by Plate This house was a one room, one story, flat-

roofed building built entirely of coquina rock. It was

originally floored with tabby and heated by braziers.

The windows were probably unglazed, guarded by wooden

grills and protected by heavy wood shutters. It is pro-

bable that few architectural changes were made in its

appearance until 17'3.

B. Y:ith the coming of the English, major changes such

as illustrated on Plate were wrought in the archi-

tecture of this building. A second story with probably

two chambers was added. A chimney with the fireplace on

the first floor was incorporated. The shuttered and

grilled windows were replaced with windows of smaller

size with glazed, double-hung sash. A steep shingled

roof of English character surmounted the remodeled build-

ing. It probably had at least one flat roof dormer to

ventilate the attic-storage space.

In addition to the above "improvements" an arcade,

gallery, -nd stair were added on the rear. It is probable


9 9
that more elaborate gates and fences were also incor-

porated at this time.

C. It is my opinion that during the late eighteenth
century or early nineteenth century a major catastrophe

occurred at this house. Documentary evidence supports

this assumption by stating that it was stripped of wood-

work before 1791 and was reported to be in "poor" condi-
tion in 1812. Probably most of the "supposed" damage

occurred in the upper and south sections of the building.
It is possible that the roof and the dtuds in'the frame

wall on the qouth side of the second floor were burned

off. It is also possible that the corner pier of the
arcade collapsed due to its poor design. Such piers and arches

wh'ch were built by men who were not professional build-

ers eventually had to be reinforced by buttresses such

as is shown on Plate tonprevent such collapse.

(Plate ).

D. Around 1840 it is probable that the house was re-
novated and remodeled as it appears in Plate At this

time a new roof with a flatter pitch was installed, the

gallery and arcade were rebuilt eliminating the arches

but retaining the stone piers and substituting posts,

rails, and balusters similar to that now on the restored

balcony, for the vertical balusters and heavy rails
and posts incorporated in the restoration. This reconstruc-

tion may have included a stairway of later design. The

interior trim including the present doors, second floor

fireplace and mantelpiece, larger windows, frames and trim,

and a street balcony were probably als~ installed pt that

time. There is little doubt that the plastered ceilings

were included in this work. A local blacksmith was doubt-

lessly employed to nmke new door h* rdware similar to that

which appears in the restoration.

These conclusions are supported by the character of

the architecturall woodwork remaining in the building.

That no major additions existed at this time in addition

to those which were recorded in de la Roque's map of

1788 is attested by an Insurance Map (1893) in the poss-

ession of the Historical Society,

E. Between 1910 and 1917 apparently the architectural

spaces restored as a stairwell in the present buildings

were enclosed and used as interior chambers. It is also

probable that the straight run of steps removed during

the restoration was installed. (Plate ). Some of this

evidence is also contained in an insurance map of 1910

and 1917owned by the Historical Society library.

F. Another insurance map (1924) in the reference lib-

rary files shows that by that date the !ing which was

razed during the restoration program was in existence.

Plate shows the house ,s it probably appeared at this


By swinging up thn -heet of paper backing the sketches


made on acetate one may superimpose each of the sketch-

elevations and sketch-plans on the other. By so doing

it is possible to graphically follow the probable architec-

tural development of this house.


w 9

GLASS The glass in the mid-nineteenth century sash was

left as found and where such glass was broken or

missing, it was replaced with modern single thickness

glass. This was because glass of the type used during

the reference period, ws not procurable locally or

commercially available.

However in the window sash located in the mid-

eighteenth century stair well enclosure we used crown-

glass because this glass was available commercially

through a West Virginia concern who is manufacturing it

for Colonial Williamsburg. It is almost identical in

appearance with window glass made in England during the

eighteenth century and exported to English colonists

in America.

F~INT It was possible to determine the colors of
INTERIOR original paint used on all interior wood trim.
This was accomplished by removing portions of

the successive coats of paint until the unpainted wood

was exposed. Samples of each successive paint used

may be seen at various points throughout the building.

Apparently all woodwork excepting the doors was painted.

The doors we found,had been stained.


BLINDS AND The color of the window sash, sills, trim,
TRIM and blinds was determined in the same manner.

The colors of each original finish were in

all these instances carefully matched in the repainting

processes .

BALCONY As has been mentioned before, some indication of

the original color which had been applied to

the lintel-plate of the balcony was discovered when study-

ing a fragment of what is believed to have been part of

this original member. It was however necessary to determine

the colors used in the decorative panels commonly occupied

by balusters.

The most reliable source of such information was

finally identified as the paintings made by Miss Emily

Wilson during the last quarter of the nineteenth century.

It is unlikely that verbal or documentary descriptions of

colors employed at that time could present information

regarded as satisfactory.

In determining the appropriate color for the eigh-

teenth century arcade, gallery, and stair well, we relied

upon historical precedent found in other historic homes

of this period as well as evidence offered by N.F. Little

and by some other writers on this subject. It is common

knowledge that sash during this period were painted red

lead and window frames when new were painted white. Sub-

sequent paint colors were usually lead grey or blue.


.. .- .... --

Since the blue used at that time was frequently stained

with indigo, a commodity raised in Florida by the Min-

orcan Spaniards, this color was used on the feather-edged

boards on the gallery walls as well as on the eighteenth

century window frames.

WHITE All accounts concerning the domestic life of the
Minorcans give considerable space to their fondness

for whitewash to brighten both the interiors and exteriors

of their homes. It was therefore considered appropriate

to whitewash surfaces which could be expected to "hold"

such applications. Such surfaces were of course those

which had been plastered and were in a relatively pro-

tected location.

PRESERVATIVES All wood members which were left unpainted

and which were exposed to dampness or

other conditions which might threaten their longevity

were treated with wood preservative.


Throughout the restoration, historical precedent

dictated the choice of both building materials and con-

struction techniques when such items were visibleto the

Public, and were economically feasible. Hand-split

shingles, hand-hewn roof trusses, hand-riven lathes,

hand-made brick, hand-planed boerd surfaces, hand-run wood

and stone mouldings, hand-forged hardware, etc., were

incorporated in The building as it stands today. The cost

of reproducing balusters, newel posts, gallery posts and

rails, and a few other items was considered prohibitive

however and it was felt that the machine-made items

would be acceptable if the Fublic was correctly informed

concerning their identity.

A few hand-made nPils were used in the restoration

but the cost of these items proved to be exhorbitant.

We therefore used hin'e-cut nails in locations where

they would be prominent and "worked-over" the heads to

duplicate the appearance of the hand-made product.

The practices of the early "wood-joiners" were prac-

ticed throughout the job. The mortise and tenon was used

wherever its use wa: dictated by historic precedent. We

even secured some ancient moulding planes to "r@n" the


mouldings on so lid frames and elsewhere where such a

practice was common.

GATES Exploratory excavations provided no information
AND regarding the one-time presence of gates, walls,
and fences beyond that which was exposed above

grade. Efforts of the research staff to locate informa-

tion regarding early precedent were unsuccessful.

However in Reynold's Standard Guide published in

1885 there appears a picture of the gate shown on Plate f7

The architectural character of this gate indicates that

it. features are peculiar to a period around 1820.

However its details are vague and a closer examination

might identify it as being of much earlier design. The

panels or shutters closing the barred area is reminiscent

of English gates of an earlier period.

Since however this was by Frchitectural analysis

identified as the oldest St. Augustine gate of which

there is knowledge, it was copied and installed as part

of the Llambias House restoration. Originally a wall and

gate "surround" was suggested by the architect but in

compliance with a request by members of the Association

alternative schemes were prepared. The one finally de-

cided upon was based on several gates at eighteenth

century houses in Bermuda. The similarity between the soil

conditions, building materials and nationality of the

colonists in the opinion of the architect justifies the

use of Bermuda-English designs when mainland precedent

is unavailable. (PlateSO).


In the Bermuda example the spreader is missing.

These spreaders were necessary to prevent the shallow

foundations of the masonry from permitting the gate posts

to "lean" into the opening provided for the gate. Early

photographs in the library of the Historical Society

show that such spreaders were used in gates that once

were installed at the Cathedral and the old Hospital.

The curvilinear treatment of the wall where it meets

the main body of the house was based on the precedent

indicated on Plate 9. The house shown could not be

identified but is believed to have stood at the corner

of Treasury and Charlotte Streets. (Plate 79). Many

English houses of eighteenth century origin employ the

treatment. The picket-surmounted wall at the west end

of the house follows a precedent that was used by the

English during the mid-eighteenth century. Apparently

such a combination of wall and pickets was used around the

property of the Episcopal Church in St. Augustine for

it appears in Rev. Moulton's sketches (Plate&Z) and

also in a painting owned by Mrs. Lindsley.

In the APPENDIX will be fount a series of miscellaneous

Plates which were of insufficient interest to include in the

main body of the report but which may "later" prove valuable

in evaluating the restoration. In general the consist of photo-

graphs taken of the same architectural element "before" rest-

oration ana "after" restoration.

These plates as well as the information included in this

Report will offer eloquent testimony of the care and painstaking

attention to detail that went into the restoration of this fine

old house.


Stuart Moffett nmette
Architect for he Restoration

College of Architecture

Oornell University

Ithaca, New York

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