Welcome To Historical St. Augustine,
Your Nation's Oldest City.
Most visitors do not realize that St. Augustine had
1500 inhabitants before the Pilgrims were born.
Many of the buildings on St. George Street existed
before George Washington's time.
History At A Glance
1565-Pedro Menendez Founded St. Augustine
1565-First Mass Offered at Mission of Nombre de
1585, 1668, 1702, 1728, 1740-Different Periods
City Was Under Attack
1589-City Plan Established
1672-Foundation Laid for Castillo San Marco
1763-Florida Ceded To England by Spain
1783-Florida Ceded to Spain by England
1821-Florida Becomes U.S. Territory
1845-Florida Becomes State.
The Visitors Guide to St. Augustine is designed to
enable you to locate all the Historical points of in-
terest with a brief description of each. Please follow
arrows as indicated for both walking and automobile
tour. Since the principal area is no larger than an
ordinary golf course we suggest, because of our nar-
row streets and traffic, that you stroll and examine
at your leisure these points of interest. There are
also carriages as well as sight-seeing trains and
driver guides available.
Hoaw To Use Folder
Under point of interest, note the name plaque of
the house and the street address. When on the lo-
cation, please verify the name and street numbers
with the building you are reading about.
On the map you will see the outline of many
buildings. In view that several buildings are always
being restored simultaneously you will note some
variance where you will find more points of interest
than there are indicated on the map.
Where there is more than one name given for a
house it is where a later owner enlarged or made
significant structural changes. Most of these build-
ings are registered by the Historical American Build-
ings Society for the Library of Congress.
The St. Augustine Junior Chamber of Commerce
cordially welcomes you to the Mother City of
Stay awhile and let the Old World charm cap-
In addition to her historical points of interest,
St. Augustine has many varied attractions which
are noted under, "Additional Points of Interest."
For your further relaxation may we suggest that you
allow time for a swim at St. Augustine Beach only
three and one-half (31/) miles from the Informa-
tion Center or go deep-sea fishing or play golf.
The Chamber of Commerce, as well as the St.
Augustine Restoration and Preservation Commission
and the St. Augustine Historical Society doors are
open to you if they can be of any assistance while
you are in St. Augustine.
We are sure that you will agree that St. Augus-
tine has more varied attraction than you can pos-
sibly imagine and trust that you will allow time to
see them all.
If your stay in St. Augustine fails to meet your
fondest expectations, if you have any constructive
suggestion to offer us by which we might make our
beloved City more interesting for you, the Visitor,
please communicate that to
CHAMBER OF COMMERCE
P. 0. BOX 940
St. Augustine, Florida.
It is suggested that you keep this pamphlet . .
surely you will want it for reference when you are
telling your friends back home about "the most in-
teresting city I have ever visited."
Hasta la vista y adios,
JUNIOR CHAMBER OF COMMERCE
ST. AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA
HISTORICAL ST. AUGUSTINE
1513 .................. ................... Ponce de Leon
1565...................................... Pedro Menendez
FIRST PERMANENT SETTLEMENT
Birthplace of Christianity in the United Stater
400 Birthday Celebration 1965
Junior Chamber of Commerce
ATLANTIC E G ST. AUGUSTINE BEACH
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DESCRIPTION OF POINTS OF INTEREST
1. OFFICIAL INFORMATION CENTER. 10 San Marco Ave. Head-
quarters of St. Augustine and St. Johns County Chamber of Com-
merce, free orange juice, lounge and restrooms. Open daily, seven
days a week.
2. ZERO MILESONE--OLD SPANISH TRAIL. Corner Castillo Drive.
This great stone sphere marks the eastern terminus of the Old
Spanish Trail, first transcontinental highway, from St. Augustine to
San Diego, California.
3. OLD PROTESTANT CEMETERY.. This burial ground, just outside the
City Gates, was opened during the yellow fever epidemic in 1821.
4. CITY GATE. Early in the 1700's the Spanish built a great earth wall
around St. Augustine and planted this wall with Spanish Bayonet
(yucca gloriosa), the sharp points of which were as effective as barb-
ed wire. The stone pillars were built around 1804, replacing earlier
wooden gateways. Vestiges of the moat remain, and the base of
the palisade is still intact underground. This was the main land en-
trance to the town, the only gate in a nine foot palisade earthwork
that ran west from the Fort to fence the St. Augustine peninsula
completely across. At the gateway a bridge spanned the moat, and
a draw span hauled up between the pillars. The draw was raised
each evening at six and lowered at seven-thirty in the morning. This
being the only land entrance to the town you entered on narrow St.
George Street (Calle Real), ihe only street to run the complete
length of the city-everything was founded within a few hundred
feet of this main street. St. George Street is the oldest street in
America today and houses more historical monuments than any other
5. OLDEST WOODEN SCHOOL HOUSE. 14 St. George St. Erected in
the late 18th Century, this building was first used as a school about
the time of the American Revolution. Originally it was the home of
the Guard for the City Gate. Later, when it became a school, the
schoolmaster lived upstairs and taught his pupils in the room below.
Built of hand hewn cedar clapboards this is the only remaining
wooden building of its era left in St. Augustine. Open 9-5 daily.
6. GALLEGOS HOUSE, 25 St. George St. A reconstruction project of
the St. Augustine Restoration and Preservation Commission, a State
Commission. First Spanish occupation. "Tabby" house.
7. CARMONA-SALCEDO HOUSE, 32 St. George St. Private reconstruc-
tion on a foundation shown on the 1788 Rocque Map. Property of
the same family of the Avero Salcedo House next door.
8. AVERO SALCEDO HOUSE, 42 St. George St. A reconstruction pro-
ject of the St. Augustine Restoration and Preservation Commission, a
State of Florida Commission.
9. CASA de DON RAYMUNDO de ARRIVAS. 46 St. George St. A
restoration project of the St. Augustine Restoration and Preservation
Commission. Houses the office of the Commission on the second
floor-first floor open to the public, displaying maps and pictures oi
the history of the Restoration Commission. Free.
10. PENALSOA AVERO HOUSE, 37 St. George St. Principal mansion of
the Avero Family. Colonists from the Baleric Islands brought to
Florida by the British, used the property as a chapel from 1777 until
the return of the Spanish regime again provided a larger house of
worship for the catholic adherents.
11. OLD SPANISH INN (De Mesa), 43 St. George St. Early Spanish
building privately restored 1959. Furnished with authentic furnishings
of an inn in Spain in late 1600's. All of its quaint furnishings wer
brought from Spain, many of the most interesting pieces having
been made especially for it after old drawings in Spanish archives.
Open daily. Admission charged.
12. RODRIQUEZ-AVERO-SANCHEZ HOUSE, 52 St. George St. (Little
house of stone of Antonia de Avero) built during the early 1700's.
Now houses the Museum of Yesterday's Toys, a collection of play-
things of the past from all over the world. In the rear is a lovely
garden featuring native plants and trees. Open daily 9-5. Ad-
13. JUAN PAREDES HOUSE. Old Curiosity Shop. 54 St. George St.
Constructed in 1803, a preservation of the St. Augustine Historical
Society now housing the Treasure Chest Gift Shop.
13A. OLIVERIOS HOUSE, 59 St. George St. Built in 1798-now being
reconstructed by Spanish government as an exhibition center.
14. POUJOUD HOUSE, 105 St. George St. A fine well-preserved ex-
ample of a later period Spanish home built circa 1820. Shop.
15. OLD SPANISH TREASURY, Corner St. George and Treasury Sts.
One of the best examples of the early architecture. -The Spanish
Treasurer was one of the important Royal Officials composing the
Governor's Council. The first house on this site (1600) was of wood.
When Governor Moore of South Carolina lifted his siege of St.
Augustine in 1702, the English set fire to the town and practically
all the buildings were burned. After 1702 coquina came into gen-
eral use and the first story of the present structure was built of
stone. During a later period, a second story of wood was added.
During the 19th Century this was a gracious American home and its
rare furnishings are still in place. Maintained as an ante-bellum
house museum by the Woman's Exchange, with an adjoining shop.
Open daily 9-5. except Saturday and Sunday. Admission.
16. TREASURY STREET. This is the narrowest street in the city, only 6
feet wide, between Charlotte and Bay Streets. The Spanish had
definite reason for using narrow streets in warm climates. Narrow
streets were shady and like chimneys they encouraged air circula-
17. CASTILLO de SAN MARCOS NATIONAL MONUMENT. The Castillo
was started in 1672 and its 16-foot thick walls are raised of coquina
(pronounced ko-Kee-na), the shellrock quarried from pits across the
bay on Anastasia Island. This fort, remarkably well preserved, is an
excellent example of Spanish Renaissance fortification. Open daily
8:30 to 5:30 p.m. Admission 25c. Free guided tours.
18. SOUND AND LIGHT. Nightly spectacle. A new form of entertain-
ment which has become famous in Europe. First time in America.
19. PONCE de LEON CIRCLE. A statue of Don Juan Ponce de Leon.
20. PUBLIC MARKET. When the Plaza was established, Spanish Gover-
nor Menendez de Canzo also set up the first standard system of
weights and measures. The present market building, built in 1824,
replaced earlier markets and was a busy place in the cool early
21. PLAZA de la CONSTITUCION. St. Augustine has the layout of a
typical 16th Century Spanish colonial town. During the 1570's the
Crown furnished colonial administrators with detailed instructions for
planning their settlements. One of the requisites of a plaza or park
whereon the principal buildings (such as the church), market, gov-
ernor's palace, bishop's house, etc. would face. St. Augustine's Plaza
was established in 1598, and is thus the oldest public square in the
United States. Standing in the center of the Plaza is the monument
to the Spanish liberal constitution of 1812, which gave it the present
name of "Plaza de la Constitucion".
22. CATHEDRAL OF ST. AUGUSTINE. (North side of Plaza.) When the
Spanish came back to Florida in 1783 they found their Catholic
Church in ruins. In 1793 work began on a new church financed
largely from the royal treasury, but with numerous contributions of
produce, materials and labor from the parishioners. Spanish Engineer
Mariano de la Rocque designed the building, which witnessed the
transition from Spanish province to American territory, then to state-
hood. In 1870 the structure became a cathedral. Fire destroyed the
interior and roof in 1887 and with the reconstruction a year later,
the trancepts and campanile were added.
23. GOVERNOR'S PALACE At the beginning of the 1600's, Spanish Gov-
ernor Canzo built his home here. Canzo's house was later purchased
by the government to be used as the official residence of the Florida
governors--the Casa del Gobernador. In 1690 the house was rebuilt
-this time of stone. During the 18th Century its gardens were one
of the town sights; John Bartram, famous bontanist, visiting the Eng-
lish governor here in 1765, mentioned it in his journal.
24. TRINITY EPISCOPAL CHURCH, corner of St. George and King
Streets. Services of the church of England were held regularly from
1763 to 1783 upon the actual spot where Trinity Parish Church now
stands in a building called the English Constitution House. On Oc-
tober 28, 1821 the Rev. Andrew Fowler was sent here by the Young
Men's Missionary Society of Charleston, S.C., and he organized this
Parish, which makes it the oldest Episcopal Church in Florida. Cor-
nerstone laid in 1825.
25. HORRUYTINER HOUSE, 214 St. George St. (Private). An early
26. OLDEST STORE, 4 Artillery Lane. Museum depicts a general store
of the late 1800's. Admission. Use parking lot on St. George St.
27. ORTEGA HOUSE, 224 St. George St. (Private.) Early Spanish house.
28. ST. JOSEPH ACADEMY, 241 George St. Established in 1858 by
the Sisters of Mercy, and taken over a decade later by the Sisters
of St. Joseph. During the early colonial days, Franciscan friars
shouldered the task of educating St. Augustine children. Compul-
sory free education came in 1785, with the establishment of a
"National School" by the parish priest.
29. PRINCE MURAT HOUSE, 250 St. George St. (Private). A fine ex-
ample of later Spanish architecture (about 1790). Prince Achille
Murat, nephew of Napolean, lived here during the 1820's.
30. ST. FRANCIS INN, 279 St. George St. Late 18th Century architec-
ture. Unrestored. Operated as an Inn to the public.
31. THE LLAMBIAS HOUSE, 31 St. George St. Reconstruction project of
the St. Augustine Historical Society. Open daily: 1-5 p.m. Free.
S32. OLDEST HOUSE, 14 St. Francis St. This interesting old building
was erected early in the 18th century. It is owned and operated by
the St. Augustine Historical Society and is exhibited as a house
museum, accurately depicting life in colonial St. Augustine. In its
beautiful garden are plants, trees and shrubs such as were grown
here during the Spanish period. Adjacent, is the Society's Library,
containing thousands of volumes and documents pertaining to St.
Augustine's early history. Admission.
33. ST. FRANCIS BARRACKS (State Arsenal). Opposite the oldest House,
has a long and colorful history.- The structure was originally the
Convent of St. Francis, fountainhead of the mission system establish-
ed by the Franciscans in the southeast during the 1600's and early
1700's. A few of the cells used by the friars still exist today. The
English (1763-1783) converted the friary into barracks, and the build-
ing, with necessary changes from time to time, has been used by
the military ever since.
34. CASA SANCHEZ, corner of Bay and Bridge Streets. (Private). From
Bay Street you will see the graceful roof-line and pleasant balcony
showing gardens. This house and its twin companion next door are
early 19th century buildings.
35. ST. AUGUSTINE ART, 22 Marine Street. Open daily. Free to the
36. POTTER'S WAX MUSEUM, I King Street. Life size sculptures of the
world's greatest characters attired in authentic costmues of their day.
Open 8:30 10 p.m. Admission.
37. PUBLIC LIBRARY, 12 Aviles Street. An early colonial house which
later became the home of Judge Joseph Smith, Magistrate of Florida
Supreme Court during the mid-19th century. Edmund Kirby-Smith. the
Judge's son, and last of the Confederate Generals to surrender, was
born here. Visitors are extended library privileges.
7,38. XIMENES HOUSE, 20 Aviles Street, south of library. A later colonial
house, property of the Colonial Dames of America. Guided tours
by members of the Colonial Dames of America. Open Thursdays.
-39. CASA O'REILLY, 34 Aviles Street. Early colonial house, renovated
by the Sisters of St. Joseph for use as one of the school units in
St. Joseph's Academy. This house was left to the church by Fr. Mi-
guel O'Reilly, an Irish priest serving the parish during the late
1700's, and served as a convent before the present convent buildings
40. DON TOLEDO HOUSE, 36 Aviles Street, is a later colonial home
reconstructed by the Sisters of St. Joseph for use of the Academy
41. LIGHTNER MUSEUM OF HOBBIES, 75 King Street, in the famous
Alcazar Hotel Building, is St. Augustine's city-owned museum. Pre-
senting a compromise of educational and entertaining exhibits relat-
ing to human interest of yesteryear and today. An international
showcase of heritage. Admission.
42. CORDOVA HOTEL (corner of Cordova and King Sts.) Built during
the 1880's by famed architect Franklin Smith. Recently purchased by
County of St. Johns and after restoration will be used for the St.
Johns County Court House.
43. PONCE de LEON HOTEL, on King Street. One of the finest ex-
amples of Spanish Renaissance architecture in America. Designed by
Carrere and Hastings, built by Henry Flagler, pioneer developer of
the Florida east coast., in 1885, during the period when St. Augustine
was America's Riveira.
44. VILLA ZORAYDA, 83 King St. This was the first poured concrete
structure erected in St. Augustine (1885) and as such was the fore-
runner of the great hotels. Architect Franklin Smith designed it after
a tower in the famous Alhambra of Spain. Oriental collection.
45. FLAGLER MEMORIAL CHURCH, corner Sevilla and Valencia St.
Rare example of Venetian Renaissance architecture. Flagler Mauso-
leum adioins church. Church open daily. Visitors welcome.
46. OLD SPANISH CEMETERY, near head of Cordova Street, was open-
ed during the late 1700's. The first Bishop of the St. Augustine
Diocese is interred in the Chapel.
47. MISSION OF NOMBRE de DIOS and SHRINE OF OUR LADY OF
LECHE. (America's oldest Mission.) Here, on September 8, 1565.
Don Pedro Menendez founded St. Augustine, and Father Lopez de
Mendoza Grajales offered the first parish Mass in the United States.
The Mass of -i .,,. ..i was the first community act of Christian
religion in -hi. i... :-i States. The Spanish founders called their
landing site Nombre de Dios Name of God and here they
founded America's first Mission to the Indians. The Mission will ob-
serve its 400th Anniversary in 1965. Open daily. Offering.
48. OLD JAIL, 8 Williams Street. Exhibits many weapons used for
crime and methods for punishment. Closed Sundays. Admission.
49. FOUNTAIN OF YOUTH MEMORIAL PARK, 155 Magnolia Avenue-
I block east of San Marco Ave. The park is a memorial to Juan
Ponce de Leon. Senoritas in Spanish costumes serve you water from
the crystal clear springs. The Planetarium and The Historic Space
Globe enlighten you about the early history of St. Augustine. The
Indian Burial ground is among the features. Admission.
50. RIPLEY BELIEVE IT or NOT MUSEUM, 19 San Marco Ave. This
completes your tour. See further in this folder for other points of
interest in or near St. Augustine.
Additional Points of Interest
In or Near St. Augustine
These points of interest are not included in the
regular VISITORS ROUTE, due to their locations. You
will find this is a very pleasant and entertaining
separate tour (see map for location).
-Go East over Bridge of Lions (Fla. A1A).
Using Map as Guide to Locate Points
A. BRIDGE OF LIONS spans Matanzas Bay to An-
astasia Island. The lions, at the west approach
to the bridge, are emblematic of Ponce de Leon.
B. OGLETHORPE MONUMENT, on Davis Shores,
marks the location of a battery from which the
British bombarded the town during the Seige
C. ST. AUGUSTINE LIGHTHOUSE is 165 feet high.
Built in 1873, it replaced a Spanish watchtower
near the same sight.
D. ST. AUGUSTINE ALLIGATOR FARM, on A1A near
Lighthouse. Thousands of live 'gators in all
stages of growth as well as other reptiles, croc-
odiles, Galapagos tortoises, African ostriches,
monkeys, birds, wildcats and Florida wildlife.
Museum also. Open daily 8 a.m. to 6 p.m. Ad-
F. SITE OF QUADRICENTENNIAL AMPHITHEATRE.
G. CITY OF ST. AUGUSTINE BEACH, four miles from
center of St. Augustine. On the Atlantic, one of
the finest bathing beaches in the country, with
18 miles of hard, smooth, clean sand on which
cars can be driven at low tide. Beach cottages,
. hotels, fishing pier and other amusements.
FT. MATANZAS NATIONAL MONUMENT, 14
miles south of St. Augustine on Florida A1A. A
fortified watchtower built by the Spanish in 1742
to protect Matanzas Inlet. Site of the massacre
of French Huguenots by the Spanish in 1565.
Open daily 8:30 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. Free. Guide
MARINE STUDIOS, 18 miles south of St. Augus-
tine on Fla. AlA. World's first oceanarium-
300 port-holes to view all kinds of fish in their
natural habitat. Open daily 8 a.m. to sunet.
ANIMAL LAND. Motor tour through Florida
wilds. Large collection of all types of animals.
Located North of St. Augustine On U.S. #1
OLD SUGAR MILL. Display of equipment used
for making sugar on plantations in by-gone
L. HORSELESS CARRIAGE MUSEUM. Outstanding
collection of antique cars. Admission.
M. GATOR LAND. Large collection of alligators,
crocodiles and rare birds. Admission.
Located on W. King Street
N. SHRIMP DOCKS, located on San Sebastian River,
headquarters for picturesque fishing fleet.
Brief History of St. Augustine
Ponce de Leon, having already made a voyage
with Columbus, discovered in 1513 "La Florida"
and claimed it in the name of his Catholic Majesty,
the King of Spain. "La Florida" theoretically ex-
tended as far north as and including Canada and
west to the Pacific Oce.an but, actually, was limited
to what Spanish military control could support in the
face of later British and French colonization.
With the conquest of the Aztec civilization of
Mexico (1519-1521), the Spanish conquistadors
were only interested in finding gold and silver and
not until 1564 when the French, under the com-
mand of Jean Ribault, established a fort at the
mouth of the St. Johns River, did the Spanish de-
cide that a colony must be established to protect
its territories as well as is fleets of gold and silver-
laden ships. On the feast day of St. Augustine
(after whom the port was named) in 1565 Pedro
Menendez and his men landed on the east cost of
Florida with orders to destroy the French forces and
establish a port. After several skirmishes with the
French forces, the French began a naval assault on
the Spanish ships, but before they could be brought
into action, a storm forced the French fleet south-
ward, where most of the French ships were lost.
Upon learning that the French fleet had been de-
stroyed, Menendez made a forced march northward
and destroyed the French fort, "Fort Caroline."
Immediately upon the fort's surrender, Menendez
marched southward past St. Augustine to continue
his fight against the naval forces which had reach-
ed shore. Near Matanzas (slaughters) Inlet most
of the French were killed or later executed after
their unconditional surrender.
From its very beginning the colony suffered from
the results of unsuccessful farming, indifferent Span-
ish support, and the military characteristic of St.
Augustine continued throughout its Spanish occu-
Only after eight wooden forts had been destroy-
ed and the port sacked and burned by pirate fleets
(including Sir Francis Drake) did the Spanish be-
gin, in 1668, the erection of a stone fort, "Castillo
de San Marcos." This fort withstood two large
British forces (800 to 1,000 men each) in 1702 and
again in 1740, and has the distinction of never hav-
ing been captured. Often during raids and other
seizures, the residences which surround the fort
would be destroyed and would have to be rebuilt
upon the lifting of the seige.
In the Spanish alliance with France in the French
and Indian War, when Spain and France lost their
European war to England in 1763, Florida was
taken over by the British. During the Revolutionary
War, St. Augustine became a haven for at least
10,000 British loyalists.
Upon the conclusion of the Revolutionary War
the Spanish regained Florida and continued to oc-
cupy St. Augustine until it was purchased in 1821
by the United States of America.
St. Augustine's historic buildings reflect a com-
bination of both Spanish and English adaptation,
resulting in an architectural style found only in St.
Augustine. With the coming of the railroads, Henry
M. Flagler brought to St. Augustine, through the
erection of the Ponce de Leon Hotel, Alcazar, and
Cordova buildings, the grandeur of Old Spain.
These buildings are a composite copy of buildings
situated in Barcelona, Seville, Cordova and other
In 1959 the State Legislature of the State of
Florida established a St. Augustine Restoration and
Preservation Commission and gave it funds to com-
mence the restoration of the historical buildings in
St. Augustine. In 1962 President Kennedy establish-
ed a Federal Quadricentennial Commission to take
initial steps in commemorating the 400th anniver-
sary of the founding of St. Augustine.
A WORD ABOUT THE ARCHITECTURE
YOU WILL SEE
Spanish St. Augustine was essentially a military
outpost. Its inhabitants came from many Spanish
lands, and with few exceptions, they were poor
people. Hence you will find no grandiose mansions
in colonial St. Augustine. in the earliest days, a
house had to be simply and cheaply built (there
were few craftsmen), native materials had to be
used, a building had to be strong to withstand occa-
sional flood tides, and it had to be cool in summer
and warm in winter. Thus early houses are often
characterized by very simple exterior design and
plan, a windowless north wall and a second story