Citation
Florida springs protection areas ( FGS: Open file map series 95 )

Material Information

Title:
Florida springs protection areas ( FGS: Open file map series 95 )
Creator:
Greenhalgh, T. H.
Place of Publication:
Tallahassee
Publisher:
Florida Geological Survey
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
2005
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Maps ( jstor )
Natural springs ( jstor )
Surface areas ( jstor )
Geological surveys ( jstor )
Groundwater ( jstor )

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.

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Full Text



OPEN FILE MAP SERIES NO. 95


Florida Springs Protecti



Greenhalgh, T. H., P.G. #1277 and Baker, A. E.,

February 9, 2005


Walter Schmidt
State Geologist and Chief







Introduction


The Florida Springs Protection Areas map was created by the Florida Geological Survey
(FGS) at the request of the Florida Department of Community Affairs. The purpose of
the map is to identify areas that contribute flow to Florida springs and to provide a
published resource for land use decision-makers as they work to protect and restore both
the quantity and quality of water discharging from Florida's springs.

A springshed is defined as "those areas of surface water and ground-water basins that
contribute to the discharge of the spring." (Copeland, 2003). To delineate a springshed or
a spring protection area one must have an understanding of the hydrogeology of the study
area, potentiometric surface maps, knowledge of internally drained areas and conduit
connections. Consideration should be given to aquifer recharge, aquifer vulnerability and
the uncertainty in the data. Expert knowledge should be used to refine the delineated
protection area boundaries where appropriate. Current and future research will improve
our understanding of springsheds/protection areas and their boundaries; as a result the
Florida Springs Protection Areas map will be periodically updated.

This map was created by compiling available springshed maps from the Water
Management Districts, the US Geological Survey and the Florida Department of
Environmental Protection. Utilizing geographic information system software or GIS,
these springsheds were projected onto a map of the State of Florida. To delineate
springsheds for the remaining springs, additional geologic data layers were utilized,
Including FGS spring locations, the thickness of overburden on the Floridan Aquifer
System (FAS) and the thickness of Intermediate Confining Unit sediments.

Realizing that springshed boundaries are dynamic due to changes in climate (seasonal
and long-term) and pumpage, a township buffer is applied to address lateral uncertainty.
For the non-outlier springs. After applying the township buffer, best professional
geologic judgment and expert hydrogeologic knowledge were used to further refine the
delineated spring protection areas. Specifically, areas were excluded where the FAS is
overlain by very thick confining. Utilizing the 2000 FAS potentiometric surface map,
regional ground-water divides were used to refine some of the springs protection area
boundaries.

In the springs protection area, the "sole source" of drinking water and the source of
spring discharge is groundwater. Whether pumped from a well or flowing from a spring
vent, it is the same water. Numerous contaminants including bacteria, metals, nutrients
and pesticides are detected in spring waters. These contaminants and potentially others
may be found in ground water within the protection area. Utilizing this map, citizens and
the government can better protect the natural treasures we call springs as well as their
drinking water.

A step by step outline of the process used to create this map is shown in the insets.





References


Aucott, W.R., 1988, Areal Variation in Recharge to and Discharge
Aquifer System in Florida: U.S. Geological Survey
Investigations Report 88-4057, 1 map.


Springsheds and Springs


FGS Springs
I I Springsheds



Step 1

All available springsheds and all known spring locations
were combined.


on


areas


.ESCAMBIA .-......-.... -




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,eud 'oi---


Overburden on Limestone


FGS Springs
= Overburden < 100 ft



Step 2

The initial extent from Step I was then expanded to include
areas of high potential recharge to the FAS, which is based
on FAS overburden that is less than 100 feet thick. This
thickness was previously used to create the NW Florida
Sensitive Karst Areas Map (Cichon et al., 2004) and is
considered a conser-ative estimate of thickness required to
minimize significant adverse water-quality impacts to the
FAS. This overburden may or may not be confining the
FAS.


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-~w~r~ 17


I 2V'1'TA2L L


LAFA


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Professional Interpretation


Township Buffer


from the Floridan
Water Resource


Cichon, J.R., Wood, H.A.R., Baker, A.E., and Arthur, J.D., 2004, Application of
Geologic Mapping and Geographic Information Systems to Delineate Sensitive
Karst Areas for Land-Use Decisions, American Geological Institute website,
http://www.agiweb.org/environment/publications/mapping/graphics/florida.pdf,
2004.

Copeland, R., 2003, Florida Spring Classification System and Spring Glossary: Florida
Geological Survey Special Publication No. 52, p. 14

Todd, D.K. 1980. Groundwater Hydrology. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 535 pp.


Qualification

This geologic data was developed by the Florida Department of Environmental
Protection (FDEP) Florida Geological Survey (FGS) to carry out agency responsibilities
related to management, protection, and development of Florida's natural resources.
Although efforts have been made to make the information accurate and useful, the
FDEP/FGS assumes no responsibility for errors in the information and does not guarantee
that the data are free from errors or inaccuracies. Similarly FDEP/FGS assumes no
responsibility for the consequences of inappropriate uses or interpretations of the data. As
such, these digital data are distributed on "as is" basis and the user assumes all risk as to
their quality, the results obtained from their use, and the performance of the data.
FDEP/FGS bears no responsibility to inform users of any subsequent changes made to
this data. Anyone using this data is advised that precision implied by the data may far
exceed actual precision. Comments on this data are invited and FDEP/FGS would
appreciate that documented errors be brought to staff attention. The development of these
data sets represents a major investment of staff time and effort. As a professional
responsibility, we expect that the FDEP/FGS will receive proper credit when these data
sets are utilized. Further, since part of this data was developed and collected with U.S.
Government or State of Florida funding, no proprietary rights may be attached to it in
whole or in part, nor may it be sold to the U.S. Government or the Florida State
Government as part of any procurement of products or services.


2000 FAS Potentiometric Surface
I 210 (ft rnsl

-130 (ft rnsl

Step 3

Best professional geological judgment and expert
hydrogeologic knowledge xw'as utilized to refine the
protection area boundaries. Areas delineated in Step 1,
where the FAS is overlain by confining unit sediments
greater than 150 feet thick, were excluded. Conversely,
isolated areas with overburden sediments greater than 100
feet thick were included into the delineated springs protection
area. Additionally, the 2000 FAS potentiometric surface map
was used to identify major ground-water divides, which then
allowed for refinements in the protection area boundaries.


^ ^
.



v ^-


^ I~

\"^


)$~


Springs
Outlier 3rd Magnitude Springs
= Spring Protection Areas


Step 4

To account for the dynamic nature of springshed boundaries,
lateral uncertainty was addressed utilizing a geographical
buffer created by expanding the protection area to the nearest
township. Moreover, this geopolitical boundary is readily
referenced in rules or policies that may stem from this map.

The springs located outside of the delineated protection area
are third magnitude or less [i.e., discharging less than 10
cubic feet per second (cfs)]. Based on recharge rates in
Florida (Aucott, 1988), it was estimated that an average of 10
inches of recharge occurs annually in the springs recharge
area. Thus, approximately 15 square miles of springshed
would be required to produce a spring discharge of 10 cfs
(Todd, 1980). A radius of 2.2 miles extending from the
spring provides 15 square miles of springshed. Thus,
protection areas for the outlying springs consist of circles
(encompassing a minimum of 15 square miles) with a radius
of 2.2 miles.


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Version: February 9, 2005


Mp


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PINELLAS




































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Full Text

PAGE 1

POLK DADE COLLIER LAKE LEVY MARION OSCEOLA BAY PALM BEACH HENDRY TAYLOR LEON LEE DIXIE VOLUSIA CLAY ORANGE BROWARD PASCO WALTON JACKSON GULF ALACHUA LIBERTY HIGHLANDS GLADES BAKER BREVARD OKALOOSA SANTA ROSA CITRUS NASSAU MADISON HARDEE MANATEE COLUMBIA DE SOTO DUVAL MONROE SUMTER HILLSBOROUGH ESCAMBIA WAKULLA SUWANNEE ST. LUCIE PUTNAM CALHOUN HOLMES ST. JOHNS OKEECHOBEE GADSDEN SARASOTA JEFFERSON FLAGLER HAMILTON LAFAYETTE WASHINGTON FRANKLIN CHARLOTTE HERNANDO UNION MARTIN INDIAN RIVER GILCHRIST SEMINOLE BRADFORD PINELLAS 100 0 100 50 Miles Florida Springs Protection Areas 100 0 100 50 Kilometers Greenhalgh, T. H., P.G. #1277 and Baker, A. E., February 9, 2005 Springsheds and Springs Overburden on Limestone Township Buffer OPEN FILE MAP SERIES NO. 95 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION FGS Springs Springs Outlier 3rd Magnitude Springs Spring Protection Areas Professional Interpretation FGS Springs Overburden < 100 ft FGS Springs Springsheds Colleen M. Castille Secretary Walter Schmidt State Geologist and Chief Springs Outlier 3rd Magnitude Springs Spring Protection Areas Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Version: February 9, 2005 2000 FAS Potentiometric Surface 210 ft msl 130 ft msl Qualification This geologic data was developed by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection FDEP Florida Geological Survey FGS to carry out agency responsibilities related to management, protection, and development of Florida's natural reso urces. Although efforts have been made to make the information accurate and useful, the FDEP/FGS assumes no responsibility for errors in the information and does not guarantee that the data are free from errors or inaccuracies. Similarly FDEP/FGS assumes n o responsibility for the consequences of inappropriate uses or interpretations of the data. As such, these digital data are distributed on "as is" basis and the user assumes all risk as to their quality, the results obtained from their use, and the perform ance of the data. FDEP/FGS bears no responsibility to inform users of any subsequent changes made to this data. Anyone using this data is advised that precision implied by the data may far exceed actual precision. Comments on this data are invited and FDE P/FGS would appreciate that documented errors be brought to staff attention. The development of these data sets represents a major investment of staff time and effort. As a professional responsibility, we expect that the FDEP/FGS will receive proper credit when these data sets are utilized . Further, since part of this data was developed and collected with U.S. Government or State of Florida funding, no proprietary rights may be attached to it in whole or in part, nor may it be sold to the U.S. Government o r the Florida State Government as part of any procurement of products or services. Introduction The Florida Springs Protection Areas map was created by the Florida Geological Survey FGS at the request of the Florida Department of Community Affairs. The purpose of the map is to identify areas that contribute flow to Florida springs an d to provide a published resource for land use decision makers as they work to protect and restore both the quantity and quality of water discharging from Florida )Tj ET/Times-New-Roman 1 TfBT 11.96 0 0 11.98 396.07 1347.66 Tm (s springs. A springshed is defined as those areas of surface water and ground water basi ns that contribute to the discharge of the spring . Copeland, 2003. To delineate a springshed or a spring protection area one must have an understanding of the hydrogeology of the study area , potentiometric surface maps , knowledge of internally drained a reas and conduit connections. Consideration should be given to aquifer recharge , aquifer vulnerability and the uncertainty in the data. Expert knowledge should be used to refine the delineated protection area boundaries w h ere appropriate. C urrent and f uture research will improve our understanding of springsheds/protection areas and their boundaries; as a result the Florida Springs Protection Areas map will be periodically updated. T his map was created by compiling available springshed maps from the Wat er Management Districts, the US Geological Survey and the Florida Department of Environmental Protection. Utilizing geographic information system software or GIS, these springsheds were projected onto a map of the State of Florida. To delineate springshe ds for the remaining springs, additional geologic data layers were utilized , I nclud ing FGS spring locations, the thickness of overburden on the Floridan Aquifer System FAS and the thickness of Intermediate Confining Unit sediments. Realizing that spr ingshed boundaries are dynamic due to changes in climate seasonal and long term and pumpage, a township buffer is applied to address lateral uncertainty. For the non outlier springs. After ap plying the township buffer, best professional geologic judgme nt and expert hydrogeologic knowledge were used to further refine the delineated spring protection area s . Specifically, areas were excluded where the FAS is overlain by very thick confining. Utilizing the 2000 FAS potentiometric surface map, regional gro und water divides were used to refine some of the springs protection area boundaries. In the springs protection area, the sole source of drinking wa ter and the source of spring discharge is groundwater. Whether pumped from a well or flowing from a spr ing vent, it is the same water . Numerous contaminants including bacteria, metals, nut rients and pesticides are detected in spring waters . These contaminants and po tentially others may be found in ground water within the protection area. Utilizing this m ap, citizens and the government can better p rotect the natural treasures we call springs as well as their drinking water . A step by step outline of the process used to create this map is shown in the insets. References Aucott, W.R., 1988, Areal Variation in Recharge to and Discharge from the Floridan Aquifer System in Florida: U.S. Geological Survey Water Resource Investigations Report 88 4057, 1 map. Cichon, J.R., Wood, H.A.R., Baker, A.E., and Arthur, J. D . , 2004, Application of Geologic Mapping and Geographic Information Systems to Delineate Sensitive Karst Areas for Land Use Decisions, American Geological Institute website, http://www.agiweb.org/environment/publications/mapping/graphics/florida.pdf , 2004. Copeland, R., 2003, Florida Spring Classification System and Spring Glossary: Florida Geological Survey Special Publication No. 52 , p. 14 Todd, D.K. 1980. Groundw ater Hydrology . John Wiley & Sons, New York, 535 pp. Best professional geological judgment and expert hydrogeologic knowledge was utilized to refine the protection area boundaries. Areas delineated in Step 1, where the FAS is overlain by confining unit sediments greater than 150 feet thick, were excluded. Conversely, isolated areas with overburden sediments greater than 100 feet thick were included into the delineated springs protection area. Additionally, the 2000 FAS potentiometric surface map was used to identify major ground water divides, which then allowed for refinements in the protection area boundaries. To account for the dynamic nature of springshed boundaries, lateral uncertainty was addressed utilizing a geographical buffer created by expanding the protection area to the nearest township. Moreover, this geopolitical boundary is readily referenced in r ules or policies that may stem from this map. The springs located outside of the delineated protection area are third magnitude or less [i.e., discharging less than 10 cubic feet per second cfs]. Based on recharge rates in Florida Aucott, 1988, it wa s estimated that an average of 10 inches of recharge occurs annually in the springs recharge area. Thus, approximately 15 square miles of springshed would be required to produce a spring discharge of 10 cfs Todd, 1980. A radius of 2.2 miles extending f rom the spring provides 15 square miles of springshed. Thus, protection areas for the outlying springs consist of circles encompassing a minimum of 15 square miles with a radius of 2.2 miles. The initial extent from Step 1 was then expanded to include areas of high potential recharge to the FAS, which is based on FAS overburden that is less than 100 feet thick. This thickness was previously used to create the NW Florida Sensitive Karst Areas M ap Cichon et al. , 2004 and is considered a conservative estimate of thickness required to minimize significant adverse water quality impacts to the FAS. This overburden may or may not be confining the FAS. All available springsheds and all known spring locations were combined .