Front Cover
 Title Page
 Back Cover

Group Title: Tanzania farming systems project publication
Title: Tanzania farming systems project
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00094290/00001
 Material Information
Title: Tanzania farming systems project final report
Series Title: Tanzania farming systems project publication
Physical Description: 16 p. : ill., map ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Lev, Larry
Acker, D. G
Oregon State University
Consortium for International Development
Tanzania Agricultural Research Organisation
Donor: unknown ( endowment )
Publisher: Oregon State University
Place of Publication: Corvallis, Ore.
Publication Date: 1986
Copyright Date: 1986
Subject: Agricultural development projects -- Tanzania   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Tanzania
General Note: "December 1986."
General Note: "Increasing small farmer food production through improved linkage among researchers, extensionists, and farmers."--Cover.
General Note: "Contract no. AFR-0156-C-00-3033-00."
Statement of Responsibility: prepared by: Larry S. Lev; David G. Acker.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00094290
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 434863179

Table of Contents
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        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
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    Back Cover
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Full Text
0/. 9/z


Increasing Small Farmer
Fbod Production
Through Improved Linkage
Among Researchers,
Extensionists, and Farmers




Larry S. Lev
Chief of Party/Senior Production Economist
Oregon State University
David G. Acker
Project Director
Oregon State University

O on
',ii;.. University
Tanzanian United States Consortium for Oregon
Agricultural Agency for International State
Research International Development University
Organization Development (CID) (OSU)
Contract No. AFR-0156-C-00-3033-00
Project Publication No. 135
December 1986
This publication was funded by the USAID Mission to Tanzania and produced by the OSU Office of International
Agriculture. The opinions expressed herein are the views of the authors and not necessarily those of USAID.

The Tanzania Farming Systems Project
achieved notable success within a relatively
short lifespan. Starting in March, 1983,
and concluding in September, 1986, the
Project introduced and demonstrated the
effectiveness of a new approach to agricultural
research and extension in Tanzania, one which
placed greater emphasis on farmer input and
participation. U The Project made great strides in
improving the availability and use of research
information for basic food crops. As a result, the
Farming Systems Project achieved its primary goals Mrs. N. sanya,an exten-
sion specialist attached to
of developing a methodology for technology the Moshi district FSR/E
team, discusses research
generation and transferring the capacity for findings with farmers.
carrying it out. Utilizing the methodology developed,
successful on-farm experiments and on-station
research helped establish the Farming Systems
section within TARO as
a credible, valuable

rTi I '. E RJ I TLY



Tanzania, a land of diverse
environments, lies on the east
coast of Africa. Ninety percent of
its 20 million people are in the
rural sector.
Small-scale farmers dominate
in agricultural production, with
most of them farming plots of
one to three hectares. The
majority of farm operations are
carried out by hand. In spite of
its potential, Tanzanian agricul-
ture has been characterized by
stagnant production for the last
two decades. Among the many
factors contributing to this
disappointing performance are
unfavorable market conditions
for exports and imports, poor
infrastructure, and the lack of
production incentives for
Another contributing factor:
Although Tanzania's commodity
researchers and extension
personnel are well-trained and
dedicated, they have had relatively
little success in inducing farmers
to adopt newly developed crop
production recommendations.
Too often, researchers working
with a single commodity focus in
the relative isolation of the exper-
iment station had not paid
sufficient attention to farmers'
priorities. As a result, methods
developed under on-station condi-
tions often requiring intensive
labor, high seed density, and high
fertilizer levels were inappro-
priate under the limited resource
conditions found on most small
Frustrated extension person-
nel, in turn, had not been able to
persuade farmers to embrace
new methods that didn't properly
answer their needs. The Farming
Systems Project was developed in
the late 1970's, in response to a

recommendation from the
Ministry of Agriculture's previous
research project supported by
USAID. This earlier project noted
the need for development of more
relevant, near-term technologies
which could be achieved through
closer linkage among research-
ers, extensionists, and farmers in

Majestic Mt. Kilimanjaro
rises above fertile farmland
in northern Tanzania.
On-station experiments
include varietal trials such
as this Tegemeo sorghum
plot at the Ilonga Agricul-
tural Research Institute.


The Tanzania Farming Systems
Project was designed as a pilot
effort to achieve the following
* To develop a new approach to
agricultural research in
Tanzania, one characterized by:
D Inclusion of farmers along
with researchers and exten-
sion workers in identifying,
prioritizing, testing, and
evaluating agricultural
research on a continuing
D Research directed toward the
development of technologies
that are farmer- and location-
specific and that meet
farmers' high priority needs.
] A research process which is
near-term and cost-effective
in design.

* To provide management assis-
tance to TARO that would
enhance its ability to conduct
and sustain adaptive research
expanded to a national scale.
Assistance would be provided
in: organization, operation,
oversight, control, and


ED Cooperation between
research and extension to
achieve effective farmer use
of information developed.
D Development of human
resources required to sustain \ /
the program.

The Tanzanian Farming
Systems Project was administered
and supported by the Tanzanian
Agricultural Research Organiza-
tion (TARO). The United States
Agency for International Develop-
ment (USAID) provided external
financial support, while the
Consortium for International
Development (CID) provided
technical assistance. Oregon
State University served as the
lead institution through its
Office of International
Total level of assistance
provided through CID was 12
person-years and 2.225 million
dollars. Personnel involved in the
Project included specialists in
agronomy, agricultural
economics, and management.
Equipment provided included
vehicles, computers, research
and office equipment.
Equally important were the
contributions from Tanzania,
including an allocation of 16.5
million shillings provided by the
Tanzanian government through
the Treasury and the USAID
PL480 counterpart fund. The
most significant Tanzanian input
was the assignment of six scien-
tific officers and seven full-time
trials officers who formed the
core group within the Project.
These staff members were comple-
mented by part-time assistance
from the commodity programs
and from the district extension

Dr. L. Lev, Production
Economist, conducts diag-
nostic survey with the staff
of the Lyamungu Agricul-
tural Research Institute.


The Farming Systems Research
and Extension (FSR/E) approach
begins with the recognition that
farmers develop rational, complex
production systems that suit
their own environments and
needs. Experience has shown
that the highly focused
commodity-oriented approach
has difficulty in developing new
technologies which farmers
readily accept. The two
approaches commodity
research and FSR/E differ in
many components (see accom-
panying chart) but are
complementary rather than
FSR/E is very dependent on the
commodity research programs
for specialized knowledge on
component technologies. In turn,
commodity researchers gain
valuable insight and feedback on
farmer circumstances and prefer-
ences from the FSR/E section.
Overall, the FSR/E methodology
provides a means of developing a
client-focused research program
which merges farmer knowledge
and priorities with advanced
technology to build upon existing
farming systems.

HowS E Differs fro Commodity Resea

SCommodity Research







Multidisciplinary (social
and technical sciences)
and holistic in scope.

Multiple objectives which
reflect problems,
opportunities, and goals
of the farmer.

extensionists, and

Research often conducted
on farmers' fields, with
variables often set at
farmers' levels.

Complex. Based upon:
* biological feasibility
* economic viability
Labor requirements
* risk
* systems compatibility
* tastes and preferences

Intervention adapted for
a particular target group
and ready for

Final Output:

The FSR/E process consists of
five phases diagnosis, planning,
experimentation, evaluation, and

Left to right:
Mrs. J. Kaganda, extension
agent, interviews farmer in
Kilosa district to determine
on-farm conditions in prep-
aration for the design of
appropriate experiments.
Mr. Temu, scientific officer,
Dr. A. Moshi, National
Maize Coordinator, and Dr.
F Shao, Chief Research
Officer, exchange ideas in a
national research planning
Farmers hand plant seeds
in on-farm experiments.
Mrs. Barnabas and her
daughters display ears of
Kito maize on their farm in
Kilosa district, where the
harvest was a full month
earlier than their normal
maize crop.
Mr. P Kichelere, District
Agricultural Development
Officer, Kilosa, explains the
benefits of improved
management practices to


* Formation of a multi-discipli-
nary team of researchers

* Review of secondary materials

* Identification of target areas

* Survey of persons involved in
the farming process

* Definition of research priorities

* Formulation of hypothesis

* Design of experiments

* Selection of sites


* Testing on farmers' fields under
farmers' conditions
* Utilization of varying levels of
farmer labor and management
* Monitoring of overall farming

* Farmer evaluation N Extension of successful
* Agronomic, statistical, and technologies to farmers
economic evaluations




The Project team conducted
diagnostic work to develop
research programs closely
aligned with the priorities, prob-
lems, and opportunities of target
group farmers. Project activities
were focused on a pilot basis in
three districts of varying environ-
ments: Kilosa, Moshi, and
The determination of the
number of districts was based
upon the objective of completing
at least one entire cycle of FSR/E
activities before the end of the
Project. This strategy permitted
the demonstration of what the
FSR/E approach can accomplish
to complement existing research
programs. Of equal importance,
the full-cycle approach ensured
on-the-job training in all phases
of research for the FSR section
staff, which will enable them to
continue with the experimental
work beyond the Project's end.
By moving many of the experi-
ments off the research stations
and onto the farms, the Project
took its first step in integrating
farmers' ideas with existing
technology. Farmers responded
to participation in the experi-
ments with enthusiasm and an
eagerness to innovate,
demonstrating a strong desire to
have a hand in shaping new
technology. Farmer feedback,
particularly in the areas of
varietal evaluation and assess-
ment of labor requirements, has
begun to strongly influence the
on-station research process at an
early stage of technology







Bountiful maize/cassava
field demonstrates tradi-
tional practice of relay
Typical cropping pattern
on the slopes of Mt.
Kilimanjaro showing maize
and coffee production.
Cattle provide a key element
in the semi-arid farming
system of Dodoma district.

* Bi-modal rainfall pattern:
short rains November through
January; long rains February
through May
M Undulating plains with varying
soil types
* Substantial crop risks due to
erratic rainfall, vermin and
insect damage
M Diverse cropping system:
maize, cotton, rice, with little
integration of livestock

* Substantial rainfall February
through June
* Densely populated mountain
* Reliable crop production
* Mixed farming: coffee, bananas,
maize, beans, intensive
livestock production

* Erratic rainfall December
through March
* High plateau
* Substantial crop risk due to
drought and soil erosion
* Mixed farming: sorghum,
millet, groundnuts, extensive
livestock production

In Kilosa, the FSR/E team
worked with 50 farmers in
conducting 10 different experi-
ments over four seasons (two
years), including varietal evalua-
tions, agronomic practices, and
cropping patterns. The most
conclusive experiments are
detailed here.
Kilosa farming systems are
greatly influenced by the exis-
tence of two rainy seasons -
short rains from November
through January and long rains
from February through May.
Prior to the initiation of the
Farming Systems Project, resear-
chers in Kilosa were recom-
mending that all crops be planted
at the start of the more reliable
long rains. Farmers, however,
eager to end their "hungry
season" as early as possible, had
always planted full-season maize
in the short rains. This enabled
them to harvest maize in March
(the normal "hungry season")
and then use their labor and
fields for other crops.
The FSR/E team focused on the
design of sequential cropping
patterns which would better
satisfy farmer goals and needs.
The solid breeding work of the
National Maize Program (sup-
ported by USAID) provided a key
input through the development
of the newly released, early
maturing Kito maize variety.
While this variety had been
developed and recommended for
planting during the long rains,
the FSR/E team recognized the
potential benefit of planting it
during the short rains.
Through two years of experi-
mental work, the newly developed
Kito gained wide acceptance

among hundreds of farmers who
were able to harvest their maize
crop a month earlier. Satisfied
farmers called Kito "The
Liberator" for liberating them
from hunger.
* On-farm trials demonstrated
that Kito, when planted during
the initial short rains in

Dr. L. Lev, Production
Economist, displays Kito,
which earned the title of
"The Liberator" from
enthusiastic farmers.

November, achieved similar
yields as other maize varieties
but also provided several
0 Increased production in
kilograms per growing day:
exceeded that of full-season
maize varieties by 30 percent.
D A more rapid harvest, permit-
ting the farmer to avoid the
"hungry season."
D Reduced competition for land
and labor with other crops
later in the season. Since the
farmers had already
harvested maize and ensured
their food supply, they could
use their fields and labor -
for the other six or seven
crops they traditionally grow.
D Reduction of the overall risks
of crop failure. If farmers'
Kito crop should fail, they
could replant in February
and thereby ensure their
families' food supply.
* The smaller stature and earlier
maturity of Kito make it ideal
for inter- or relay cropping.
Among the potential crops to
follow an initial maize crop are
cotton, rice, cowpeas, or a
second maize crop. The initial
findings, particularly on the
maize/cotton relay cropping
pattern, have attracted consid-
erable farmer and researcher
D When cotton follows Kito, the
cotton yield is similar to that
achieved on a mono-cropped
field and provides consider-
able savings in land prepara-
tion for cotton.
D When cotton follows Kito, the
cotton yield is approximately
30% more than cotton
following a full-season maize.


Seven experiments were
conducted during two years in
Moshi district, many with a
group of 12 participating
farmers. The area consists of
carefully managed maize/bean
farms in the intermediate zone
on Mt. Kilimanjaro. The FSR/E
team built upon and fine-tuned
work initiated by on-station
commodity researchers.
* Farmers in Moshi have tradi-
tionally intercropped maize
and beans, but the resultant
bean yields were 50% lower
than mono-cropped beans. The
FSR/E team hypothesized that
excessive shading from the
maize was the primary factor
contributing to the lower bean

yields and conducted experi-
ments to attempt to increase
that yield.
D In one promising experi-
ment, two rows of maize and
two rows of beans were
planted in a paired row
configuration, thereby
allowing more light to reach
the beans.
* A second experiment examined
the relationship between differ-
ent elements cropping
density, fertilization level, and
varieties in an effort to apply
them to different groups of
farmers. Typical on-station
experiments had used higher
density and fertilization levels
than economically feasible for
many farmers. The FSR/E team

worked to establish specific
recommendations for farmers
of different economic levels and
in different locations.
* On-station trials in Moshi and
elsewhere examined Crotalaria,
a nitrogen-fixing legume, to
discover its effectiveness and
viability as a green manure
crop. After two years of experi-
ments, a tentative assessment
is that integrating it into
existing systems will be
difficult because of its competi-
tion with beans and its
sensitivity to many factors.


In the harsh, drought-ridden
Dodoma environment, the FSR/E
team conducted eight experi-
ments during a one-year period,
but progress was hampered by
poor weather, manpower short-
age, and transportation problems.
The experiments concentrated
on developing risk-reducing
production strategies, including:
* Improved tillage methods such
as tie ridges to trap rainfall.
* Varietal evaluations for
sorghum and maize.
* Soil amendments such as
Crotalaria, farm yard manure,
and rock phosphate.

Mr. V. Akulumuka, member
of the FSR/E team, assesses
paired rows of maize/bean
intercropping, an experi-
ment designed to provide
more light to the bean crop.

The combined, enthusiastic
efforts of the FSR/E teams,
commodity researchers, exten-
sionists, and farmers led to many
successes. The research
accomplishments and methods
of the Project will be sustainable,
since they are primarily the
results of Tanzanian efforts.
The FSR/E team benefited from
two main training sources:
* A series of four intensive in-
country training courses
conducted under the direction
of the International Maize and
Wheat Improvement Center
* Field activities, with the Project
staff teaching by example. This
apprentice-style approach was
especially valuable in equip-
ping team members with the
skills to continue to administer
FSR/E effectively in years to
Additionally, 10 Tanzanian
participant trainees began
graduate work in the United
States in 1984. As they return to
Tanzania, they will provide a
vital infusion of trained

FSR/E team members
develop skills at a Project
workshop co-sponsored by
CIMMYT at the Center for
Continuing Education at
Sokoine University of
Agriculture, Morogoro.
Pictured are some of the
participant trainees (along
with other international
students) who attended a
Project short-course on
FSR/E at Oregon State
University in August, 1985.

One of the most significant
accomplishments of the Project
is the network it established
among researchers, exten-
sionists, farmers, and other
Tanzanian groups.
* The FSR/E teams conducted
diagnostic work and experi-
ments with all six commodity
research groups in the pilot
districts (maize, cotton, grain
legumes, rice, beans, sorghum/
* The Farming Systems section
accomplished a "hidden
agenda" of influencing on-
station researchers to adjust
their priorities toward the
greater consideration of farmer
circumstances in their own
research programs.
* The FSR/E teams also promoted
valuable lines of communica-
tion among:
E Commodity researchers
L Extensionists
O Researchers from Tanzania's
two universities
O Seed industry personnel
l Political leaders
* FSR/E team members partici-
pated in regional and interna-
tional workshops and

The Project achieved an impres-
sive record of documentation,
producing more than 100 docu-
ments covering all five phases of
the FSR/E process, including:
* Statistical packages for
* Diagnostic and experimental
* Annotated bibliography of
FSR/E studies in Tanzania
The documents, compiled by
expatriates and zonal teams
working together, provide a
valuable resource for others.

Through the efforts of the
FSR/E team, groundwork was
laid for the development of an
effective national organization to
coordinate and control regionally
based FSR/E activities. Other
accomplishments included:
* Assistance in financial
planning and record keeping
* Set-up of inventory and
physical property system
* Advice on the structural
organization of research
* Assistance in long-range
planning and budgeting
* Training of counterparts in

Dr. M. Buchanan, Chief of
Party, and Mr. D. Magwai,
administrative officer,
prepare long-range finan-
cial plans for TARO.

Mr. D. Sungusia, National
FSR/E Coordinator, Dr. J.
Kearns, Deputy Executive
Director, CID, and Dr. A.
Cunard, Production
Agronomist, exchange
views with Mrs. J.
Massenga, a participating
farmer in Moshi district.


While the Farming Systems
Project achieved notable success
in its pilot districts, it was only a
beginning to what should be a
long and determined effort to
improve research and extension
activities in all parts of Tanzania.
The experimental work begun
under the Project will continue
under the guidance of TARO
FSR/E staff. Recommendations
for expanded success include:
* Future work should be based
on a slow and steady expansion
of the FSR/E methodology, with
emphasis placed on consolida-
tion of current work before
expanding into new areas.
* Continued emphasis should be
placed upon improving coordi-
nation between commodity and
FSR/E groups and among
researchers, extensionists, and
others in the agricultural
* Future external support should
be sought with the under-
standing that Tanzanian
commitment, in both funding
and continued infusion of
personnel, is a prerequisite for
the success of FSR/E within

Mr. J. Manento, senior
extension officer, and Mr.
D. Sungusia, National FSR/E
Coordinator, preside over a
national FSR/E planning

Consortium for International Development
6161 E. Broadway, Suite 1500
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Tel: (602) 746-0456
Office of International Agriculture
Snell Hall
Oregon State University
Corvallis, Oregon 97331 USA
Tel: (503) 764-2228
Tanzanian Agricultural Research Organization
P.O. Box 9761
Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Tel: 44247

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