Front Cover
 Back Cover

Group Title: Bulletin New series
Title: Landscape plants for Florida homes
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00094237/00001
 Material Information
Title: Landscape plants for Florida homes
Series Title: Bulletin New series
Physical Description: 97 p. : ill. ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Watkins, John V ( John Vertrees )
Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher: State of Florida, Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 1949
Copyright Date: 1949
Subject: Plants, Ornamental -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Landscape gardening -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: by John V. Watkins.
General Note: "September, 1949."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00094237
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 325000386

Table of Contents
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    Back Cover
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Full Text

New Series No. 106 September, 1949

Landscape Plants


Florida Homes


i |

NATHAN MAYO, Commissioner

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Trees are essential to the successful development of any
landscape plan. Suitable kinds in adequate numbers must
be carefully selected as the first step in any home beautifi-
cation project. These may be natives that already grow on
the property or they may be nursery-grown exotic species
bought especially for the purpose. Trees relate the house
and garden to the land and to the sky as well and scale
relationship must be carefully considered. One must think
in terms of mature sizes rather than of nursery grades when
choosing trees for planting around the home. In Florida,
many semi-tropical species grow quite rapidly and assume
gigantic sizes in a comparatively short time. Many of these,
too, cast very dense shade under which it is impossible to
grow a lawn. These kinds are unsuitable for small residen-
tial properties and their use should be limited to parks,
arboretums and large estates. Mature sizes will be indicated
in the descriptive paragraphs.
Shade is most necessary in Florida because of the large
number of intense sunny days. Broadleaved evergreens may
be chosen if year-round shade is wanted, while deciduous
species are best in some positions so that sunlight may be
enjoyed during the winter.
Framing is an important function of trees in landscape
design. Trees set toward the property lines on both sides,
rather forward of the house, enframe the dwelling and
the garden and give a finish and completeness that can be
attained in no other way. For this purpose, small, erect-
growing species should be chosen for most homes.
Two or three somewhat larger evergreen trees set at the
rear property line will furnish a background that gives
solidarity and definition to the plan.
Hardiness, adaptability to one's soil type, long life, free-
dom from diseases and insect pests and resistance to strong
winds are important considerations when a list of trees is
being compiled for home planting.
While the following list of ornamental trees is not a long
one it includes species that are completely dependable within
their climatic zones in Florida. Every home owner will want
to grow a few rare trees experimentally, but these should
be incidental to the species of unquestioned adaptability
which form the backbone of the planting.
Some species are selected for their beautiful evergreen
foliage, others are cherished for their striking blossoms,
while still others are all time favorites because of the fruits
that they bear.


CAJEPUT TREE-(Melaleuca leucadendron)
A beautiful small tree that is outstanding as a specimen, street tree
or windbreak


Collecting lawn trees from the woods has long been the
practice in Florida and thousands of beautiful specimens
now growing all over the state were secured in this manner.
It must be remembered that many species are protected by
law and cannot be dug without permission of the property
owner. Every right-thinking person will want to respect
property rights and will ask permission to collect before
going into a woodland with digging and pruning tools.

BLACK OLIVE-(Bucida buceras)
An excellent avenue or windbreak tree for the Miami area

Wild trees, growing in competition with their neighbors
have far-reaching roots and it is impossible to dig them with
satisfactory, compact root systems. When everything is
considered, it is more desirable and but little more expensive
to buy trees from a reputable nursery. The nurseryman has
transplanted, root-pruned, cultivated, fertilized, sprayed and
irrigated his stock and his trees will attain maturity much
more quickly in your garden than will trees of comparable
sizes from the wild.


Transplanting is most successfully accomplished when
plants are dormant and this will be between December and
February in Florida. Until that time, it is a good idea to
prepare the planting holes so that the locations will be ready
for the trees at the right time. Dig holes that are large
enough to contain the sizes that you plan to acquire. Throw
a layer of compost and a couple of handfuls of a mixed
commercial plant food at the bottom, fill the hole with
fertile woods soil and leave a slight basin to gather water.
When the plants are at hand next winter, carefully shovel
the fertile soil aside, set the tree in the hole so that it will
be at exactly the same level that it grew formerly. See that
the roots assume, without bending and crowding, the same
relative positions which they held. As the soil is slowly
shovelled back, allow it to be washed into place with a
gentle stream from the hose. Finish with a saucer-like
depression and fill this with water at least once each week
that it does not rain.
Newly planted trees of all classes have low resistance
and so it is recommended that the trunks be protected for
the first two seasons. Beginning at the ground level make a
spiral wrap upward until the branches are reached. Spanish
moss, muslin, paper or a similar material may be used and
it can be secured at intervals with a cord as needed. After
leaves emerge the following spring, loosen the wrap or allow
it to disintegrate gradually. This wrapping is good protec-
tion against sunscald, excessive drying and borers and it will
materially aid your tree in recovering from the transplanting
Cutting back to reduce the leaf-bearing surface in propor-
tion to the loss of the roots is most important. Head in
lateral branches at least half of their length, perhaps remove
some of the limbs down close to the ground. Do not prune
the central leader, but allow the single terminal growing
point to maintain its dominance.

Newly planted trees will not need to be fertilized during
their first growing season because of the high nutrient level
of the soil into which they were set. However, during the
following February, and annually thereafter, all trees should
be fed systematically.
A mixed commercial fertilizer is applied in punch-bar
holes around the tree. Use a heavy crow bar or similar tool
to make holes about 10 to 12 inches deep concentrically
around the trunk and then fill these holes with your chosen
plant food. The number of holes and the amount of ferti-


lizer to apply will vary with the species, age, soil type and
other factors, but, generally speaking, a pound of fertilizer
for each inch in diameter might be about right. Of course,
the holes should be equally distributed around the tree
inside the drip of the branches.
Until shade trees, ornamental citrus and palms are well
established, they should be grown in circles that are kept
free of grass by frequent cultivation. Ordinarily these rings
of cultivated earth may be five to eight feet in diameter,
depending upon the species, the size of the individual, the
fertility of the soil and other factors.

CAMPHOR TREE-(Cinnamomum camphora)
Suitable for any section of Florida


The best tool to use in keeping these circles free of grass
is a sharp, long-handled scuffle hoe, the common goose-
necked garden hoe being a poor second best. During the
rainy season, shallow cultivation should be practiced every
week or ten days while for the remainder of the year a light
hoeing once a fortnight should suffice. So that feeder roots
will not be injured, the soil must be flat-hoed, that is, the
blade must not be allowed to cut deeper than an inch or
two. Another reason for recommending the scuffle hoe is
that it serves as a good edger to cut the grass around the
periphery of the circle at each cultivation.
It is generally held that mature lawn trees look best when
they grow out of the unbroken turf, therefore the grass may
be allowed to encroach gradually so that it grows up to the
trunks after five or six years.

Tropical species of Ficus often have very attractive branching.


Lawn trees should need little pruning, but occasionally
it is necessary to remove crowding, crossing or interfering
branches or those that have been injured by cold or wind.
Sometimes it is essential that one of two leaders be reduced
so that Y-crotch may be avoided.
Sharp, well adjusted pruning saws, hand shears and
loppers are necessary accessories. Smaller branches are
headed in with the hand shears, or removed close to the
supporting member with the loppers, while the pruning saw
is used for larger wood. Always make a preliminary cut
about a foot from the supporting member. This will prevent
the heavy branch from carrying away a strip of bark when
it falls. The final pruning cut, then, is made very close to
the limb from which the branch to be pruned, arises. Paint-
ing the wound with a tree wound dressing or with good oil
paint is strongly recommended. This will help prevent
checking and will assist in the exclusion of wood-rot fungi
until callus can cover the wound.
Generally speaking, the best time to prune ornamental
trees is just prior to spring growth or immediately after
Spanish moss, which grows so luxuriously in parts of
Florida, is harmful and must be removed annually if lawn
trees are to be kept in good condition. This fast growing
epiphyte casts unusually heavy shade, forces growth out-
ward and causes many small branches to die.

When fruit trees (oranges, avocadoes, mangos and pe-
cans) are employed as lawn trees, they must be protected
from insects and diseases just as they are in commercial
orchards. Unsprayed fruit trees will not look thrifty and
clean and they cannot bear abundant fruits of good quality.
Most home owners cannot maintain equipment and help
that is needed to apply insecticides and fungicides efficiently
to mature fruit trees, so it is strongly recommended that
local grove service organizations, nurseries, or tree mainte-
nance companies be engaged to apply spray materials in the
approved manner at the correct time. Your county or home
demonstration agent or the secretary at the chamber of com-
merce can furnish names of approved service organizations.
Shade trees discussed in the following pages should not
need regular spraying excepting as noted specifically in the
descriptive paragraphs.
If you have over half an acre you will want to buy one
of those efficient wheelbarrow sprayers. Single or double


wheeled models with iron rims or rubber tires are available.
Most home owners will want a hand-operated model because
it is efficient, capable of producing high pressure, easy to
clean and easy to repair as it will have a minimum of work-
ing parts. Advanced models are operated by electric motors
and you can plug the extension cord into handy receptacles
on the porch or in the garage; others have little gasoline
engines to run the pumps.

If your garden is a small one and you have a yard man, a
five-gallon, brass, knapsack-type sprayer will be a good buy,
but if you must do your spraying unaided, a stirrup pump is
good to have. Good types available as war surplus, are
inexpensive and very efficient. The spray material is mixed
in a water bucket, over the side of which the intake element
of the stirrup pump fits. Fairly high pressure and satisfactory
breakage of the liquid is obtained with these sprayers.

Garden supply houses, retail nurseries, seed stores and
mail order houses carry sprayers of the types mentioned. In
the national garden magazines will be found advertisements
of manufacturers of dependable spraying equipment.


Acacia - -
Annatto - - -
Black olive- - -
Bo tree - - -
Cajeput - - -
Calamondin - -
Camphor - - -
Cassia - - -
Casuarina - - -
Chaste-tree - - -
Chestnut, Moreton Bay -
Citrus - - -
Crape-myrtle - -
Crape-myrtle, Queen's -
Dogwood - - -
Ficus - - -
Frangipani - - -
Fringe-tree - -
Geiger tree - - -
Gum - - -
Gumbo-limbo - -
Holly -----
Jacaranda - - -
Jerusalem thorn - -
Kumquat - -

- 9
- 10
- 21
- 10
- 10
- 12
- 12
- 13
- 17
- 13
- 13
- 14
- 21
- 14
- 14
- 21
- 14
- 14
- 15
- 15
- 13

Lily-thorn -
Lipstick tree - -
Live Oak - -
Loquat - - -
Magnolia - -
Mahogany - -
Mango - - -
Mimosa - - -
Mountain-ebony -
Moreton Bay Chestnut
Oak - - -
Orange - - -
Orchid-tree - -
Pine - - -
Pongam - - -
Redbud -----
Royal Poinciana -
Rubber tre - -
Sapodilla - -
Satinleaf - -
Seagrape - -
Senna- - --
Sweet-gum - -
Tamarind - -
Traveler's-tree - -

- 15
- 9
- 15
- 17
- 18
- 13
- 18
- 18
- 20
- 21
- 22
- 20



ACACIA (Acacia spp) 8-50 feet. These showy members of
the legume family are noted for the large numbers of bright
yellow blossoms and are available at nurseries in several
species and varieties. Mostly all are semi-tropical and must
be grown, therefore, in the southern part of the state.
Propagation is by seeds.
ANNATTO LIPSTICK TREE (Bixa orellana)* 25 feet. This
small tree is quite showy when its terminal panicles of rose-
colored blooms are in season. The fruits, which follow, are
the source of a yellowish-red dyestuff that is used in coloring
food products.
Propagation is by seeds.

*The nomenclature followed in this bulletin
L. H. Bailey in Hortus Second 1941

is that used by Dr.

AUSTRALIAN PINE-(Casuarina cunninghamiana)
This is the hardiest species of Casuarina


BLACK-OLIVE (Bucida buceras) 50 feet. The native black-
olive is in high favor in southern Florida because of its
adaptability and great resistance to strong winds. As a
street tree, windbreak or lawn specimen, this tropical ever-
green is highly commended to home owners within its range.
Propagation is by seeds.

JERUSALEM THoRN-(Parkinsonia aculeata)
This is one of the best small trees to use as a lawn specimen

CAJEPUT (Melaleuca leucadendron) 50 feet. A medium-
sized tree of great distinction, the cajeput is a popular lawn
specimen in central and southern sections. The thick, spongy
bark, the strict habit, the small, narrow leaves and the yel-
low-white blossoms all contribute to make this one of our
outstanding ornamentals. In some areas this Australian tree
has established itself in great cultures which demonstrate
its adaptability to conditions in this state. Other species, the
bottlebrushes, are popular ornamental trees or shrubs.
All are increased by seeds.
CAMPHOR (Cinnamomum camphora) 40 feet. Well known
as a beautiful, hardy, evergreen tree, the camphor is satis-
factory on fertile soils that do not become excessively dry


during spring droughts. Unattractive yellow foliage and
an unthrifty condition may be accounted for by a mineral
deficiency in the soil or red spiders attacking the leaves.
Sulphur dust (300 mesh) or syringing with the hose are
effective in reducing red spiders, but these controls are
seldom employed for camphor trees. Florida red scale,
those rounded black dots with red centers, frequently attack
camphor foliage. A white summer oil at 1% or 2% dilution
will give a good control. This type of scalecide is obtainable
at your seed store under the trade name "Volck," "Niagrol"
or "Sunoco." Complete directions for use are printed on the

MAGNOLIA-(Magnolia grandiflora)
This is a young specimen of the south's favorite tree


As they cast heavy shade and are voracious feeders, it is
usually difficult to maintain a good lawn under healthy
camphor trees.

Camphor trees do not transplant
reason they are container-grown so
without disturbing the root systems.



readily, and for this
they may be moved
Seeds, employed en-

LIVE OAK-(Quercus virginiana)
Acknowledged as the best oak for planting in Florida

tirely for propagation, are sown directly in these containers
and the small plants thinned to one to each vessel.
CASSIA, SENNA (Cassia spp) 8-30 feet. Several species are
grown in the warmer sections. The great quantities of showy
yellow or pink blossoms that are so freely borne have earned
for this group an important place as a small garden tree.
Propagation is easily accomplished by sowing seeds.
CASUARINA (Casuarina spp) 70 feet. Adapted to the widest
possible range of conditions, the casuarinas have become one
of the most numerous trees of southern Florida. C. equiseti-
folia withstands brackish soils and salt spray and is grown
extensively near the seashore as clipped hedges, windbreaks
and high screens. C. Cunninghamiana is considered the


most hardy and may be grown as far north as Gainesville.
C. lepidophloia, more widely planted than any other species,
has an attractive dark green color, dense habit and produces
quantities of root suckers. These are used to increase plant-
ings of this last kind, while the others are grown from seeds.
CHASTE TREE (Vitex agnus-castus) 20 feet. As a small
door-yard tree, the vitex is quite popular because of its
attractive lilac blossoms. Although the tree is deciduous,
the lacy digitate leaves are beautiful during summer when
the fragrant blossoms appear. The tree may be grown from
softwood cuttings during summer.
CITRUS TREES and their allies (Citrus & Fortunella species
and hybrids) are among the most decorative of all of the
broadleaved evergreen trees known to horticulture. As
shade trees, for backgrounds, framing and as free-standing
specimens, the oranges, tangerines, calamondins, kumquats
and their hybrids are widely employed in Florida home
grounds plantings. In order that the health and beauty of
the trees and the quality of the fruits may be of the best,
a careful spray program as suggested on page 7 is highly
Citrus trees are usually secured as budded specimens
from nurseries and moved while comparatively small in
size. During the winter they are moved with the greatest
facility, but it is well known that small orange trees can be
transplanted during any month in the year.
It is the custom to grow citrus trees in circles that are
kept hoed free of grass. Thus, the trees can be cultivated
and fertilized most efficiently. The turf may be allowed
to grow close around mature, established calamondins, kum-
quats and sour oranges that are grown purely as ornamentals.
CRAPE-MYRTLE (Lagerstroemia spp). Whether it be the
common crape-myrtle (L. indica 20 feet) or the Queen's
crape-myrtle (L. speciosa 60 feet) the wealth of showy color
will repay one for growing these oriental trees. Of easiest
culture, succeeding on a variety of soil types, crape-myrtles
have earned their right to their great popularity. Powdery
mildew, appearing as a gray fuzz on the leaves in mid-
summer is the principal disease of crape-myrtles. Control
may be affected by starting to dust with 300 mesh sulphur
at first signs and continue through the rainy season. Cus-
tomarily crape-myrtles are headed back during early winter
when the leaves shed. This makes for heavy bloom, a com-
pact head and heavy, lush foliage. Suckers which spring up
around the trunks during the growing season should be


rubbed off while they are still herbaceous and tender. If
allowed to remain, these suckers are very untidy and detract
from the beauty of otherwise well grown crape-myrtles.
For planting stock, dig suckers which arise from cut
roots, or root tender tips in white sand in summer.

DOGWOOD (Cornus florida) 40 feet. Native to the ham-
mocks of central and northern Florida, the flowering dog-
wood is well known and widely planted as a lawn specimen.
Graceful, beautiful in flower and fruit, small in size and
attractive when not in leaf, this tree is strongly recommended
to home owners within its range. Nursery-grown, grafted
trees are suggested as the best for planting, and protection
of the trunk against borers is essential.
FRANGIPANI (Plumeria spp) 20 feet. Several species and
varieties of the fragrant frangipani are widely planted
throughout the tropics of the world. Easily grown from
cuttings, the short, stout, spreading trees are widely accessi-
ble in Key West and Miami.
FRINGE TREE (Chionanthus virginica) 30 feet. The white
blossoms that appear with the leaves in spring are most
attractive and account for the popularity of this small native.
In the upper part of the peninsula and westward, the fringe-
tree is successful when grown in fertile soil. The trees are
grown from seeds.
GEIGER TREE (Cordia sebestena). This native of the Florida
keys is coming into its fair share of popularity with garden-
ers who live in the Palm Beach Miami area. Growing some
thirty feet in height, the Geiger tree has large opposite leaves
that make for coarse texture. The showy orange colored
flowers are borne in terminal clusters.
GUMBO-LIMBO (Bursera simarubra) 50 feet. Because of
its bright tan bark that appears just to have been shellacked,
and the unusual knarled and bent branches, this native tree
is highly prized and widely planted as a landscape subject
in the Palm Beach-Miami area. Well adapted to that section,
the gumbo-limbo is particularly decorative. Propagation is
usually by seeds but cuttings root readily.
HOLLY (Ilex spp) 15-50 feet. Beloved by all, the holly
has come down through the ages as one of the most popular
of all evergreen trees. Thirteen species are native to Florida
and of these, six are classed as trees. Horticultural varieties
of these and several exotic types that grow well here are
offered by nurseries. Good soil of acid reaction, an even
supply of moisture are requisites for success. The berries


are borne on pistillate trees and, to insure an abundance of
these, one should be certain that a staminate tree of the same
species grows in the neighborhood. Hollies are protected
by law and must not be collected without permission of the
property owner. When everything is considered, grafted,
true-to-name, heavily fruiting trees from a nursery are much
superior to those dug from the woods.
JACARANDA (Jacaranda acutifolia) 50 feet. This is central
Florida's most spectacular flowering tree. In springtime the
blue flowers make a never-to-be-forgotten display. Native
to South America, this large, fern-leaved, deciduous tree
demands little attention save for careful planting and ade-
quate moisture during the first few years. Jacarandas are
grown from seeds.
JERUSALEM THORN (Parkinsonia aculeata) 30 feet. The
lacy foliage, pendulous habit, attractive yellow blossoms and
green bark of the Jerusalem thorn make it quite unusual and
attractive. For all parts of the state, this small, open, hardy
tree is of great ornamental value and is highly recommended.
Seeds may be sown directly in containers so the roots of
the young trees will not be disturbed in transplanting.
LILY-THORN (Catesbaea spinosa) 15 feet. Indigenous to
southern Florida, this little tree can be used when fine scale
is indicated. The branches are wiry and heavily armed with
sharp spines about an inch in length. In late summer the
creamy-white blossoms are produced in profusion. Lily-
thorn is grown from seeds.
LOQUAT (Eriobotrya japonica) 30 feet. Over most of the
state a favorite dooryard tree is the loquat. The attractive,
dark, evergreen leaves, the decorative, delicious fruit and
its small size commends this tree to home owners. Easily
and quickly grown from seeds, this Chinese fruit tree can
be had by everyone.
Unfortunately, loquats are host to fireblight, a disease
which may cause large branches to die back for a consider-
able distance. A mild copper fungicide sprayed into loquat
blossoms should arrest the development of infection brought
in by bees or flies. Infected branches must be cut back well
into healthy wood as soon as the disease is discovered. Tools
used for this work must be sterilized by dipping in alcohol
after each cut is made.
While they will succeed and produce good crops of lus-
cious fruit under light cultivation, a heavy mulch of leaves,
compost or peat is ideal for loquat trees.


MAGNOLIA (Magnolia grandiflora) 100 feet. Justly famous
throughout the south, this native is one of our choicest trees.
Evergreen, trim and graceful, the tree is highly desirable at
any time of the year, but in springtime, the huge, creamy-
white blossoms put the magnolia in a class by itself. Choice
varieties are grafted but the species increases naturally by
seeds. From Gainesville westward the deciduous oriental
magnolias, (M. liliflora and M. soulageana) succeed if given
fertile, acid soils and adequate moisture.
Magnolias, of all classes, are forest dwellers, and thrive
with a thick, spongy blanket of leaves and twigs over their
roots. While clean cultivation is satisfactory, an organic
mulch is preferred.
. . . .

SACRED BO TREE-(Ficus religiosa)

Magnolias may be secured as balled and burlapped speci-
mens from a nursery in late winter and early spring, and
moved during that season, with complete success.
MAHOGANY (Swietenia mahagoni) 60 feet. The native
mahogany is frequently to be seen in the Miami area as a
street tree. Although evergreen, the tree does not cast dense
shade and lawns can be grown under it quite well. Mahog-


anys produce seeds in great abundance which germinate and
grow readily.
MANGO (Mangifera indica) 50 feet. While essentially a
fruit tree, the mango is very ornamental and is much used
as a street tree and lawn specimen from Vero Beach, around
the coast to Tampa. Seedlings will grow easily and rapidly,
but improved varieties, purchased as grafted trees are
strongly recommended.
Insects and diseases must be controlled by an adequate
spray program (see page 8) and clean cultivation is recom-
mended for choice budded stock.

SEA GRAPE--(COCcoobis uvifera)

MIMOSA (Albizzia julibrissin) 40 feet. The mimosa is so
much at home here that it has become naturalized. Ever
popular because of its attractive pink globular blossoms
which are borne for a long period during summertime. The
graceful fern-like leaves are produced in March-April. Prop-
agation is by seeds, and growth is rapid even under trying
conditions. For the first two or three years, clean cultiva-
tion will encourage strong growth. Thereafter, the mimosa
will succeed in turf. As this is written, there are no serious
diseases or insects to guard against in Florida.
MORETON BAY CHESTNUT (Castanospermum australe) 60
feet. This is a tall tree that has attractive evergreen pinnate
leaves and showy racemes of yellow flowers in springtime.
Highly thought of by those who possess it, the Moreton Bay
Chestnut should succeed on good soils of acid reaction.


Propagation is by seeds, which incidentally, earn the
tree its name as they are edible when roasted.
MOUNTAIN EBONY, ORCHID TREE (Bauhinia spp) 6-20 feet.
For the warmer sections this spectacular tree is unsurpassed
when a small flowering specimen is wanted. All of the
species and varieties which are available are well worth
growing as lawn specimens for Orlando and southward.
Bauhinias are easily grown from seeds, but as they do not
transplant readily, it is suggested that the seeds be sown
directly in expendable containers so that the small plants
can be transported and set without disturbing the roots.
These diminutive trees will not grow thriftily nor will
they bloom profusely if heavy turf covers their roots. Clean
cultivation or a mulch of leaves will assure healthy growth.
OAK (Quercus spp). 100 feet. Several native species have
been extensively planted as street, roadside and shade trees.
Their complete adaptability is beyond question and they are
resistant to disease, insects and drought. Some thirty species,
both evergreen and deciduous, are credited to Florida and
these range in size from the dwarf running oak to the giants
of the hardwood hammocks.
The most desirable species is the live oak (Quercus vir-
giniana). This well known tree has the longest useful life
of all southern species and does not reach senility and break
up when less than fifty years old as may the laurel and
water oaks. True, it grows less rapidly than the others, but,
given good care, its rate of growth is satisfactory and, at the
half-century mark it does not present hazards to public
safety and necessitate costly replacement. It is suggested
that moss be removed annually so that normal growth will
not be impaired. This clean-up, together with annual feed-
ing of young live oaks is all the care that is needed.
Trees can be collected from the woods or grown from
PINE (Pinus spp). Native to our state and thriving under
most trying conditions, the several species of pines are with-
out superiors for home grounds plantings. Where lofty,
narrow-topped trees that cast light, broken shade can be
used, the indigenous pines will serve well. To break the
direct rays of the sun over azalea or camelia beds and for
backgrounds, these coniferous trees are unexcelled.
Transplant very small seedlings during midwinter or at
the beginning of the rainy season and retain a ball of soil of
sufficient depth to encompass all of the far-reaching taproot.


If mature pines exist on your building site, be certain that
stout protective barriers of 2-inch lumber be built around
them so that it will not be possible for the contractor to pile
building materials or drive heavy trucks over the roots close
to the trunks. Unfortunately, many valuable pine trees are
fatally injured by construction crews.
PONGAM (Pongamia pinnata) 40 feet. One of the best
trees for street and windbreak planting because of its
strength, this Australian tree is highly recommended. Beau-
tiful and fast-growing, the pongam is well adapted to con-
ditions in southern Florida where it seeds abundantly. These
produce seedlings easily.

ROYAL POINCIANA-(Delonix regia)
Southern Florida's most spectacular tree blooms in the summer

REDBUD (Cercis canadensis) 40 feet. Always popular be-
cause of its delightful spring color, this small native tree is
widely planted as a front lawn specimen. For the best soil
types that occur in northern Florida, the redbud cannot be
too highly recommended. The trunks of newly transplanted
specimens should be wrapped, rings of lightly cultivated
earth should surround the trees and an annual application
of a balanced fertilizer should be made in punch bar holes
as suggested on pages 4 & 6.


Propagation can be accomplished by sowing seeds, but
nursery-grown trees of improved types are grafted.
ROYAL POINCIANA (Delonix regia) 40 feet. This, Florida's
most spectacular tree, is tropical in its requirements and is
found only in the warmest sections. The myriads of scarlet
blossoms are borne in early summer and make a show that
is without equal in the plant kingdom.
Propagation is by seeds.

TRAVELER'S TREE-(Ravenala madagascariensis)

This is an outstanding lawn specimen because of its exotic


RUBBER TREE (Ficus spp) 80 feet. This tropical genus,
containing several hundred species, is well represented by
many ornamental kinds in tropical Florida. Typical of most
species is rapid growth, great size and aerial roots that drop
from the larger branches to form multiple trunks. F. benja-
mina, the weeping laurel, a beautiful avenue tree; F. elastica,
the India-rubber tree; F. religiosa, the sacred Bo-tree and
many other interesting and worthwhile species are widely
available and much used in southern Florida. All tropical
Ficus trees require much space for full development and
are not recommended for small properties. All members of
the genus Ficus are increased by cuttings.

SWEET GuM-(Liquidambar styraciflua)
This native tree has a most attractive, symmetrical habit of growth


SAPODILLA (Achras sapota) 50 feet. A beautiful evergreen
tree native to the American tropics that has found a con-
genial home in the Miami area. The fruits are edible and
the latex yields gum chicle from which chewing gum is
manufactured. Highly thought of as a lawn specimen or
shade tree, the sapodilla is widely planted within its climatic
Trees are easily grown from seeds.
SATINLEAF (Chrysophyllum oliviforme) 30 feet. This
small native tree is well named because the under sides of
the leaves are a soft, glistening copper color. For the warm-
est places, this indigene is a distinctive and worthwhile lawn
Propagation is by seeds.
SEAGRAPE (Coccolobis uvifera) 20 feet. Native to the
coastal dunes, this stout, much-branched, small tree is fre-
quently seen as a landscape subject in its native habitat.
Utterly distinctive in appearance, the seagrape exerts a
strong tropical influence and is much appreciated in resort
Propagation is by seeds.
TAMARIND (Tamarindus indica) 75 feet. This massive
tropical fruit tree is quite ornamental and is frequently seen
toward the tip of the peninsula. The leaves resemble those
of the black-locust; the pods contain an acid flesh that is
used in ades and sauces.
Propagation is by seeds.





Black-olive-- - -- 10 Mahogany -
Cabbage palm - - 29 Mango - -
Cajeput- - - 10 Pongam - -
Casuarina - - - 12 Queen palm -
Coconut- - - -30 Royal palm - -
Dogwood - - - 14 Royal Poinciana -
Holly - - - 14 Tamarind -
Live oak - - 18 Washington palm -
Magnolia - - 16
Acacia - - - 9 Lily-thorn -
Areca palm - - -29 Loquat -
Black-olive-- - - 10 Magnolia -
Cabbage palm - - 29 Mahogany -
Cajeput- - - - 10 Mango -
Calamondin-- - - 13 Mimosa -
Camphor - - 10 Mountain ebony -
Cassia - - - 12 Orange -
Casuarina -- - 12 Paurotis palm -
Chaste-tree - - -13 Pigmy date palm -
Chinese fan palm- - 30 Pindo palm -
Citrus - - - -13 Pine - - -
Coconut- - - - 30 Pongam- -
Crape-myrtle - - 13 Queen palm -
Dogwood - - 14 Redbud- -
European fan palm - 30 Rhapis palm -
Frangi-pani-- - 14 Royal palm --
Fiji fan palm -- - 31 Sapodilla -
Fishtail palm- - - 31 Satinleaf -
Gumbo-limbo- - - 14 Seagrape -
Holly - - - -14 Senegal date palm
Jacaranda - - 15 Silver palm -
Jerusalem thorn - - 15 Traveler's tree -
Kumquat - - 13
Cabbage palm - - 29 Paurotis palm -
Casuarina - - 12 Pindo palm - -
Cajeput - - - 10 Rubber tree -
Coconut- - - 30 Sapodilla - -
Gumbo-limbo - - 14 Saw palmetto -
Live oak - - 18 Seagrape -
Loquat - - 15 Senegal date palm
Mahogany - - - 16 Washington palm -

Acacia - -
Chaste'tree - -
Cajeput -
Calamondin -
Cassia - -
Crape-myrtle -
Dogwood - -
Frangi-pani - -
Fringe tree - -
Jacaranda - -
Jerusalem thorn -

-9 Kumquat -
- - 13 Lily-thorn - -
- - 10 Magnolia -
- 13 Mimosa - -
- - 12 Moreton Bay chestnut
- - 13 Mountain ebony -
- - 14 Orange - -
- - 14 Poinciana - -
- - 14 Queen's crape-myrtle
- - 15 Redbud - -
- - 15 Senna - -

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Nowhere in the continental United States is it possible to
grow the wide variety of palms that can be successfully
cultivated in Florida. Mainly tropical in distribution, these
graceful trees do much for Florida's distinctively different
landscape. Many native and exotic species, varying from
dwarfs of a few feet to magnificent trees which attain a
height of 100 feet, are widely employed with telling effect
in this semi-tropical tourist land.
Palms may be used in many ways in landscape planting.
Species in varying heights can be planted in attractive
groups; they may be used as enframement and background
for the home, but the most telling way that palms can be
employed is as avenue trees. Tall, clean-growing, single-
trunked specimens, planted at 25-30 foot intervals on either
side of an avenue make a picture that is not soon to be

Palms may be transplanted at any time of the year, but
the beginning of the rainy season is most favorable. Then,
root action is most rapid and the plant rallies from the
transplanting operation most quickly.
Several weeks before you plan to move a palm, prepare
the planting hole as described on page 4.
Palms are transplanted in all sizes from small seedlings
to finished landscape specimens; being limited only by the
mechanical equipment that is at hand to transport the trees.
The size of the root ball is much smaller in proportion than
that habitually taken with a typical woody tree. In fact,
sometimes the roots are trimmed to within a foot or two of
the trunk with a sharp axe.
It is well known that palm roots will emerge higher and
higher above the crown and, therefore, it is common practice
to set palm trees slightly deeper than they grew. Use good
judgment a's it is easy to plant too deeply. Too shallow
planting is dangerous and must be avoided.
When the palm is in place (slightly deeper than it grew)
fill with the fertile soil that was taken from the enriched
hole, allow water to flow in from the hose to eliminate air
pockets and to make a good contact between the roots and
the particles of soil. Finish the job by tramping to firm
the soil and then build a saucer around the tree to hold
water. Once each week that it does not rain, fill this
depression with water.


Because of the drastic reduction in the volume of roots,
it is accepted practice to remove the leaves at transplanting
time. Tie the uppermost leaf stems around the bud as pro-
tection. Every effort must be made not to harm this vital
structure. When a large palm is felled, it must be guyed
so that it does not fall hard and harm the bud.
Palms over eight feet in height should be firmly braced.
Three 2 x 4's spiked to the trunk at one end and then firmly
secured to "dead men" in the ground are the most satis-
factory braces. If these timbers remain in place for about
18 months a heavy root system will have been built to hold
the palm against strong winds. Choice exotics may be
braced each autumn as routine protection.
Young palms will grow rapidly to attain mature land-
scape size if they are encouraged by proper cultivation and
fertilization. As already discussed on page 5 it is a good
plan to keep a circle of clean earth around your young trees
for the first few years. Cultivate a five- to seven-foot ring
frequently with a scuffle hoe, allow the hose to run slowly
for several hours (all night is better) once a week during
dry spells and fertilize in punch bar holes several times
during the growing season.

Dwarf palms are valuable as patio subjects and lawn specimens


Palms that have been neglected can usually be recondi-
tioned by filling rotted cow manure into post holes that are
dug at intervals around the trunk.
Most palms are particularly resistant to diseases, insects
and drought, and once they become established, the lawn
can be allowed to grow up around the crown and little
routine maintenance is required.
All brown leaves and flower and fruit clusters should
be removed with a sharp pruning saw as soon as they
become unattractive with age.
Several species of the genus Phoenix together with the
pindo palm are likely to be attacked by the palm leaf skele-
tonizer. This destructive insect despoils the leaves by its
feeding during the warm months. In order that damage
may be kept to a minimum, an arsenical spray or DDT with
an adequate spreader should be applied at intervals during
the spring months. Fronds that have been made unattrac-
tive by the palm leaf skeletonizer should be promptly
removed with a pruning saw or pole pruner.
Palms are increased by seeds and by division. As soon
as they are ripe, the seeds should be sown in beds, pots or
boxes of fertile soil. Cover the seeds to a depth approxi-
mating their diameter and cover the whole with one thick-
ness of burlap. This material will conserve moisture and
discourage birds and rodents. In winter the seed beds must
have full sun, but during the warmer months, they must be
protected by cheesecloth or slat shade. At the beginning
of the rainy season, the burlap should be renewed so that
the seeds will not be washed out of the soil.
Palm seeds vary greatly in the length of time required
for germination. Some will sprout in a few weeks, while
others will require as much as one and one-half to two years
to come up. It is quite evident, therefore, that close atten-
tion is needed until the seedlings are well under way.
Seedlings may be potted shortly after germination; they
must be potted before the roots attain much length. Then
they may be set individually in earthen flower pots, felt
plant bands, wooden boxes or discarded refinery cans. The
soil used in these containers should be a fertile organic
mixture of slightly acid reaction.
Coconuts are set in rows and buried only one-half their
thickness, the upper portions being full exposed. Germina-
tion should be complete in about five months.


Division is the method of vegetative propagation in which
a plant is divided into several units. Species of Phoenix,
Chrysalidocarpus, Rhapis and Caryota may be so multiplied
when well rooted offsets are seen to be available. If the
specimen is in a container, it can be turned out and cut into
units with shears or an axe, if it is a lawn specimen, sturdy
offsets several years old can be severed from the old tree
with the aid of a sharpened leaf from an automobile spring,
large chisel or heavy crow bar. The several divisions may
be potted or set directly in the garden where they are to


Acrocomia - -
Areca palm- -
Blackburn palm -
Cabbage palm -
Canary date palm
Chinese fan palm
Coconut - -
Date palm - -
European fan palm
Fan palms - -
Fiji fan palm -
Fishtail palms -
Paurotis - -

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Pigmy date - -
Pindo palm- - -
Porto Rican hat palm
Queen palm - -
Rhapis palms - -
Royal palm - -
Sabal palms - -
Saw palmetto - -
Senegal date palm -
Sentinel palm -
Silver palm - -
Washington palm -

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ACROCOMIA (Acrocomia spp) 50 feet. These striking
pinnate-leaved South American palms are well adapted to
conditions south of Leesburg. The bulged trunks are usually
armed with vicious spines 1 to 6 inches in length. Because
of these spines this genus is adapted to group plantings only,
and, in any case, the thorns must be pruned off to well above
head height.
ARECA PALM (Chrysalidocarpus lutescens) 20 feet. As an
urn subject and patio plant, this clump-growing, yellow-
stemmed palm from Madagascar is extremely popular. Be-
cause it requires moist, rich soil and freedom from frost and
salt spray, the areca palm is limited in distribution as a
garden plant. Wherever it will grow successfully, however,
it is very well liked and therefore it is strongly commended.
CABBAGE PALM (Sabal palmetto) 80 feet. The hardiest of
our native palms, this well known species grows well
throughout the state. Tolerant of a wide variety of soil
types, salt spray and brackish water, the cabbage palm well
deserves its universal popularity.
CANARY DATE PALM (Phoenix canariensis). Hardy over
the Florida peninsula, this huge pinnate-leaved palm has

PINDO PALM-(Butia, sp.)
Has blue-green leaves that recurve sharply and touch the ground


been widely planted. Because of its massive trunk, low,
drooping leaves and its susceptibility to the palm-leaf skele-
tonizer it is not recommended as a door-yard tree. Until
it attains some size its branches interfere with traffic and
it cannot be recommended as a street tree. For municipal
properties and large acreages its monumental size is well
COCONUT (Cocos nucifera) 100 feet. The native coconut
palm with its tall leaning trunk, immense leaves and spec-
tacular fruits lends a tropical aspect that can be equalled by
no other plant. As a street tree, lawn specimen or back-
ground subject this palm is unsurpassed and can be recom-
mended without reservation to all who live south of Fort
Pierce and Sarasota.
DATE PALM (Phoenix dactylifera) 100 feet. The species
that produces the date of commerce is occasionally seen as
a single specimen in Florida, but, because of the high
humidity here, edible dates are rarely produced.
EUROPEAN FAN PALM (Chamaerops humilis). This dwarf,
hardy, slow-growing plant is native to southern Europe, but
has found a congenial home in Florida. Useful as a tiny
lawn specimen and for grouping, this diminutive palm is
highly commended.
FAN PALM (Livistona spp). Two or more species are
grown as lawn specimens, the most widely planted being
the Chinese fan palm (Livistona chinensis) 20 feet. Neat,
graceful and well adapted to our soils, these attractive fan
palms succeed from Ocala southward.

The beautiful Queen palm is central Florida's most popular palm


FIJI FAN PALM (Pritchardia pacifica) 30 feet. One of the
most graceful and distinctive of all palms, this tropical
species is well thought of in southern Florida. Easily in-
jured by cold and by strong winds, the Fiji fan palm must
be grown in protected locations.
FISH-TAIL PALM (Caryota spp). Very satisfactory for
the Lower East and West coasts and for the warmest parts
of the ridge section, these distinctive ornamental palms have
gained wide popularity. Caryota mitis (25 feet), the smaller
species suckers readily and may be increased by separating
these small offsets. In addition to its value as a garden
tree, this species is grown in urns for indoor decoration
during the winter tourist season.
Caryota urens (40 feet) which grows with a clear trunk
is much admired as a free-standing lawn specimen and is
highly recommended.
PAUROTIS PALM (Paurotis wright) 20 feet. In high favor
for landscape work, this dwarf, fine-scale, clump-growing
palm from Southern Florida and the West Indies is found
as a specimen in some of Florida's most beautiful gardens.
Of easy culture, tolerant of reasonable amounts of salt
drift, the principal requirement of the Paurotis palm is
freedom from frost.
Specimens are available at most landscape nurseries.
PIGMY DATE PALM (Phoenix roebeleni) 7 feet. The best
liked of all dwarf palms, this tiny, feather leaved species has
many characteristics that are attractive to everyone. As a pot
plant, patio subject or as a part of the landscape planting, the
pigmy date is quite worthy of the high esteem in which it is
held. A partially shaded spot in which the soil is fairly rich
and slightly acid in reaction is to the liking of this plant. This
accounts in part for its wide acceptance as a patio subject
and as a northside plant in the foundation planting scheme.
Subject to several species of scale insects, the pigmy date
should be protected by several applications of a white sum-
mer oil (see page 11) during the warmer months. Container-
grown specimens, apparently most prone to scale attack, can
be covered efficiently if the foliage is swirled about in a
deep container of the 2%o oil mixture. For individuals
growing in the open ground, the oil must be applied by a
mechanical sprayer, of course.
PINDO PALM (Butia spp) 30 feet. Extremely hardy, and
therefore capable of being grown in all sections, this South
American palm can be depended upon to succeed in every
garden. The pendant, blue-green leaves arise from stout
trunks to arch sharply downward. Because of this low,


spreading habit, the pindo palm requires much space and
is not adapted for planting along streets, walks or in small
dooryards. Very effective in palm groups, however, this
type is recommended for parks and estates. Formerly this
palm was erroneously known in the nursery trade as Cocos
australis. Seeds from Butia palms may require 18 months
or more to germinate.
QUEEN PALM (Arecastrum romanzoffianum) 40 feet. Cen-
tral Florida's most popular palm, usually called "Cocos
plumosa" is a native of Brazil. Wherever citrus will grow
successfully, the queen palm is highly recommended as an
avenue tree, a lawn specimen, or as a background subject.
Here it serves well as a substitute for the royal palm which
is recommended only for the most nearly frost-free sections.
-.. -

ROYAL PALM-(Roystonea regia)
These stately palms are native to Southern Florida

RHAPIS PALM (Rhapis spp) 10 feet. This genus is com-
posed of dwarf palms with fine, reed-like canes that form
clumps by means of stolons. Very satisfactory as tubbed spec-
imens, patio plants or as a part of the foundation planting,
these hardy little palms can be depended upon throughout
Florida. Propagation is accomplished by dividing old clumps.


ROYAL PALM (Roystonea regia) 100 feet. The massive
tapering, cement-grey trunks, the clean appearance and
attractive crown of dark green pinnate leaves have universal
appeal and make this native the most popular of all palms
within the state. Classic examples of its effective use as an
avenue tree are well known to everyone who has visited in
our southern Florida cities. Indigenous to moist, rich soils,
the royal palm is best adapted to such locations, although it
succeeds on light sands if it is properly planted and cared for.
SABAL PALMS (Sabal spp). In addition to the native
cabbage palm, several exotic species of this genus are
occasionally seen as specimens. The Blackburn palm (S.
blackburniana) from Bermuda and the Porto Rican Hat
Palm (S. causiarum), both attain heights of about forty
feet and are characterized by very stout trunks and huge,
grayish, fan-shaped leaves. These are striking trees that
are effectively employed as specimens or for avenue planting.
SAW PALMETTO (Serenoa repens). 3 to 8 feet. The saw
palmettos are thought of as noxious weeds by stockmen and
farmers, but they do have definite landscape value. When
one is building on land on which they grow, clumps can
be left to good advantage as they blend in well both as
a foundation subject and as a member of the informal shrub-
bery border. A tree-like form with erect trunk is occasionally
found and this makes an attractive fine-scale specimen palm.
SENEGAL DATE PALM (Phoenix reclinata) 20 feet. A lean-
ing palm that grows in large clumps made up of many
slender trunks finds wide usage as a patio specimen as well
as a lawn tree. This picturesque, easily grown palm is
highly commended for gardens south of Gainesville.
SENTINEL PALM (Howea spp). Formerly called Kentias
in the florist trade where tubbed specimens are widely
employed for decorating, the two species of Howea have
become well known. They are occasionally seen as lawn
specimens in the Miami area but they have not been widely
planted out of doors in America.
SILVER PALM (Coccothrinax argentata) 25 feet. This
slender, fine-scale palm is native to the keys and adjacent
mainland. Occasionally used as a landscape specimen in
that section, the silver palm is distinctive and unusual.
WASHINGTON PALM (Washingtonia spp) 100 feet. These
giants of the California deserts grow very well in Florida's
humid climate where they attain a height of nearly one
hundred feet. Hardy in the peninsula, these monumental
trees find their greatest use for avenue planting where they
are particularly picturesque and effective when planted at
25- to 35-foot intervals.



In our modern concept of the home grounds we have
come to consider shrubbery as indispensable. Through
countless successful demonstrations, through the many use-
ful articles in garden magazines, through the work of the
garden clubs, and with the aid of suitable plant material,
we have carried this concept through to a state of near-
perfection that was not dreamed of a generation ago.
In considering the planting of the modern suburban home
we should think of it in three major unit areas. The first,
and possibly the most important, is the public area or the
front yard which embraces the area between the dwelling
and the street. This setting for the home should be simply
planted as the house should present a dignified picture. A
few trees or palms for enframement and an adequate base
planting of shrubs for transition and surface decoration are
needed. These shrubs are permanent elements of the picture
and they may well be the choicest most costly plants in the
landscape scheme. It is these plants that make the first and
lasting impression and you should expend thought upon
their selection and time and effort on their care. The lawn
contributes a great deal toward the beauty of the public
area and it should be just as nearly perfect as it is possible
to make it.
The shrubs that are to be selected for the base planting
must be chosen with great care, as a proper scale relationship
between the plants and the building they are to accent is
essential. The plants should be dense in habit, bearing small,
closely packed leaves on stubby, short branches. Harmony
in scale between the elements in the design is fundamental.
The arrangement of the plants near a doorway is some-
times called the "portal planting." These accent plants should
be deep and rich in tone, not boldly variegated lest they
attract attention away from the door. Plants for this import-
ant location are almost always evergreens, broadleaved or
coniferous, hardy, resistant to the attacks of insects and
diseases and capable of withstanding sun and drought as
well as dense shade. Plants of open habit, those that are
untidy or of coarse texture and those species that grow
rapidly are not well adapted to be used as a part of the
portal planting.
Frequently we select species that will soon outgrow their
stations, putting the whole scheme out of scale. Some of
our well adapted evergreen shrubs may quickly submerge
the house in a ten-foot wall of impenetrable green. How


often have we seen pyramidal aborvitae on either side of a
bungalow door, that have reached the eaves and have almost
covered the front walk and the steps. The plants by one's
front entrance must be wholly presentable in all weathers,
therefore, hardiness is of first importance.
The remainder of the foundation planting connects the
structure with the ground, and with adjacent shrub borders
so that, after a time, the house and the ground will appear
to have grown together into a permanent harmonious unit.
Shrubs and vines tend to soften architectural lines and fea-
tures. On the other hand, certain types can be employed
as strong architectural accents.
With the older type of house that stands on piers, a
continuous planting of evergreen shrubs is essential, as this
open area below the floor level is very unsightly. However,
with the later type of construction, in which the house is
built directly upon the ground, or without open space be-
neath, one may use a few choice specimens as accents, then,
in places, allow the house to merge into the land, unadorned.
Simple restrained plantings are the vogue today, as there is
a definite trend away from the heavily planted foundations
of a decade or two ago.
There is the notable tendency in Florida to use some
species too frequently. In northern Florida the general use
of fast-growing, inexpensive wax privet makes for medi-
ocrity; in the southern part of the state there is a great
tendency to overdo the A B C planting, namely, Aralia,
Bougainvillea and Croton. All of these are excellent plants,
when used as strong accents, but they are often employed
too extensively.
The second subdivision of the modern property is the
service area. Shrubs are planted to screen this section from
the outdoor living area and the street. The plant materials
used to enclose this smallest unit must be strict in habit so
that they will occupy a minimum of space. They must be
evergreen for permanent effect and they must be resistant
to pests, drought and cold, so that maintenance may be kept
to the minimum.
The aralia, in its many horticultural forms is valuable
for southern Florida, while the dwarf, fern-leaved bamboo
is widely planted in the northern and western parts of the
state. It is necessary to restrain this giant grass by cutting
out excessive shoots and to restrain the roots by frequent
ditching by installing metal roofing vertically in the ground.
This area, near the kitchen door and driveway may also
serve as a play yard for the children and is usually the


repository for the fuel tanks and garbage containers. Light
shade from a small deciduous tree or palm, planted near the
kitchen door, will be a welcome addition.
The third, and final unit of the ideal suburban property
is the private area or outdoor living room. This is the largest
part of the modern residential property and the one that
assumes the closest relationship with the family and their
guests. This subdivision has grown out of the old "back-
yard" which all too often was a catch-all for poultry houses,
fuel piles, incinerators, garbage cans and other utilitarian
but hardly ornamental items of household equipment.

An attractive outdoor living room enclosed by informal shrubbery

In its modern development with attractive borders and
open central area, an outdoor living room is especially use-
ful in Florida where it is possible to spend so much of the
time out of doors. A side of the house with proper base
plantings of evergreen shrubbery will serve as one boundary,
possibly the garage or ell of the house will become another
and the two remaining sides may well be planted with
appropriate evergreen shrubs.
Where space permits, the most popular method of en-
closing the outdoor living room is the employment of hardy
broadleaved evergreens in an informal shrubbery border
that has interesting bays and promontories and intriguing
sequences in foliage color and texture. Perhaps five or
seven plants of feijoa might merge into a group of six wax
privets, which, in turn, would have as neighbors, six ole-


anders. The planting distance in this type of layout may be
four to six feet each way. Always in groups, rather than
spotted singly or alternated, is the accepted way of planting.
The individual plant is always subordinated to the effect of
the whole in this sort of planting. This simulated hedge row,
completely informal or naturalistic, seems to appeal to the
majority of gardeners and is widely used in suburban back-
yards throughout America. In this arrangement, annuals,
perennials and bulbs are set in drifts or large beds in the
shrubbery bays so that their colorful blossoms, as strong
notes, serve as points of interest or focalization.
Generally speaking, landscape material can be set about
two feet out from the house in starting the base planting.
When ventilators are present, in the rear of the house, it is
a good plan to carry the plants out in small promontories to
allow for the circulation of air and the entry of workmen
when necessary.
No plant should be set closer to a choice specimen than
five feet, lest this specimen be crowded out of symmetrical
shape. Indeed, close spacing will soon deprive the plant of
its status as a specimen.
Planting intervals, for best effects in the base planting,
should be comparatively short. Semi-dwarf species such as
boxthorn, lime-berry and Kurume azaleas may stand per-
haps two feet from their neighbors. More robust growers
should never be less than three feet, and, when there is
no objection to a spotty effect for the first season, a four-
foot planting interval may be employed.
In laying out informal or naturalistic borders, robust
evergreen shrubs are used and these should be five feet
apart. For clipped hedges, buy small sizes and set the plants
in a double, staggered row with one foot between plants.
Start clipping early the first season, allow the top to grow
up slowly, and you will soon have a very presentable hedge
with foliage well down to the ground.
Because most broadleaved and coniferous evergreen
shrubs together with the vines that we grow in Florida
prefer a slightly acid soil, the beds or planting holes should
be well prepared some weeks in advance of the date you
expect delivery from your nursery.
First, remove all concrete and mortar that has been left
by the contractor. As many small fragments will pass
through the tines of a rake, it is recommended that careful
hand picking be resorted to in the area immediately around
the house that the plants are to occupy. The presence of


lime-bearing materials will make for an alkaline growing
medium that is not to the liking of many of our choice shrubs.
Next, remove the soil to a depth of a foot or so and replace
it with a mixture made up of acid peat, hammock soil and
cow manure. As this fertile mixture is shovelled into the
shrubbery beds, it is an excellent plan to fortify it with a
light sprinkling of a mixture of minor elements. These mix-
tures, under several trade names, can be secured at your
seed store and they will serve as long-range insurance
against mineral deficiencies.
After the rich acid mixture has been filled in level, soak
the beds to assure proper physical condition and good bac-
terial action. From time to time remove any weeds or grass
which might appear, and do not allow the made-up beds to
become excessively dry.
When your shrubs arrive from the nursery in mid-winter,
set them about on the beds and arrange them for best land-
scape effect, mark around the root balls or containers and
then turn out the soil and commence to plant. Make certain
that shrubs are not set deeper than they grew. If the plants
are container-grown or bare-root, it is easy enough to use
the soil line as the depth gauge, but if the stock is balled
and burlapped, there is often the tendency to cover the collar
of burlap around the crown and as a result the shrubs will
be set too deep. To avoid this possibility, cut the roll of
burlap away and then you will be able to find the surface
of the original soil and set the shrubs so that this is very
lightly covered when planting is finished. Of course, too
shallow planting must be avoided as well.
Finish by firming the soil with your feet and soak the
entire bed thoroughly. Run the hose for a couple of hours
or so each week that it does not rain.
All of us want automatic underground sprinkling systems,
of course, but these are out of the question for many of us,
so we must rely upon the common garden hose and sprinkler.
The type of sprinkler that you buy is entirely a personal
matter that concerns you alone. Today, the national garden
magazines carry advertisements exploiting many different
designs, and on the counters of your seed and hardware
stores will be found many excellent sprinklers. Some are
more sturdy than others, some have advantages in engineer-
ing, materials and workmanship, but after all is said and
done, it matters not whether you spend one dollar or six, so
long as the device distributes water to your liking. For
more than a decade, this gardener has used two or three of
the little spiked twirling models that sell for about a dollar,


and replacement, when necessary, will be made with this
same inexpensive type.
Some good gardeners simply lay the open end of the hose
on a board and allow it to run gently for an hour or so and
then move it along to a new spot, others own those canvas
soil soakers that allow the water to ooze slowly among the
shrubs. In any event, water should be applied in consider-
able quantity to assure a thorough soaking of the earth in
which our garden shrubs grow.
For best growth of shrubs, lawn grass should be re-
strained from growing in the beds. Frequent, systematic
edging is necessary during the summer months so that the
grass may be kept back well past the drip of the outer
branches. If this is carefully attended to your landscape
planting will have that finished professional look and the
constant danger of injuring your shrubs with the lawn
mower will be eliminated. Occasionally lilyturf is employed
as an edging around shrubbery in the foundation planting,
but many trained landscape architects hold that this is not
the best taste.
Your shrubs, healthy and vigorous when they arrive from
the nursery, must be kept in tip top condition if your plant-
ing is to look its best. A continuous pleasing effect can be
assured only by constantly maintaining good conditions for
Generally speaking, the species which go to make up our
foundation plantings are acid demanding, shallow rooted
types that will succeed best under a mulch of oak leaves,
peat or compost. Clean cultivation, with a sharp scuffle
hoe is acceptable for the most robust species, yet mulch has
many advantages for the choicer kinds. It acts as a layer of
insulation, thus reducing wide fluctuations in soil tempera-
ture, it aids materially in the retention of water and the
decaying leaves furnish mild acids and elements of nutrition.
Weeds are discouraged by a heavy mulch and root-knot
nematodes do not thrive under a moist blanket of organic
Shrubs, properly planted, will not need to be fed until
their second growing season. Then, during January, apply
an acid, balanced commercial fertilizer. Some gardeners
like to broadcast the plant food directly on top of the mulch
and wash it part way through with the hose, but this garden-
er holds that fertilizer is much more efficiently utilized if it
is placed in punch bar holes around the plants. Again at
the beginning of the rainy season ornamental shrubs should
receive a second yearly application of a balanced fertilizer.


Within recent years several fertilizer companies have
formulated special mixtures for azaleas and camellias. From
experience and observation, it can be stated that these are
entirely reliable and so they are highly recommended. Not
only are these special acid, slowly available plant foods very
good for azaleas and camellias, but they are recommended
for hollies, hibiscus, magnolias and all types of choice land-
scape material. These azalea specials as well as lawn and
garden mixtures can be secured from your local seed store
or by mail from advertisements that are to be found in the
pages of the national garden magazines.


In Florida's humid, semi-tropical climate most orna-
mental plants that are recommended for home grounds
planting grow very rapidly and for this reason frequent
systematic pruning is needed.
For the most part, informal, naturalistic pruning, rather
than shearing to geometrical forms, is preferred today.
Standard hand pruners are used to remove robust shoots well
below the contour of the bush. When these heavy growths
are severed down close to the ground, they will break into
several twigs of normal size. Fine, twiggy growths should
be reduced without regular pattern and in moderation so
that the plant will not display an artificial barbered look.
Pinching, the removal of terminal buds with thumb and
forefinger should be practiced all through the growing
season to encourage wellbranched, compact shrubs.
The time when shrubs should be pruned will vary with
several conditions. In general, it can be said that spring-
blooming species should be pruned immediately after flower-
ing. Bridal wreath, abelia, hydrangea, oleander and a host
of others fall into this category. Because flower buds are
formed during summertime, blossoms will be sacrificed if
the plants are pruned in late summer. Crape myrtle blooms
on current season's wood, and it is standard practice to
prune this southern favorite after the leaves are shed in
the fall.
Coniferous evergreens and broadleaved species that are
not grown for their blossoms, should be headed back all
through the spring, summer and fall when shoots grow out
of bounds. Cherry laurel, wax privet, wax myrtle, podo-
carpus and the junipers can be lightly headed back all
through the growing season so that the plants are kept
shapely and compact.


Hedges need frequent shearing from February or March
until autumn to keep them tidy and attractive. Hedge shears
are accompanied by directions which state that trimming
must be done while the new growth is tender and succulent
lest the jaws of the shears be thrown out of alignment. This
manufacturers warning, issued in the interests of their prod-
ucts, is sound horticulture as well, as so trimmed, clipped
hedges will be kept in best possible condition.

Upon occasion, all of us who garden are faced with the
necessity of removing parts of plants that have been injured
by low temperatures. It is the feeling of this gardener that
most ornamental shrubs are not benefitted by deferring this
work, and so, it is strongly urged that the job be done within
a day or two after injury has occurred.
Take your pruning shears and nick along a frosted branch
until the incision reveals healthy, green inner bark, then,
drop somewhat below this point and make a clean, slanting
cut. It is good practice to sever injured branches just above
a shoot or healthy bud that points away from the center of
the plant. For small wood, hand shears are used, for larger
branches one should employ a pair of heavy lopping shears,
and for members above an inch and a half in diameter, a
sharp, well-adjusted pruning saw is the accepted implement.
After pruning is complete, all wounds over two inches in
diameter should be covered with an approved tree wound
dressing. These modern antiseptic paints are available un-
der several trade names at your seed store or they may be
obtained by mail order direct from the manufacturers who
advertise in the national garden magazines.
Though we regret the devastating effects of frost in our
gardens it cannot be denied that periodic cutting back not
only contributes to the well being of shrubs that have grown
leggy and unattractive, but the overall appearance of the
garden is much improved as well.



Abelia -
Allamanda -
Aralia -
Azalea -
Boxthorn -
Brazilian pepper -
Bridal wreath -
Bush cherry -
Camellia -
Cherry laurel -
Chinese holly -
Cocculus -
Copperleaf -
Croton -
Eugenia - -
Feijoa -
Firethorn -
Flowering Jasmine
Gardenia -
Glossy privet -
Golden dewdrop -
Hibiscus - -
Hydrangea - -
Ilex - - -
Ixora -
Japanese holly -

- 43
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Japanese juniper -
Jasmine - -
Juniper - -
Lantana - -
Limeberry - -
Nandina - -
Natal plum -
Oleander - -
Orange jasmine -
Pfitzer's juniper -
Pittosporum -
Plumbago - -
Podocarpus - -
Poinsettia - -
Primrose jasmine-
Privet - -
Shore juniper -
Silverthorn -
Snow bush -
Star jasmine -
Thryallis - -
Turk's Cap - -
Virburnum - -
Wax Myrtle -
Wax privet - -
Weeping lantana -

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Azaleas are among the South's most popular shrubs.



ABELIA* (Abelia grandiflora). Small, shiny foliage, bright
crimson twigs, and clusters of white blossoms make abelia a
very choice shrub. Its best growth is attained in the northern
part of the state, where it makes one of the best hedges.
Hardwood cuttings, lined out in mid-winter should root
satisfactorily and grow into landscape material during the
second season.
Clean cultivation is usually practiced to keep abelias free
from weeds and grass, but these shrubs, like all others grow
well under a mulch of oak leaves, peat or compost.
Spraying is usually not required, but systematic pruning
is needed to head in succulent canes that are pushed out in
ALLAMANDA (Allamanda cathartica). The yellow-flowered
allamandas are among the most colorful and free-growing
of the tender flowering shrubs. Vinelike if not injured by
cold, or cut back in pruning, these vigorous tropical climbers
quickly grow to large size in the warmer sections.
The true purple allamanda (A. violacea) from Brazil
should not be confused with the rubber vine, (Cryptostegia),
which is sometimes sold under this designation.
Allamandas are easily grown from cuttings and ordinarily
are grown under clean cultivation. Generally, pests and
diseases are of little concern.
ARALIA (Polyscias spp'). Its strict habit, ability to thrive
in poor soil and intense heat and its striking foliage of many
patterns has made aralia one of southern Florida's most
widely planted shrubs. As a hedge or screen this tropical
shrub serves admirably.
Hardwood cuttings root quickly during the rainy season.
AZALEA (Rhododendron spp). Throughout the South,
countless millions of Indian and Kurme azaleas flower each
spring and the fame of these plants has spread to every part
of our nation. If one is careful about the preparation of the
soil and the growing position, these choice evergreen shrubs
can be enjoyed in all sections of our state north of Tampa.
A rich, but well drained soil of high organic content, acid
in reaction (pH 4.5-5.5) is essential as is broken shade for
most sandy soils. In western Florida on fertile soils and
properly mulched with leaves, azaleas will grow quite well

*The nomenclature followed in this bulletin is that used by Dr.
L. H. Bailey in Hortus Second 1941.
'means that more than one species is in common use in Florida.


in full sun. An abundant supply of moisture is needed
during periods of drought if good bloom is expected.
Azaleas are effectively used in bold groups of a single
color or grouped for color sequence. As specimen plants and
as edgings, certain varieties are very strikingly employed.
Azalea blight or azalea flower spot is a devastating dis-
ease which is rather widespread in Florida during certain
seasons. Some years azalea blight is non-existent, the next
it may be very severe. When the disease is present, the
blossoms look exactly as though they had been drenched
with boiling water. Expanding buds are infected, and as
a result, normal bloom is not possible.
It has been demonstrated that complete control is possi-
ble when the recommended spray program is followed.
Spraying commences as soon as color shows and is repeated
every three days until the last blossom is shed. Dithane,
zinc sulphate and a spreader may be obtained in a kit that
contains the correct amount of each ingredient together with
complete instructions for their preparation and application.
It is probable that research now in progress will result in
the formulation of other materials that will be useful in
controlling this virulent disease.
In order that full coverage by fine droplets be obtained,
a wheelbarrow or power sprayer must be used. Small hand
knapsack sprayers do not atomize the liquid sufficiently. As
the fungus lives over beneath the plants, the mulch under
the azalea bushes must be thoroughly drenched.
Mushroom root-rot occasionally causes the death of aza-
leas. The organism carried over on oak roots, causes one
or two canes in a clump to die gradually, and these are
followed by others over an extended period. Occasionally
the typical mushroom growths are found around the base
of the plants. Pruning out the dead branches is of no value
in controlling mushroom root-rot. If you are certain that
a given plant has died from this cause, other azaleas should
not be used for replacement.
The prirfcipal pests of azaleas are red spider mites and
thrips. Neither will become a problem if azaleas are syringed
frequently during dry weather. In the event that red spider
mites become established, they are easily eradicated by dust-
ing with 300-mesh sulphur. Efficacious, too, is the practice
of using the hose to tear the webs and literally wash the
mites away.
Frequently in springtime, azalea leaf galls appear on new
foliage. These grotesque proliferations are easily controlled
by handpicking. Be certain that the galls are completely
destroyed, to prevent re-infection.


ALLAMANDA-(Allamanda cathartica)
Huge waxy, yellow flowers are produced the year around.

THRYALLIS-(Thryallis glauca)
For southern and central sections, this ornamental shrub is highly


Azaleas of all types have the characteristic of producing
heavy, succulent canes during the spring flush, and these
vigorous shoots grow out beyond the contour of the plants
to branch above and form that undesirable two-storied effect.
In order that this condition may be avoided, the shoots must
be pinched before the terminal bud reaches the height of the
upper branches. The thumb and forefinger should be used
several times during the spring and summer months to exe-
cute this simple but necessary act of regulatory pruning.
In the event that these strong, irregular shoots were not
pinched back while they were succulent, it will be necessary
to employ the pruning shears to shape the plants. Azaleas
must be pruned before August lest flower buds be sacrificed
in the process.
Propagation may be accomplished by taking tip cuttings
in June or by wrapping a wounded branch in moist sphagnum
moss or by covering a partially cut branch with sandy soil.
BOXTHORN (Severinia buxifolia) is one of the choicest
shrubs for Central Florida. The glossy oval leaves closely
packed on fine, thorny branchlets, are supplemented many
months in the year by attractive globular jet-black fruits.
Much branched, slow-growing, shade-tolerant, amenable to

BOXTHORN-(Severinia buxifolia)
A dense, slow-growing, hardy shrub of the citrus family that is
excellent for foundation plantings, hedges or specimens.


shearing, this citrus relative is most highly commended to
all gardeners south of Gainesville.
Boxthorn is usually grown from seeds.
BRAZILIAN PEPPER (Schinus terebinthifolius). Tall screens
and windbreaks are effectively formed by planting the at-
tractive red-fruited Brazilian pepper at six-foot intervals.
This husky evergreen is suited to the citrus belt and must
be pruned frequently if it is to be kept below tree size.
Seeds or cuttings can be planted for new stock.
BRIDAL WREATH (Spiraea spp). For Gainesville north-
ward and westward the several species of spiraea succeed
as garden shrubs, blooming dependably each spring. For
masses of glistening white in informal shrubbery borders,
these deciduous shrubs are unsurpassed. Pruning must be
done just after flowering lest flower buds be sacrificed.
Spiraeas of all types may be grown from softwood or
hardwood cuttings.
Aphids, which frequently infest succulent new shoots,
may be controlled by nicotine dust, nicotine spray, rotenone
dust, or by one of the new shot-gun mixtures that are sold
in handy applicators.
CAMELLIA (Camellia japonica). Long considered the
aristocrat of shrubs in the Deep South, the japonica has been
a part of rural life since antebellum days. The compact
growing habit, the beautiful glossy foliage, and the blossoms
that appear in winter and early springtime account in part
for the popularity of this attractive shrub.
Like azaleas, camellias require a fertile soil that is acid
in reaction and retentive of moisture. In making up the
planting holes as described on page 37, extra care must be
used for these valuable shrubs to be certain that the mixture
in the finished planting holes will be definitely acid in re-
action. This will be assured by the liberal use of peat and
the omission of poultry manure or other materials that are
known to contain lime.
Adequate moisture that percolates through the soil is
needed. A lack of drainage will result in the loss of roots and
this will be manifested above ground by a generally unthrifty
condition, leaf-fall, bud-drop, dead twigs and in time; death.
In the peninsular part of the state, choice camellias will
grow best in broken, shifting shade such as is cast by native
pines, palms or the smaller deciduous oaks. On the better
soils of western Florida, many beautiful camellias are thriv-
ing in full sun.


In any position, an organic mulch is recommended for
growing camellias as garden shrubs. Small plants in nursery
formation are grown under clean cultivation, but, in land-
scape plantings, a thick mulch of oak leaves or peat is highly
recommended by all authorities.
An acid fertilizer, possibly one of the azalea-camellia
specials, may be applied in punch bar holes around the
plants in January. Another application may be made at
the beginning of the rainy season, but it is suggested that
no stimulants be given after mid-summer lest the plants go
into winter with immature wood and thus be liable to
winter injury.

STAR JASMIME-(Jasminum pubescens)
Almost indispensable as a foundation or landscape plant in central
Florida. It has periodic crops of star-shaped white flowers and
can be grown as a shrub or a vine.

Aphids will cause new leaves to curl and then be mal-
formed permanently, so these pests must be eliminated as
soon as they are discovered on the new shoots. Your seeds-
man will sell you one of the new cardboard dusters that
contain a shot-gun mixture that is certain death for aphids.
If you prefer you can apply a spray of nicotine or rotenone,
or use these in dust form.
As with azaleas, red spider mites are occasionally to be
reckoned with during dry spells. They can be forestalled


by syringing the leaves thoroughly when you water during
very dry times, yet if they gain a foothold, they succumb to
sulphur dust.
Scale insects of three species are forever a menace. Start-
ing in February and again in May and perhaps in September
or October, a 1% or a 2% oil emulsion should be applied with
a good sprayer. Because the leaves lie close together, shingle-
fashion, diligence is needed to get a complete coverage. Re-
member, a scale insect must be covered with oil if it is to die.
If just a few bushes are in your collection and scale becomes
very bad on one of these, the surest way to get a cleanup is
to mop the infested leaves with cotton dipped in the 2% oil
emulsion spray. Caution-Do not apply oils during very
hot or very cold weather.
Under several brand names, these white summer oils
are for sale at your garden supply house.
Camellia twig blight or dieback is the disease which
causes camellia fanciers great concern. A leafy twig of
current growth wilts and dies back with the leaves still in
place. Sometimes large branches may be lost, and rarely,
an entire plant.

CHERRY LAUREL-(Prunus caroliniana) (Sheared)
This is an exceptionally good hedge or specimen plant as it can be
kept in almost any desired shape by shearing.


As this is written, no preventive measures have been
worked out, and the best we know to do is to remove infected
wood as soon as possible. Use your pruning shears to nick
along the branch and when you come to normal, healthy
green inner bark, make a sharp, slanting cut. Be certain
to destroy the dead twig and sterilize your shears by dipping
in alcohol after each cut, as twig blight may be transmitted
by pruning tools. The wounds thus made should be mopped
with paste of Bordeaux mixture, wettable sulphur, or Fer-
mate. Pruning is usually not needed by camellias, yet
rampant shoots formed in late summer should be pinched
to keep the plants compact.
In the landscape, varieties of Camellia japonica are useful
as specimens, as accent plants, for the portal planting and as
a dense but informal hedge. Camellia sasanqua, hardier and
of more open habit, is a valuable species for the informal
shrubbery border.
Many varieties are increased by rooting cuttings but most
rare types are grafted.
CAPE-HONEYSUCKLE (Tecomaria capensis). Orange-red
flowers make this well known shrub very showy most of
the year. As a screen or division plant it serves well be-
cause of its adaptability to conditions in Lower Florida.
Clean cultivation is usual for cape honeysuckle, and gen-
erally, insects and diseases are of no concern.
Propagation is by cuttings or seeds.

V I.. A -

Camellias are beautiful specimens and serve well also as tall,
informal screens.


CHERRY LAUREL (Prunus caroliniana). Although this
plant becomes a good sized tree in our hardwood hammocks,
its greatest landscape use is as a shrub. Beautiful, shiny,
evergreen leaves are held in good condition the year around
and, during springtime, the new growth is especially attrac-
tive. As a sheared hedge or as formal, clipped specimens,
the cherry laurel is particularly recommended in northern

In southern Florida this variety is grafted on understocks of
Gardenia thunbergia which are resistant to the root-knot nematode.

Small plants may be collected in hammocks or they may
be grown from seeds.


COCCULUS (Cocculus laurifolius). Because its long oval
evergreen leaves are carried well to the ground by the
drooping green branches, this shrub is approved by those
who admire good landscape material. For foundation plant-
ings and for screens, this tropical shrub is offered by most
ornamental nurseries. Ordinarily cocculus is kept free of
grass and weeds by flat hoeing and no pests or diseases are
of great importance.
Softwood cuttings root easily in summertime.
COPPERLEAF (Acalypha wilkesiana). Much planted in
southern Florida, this large-leafed, fast-growing ornamental
is well known to all gardeners in that section. Copperleaf
grows easily from cuttings and will succeed in any situation
that is not too shady. As a foundation material it usually
gets out of scale.
CROTON (Codiaeum variegatum). The world's most color-
ful and variable shrub comes into its own in southern Flori-
da. Here, crotons in endless variety are grown in every
conceivable landscape usage. Good taste insists that they
are much over used as their garish, boldly variegated colors
demand that they be strong highlights in a green composition.
Crotons are easily grown from cuttings stuck in sand at
the beginning of the rainy season.
EUGENIA (Eugenia spp). This is a diverse genus that has
several important representatives in southern Florida. The
pitanga (Eugenia uniflora) is in favor as a hedge material
because it shears well and bears delicious and decorative
fruits. Bush-Cherry, (E. paniculata and varieties) is a favor-
ite landscape material that is frequently seen as sheared
accent plants in foundation plantings. This type is much
grown in southern Florida nurseries.
Eugenias are propagated by seeds and softwood cuttings.
FEIJOA (Feijoa sellowiana). Hardy throughout our state,
this South American fruit plant is admirable for landscape
use as well. The gray-green leaves with whitish under-
surfaces make this a good plant for contrast and transition.
Seeds are sown when the fruits ripen in summertime.
FIRE-THORN (Pyracantha spp). Of all fruiting shrubs
growing in the cooler sections none is more showy during
the winter months than the beautiful fire-thorn. Nurseries
supply the kinds that are known to be successful in this
area. As large pyracanthas do not transplant well from the
open ground, it is suggested that small plants in expendable
containers be selected.
This member of the rose family may be infected by fire-
blight upon occasion and, as a result, an appreciable portion


of the plant may be lost. A mild copper fungicide directed
into the open blooms should arrest the development of
organisms brought in by bees and flies. As recommended
for fireblight in the loquat, the prompt removal of infected
wood is imperative. Use a sharp pruning implement to
sever the dying member well below the point of apparent
infection and paint the wound with sulphur or Fermate
paste. Remember that the fireblight organism is carried
on pruning tools, so immediate disinfection in alcohol is
A lace-winged fly, which skeletonizes fire-thorn foliage
will be controlled if a spray containing DDT is applied in
April, June and August. Wax scale, though not easy to
eradicate completely, can be held in check by two annual
applications of a 2% white summer oil.
As fire-thorns grow very rapidly within their climatic
range, pruning is usually necessary. Pyracanthas flower
(and therefore fruit) on current buds that arise from fruit-
ing spurs one year old or older. It is obvious, then that
these handsome shrubs cannot fruit the season after they
have been cut to the ground. A system of renewal pruning
is therefore advocated to assure annual displays of the
colorful fruits. One or two large canes can be sawed off
near the ground one winter, allowing several to remain
intact to carry their fruit; then when the new canes arise
and develop fruiting spurs, the ones which had been left
originally may be discarded. If one is not interested in fall
color, the entire plant may be cut to the ground when it
becomes too large.
It is known that fire-thorns grow best, flower and fruit
most satisfactorily, when lawn grasses are kept out of the
root zone and a mulch of oak leaves or peat moss is used as
an insulation against excessive heat and to assure a moist
growing medium.
Named varieties are propagated by cuttings, yet seeds
will germinate well and produce fast-growing young stock.
GARDENIA (Gardenia jasminoides). The Cape jasmine is
an old-fashioned shrub that has been a dooryard favorite in
the Lower South for generations. From Orlando northward
to the Carolinas this spring-flowering variety grows quite
well if it is protected from root-knot by a mulch and from
white-fly by an oil emulsion spray. This variety is propa-
gated by cuttings. The winter-flowering form, (G. veitchii
of the florists) is grown out of doors in southern Florida
grafted on tender, but root-knot resistant, Gardenia thun-
bergia. All gardenias are badly attacked by tropical scales


as well as the troubles noted above, so much vigilance is
needed to keep the plants clean and healthy.
GOLDEN DEWDROP (Duranta repens). This large, fast-
growing shrub is widely distributed throughout Florida
both as a garden plant and as an occasional escape from
cultivation. As a background plant for gardens in the citrus
belt it is recommended, but it ordinarily attains too great
size to be employed as a part of a foundation planting. Clean
cultivation ordinarily is employed for these cosmopolitan
plants as they grow quite well without an organic mulch.
Insect pests and diseases are of little concern.
Young plants may be grown from seeds or cuttings.
HIBISCUS (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis). Sometimes called the
Queen of Shrubs, this beautiful rose of China possibly has
more universal appeal than any shrub the world around.
The graceful, compact habit, beautiful glossy, evergreen
leaves and the gorgeous colorful blossoms all contribute to
make this shrub a top-flight landscape material. Propaga-
tion of most common varieties is by tip cuttings taken
during the summer, but rare kinds are grafted upon under
stocks of the single red variety. While for commonplace
types an occasional hoeing and watering will suffice, choice
varieties are set into carefully prepared planting holes and
protected by a thick mulch of leaves or peat.
HYDRANGEA (Hydrangea macrophylla). This deciduous
flowering shrub from Asia is another of universal appeal.
The huge trusses of blue which appear above the attractive
shiny leaves in late springtime are very striking. In Florida
this plant is shade-demanding and the best position for
hydrangeas, therefore, is a northern exposure. Any cutting
back must be done immediately after flowering, else the
blossom buds will be removed. Aluminum sulphate, which
acidifies the soil, makes for blue hydrangeas, and if you
want them pink, the soil must be limed so that it has a
basic reaction.
Propagation is by hardwood or softwood cuttings.
ILEX (Ilex spp). Several small-leaved hollies can be kept
to shrub size by careful pruning and these are in high favor
as handsome plants. The most important is the striking
native yaupon (Ilex vomitoria). Because it is so much at
home, stands shearing well and bears beautiful berries in
wintertime, the yaupon is unsurpassed for hedges and
sheared specimens. Nursery-grown fruiting specimens are
much more satisfactory than are plants collected from the
The Japanese holly (Ilex crenata variety convexa) has
become very popular for foundation work in northern Flori-


HIBIscus--(Hibiscus rosa-sinensis)
This is a handsome shrub that has many uses in the landscape

HYDRANGEA-(Hydrangea macrophylla)
This is an ideal north-side plant.


da, but it is not tolerant of adverse growing conditions, so
a north-side location and an adequate mulch are held to be
necessary for its well being. Small shining evergreen
leaves are closely packed on much-branched green stems.
Numerous black fruits are attractive highlights during fall
and winter. This choice landscape plant is grown from
The Chinese holly (Ilex cornuta) is another favored
landscape subject from Asia that is offered by most nurs-
eries in the Lower South.
IXORA (Ixora coccinea). Garden forms with flowers in
shades of red and yellow are seen in the warmer sections.
Counted as one of the best ornamentals there, the ixora
excells as a hedge, specimen or base planting material.
Likely to display evidences of nutritional deficiencies on.
sandy soils of southern Florida, ixoras should be set with
care in made-up planting holes. A sprinkling of a mineral
mixture should be given with the fertilizer in January and
June. A heavy mulch of leaves or peat should protect the
roots at all times.
Tender tips root in white sand in summer.
JASMINE (Jasminum spp). This genus furnishes several
sprawling evergreen shrubs that are widely employed in
landscape plantings. For the colder sections, the flowering
jasmine (J. floridum) and the primrose jasmine (J. primu-
linum) are excellent hardy shrubs; in the citrus belt the
star jasmine (J. pubescens) is often seen as a shrub and as
a vine, while in the warmest locations, the fragrant Jas-
minum gracile (syn. J. simplicifolium) is in high favor.
There are many other species, some of which are grown
as rare plant novelties by nurseries and plant collectors.
All of the jasmines root readily where canes touch the
JUNIPER (Juniperus spp). This is the most dependable
genus of coniferous shrubs for Florida. Many beautiful
horticultural forms, which will thrive in northern and west-
ern sections, are available at the nurseries. One of the best
low ground cover forms is the shore juniper, (Juniperus
conferta) an intermediate horizontal grower is.the well
known Pfitzer's juniper, (Juniperus chinensis pfitzeriana)
while one of the very best of the tall evergreens for a sheared
accent is the beautiful Japanese juniper, (Juniperus chinen-
sis sylvestris).
All junipers are propagated by cuttings and clean cul-
ture is usual in most landscape plantings.
LANTANA (Lantana spp). So well adapted that it has
escaped cultivation, the lantana is known by everyone.


Sometimes lantanas will fill that difficult sunny garden
spot as no other shrub can. Botanically, the red and yellow-
flowered shrub is Lantana camera and the. attractive lilac
weeping lantana is L. montevidensis.
LIME-BERRY (Triphasia trifolia) is a favored landscape
plant for southern Florida. Graceful, dense, evergreen,
amenable to shearing, this beautiful plant well deserves the
high esteem in which it is held by nurserymen.
Seeds are employed to increase stocks.
NANDINA (Nandina domestica. West of Live Oak on
rich soils this decorative ornamental grows to perfection.
The many reed-like erect stems, lacy compound leaves and
rich red fruits make this a must-have for gardens within its
range. Nandina is not happy in peninsular Florida.
Seeds germinate slowly, but are used for propagation as
are suckers that come out from old plants.
NATAL PLUM (Carissa grandiflora). This West African
fruit plant serves well as an ornamental in the Palm Beach-
Miami area. Its compact habit (horizontal branching, oval
evergreen leaves) beautiful white flowers and decorative
purple fruits, account for the high favor in which the natal
plum is held.
Plants are grown from seeds.

PITTOSPORUM-(Pittosporum tobira)
This broadleaved evergreen shears well.


OLEANDER (Nerium oleander). This cosmopolitan ever-
green shrub is too well known to warrant discussion except-
ing to point out that it is too coarse and fast-growing for
foundation planting work. Adapted to almost any soil,
resistant to reasonable amounts of salt spray, the oleander,
in many attractive colors, is valuable for tall screens and
windbreaks. DDT has been effective in controlling the
oleander caterpillar which is the principal pest.
Propagation is easily accomplished by cuttings taken at
almost any season.
In landscape plantings, oleanders are usually kept free of
weeds and grass by flat hoeing and seldom are mulches
employed. Fertilizer can be applied in January, in June,
but many thousands of oleanders grow without hand feeding.
ORANGE-JESSAMINE (Murraea exotica). Seven to nine
rhomboidal leaflets, fragrant white flowers and red ovoid
fruits are characteristic of this large tropical shrub. Com-
pletely at home in frost-free sections, this plant is recom-
mended for tall naturalistic screens and for free-standing
specimens. A mulch will make for better growing condi-
tions and therefore specimens of this beautiful plant will
respond to this extra care.

PFITZER'S JUNIPER-(Juniperus chinensis pfitzeriana)
This low spreading Juniper is excellent for corners or borders.
Grows well in central and northern Florida.


Seeds germinate well and softwood cuttings strike easily.

PITTOSPORUM (Pittosporum tobira). For a clipped hedge
or sheared specimen, this attractive broadleaved evergreen
is unsurpassed. In coastal areas and in western Florida it
seems to be especially good, but in some localities the pittos-
porum is easy prey to the Cercospora leafspot. A copper
fungicide was formerly employed to control this disease;

OLEANDER- (Nerium oleander)
Adapted to a wide range of soil types, the oleander is one of the
best materials for a tall informal screen.

- '.-


possibly the newer Fermate, Karbam or Zerlate will prove
as effective, be less troublesome to apply.
Plants are grown from seeds in Western Florida, from
tip cuttings in the peninsular where seeds do not set annually.
PLUMBAGO (Plumbago capensis). Because of its small
size, compact growth and attractive blossoms of soft blue,
this is without doubt, one of Florida's most valuable shrubs.
From Marion County southward it is seldom killed by frost
and it is commended without reservation. A fertile soil in
full sun, an adequate supply of moisture and annual cutting
back are requirements for its success.

PODOCARPUS-(Podocarpus macrophylla maki) (Sheared Specimen)
An evergreen that is very desirable for formal plantings as it may
be sheared to any desired form.


Plumbago is grown from seeds or root cuttings.
PODOCARPUS (Podocarpus spp). Among the best conifer-
ous plants that are grown in Florida gardens are the several
species of Podocarpus. They are hardy, slow-growing, amen-
able to shearing, tolerant of shade and drought and therefore
are useful in a portal planting. Well liked by all, these
beautiful Asiatic plants are most highly commended.

A pool adds interest to a landscape plan.

A rockery in a tropical setting.


Tender tip cuttings stuck in white sand in June and July
should root in six or eight weeks.
POINSETTIA (Euphorbia pulcherima). Because of its com-
plete adaptability to Florida's soil and climate,' because it
flowers faithfully for Christmas each year, the poinsettia is
widely planted and greatly admired here. The coarse tex-
ture, bold color and the temporary character of the plant,
suggest that it might be best planted with hardy evergreen
shrubbery in the out-of-door living area. In this position
the glowing red will show to excellent effect and, when the
plants are cut to the ground by cold, their absence will not
be apparent.
Single red types are most frequently seen, but the double
poinsettia is more in demand now as it is realized that it
grows just as easily and the heads are much fuller. Pink
or white poinsettias may be grown for contrast, but the true
Christmas red will always be the most popular color.

AUSTRALIAN TREE FERN-(Alsophila australis)

In January, leafless stalks are cut into 12-inch lengths
and these large cuttings are placed where flowering plants
are wanted. As growth is very rapid in warm weather, it
is suggested that the tip buds be pinched out in late summer.
This will cause the plants to branch and become very
PRIVET (Ligustrum spp). Scores of species and varieties
of privet have been available in the nursery trade over many
years and their widespread use has been the inevitable re-
sult. The name of wax privet has been erroneously used as


this popular shrub really belongs in the species Ligustrum
japonicum. The glossy privet (Ligustrum lucidum) quickly
grows to tree size and its use in foundation plantings should
be discouraged as it soon gets out of scale.
In western Florida the small-leaved California privet
(L. ovalifolium) serves well as a sheared hedge and for
other topiary effects.
All ligustrums can be increased by cuttings, many by
seeds, but some nurseries prefer to sell plants grafted on a
root-knot-resistant understock.
SILVER-THORN (Elaeagnus pungens). Many horticultural
forms of this satisfactory ornamental are offered by nurseries
in the Lower South. Great succulent shoots produced in
spring and summer must be pruned out at their point of
origin to keep the plant within reasonable bounds. For
hedges and low formal shapes, the silver-thorn is a top-flight
shrub and is highly commended.
Cuttings of softwood are used for propagation.
SNOW-BUSH (Breynia nivosa). A colorful shrub from the
South Sea Islands that is favored in the citrus belt because
of its multi-colored leaves. For bright hedges and accent
plants it is well adapted.
Snow-bush is grown from root cuttings.
THRYALLIS (Thryallis glauca). Attractive yellow blossoms
that are produced throughout much of the year have earned
a considerable popularity for this fine-scale shrub. In warm-
er localities Thryallis is completely dependable and serves
well as a colorful accent plant.
Small plants may be grown from seeds sown while green
or from cuttings taken while they are still quite tender.
TURKS' CAP (Malvaviscus grandiflorus). This colorful
American clambering shrub is well known to everyone who
has visited Florida. Hardwood cuttings can be lined out
where a hedge is wanted and they will soon grow to the
desired size. Frequent shearing of Turks' cap hedges is
needed to keep them within reasonable bounds. Horticultural
forms with white or pink flowers and others with variegated
leaves are grown by fanciers of rare plants.
VIBURNUM (Viburnum spp). Beautiful evergreen species
of this large genus are much employed in landscape work in
central and northern Florida. The larger, Viburnum odora-
tissimum, becomes tree-like on fertile ground and is recom-
mended for screens and background plantings only. The less
rampant, Viburnum suspensum can be held in check more


easily by frequent pruning, and this species is good in base
plantings, particularly for large homes and public buildings.
Viburnums grow easily from layers, hardwood cuttings
and softwood tips.
WAX-MYRTLE (Myrica cerifera). Few native shrubs enjoy
more widespread landscape use than does this cosmopolitan
southern bay-berry. Available in most damp flatwoods, the
clumps should be cut back to the ground when they are lifted
for moving into one's garden. Permission of the owner to
collect wild plants is sought by all right-thinking persons.
Annual pruning back of current wood in July or August
is advocated in order that wax-myrtle borders may be kept
down to reasonable heights. Native to hammock locations,
this species succeeds best when mulched. Commercial ferti-
lizer should be supplied during the second and third seasons
after planting, thereafter, wax-myrtles on most soils should
not require fertilization.




Abelia -
Azalea -
Bush cherry
Cherry laurel
Ilex - -
Juniper -
Viburnum -

- 43
- 43
- 52
- 47
- 51
- 54
- 56
- 56
- 59
- 61
- 63
- 63

Boxthorn - -
Eugenia- - -
Jasmine - -
Limeberry -
Plumbago - -
Podocarpus- -


Abelia - -
Azalea - -
Camellia -
Cherry laurel -
Feijoa - -
Gardenia -
Hydrangea -
Ilex- - -
Jasmine - -
Juniper - -
Nandina -
Pittosporum -
Privet - -
Viburnum -

- 43
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Boxthorn -
Eugenia- -
Feijoa - -
Gardenia -
Hibiscus- -
Ixora - -
Jasmine - -
Lantana- -
Limeberry -
Natal plum- -
Orange jasmine
Plumbago -
Podocarpus- -
Privet - -
Snow bush-
Thryallis -


Abelia - -
Cherry laurel -
Ilex - -
Juniper - -
Pittosporum -
Privet - -
Viburnum -

Aralia -
Boxthorn -
Copperleaf -
Eugenia- -
Ixora -
Limeberry -
Natal plum-
Privet -
Snow bush-

- - 46
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- - 56
- - 57
- - 60
- - 61

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Azalea - -
Bridal wreath -
Cherry laurel -
Feijoa - -
Firethorn -
Ilex - -
Oleander -
Pittosporum -
Privet - -
Viburnum -
Wax myrtle -

- 43
- 47
- 51
- 52
- 52
- 54
- 58
- 59
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Aralia - -
Brazilian pepper -
Cape honeysuckle
Cocculus -
Copperleaf - -
Eugenia- - -
Feijoa - -
Golden dewdrop -
Hibiscus- -
Lantana- - -
Natal plum- -
Oleander - -
Orange jasmine -
Privet - -
Turk's cap - -
Wax myrtle -


Azalea -
Camellia -
Firethorn -
Gardenia -
Hydrangea -
Jasmine -

- 43
- 47
- 52
- 53
- 54
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- 61

Azalea - 43
Bridal wreath- 47
Camellia - 47
Firethorn - 52
Gardenia - 53
Hydrangea -- - 54
Ilex - -- - 54
Jasmine- - - 56
Nandina - - 57
Oleander - 58
Podocarpus -- - 61
Privet - 62
Viburnum- - 63

Ilex - -
Juniper -
Wax myrtle

- 54
- - 56
- - 59
- - 64

Allamanda - -
Cape honeysuckle
Copperleaf - -
Croton - -
Gardenia - -
Hibiscus- -
Ixora - -
Snow bush- -
Thryallis - -

Allamanda - -
Cape honeysuckle
Gardenia - -
Golden dewdrop -
Hibiscus- - -
Ixora - -
Jasmine - -
Lantana- - -
Natal plum- -
Oleander - -
Orange jasmine -
Plumbago - -
Thryallis - -
Turk's cap - -

Aralia - -
Brazilian pepper -
Cape honeysuckle
Lantana- - -
Natal plum- -
Oleander - -
Podocarpus- -
Wax myrtle -

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No home planting is quite complete without a few vines.
The exceedingly large number of plants that come under
this classification are useful to tropical horticulturists in
softening architectural lines, adding brilliant splashes of
exotic color, for screens, for shade and as ground covers
where grass will not grow. There are many beautiful ever-
green sorts, some of which are colorful during the tourist
season, others that are wanted for their cool, year-around
greenness and a few deciduous sorts that change with the
seasons. Some cling to masonry, others twine around trees,
or wire supports while among their number are sprawlers
that must be supported by tying.
The line of demarcation between shrubs and vines is
never clear cut. Sometimes, for example, Bougainvillaea
and Wisteria are sheared standards (shrubs) while, at the
same time, they are very popular as coverings for arbors and
pergolas (vines). Algerian ivy is employed as a vine at one
home, while next door it is strictly a ground cover that is
never allowed to rise above six inches in height.
In this bulletin, and its companion, Flowers for Florida
Homes (No. 59), several plants have already been discussed
in other sections that can be used as vines as well. Space
does not permit a discussion of all vining shrubs and herbs
that grow in Florida, so it is our plan to choose a dozen and
a half of the best landscape species.
In planting vines, if one employs the same cultural prac-
tices that are discussed on pages 37 & 38, success with any of
the following species, within their climatic ranges is assured.
ALGERIAN IVY (Hedera canariensis).' For densely shaded
locations, as under large evergreen trees and on northside
chimneys, no plant is better than Algerian ivy. Employed
with telling effect in our western counties, this refined,
hardy, evergreen vine has endless possibilities and is recom-
mended most highly. Cultivation is out of the question, of
course, and by its habit of growth, the parts of the plant,
that lie on the ground and take root, hold fallen leaves to
form a perfect mulch.
Ivy used as a groundcover or for wall decoration should
receive a balanced plant food in January. Broadcast the
fertilizer and wash it in with the hose at once.

'The nomenclature followed in this bulletin is that used by Dr.
L. H. Bailey in Hortus Second 1941.


BLEEDING HEART (Clerodendrum thomsoniae). Deep green
foliage and attractive white and red blossoms make this plant
a universal favorite. The twining green stems need a sturdy
permanent trellis for support and a heavy mulch is suggested
to encourage best growth.
BLUE BELLS (Clytostoma callistegiodes). For northern
Florida one of the most satisfactory evergreen vines is this
member of the Bignoniaceae formerly known as Bignonia
speciosa. When supported by a strong metal trellis, this
robust liana will quickly form an impenetrable green wall
that is attractive the year around. Beautiful lavender blos-
soms are borne profusely in springtime. Cultivation and
spraying are unnecessary and a single spring feeding should
adequately nourish this well adapted flowering vine.
BOUGAINVILLAEA (Bougainvillea spp).2 Southern Florida's
most beloved vine is well known to all. A brilliant stem of
crimson lake sprawling across a white masonry wall is a
garden scene that will live in one's memory forever. The
dozen or more varieties that are offered by nurseries are all
worthwhile as every color and habit of growth has its place.
For best garden effect it is felt that the purple and magenta
kinds should not be planted close to the red, pink and terra-
cotta varieties. A spray of DDT applied in early spring
should control the caterpillar which habitually riddles
bougainvillea leaves.
Pruning, needed to keep the vines within reasonable lim-
its, must be done directly after flowering. Regular pinching
of terminal growths thereafter is suggested to keep your
plants compact.
Fertilizer may be applied in punch bar holes in Decem-
ber, March and June. Clean cultivation is standard practice,
tho Bougainvilleas will benefit from a heavy organic mulch.
CACTI (Many genera as Cereus, Hylocereus, Heliocereus,
Epiphyllum, etc.). These rain-forest cacti that are found
widely distributed in the American tropics are ever-popular
ornamental vines for the warmer sections. Many forms are
arborescent, epiphytic, and cling to palms or masonry walls
by means of tough aerial roots. These thrive in the high
humidity, heavy rainfall, acid, organic soils of southern
Florida and are not to be confused with the western desert
forms that will not succeed out of doors here.
Much prized for their colorful exotic blossoms and the
tropical atmosphere that the plants create, these vines are
very useful landscape plants.
2spp means that more than one species is used in Florida gardening.


Hylocereus undatus is much cultivated and is probably
the plant best known as "night-blooming cereus." Species
of Epiphyllum, the orchid cacti, produce some of the most
spectacular blossoms known to the plant world.
CAROLINA YELLOW JESSAMINE (Gelsemium sempervirens).
There is no native vine that is more charming than this
dweller of our hardwood hammocks. Easily transplanted to
one's garden, the twining, red stems, beautiful, evergreen
leaves and fragrant golden blossoms are certain to please.
When used to cover a small arbor, the garage gable-end or
to fall across a doorway, the Carolina yellow jessamine is
CAT'S CLAW VINE (Doxantha unguis-cati) is a fairly hardy
evergreen climber that bears brilliant yellow blossoms in
springtime. The claw-like tendrils enable this species to
cling to any surface but the smoothest masonry. Rapid-
growing and therefore, adapted to large expanses, the cat-
claw vine is certain to succeed south of Gainesville.
CERIMAN (Monstera deliciosa). This spectacular tropical
fruit vine creates an exotic effect and is frequently planted
by palm trunks or masonry walls in the Miami region. The
monstera is injured by cold, but otherwise, it is quite easily
grown within its climatic range.
CONFEDERATE JASMINE (Trachelospermum jasminoides).
For northern Florida no flowering vine surpasses the Con-
federate jasmine. Hardy, slow-growing, evergreen, depend-
ably producing fragrant white blossoms every spring, this
plant is unexcelled for arbors, porches, screens and as a
covering for steep slopes.
The twining brown stems should have strong permanent
support unless the plant is employed as a groundcover. Scale
insects may be kept under control by spraying semi-annually
with a 2% white summer oil and the health of this shallow
rooted vine will be insured if a mulch of leaves is provided.
CREEPING FIG (Ficus pumila). For the upper peninsula,
here is a good covering for masonry walls. This hardy,
tenacious, evergreen climber needs annual pruning to head
in large fruiting branches that stand out from the wall and
make an untidy appearance. Occasionally the creeping fig
is ultilized as a cover for barren ground.
FLAME VINE (Pyrostegia ignea). Central Florida's famous
flame vine is so well known that little need be said about
its effectiveness and adaptability. Rigorous pruning after
flowering is needed to keep this tropical creeper in check.


Because of its unusual orange color, perhaps it is best not to
combine flame vine with blossoms of red or pink.
HUNTER'S ROBE (Scindapsis aureus). No planting would
be complete in tropical Florida without its palm decorated
by this showy arum-ivy. This spectacular gold and green
climber is much admired for its exotic effect and therefore,
it is widely planted. This plant has long been sold by
nurseries, chain stores and flower shops under the name
Pothos, which is now held to be invalid.
QUEEN'S WREATH (Petrea volubilis) is a liana from tropical
America that produces quantities of lilac- or white-flowered
panicles during summertime. Unusually showy and easily
grown, queen's wreath is recommended for the Miami area.
RANGOON CREEPER (Quisqualis indica) like queen's wreath
is a summer bloomer that is much admired for its showy
flowers. A rapid-growing, clambering plant that will quickly
cover a trellis or small building, the Rangoon creeper will
succeed from Tampa southward.
ROSE (Rosa spp). Although roses are fully discussed in
the companion bulletin (No. 59) they must be mentioned
here as they are among the most beloved of all ornamental
vines. Many varieties, well adapted to the Florida climate,
may be trained on trellises, arbors, pillars or espalier against
the house. Rose foliage will be free of black spot if it is
covered with sulphur dust (300 mesh), Bordeaux mixture,
copper A, a Fermate spray or one of the new rose formula-
tions that your seedsman sells. High pressure assures good
coverage, so essential in applying a fungicide.
Renewal pruning is practiced to eliminate old, barren
canes that no longer flower heavily.
STEPHANOTIS (Stephanotis floribunda). This is a choice
twining vine with shining leathery leaves and fragrant white,
funnel-form flowers that can be successfully grown in the
warmer sections. This is the same stephanotis that florists
use extensively in wedding bouquets.
THUNBERGIA (Thunbergia spp) is an extremely variable
genus that contains many popular ornamentals. The sweet-
clock-vine (Thunbergia fragrans) bears perfumed white
blossoms 11/4 inches in diameter; Black-eyed Susan (T. alata)
is an herbaceous vine, sometimes grown as an annual, that
is covered with creamy, purple-throated flowers during
summertime. The sky-flower (T. grandiflorus) is a ramp-
ant tropical liana that bears huge blossoms of blue or white.
This plant requires much heading in or it soon submerges
everything that it can cover.


WINTER CREEPER (Euonymus fortunei). Many varieties of
this species are favorite hardy vines in the north and some
succeed in extreme western Florida. As an attractive accent
on a smooth masonry wall or as a beautiful groundcover, the
winter creeper will serve well.
Scale insects, of several species, seriously interfere with
the well being of winter creeper in the Deep South. Semi-
annual applications of an oil emulsion spray, under high
pressure, should give a satisfactory control.
WISTERIA (Wisteria sinensis). Well liked by everyone,
this graceful flowering vine has long been a garden favorite
in northern Florida. Showy racemes of blue or white flowers
are produced before the leaves in March. Encouraged to
climb into native pines, sheared as standards, employed to
cover pergolas, the wisteria is certain to be a success and is
most highly endorsed.



Bleeding heart -
Blue bells - - -
Bougainvillaea -
Cacti - - - -
Carolina yellow jasmine
Cat's claw vine - -
Ceriman - -
Confederate jasmine -

- 68
- 68
- 68
- 68
- 69
- 69
- 69
- 69

Flame vine- -
Queen's wreath
Rangoon creeper
Rose- - -
Stephanotis- -
Thunbergia- -
Wisteria- -


Cacti - -
Ceriman -
Flame vine- -

- - 68
- - 68
- - 69
- - 69

Hunter's robe -
Queen's wreath -
Rangoon creeper -
Stephanotis- -


Algerian ivy - - 67
Carolina yellow jasmine 69
Confederate jasmine - 69

Algerian ivy -
Cacti - -
Ceriman -

Flame vine- -
Wintercreeper -

- - 67 Creeping fig -
- - 68 Wintercreeper -
- - 69

- - 69
- - 71

- - 69
- - 71

- 69
- 70
- 70
- 70
- 70
- 70
- 71

- 70
- 70
- 70
- 70




Climbers like this tropical aroid are widely grown in the
Palm Beach Miami area.



A good lawn is indispensable as a setting for one's home
and it is usually the first element of the landscape scheme
to be developed. In the Gulf Coast region it is possible to
build permanent lawns quickly and to keep them quite
presentable throughout the year.
In Florida there are three major lawn grasses, Bermuda,
Centipede and St. Augustine. Several other grasses and
non-grass ground covers play effective but minor roles.
Among these are Carpet grass, Zoysia, Dichondra, Ophiopo-
gon and Liriope. Each has its strong points and its staunch
admirers and each is capable of making a well-nigh perfect
greensward under good management.
The beginning of the rainy season is the best time to start
or to renovate a lawn because the warm weather, abundant
rainfall and high humidity make for rapid growth. Indeed,
a lawn planted about the middle of June may cover com-
pletely before autumn.
Adequate facilities for irrigation are essential. If an
underground sprinkler system is out of the question, hose
bibbs should be available at one hundred foot intervals so
that a revolving sprinkler on the end of a fifty-foot hose
will cover efficiently.
If your soil is not particularly fertile, it should be enriched
by plowing under a three-inch blanket of compost, rotted
manure, muck, peat or woods earth. Level your yard reason-
ably well and soak it with your lawn sprinkler.
There are many ways of setting grass. Possibly the
method that gives quickest results is to set 6- or 8-inch
square sods every foot or so, over the entire surface. If this
involves too much expensive labor and hauling, one may set
sprigs or runners and still have a perfect lawn by autumn.
Stretch a line lengthwise of the area to be planted and drop
sprigs, either rooted or unrooted, every 8 to 10 inches along
the line. Next, with a notched lath or broom-stick, thrust
the basal or rooted end of the grass well into the earth, then
use your planting stick to pack the soil firmly into the plant-
ing hole. You will soon learn to plant each shoot in two
quick thrusts. Next, move your line ten inches at each end
and plant another row.
Another favored way is to open a furrow with a garden
plow, drop cuttings or small sods into this trench and then
cover by turning the furrow back.
Be sure to soak the yard as soon as you have finished
planting and then let your sprinkler do the job every third
day that it does not rain.


Weeds and annual grasses will appear to compete with
your newly set lawn. Use a scuffle hoe or garden plow with
an eight-inch weed blade to work between the rows. Proba-
bly two weedings will be sufficient.
Mowing is most beneficial and as soon as your stand is
heavy enough, run over it with the mower. This will en-
courage the runners and, at the same time, it will help keep
the annual grasses in check.
Never rake the clippings from your lawn and, if you can
leave the oak leaves in place until they rot, your grass is
certain to benefit. It is good horticulture to allow as much
organic matter as possible to decay and return to the soil
and raking is to be discouraged. Untidy? Yes, for a short
while, but nothing but good can result from the practice.
Next autumn and before the rains start the second
summer, be certain that the lawn has sufficient moisture.
Remember that young grass is 90 per cent water. A balanced
commercial fertilizer should be applied at the end of the first
winter to prepare the grass for lush growth when warm
weather comes.
Good stimulants to use at the beginning of the second
rainy season are the well-known nitrogenous fertilizers-
sulphate of ammonia and nitrate of soda. The former is
usually given preference because it tends to leave an acid
reaction in the soil. Two or three pounds per 1,000 square
feet can be applied once every six weeks or so when an old
lawn seems to be in need of plant food. Your grass will
not be burned if you can put the chemical on just before a
rain, or if you will wash it in well with the hose.
Mole crickets are sometimes troublesome in certain sec-
tions. In a very short time the burrowings of these ravenous
insects can ruin a perfect lawn. When you first see the small
mole-like burrows make plans to apply a poison bran bait.
Mix 5 pounds of bran, 4 ounces of paris green, one pint of
molasses and water to make the bait crumble, but not enough
to make it bind into a doughy mass.
Spread the bait late in the afternoon and repeat when
you discover burrows. This bait will kill poultry and birds
so be certain the necessary precautions are observed.
Spiking, the driving of holes into areas that have become
hard-packed by traffic, is an approved practice. Use a special
spiking tool or improvise your own by driving some spikes
through a piece of two by ten, and then fasten an upright
handle to this. Such a home made implement can be entirely
satisfactory in making perforations in packed earth., If peat
is broadcast and watered into these spike holes, the grass will
be greatly benefitted.


Sometimes as a part of routine management, St. Augustine
turf is topdressed and golf greens of Bermuda are always so
treated in springtime. Builders' sand is sometimes used on
St. Augustine lawns, peat, muck or compost is employed
when turf has been badly worn down by many feet. Top-
dressing together with summer stimulation and all reno-
vation procedures should be completed shortly after the
summer rains begin.
Much has been written since the war about the new chem-
ical weed killers. The so-called hormone weed killer, 2-4D,
definitely will kill weeds when it is employed according to
directions. Don't forget that shrubbery will be killed by the
drift, so apply 2-4D only on still days. In Florida, centipede
grass growing in full sun was browned by 2-4D applied
exactly according to directions, but recovery was prompt.
Centipede grass is the most popular of all lawn grasses in
Florida. This tenacious, poor-land perennial is strictly a
starvation species, as it thrives on a maximum of water and
a minimum of plant food. Large irregular patches of yellow
are likely to appear in centipede lawns that are well fed and
well watered. This is a nutritional trouble caused by the
lack of iron and may be corrected by spraying the yellow
patches with copperas. This material (ferrous sulphate to
your druggist) should be stirred into a watering can at the
rate of one teaspoon to two gallons of water. These two
gallons will cover about five square feet, possibly. One
application should be enough each season.
There is a most alarming tendency for centipede grass to
die out in irregular patches in lawns that have been par-
ticularly well fed for a few years. This apparently is different

A good lawn is indispensable as a setting for the home.


from the iron chlorosis noted above and plant pathologists
are not positive as to the cause and cure. They recommend,
however, that the dead grass be dug out, the soil treated with
a sterilizing agent, dug very deeply, and replanted.
If centipede lawns be fed rather less than the usual recom-
mendations little trouble will be experienced. Over-anxious
home makers who treat their lawns the best are first to
experience this dread dying out condition.
Perhaps Florida's most beautiful lawns are those of St.
Augustine grass. When properly managed, this lush, broad-
leaved evergreen species is difficult to surpass. This lover of
shade and moist, fertile soil graces many of the South's most
beautiful homes.
During hot dry weather chinch bugs cause much trouble.
The so-called bitter blue stemmed strain is not immune to
these insects, but perhaps it recovers from their ravages more
quickly. A nicotine dust or spray must be used as soon as
the first yellowing blades indicate the presence of these
tiny black and white insects.
Bermuda is the third lawn grass that is of major im-
portance in Florida. Contrary to popular opinion, this
species requires a fairly fertile soil and behaves well only
when it is grown in full sun, well fed and heavily watered.
The many excellent golf greens all over our state demon-
strate beyond question that this fine grass is capable of
forming a perfect turf.

This grass will form a perfect turf with good care.


Because flower heads are produced all spring and sum-
mer, it is necessary to mow Bermuda more frequently than
any other lawn grass. Set the mower so that it will cut low
and use it at least once each week during growing weather.
In this way your lawn will not mow brown as it is bound to
do if you wait several weeks between cuttings. It is true that
this grass requires more mowing and edging than the others
but, at the same time, it does not suffer at the hands of
insects nor is it subject to diseases or nutritional difficulties.
A native species of great merit for large informal lawns,
is carpet grass. Revelling in broken shade and a moist and
fertile soil, this indigene requires less attention than any
other ground cover. One feeding in the spring and one or
two mid-summer mowings to prevent the appearance of the
tall, three-parted flower spikes, should be sufficient to
maintain a carpet grass lawn.
During recent years Zoysia has come into some promi-
nence as a lawn grass for the Deep South. This attractive
narrow-leaved running grass resembles Bermuda and the
same management should mean success for this evergreen
species from the East Indies. No doubt Zoysia will be plant-
ed much more widely as stock becomes available, but its
tendency to die out, leaving large patches of brown is very
discouraging. As this is written, we have no recommenda-
tion for preventing this condition.
Italian rye grass is widely used to make a bright green
lawn during the winter months. The seeds may be sown
during the first cool days in autumn. A great deal of water
is required and rye grass will be presentable only when it is
fed frequently; possibly once each winter month. Set the
mower so that it cuts very low and trim your rye grass at
least once every ten days to keep it tidy and prevent seeding.
Dichondra is a native, round-leafed herb that seldom ex-
ceeds an inch or so in height. Many lawns support this
creeping perennial as a weed, but in tourist sections it is in
favor as a lawn-making material. Dichondra may be grown
in all sections and may be tramped upon and mowed without
injury. Alternaria leaf spot is a disease that attacks this
perennial at times and may become very serious. Little is
known about its life history and control.
Ophiopogon and Liriope are members of the lily family
that are top-flight groundcovers for densely shaded spots.
Under evergreen trees, between buildings, for shady plant-
ing strips, either of these tenacious perennials will serve
well. They should not be mowed nor should they be
employed if there is an appreciable amount of traffic.


S.d' -%

The Bougainvillaea, Podocarpus and Eugenia combine to make
a beautiful portal planting.




The following pages with illustrations show plantings for
different types of houses.
Plants have been selected to harmonize with the size and
architecture of the house. Substitutions may be made of
course, as these sketches are simply suggestions.
Careful attention must be given to proper fertilization,
pruning, watering and possible renovation after several
years' growth.
Good effects are not obtainable unless the plants are
robust, and thrifty in growth with abundant foliage.

Suggested Plantings for Different Sections of Florida

1 Primrose Jasmine or

1 Boxthorn or Plumbago

1 Jasminum gracile or Thryallis glauca



Suggested Plantings for Different Sections of Florida

1 Pittosporum
2 Wax Privet
3 Primrose Jasmine or
Bridal Wreath

1 Pittosporum
2 Hibiscus
3 Jasminum gracile
or Plumbago

1 Natal plum
2 Pitanga
3 Limeberry


Suggested Plantings for Different Sections of Florida

Climbing Roses or
Creeping Fig
Azaleas or Abelia

1 Flame Vine
2 Plumbago or
Snow Bush

1 Bougainvillaea Crimson Lake
2 Crotons, assorted varieties


D --


Suggested Plantings for Different Sections of Florida

1 Spanish Bayonet
2 Azalea
3 Sheared Yaupon
4 Century Plant
5 Camellia

1 Spanish Bayonet
2 Crotons
3 Podocarpus (Sheared)
4 Century Plant
5 Ixora

Spanish Bayonet
Australian Pine (Sheared)
Century Plant

4011 1 D
4^ r7



Suggested Plantings for Different Sections of Florida

1 Wax Privet
2 Abelia
3 Cabbage palm

1 Hibiscus
2 Star Jasmine
3 Queen Palm

1 Natal Plum
2 Jasminum gracile
3 Royal Palm



Suggested Plantings for Different Sections of Florida

1 Climbing Rose
2 Hydrangea
3 Bridal Wreath
4 Zamia
5 Rhapis Palm
6 Primrose Jasmine

Bougainvillaea (Crimson Lake)
Fishtail Palm

Bougainvillaea (Crimson Lake)
Royal Palm
Jasminum gracile


Suggested Plantings for Different Sections of Florida

Viburnum suspensum
Cherry Laurel

1 Golden Dew Drop
2 Star Jasmine
3 Podocarpus

1 Hibiscus
2 Limeberry
3 Eugenia


Suggested Plantings for Different Sections of Florida

1 Primrose Jasmine
2 Abelia
3 Azalea
4 Pindo Palm

1 Star Jasmine
2 Wax Privet
3 Allamanda
4 Queen Palm

Natal Plum
Orange Jasmine
Copperleaf or Eugenia
Coconut Palm


Suggested Plantings for Different Sections of Florida

1 Climbing Roses or Wisteria
2 Azalea
3 Abelia
4 Yaupon (Sheared)

1 Confederate Jasmine
2 Pittosporum
3 Plumbago
4 Eugenia (Sheared)

1 Bougainvillaea (Crimson Lake)
2 Hibiscus
3 Croton
4 Casuarina (Sheared)


^ -saw-.

Suggested Plantings for Different Sections of Florida

1 Japanese Juniper (Sheared)
2 Carolina Jasmine or Wisteria
3 Abelia or Nandina
4 Azalea
5 Cherry Laurel
6 Camellia

Cajeput (Sheared)
Climbing Rose
Primrose Jasmine
Golden Dew Drop

Natal Plum
Pigmy Date Palm



Suggested Plantings for Different Sections of Florida

1 Podocarpus
2 Pfitzer's Juniper
3 Confederate Jasmine or
Climbing Rose
Washington Palms

Silver Thorn
Rangoon Creeper
Queen Palms

.1 Aralia
2 Croton
3 Bougainvillaea
Coconut Palms

-: C =I r >>


Suggested Plantings for Different Sections of Florida

1 Primrose Jasmine
2 Abelia
3 Adam's Needle
4 Century Plant
5 Spanish Bayonet

1 Star Jasmine
2 Tecomaria
3 Coontie
4 Century Plant
5 Spanish Bayonet

1 Copperleaf
2 Euphorbia or Sansevieria
3 Wedelia
4 Century Plant
5 Spanish Bayonet


Suggested Plantings for Different Sections of Florida

1 Cherry Laurel
2 Virburnum suspensum
3 Bridal Wreath
4 Abelia
Creeping Fig on wall
and house

1 Hibiscus
2 Azalea
3 Cocculus
4 Lantana
Climbing Fig on wall
and house

1 Aralia
2 Croton
3 Limeberry
4 Tecomaria



Suggested Plantings for Different Sections of Florida

1 Abelia
2 Pindo Palm
3 Native Pine
4 Bed of Annuals or Roses

1 Snow Bush or Plumbago
with Ficus repens on house
2 Queen Palm
3 Native Pine with Allamanda
4 Bed of Annuals or Roses

1 Mixture of Crotons, or Hibiscus
2 Royal Palm
3 Coconut Palm with Hibiscus
4 Bed of Annuals


Suggested Plantings for Different Sections of Florida

1 Rhapis Palm
2 Cabbage Palm
3 Nandina
4 Carolina Jasmine

1 Queen Palm
2 Pigmy Date Palm
3 Natal Plum
4 Bougainvillaea


1 Coconut Palm
2 Pigmy Date Palm
3 Limeberry
4 Bougainvillaea


Suggested Plantings for Different Sections of Florida

1 Azalea, pink
2 Azalea, white
3 Azalea, pink
4 Wax Privet
5 Pittosporum
6 Camellia
7 Podocarpus
8 Pindo Palm
9 Cedrus deodara

1 Plumbago
2 Plumbago
3 Thryallis
4 Wax Privet

Golden Dew Drop
Queen Palm
Fishtail Palm
Acrocromia Palm

Wax Privet
Copper Leaf
Golden Dew Drop
Pigmy Date Palm
Coconut Palm
Sentinel Palm
Senegal Date Palm

@ 0


Suggested Plantings for Different Sections of Florida

1 Virburnum suspensum
2 Bridal Wreath or Abelia

1 Hibiscus or Boxthorn
2 Plumbago or Thryallis


1 Natal Plum
2 Croton




Abelia -
Acacia -
Acrocomia ----
Algerian ivy -
Allamanda -
Annatto- -
Aralia - -
Areca palm -
Azalea -
Blackburn palm -
'Black olive- - -
Blue bells -----
Bo tree - -
Bougainvillaea- -
Boxthorn - -
Brazilian pepper - -
Bridal wreath- -
Bush cherry -
Cabbage palm- -
Cacti- - -
Cajeput - -
Calamondin- -
Camellia - -
Camphor -
Canary date palm -
Cape-honeysuckle -
Carolina yellow jasmine-
Cassia - -
Casuarina -
Cat's claw vine -
Chaste tree- -
Cherry laurel - -
Chinese fan palm- -
Citrus - -
Chinese holly - -
Cocculus- -
Coconut- - -
Confederate jasmine- -
Copperleaf- -
Crape myrtle -
Crape myrtle, Queen's -
Creeping fig -
Croton - -
Cultivation, trees- -
Date palm -
Dogwood - -
Eugenia- - -
European fan palm -
Fan palms -
Feeding trees - -
Feijoa - -
Ficus- ---- --
Fiji fan palm - -
Firethorn - -
Fishtail palm - -

- 43
- 29
- 43
- 33
- 10
- 68
- 21
- 68
- 46
- 47
- 52
- 29
- 68
- 10
- 13
- 47
- 10
- 29
- 50
- 69
- 12
- 12
- 69
- 69
- 13
- 51
- 30
- 13
- 56
- 52
- 30
- 69
- 52
- 13
- 13
- 69
- 52
- 4
- 30
- 30

Flame vine- -
Flowering jasmine -
Frangipani - -
Fringe tree- -
Foundation plants
illustrated - -
Gardenia - -
Geiger tree- -
Glossy privet -
Golden dewdrop -
Gum ------
Gumbo-limbo -
Hibiscus -----
Holly - -
Hunter's robe - -
Hydrangea - -
Ilex - - -
Ixora ----
Jacaranda - -
Japanese holly- -
Japanese juniper -
Jasmine- - -
Jerusalem thorn -
Juniper - ---
Kumquat- ---
Lantana --
Lily-thorn - -
Limeberry - -
Lipstick tree -
Live oak-----
Loquat - - -
Magnolia -
Mahogany - -
Mimosa - - -
Mountain ebony -
Moreton Bay Chestnut
Mulching - -
Nandina - -
Natal plum- -
Oak - - -
Oleander - -
Orange - - -
Orange jasmine -
Orchid tree-- -
Palms- - - -
Paurotis ---
Pfitzer's juniper -
Pigmy date -
Pindo palm- -
Pine - - -
Plumbago -
Poinsettia -
Pongam - - -

-- 69
-- 56
-- 14
-- 14

-- 53
-- 14
-- 62
-- 54
-- 21
-- 14
-- 54
-- 14
-- 70
-- 54
-- 54
-- 56
-- 15
-- 54
- 56
- 56
- 15
- 56
- 13
- 56
- 73
- 15
- 57
- 18
- 15
-- 16
- 16
- 17
- 18
- -17
- 39
- 57
- 57
- 18
- 58
- 13
- 58
- 18
- 25
- 31
- 56
- 31
- 31
- 18
- 59
- 60
- 61
- 62
- 19



Puerto Rican Hat palm - 33
Privet - 62
Propagation of palms - 27
Pruning shrubs - 40, 41
Pruning trees - 4
Queen palm - 32
Queen's wreath - 70
Rangoon creeper - - 70
Redbud - - 19
Rhapis palms -- - 32
Rose - - -70
Royal palm- - 33
Royal Poinciana - 20
Rubber tree - 21
Sabal palm- - 33
Sapodilla - 22
Satinleaf- - 22
Seagrape- - 22
Senegal date palm 33
Sentinel palm - 33
Senna- - - - 12

Shore juniper- - - 56
Shrubs for home planting 34
Silver palm - - 33
Silverthorn- - - 63
Snow bush- - - 63
Spraying- - - - 7
Star jasmine - - 56
Stephanotis- - - 70
Sweet-gum - - - 21
Tamarind - - - 22
Thryallis- - - - 63
Transplanting palms- - 25
Traveler's-tree - - 20
Turk's cap - - - 63
Viburnum -- - 63
Vines- --- - 67-72
Washington palm-- - 33
Wax myrtle - - 64
Wax privet- - - 62
Weeping lantana- -- 57
Winter creeper- - - 71



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