Poultry Husbandry Florida Agricultural
Mimeograph Report No, 60-3 Experiment Station
August 1, 960
PRESERVING E-GS BY FREEZING
Fred R. Tarver, Jr. j C
Assistant Poultry Husbandman
University of Florida
Agricultural Experiment Stations Lis
Freezing is considered one of the best methods of preserving egg whites,
egg yolks, or a mixture of the two. Frozen egg products possess a great deal
of uniformity that is desired by food manufacturers, such as makers of ice
cream, bakeries and confectioners. The very process of freezing inhibits
the growth of bacteria, maintains a desirable flavor, and in many instances,
improves the functional properties of the eggs. Many food manufacturers and
eating establishments prefer frozen egg products because there is less labor
and egg losses as compared with handling shell eggs. The handling of individual
shell eggs is eliminated and a substantial percent of egg white is no longer
thrown away with the shells. Frozen eggs may be held at 00 F. for 4 to 6
months without any loss in quality.
What kind of shell eggs are recommended for a frozen egg product?
In the early days of the frozen egg business, eggs which were considered
unfit for normal shell egg channels of trade were diverted into egg breaking
plants for freezing or drying purposes. Such eggs consisted of dirties,
cracks, thin shells, weak membranes or undersized eggs. The use of such eggs,
particularly those of dirties and cracks, hindered the early growth of the
frozen egg industry and the resulting product was looked upon with a great
deal of skepticism by the users. But since these early days, the frozen egg
business is now a very reputable business because of the selective ability of
management in procuring the shell eggs used in their frozen egg products.
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On the farm, newly laid shell eggs that are cracked, checked or extremely large
or small can be salvaged for freezing. Eggs so selected should be cleaned of
all dirt, thus removing harmful bacteria since the fluid portions of shell eggs
are a very good media for their growth. Prior to breaking, all eggs should be
held under proper refrigeration (550 F.) to inhibit the growth of such bacteria.
What yield can I expect from shell eggs?
Generally speaking, the egg is composed of three major parts, namely,
the shell, white and yolk. The shell composes approximately 10 percent of the
egg, the white 60 percent, and the yolk 30 percent. These values can be applied
to any size egg. It might be well to remember that during the breaking operation
approximately 3 percent of the total egg weight will be lost in the form of egg
white adhering to the egg shell. The calculated yields based on the minimum
net weights of the various weight classifications are shown in Table I.
The Calculated Ilnimum Weight Yields of Shell Egg
Components for Each Shell Egg Weight Classification
egg white Egg Yolk
Ut. per yield in Yield in
b. per Wt. per 30 dozen Ibs. per lbs. per
gg in dozen in case in 30 dozen 30 dozen
inces ounces lbs. case case
1.25 15 28 3.6 8.4
1.50 18 34 4.4 10.2
L.75 21 39.5 5.1 11.9
2.00 24 45.o 5.8 13.5
'.25 27 50.5 6.6 15.2
If you wish to obtain the yields on
multiply their respective weights in each
a per egg or a
of the several
per dozen basis, simply
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by each of the following percent yields: shell and adhering egg white, 13 percent;
egg white, 57 percent; and egg yolk, 30 percent.
Will eggs as they are removed from the shell be suitable for freezing?
The physical structure of whole broken-out eggs must be altered to insure
a fluid and homogeneous mixture. As was previously mentioned, shell eggs should
be of high quality. Once this has been ascertained, the actual process of pre-
paring shell eggs for freezing can commence. The equipment used during the pro-
cess must be kept very clean at all times and so constructed that the possibility
of egg materials drying and building up is completely eliminated. As each shell
egg is broken, the contents of the shell are poured into a cup that will hold
approximately 4 broken-out eggs. After each egg shell and cup of eggs have been
smelled for the absence or presence of off-odors, the shells should be discarded.
The cup of broken-out eggs should be further checked for existing abnormalities.
By the word abnormalities, we mean addled yolks and coagulated yolk material
diffused throughout the white, blood diffused throughout the white or other
extraneous material that might be contained within the egg. Small blood and
meat spots can be removed from the egg without injury to the frozen egg product.
After completing these observations, the cup of broken-out eggs is poured into
a larger container for mixing. The container of eggs should be thoroughly
mixed with a home type mixer until the material is fluid and homogeneous. The
broken-out eggs should be mixed slowly to prevent the formation of air bubbles.
This is important because air is a good carrier of bacteria, thus will con-
taminate the product. Up to this point, care should have been exercised to
prevent any foreign materials from dropping into the mixed eggs, such as
chipped or broken shells. If any such materials are present, they should be
completely and carefully removed by straining. To freeze egg whites and yolks
separately, the only exception to the previously mentioned procedure is that of
separating the egg white from the egg yolk.
Is it necessary to add any type of edible materials to the mixed eggs
prior to freezing?
In some commercial egg breaking and freezing plants, the mechanical
equipment employed thoroughly homogeneates liquid eggs, thus eliminating the
addition of edible materials. However, it is generally accepted that certain
edible additives should be incorporated in these products to assure a liquid
and homogeneous mixture upon thawing. Some edible materials used for this
purpose include salt, sugar, syrup, honey or glycerin. Any one of the first
four ingredients can be used for home freezing of eggs since they are most
readily available. Table II shows the suggested amounts of edible additives
for different size containers of broken-out eggs. The suggested amounts are
expressed in several units of measure for convenience.
Approximate Amounts of Salt, Sugar, Syrup or Honey for Use
in Broken-Out Whole Eggs or Egg Yolks Prior to Freezing
Suggested Amount of Edible Additives Necessary for
Level Different Volumes of Broken-Out WJhole Eggs
Additives Percent Cup Quart Gallon
Salt 3.8 1 tsp. 8 tsp. 1/3 cup
1/6 oz. 1-1/3 oz. 5-1/3 oz.
5 gms. 38 gms. 150 gms.
.7 1 tsp. 2 tsp. 8 tsp.
1/6 oz. 1/3 oz. 1 oz.
1 gm. 8 gms. 30 gms.
Granulated 21 2 tbs. 1 cup h cups
white sugar, 1 oz. 8 oz. 32 oz.
syrup or 28 gms. 224 gms. 896 gms.
honey 10 1 ths. 1/2 cup 2 cups
1/2 oz. 4 oz. 15 oz.
11 grs. 113 gms. 431 gms.
Either one of the approximate percent levels of salt or sugar may be used
for the home freezing of broken-out whole eggs or egg yolks. The levels of .7
and 10 percent of either salt or sugar are normally used in commercial frozen
whole eggs and yolks. In any case, these edible additives should be added to
liquid eggs in the proper amount and thoroughly mixed. Either of these levels
will assure a uniform and homogeneous liquid mixture when the frozen product
has been thawed. If the proper amounts and/or thorough mixing is neglected,
the frozen egg product will be lumpy and undesirable to the user of the product.
The egg white does not require the addition of salt or sugar because it
will retain its fluid and homogeneous condition after thawing. However, do not
neglect thorough mixing of egg whites prior to freezing.
How many broken-out eggs of the various weight classifications will
various containers hold? How much will the filled container weigh?
A cup of whole eggs will weigh 9 ounces. A quart of whole eggs will
weigh 2.25 pounds. A gallon of whole eggs will weigh 9 pounds. The number of
whole eggs each container will hold for each of the weight classifications
when the weight of whole broken-out eggs per container is held constant is
shown in Table III.
The Number of Broken-Out Whole Eggs Per Cup,
Quart and Gallon of Each Weight Classification
No. of No. of No. of
whole broken whole broken whole broke
Wt. Classi- out eggs out eggs out eggs
fications per cup per quart per gallon
Pee Wee 8 32 128
Small 7 28 112
Medium 6 24 96
Large 5 20 80
Extra Large 4 16 64
The number of eggs placed in each container represent the minimum of
each egg weight classification.
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Does the additive determine the use of frozen egg products?
Yes! Salted yolks or salted whole eggs are readily adaptable for use
in bakeries for breads and other recipes which require or call for salt.
Sugared yolks or sugared whole eggs lend themselves to recipes calling for
sugar. It would be desirable to determine the use of the frozen egg product
prior to blending in the edible additives. This will make sales work and the
movement of such a product easier.
What kind of container would be best suited for a frozen egg product?
First of all, contact the prospective buyer of the frozen egg product as
to what type and size container would be most conveniently used in his business.
Many buyers of frozen egg products complain about the inconvenience of frozen
egg packs because they are bulky and heavy; not to mention the possibilities
of spoilage or waste. The most frequently used container is that of the 30
pound tin. Bakeries, restaurants and similar type establishments may not pre-
fer this large type container. A five or ten pound container may be of greater
convenience. This size container will allow the buyer to use the entire con-
tents. In addition, this smaller container is easily handled. Various paper
companies distribute several different types of containers, such as enameled
metal cans, wax coated cardboard tubs or cups with lids, and plastic tubs or
cups with lids. These may be obtained in several sizes. At the University of
Florida Poultry Department a 10 pound wax coated cardboard squat tub with a
snap-in lid is used. This tub h.s been most satisfactory. The contents of this
tub freezes within 10-12 hours at a temperature maintained at 00 F. The pre-
pared liquid egg mixture should be frozen as quickly as possible to prevent
spoilage. Approximately 2 inches of space should remain between the lid and
the surface of the liquid eggs after filling the container. During the time
required for freezing, the egg product will expand into the provided space
without pushing off the lid.
What designations should appear on the container?
In most cases, designations can be easily placed on the lid or on the
side of the container. Information should include the date, type frozen
egg product, whether it is whole eggs, egg yolks or egg whites, edible addi-
tive used, the net weight, and name and address. All necessary information
should appear on each container.
Are there rules and regulations which control the manufacture and sale
of a frozen egg product?
The Florida Egg Law, fourth edition dated July 1, 1957, contains rules
and regulations governing the sale of frozen egg products. Familiarization
with these rules and regulations will prevent any unwillful violations.
Questions concerning the Florida Egg Law, with respect to the frozen egg
products, should be directed to the area egg inspector or by writing to
Thomas J. ilIullin, Director of Florida Egg Inspection Division, Tallahassee,
Florida. The Florida Food, Drug and Cosmetic Law and the Public Health
authorities also govern the manufacture and type facilities used in the pre-
paration of frozen egg products.
I would not want to close without re-emphasizing the point of sanitation
in preparing a frozen egg product. Sanitation means cleanliness, and this
refers to the individual who is directly engaged in preparing the product,
the equipment, utensils, and the building in which eggs are broken. The
importance of fast freezing and keeping the product in a solid form until it
is ready for use cannot be overemphasized. The invisible agents, referred to
as bacteria, are vigorous creatures, so don't worry about using too much
elbow grease along with the proper cleansing agent. They cannot read so are
not concerned about bottles or packages of sanitizing compounds that bear
labels identifying the products as hypochlorite or quaternary ammonium compounds.
Use generously the various cleaning agents at recommended strengths. It has
been said that "ten bacteria can walk side by side between the piston and the
In summarizing the preservation of broken-out eggs by freezing,
1) Use newly laid, high quality, clean, refrigerated eggs,
2) Obtain a high yield of liquid egg material from the shell eggs,
3) Blend the liquid egg material thoroughly but carefully to avoid
excessive air bubbles,
4) Thoroughly mix into the liquid eggs the selected edible additive
to assure a uniform and smooth liquid upon thawing,
5) Select a convenient size and durable container that will permit
rapid freezing of the egg product,
6) Include all necessary information on each container,
7) Direct the frozen egg product into a developed or planned outlet,
8) Become familiar with all existing rules and regulations that
pertain to the preparation of frozen egg products, and
9) Last and most important, DO NOT NEDLECT SANITATICN in any of the
necessary steps involved in preparing a frozen egg product.