Group Title: Poutry husbandry mimeograph report
Title: Preserving eggs by freezing
Full Citation
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 Material Information
Title: Preserving eggs by freezing
Series Title: Poutry husbandry mimeograph report - University of Florida ; 60-3
Physical Description: 8 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Tarver, Fred R. Jr. ( Fred Russell )
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Donor: unknown ( endowment )
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: August 15, 1960
Copyright Date: 1960
Subject: Eggs -- Preservation -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: by Fred R. Tarver, Jr.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "August 15, 1960."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00094219
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 320269360

Full Text

Poultry Husbandry Florida Agricultural
Mimeograph Report No, 60-3 Experiment Station
Gainesville, Florida
August 1, 960

by I-
Fred R. Tarver, Jr. j C
Assistant Poultry Husbandman
University of Florida
Agricultural Experiment Stations Lis
Gainesville, Florida

Freezing is considered one of the best methods of preserving egg whites,

egg yolks, or a mixture of the two. Frozen egg products possess a great deal

of uniformity that is desired by food manufacturers, such as makers of ice

cream, bakeries and confectioners. The very process of freezing inhibits

the growth of bacteria, maintains a desirable flavor, and in many instances,

improves the functional properties of the eggs. Many food manufacturers and

eating establishments prefer frozen egg products because there is less labor

and egg losses as compared with handling shell eggs. The handling of individual

shell eggs is eliminated and a substantial percent of egg white is no longer

thrown away with the shells. Frozen eggs may be held at 00 F. for 4 to 6

months without any loss in quality.

What kind of shell eggs are recommended for a frozen egg product?

In the early days of the frozen egg business, eggs which were considered

unfit for normal shell egg channels of trade were diverted into egg breaking

plants for freezing or drying purposes. Such eggs consisted of dirties,

cracks, thin shells, weak membranes or undersized eggs. The use of such eggs,

particularly those of dirties and cracks, hindered the early growth of the

frozen egg industry and the resulting product was looked upon with a great

deal of skepticism by the users. But since these early days, the frozen egg

business is now a very reputable business because of the selective ability of

management in procuring the shell eggs used in their frozen egg products.

- 2 -

On the farm, newly laid shell eggs that are cracked, checked or extremely large

or small can be salvaged for freezing. Eggs so selected should be cleaned of

all dirt, thus removing harmful bacteria since the fluid portions of shell eggs

are a very good media for their growth. Prior to breaking, all eggs should be

held under proper refrigeration (550 F.) to inhibit the growth of such bacteria.

What yield can I expect from shell eggs?

Generally speaking, the egg is composed of three major parts, namely,

the shell, white and yolk. The shell composes approximately 10 percent of the

egg, the white 60 percent, and the yolk 30 percent. These values can be applied

to any size egg. It might be well to remember that during the breaking operation

approximately 3 percent of the total egg weight will be lost in the form of egg

white adhering to the egg shell. The calculated yields based on the minimum

net weights of the various weight classifications are shown in Table I.

Egg Wt.
Pee Wee




Extra Ig.




The Calculated Ilnimum Weight Yields of Shell Egg
Components for Each Shell Egg Weight Classification
Egg Shell
and adhering
egg white Egg Yolk
Ut. per yield in Yield in
b. per Wt. per 30 dozen Ibs. per lbs. per
gg in dozen in case in 30 dozen 30 dozen
inces ounces lbs. case case
1.25 15 28 3.6 8.4

1.50 18 34 4.4 10.2

L.75 21 39.5 5.1 11.9

2.00 24 45.o 5.8 13.5

'.25 27 50.5 6.6 15.2

Egg White
Yield in
lbs. per
30 dozen


19 .




If you wish to obtain the yields on

multiply their respective weights in each

a per egg or a

of the several

per dozen basis, simply

weight classifications


- 3 -

by each of the following percent yields: shell and adhering egg white, 13 percent;

egg white, 57 percent; and egg yolk, 30 percent.

Will eggs as they are removed from the shell be suitable for freezing?

The physical structure of whole broken-out eggs must be altered to insure

a fluid and homogeneous mixture. As was previously mentioned, shell eggs should

be of high quality. Once this has been ascertained, the actual process of pre-

paring shell eggs for freezing can commence. The equipment used during the pro-

cess must be kept very clean at all times and so constructed that the possibility

of egg materials drying and building up is completely eliminated. As each shell

egg is broken, the contents of the shell are poured into a cup that will hold

approximately 4 broken-out eggs. After each egg shell and cup of eggs have been

smelled for the absence or presence of off-odors, the shells should be discarded.

The cup of broken-out eggs should be further checked for existing abnormalities.

By the word abnormalities, we mean addled yolks and coagulated yolk material

diffused throughout the white, blood diffused throughout the white or other

extraneous material that might be contained within the egg. Small blood and

meat spots can be removed from the egg without injury to the frozen egg product.

After completing these observations, the cup of broken-out eggs is poured into

a larger container for mixing. The container of eggs should be thoroughly

mixed with a home type mixer until the material is fluid and homogeneous. The

broken-out eggs should be mixed slowly to prevent the formation of air bubbles.

This is important because air is a good carrier of bacteria, thus will con-

taminate the product. Up to this point, care should have been exercised to

prevent any foreign materials from dropping into the mixed eggs, such as

chipped or broken shells. If any such materials are present, they should be

completely and carefully removed by straining. To freeze egg whites and yolks

separately, the only exception to the previously mentioned procedure is that of

separating the egg white from the egg yolk.

-4 -

Is it necessary to add any type of edible materials to the mixed eggs

prior to freezing?

In some commercial egg breaking and freezing plants, the mechanical

equipment employed thoroughly homogeneates liquid eggs, thus eliminating the

addition of edible materials. However, it is generally accepted that certain

edible additives should be incorporated in these products to assure a liquid

and homogeneous mixture upon thawing. Some edible materials used for this

purpose include salt, sugar, syrup, honey or glycerin. Any one of the first

four ingredients can be used for home freezing of eggs since they are most

readily available. Table II shows the suggested amounts of edible additives

for different size containers of broken-out eggs. The suggested amounts are

expressed in several units of measure for convenience.

Approximate Amounts of Salt, Sugar, Syrup or Honey for Use
in Broken-Out Whole Eggs or Egg Yolks Prior to Freezing
Suggested Amount of Edible Additives Necessary for
Level Different Volumes of Broken-Out WJhole Eggs
Additives Percent Cup Quart Gallon
Salt 3.8 1 tsp. 8 tsp. 1/3 cup
1/6 oz. 1-1/3 oz. 5-1/3 oz.
5 gms. 38 gms. 150 gms.
.7 1 tsp. 2 tsp. 8 tsp.
1/6 oz. 1/3 oz. 1 oz.
1 gm. 8 gms. 30 gms.

Granulated 21 2 tbs. 1 cup h cups
white sugar, 1 oz. 8 oz. 32 oz.
syrup or 28 gms. 224 gms. 896 gms.
honey 10 1 ths. 1/2 cup 2 cups
1/2 oz. 4 oz. 15 oz.
11 grs. 113 gms. 431 gms.

Either one of the approximate percent levels of salt or sugar may be used

for the home freezing of broken-out whole eggs or egg yolks. The levels of .7

and 10 percent of either salt or sugar are normally used in commercial frozen

-5 -

whole eggs and yolks. In any case, these edible additives should be added to

liquid eggs in the proper amount and thoroughly mixed. Either of these levels

will assure a uniform and homogeneous liquid mixture when the frozen product

has been thawed. If the proper amounts and/or thorough mixing is neglected,

the frozen egg product will be lumpy and undesirable to the user of the product.

The egg white does not require the addition of salt or sugar because it

will retain its fluid and homogeneous condition after thawing. However, do not

neglect thorough mixing of egg whites prior to freezing.

How many broken-out eggs of the various weight classifications will

various containers hold? How much will the filled container weigh?

A cup of whole eggs will weigh 9 ounces. A quart of whole eggs will

weigh 2.25 pounds. A gallon of whole eggs will weigh 9 pounds. The number of

whole eggs each container will hold for each of the weight classifications

when the weight of whole broken-out eggs per container is held constant is

shown in Table III.

The Number of Broken-Out Whole Eggs Per Cup,
Quart and Gallon of Each Weight Classification
No. of No. of No. of
whole broken whole broken whole broke
Wt. Classi- out eggs out eggs out eggs
fications per cup per quart per gallon

Pee Wee 8 32 128

Small 7 28 112

Medium 6 24 96

Large 5 20 80

Extra Large 4 16 64


The number of eggs placed in each container represent the minimum of

each egg weight classification.

- 6 -

Does the additive determine the use of frozen egg products?

Yes! Salted yolks or salted whole eggs are readily adaptable for use

in bakeries for breads and other recipes which require or call for salt.

Sugared yolks or sugared whole eggs lend themselves to recipes calling for

sugar. It would be desirable to determine the use of the frozen egg product

prior to blending in the edible additives. This will make sales work and the

movement of such a product easier.

What kind of container would be best suited for a frozen egg product?

First of all, contact the prospective buyer of the frozen egg product as

to what type and size container would be most conveniently used in his business.

Many buyers of frozen egg products complain about the inconvenience of frozen

egg packs because they are bulky and heavy; not to mention the possibilities

of spoilage or waste. The most frequently used container is that of the 30

pound tin. Bakeries, restaurants and similar type establishments may not pre-

fer this large type container. A five or ten pound container may be of greater

convenience. This size container will allow the buyer to use the entire con-

tents. In addition, this smaller container is easily handled. Various paper

companies distribute several different types of containers, such as enameled

metal cans, wax coated cardboard tubs or cups with lids, and plastic tubs or

cups with lids. These may be obtained in several sizes. At the University of

Florida Poultry Department a 10 pound wax coated cardboard squat tub with a

snap-in lid is used. This tub h.s been most satisfactory. The contents of this

tub freezes within 10-12 hours at a temperature maintained at 00 F. The pre-

pared liquid egg mixture should be frozen as quickly as possible to prevent

spoilage. Approximately 2 inches of space should remain between the lid and

the surface of the liquid eggs after filling the container. During the time

required for freezing, the egg product will expand into the provided space

without pushing off the lid.


What designations should appear on the container?

In most cases, designations can be easily placed on the lid or on the

side of the container. Information should include the date, type frozen

egg product, whether it is whole eggs, egg yolks or egg whites, edible addi-

tive used, the net weight, and name and address. All necessary information

should appear on each container.

Are there rules and regulations which control the manufacture and sale

of a frozen egg product?

The Florida Egg Law, fourth edition dated July 1, 1957, contains rules

and regulations governing the sale of frozen egg products. Familiarization

with these rules and regulations will prevent any unwillful violations.

Questions concerning the Florida Egg Law, with respect to the frozen egg

products, should be directed to the area egg inspector or by writing to

Thomas J. ilIullin, Director of Florida Egg Inspection Division, Tallahassee,

Florida. The Florida Food, Drug and Cosmetic Law and the Public Health

authorities also govern the manufacture and type facilities used in the pre-

paration of frozen egg products.

I would not want to close without re-emphasizing the point of sanitation

in preparing a frozen egg product. Sanitation means cleanliness, and this

refers to the individual who is directly engaged in preparing the product,

the equipment, utensils, and the building in which eggs are broken. The

importance of fast freezing and keeping the product in a solid form until it

is ready for use cannot be overemphasized. The invisible agents, referred to

as bacteria, are vigorous creatures, so don't worry about using too much

elbow grease along with the proper cleansing agent. They cannot read so are

not concerned about bottles or packages of sanitizing compounds that bear

labels identifying the products as hypochlorite or quaternary ammonium compounds.

Use generously the various cleaning agents at recommended strengths. It has


been said that "ten bacteria can walk side by side between the piston and the

piston chamber"

In summarizing the preservation of broken-out eggs by freezing,

1) Use newly laid, high quality, clean, refrigerated eggs,

2) Obtain a high yield of liquid egg material from the shell eggs,

3) Blend the liquid egg material thoroughly but carefully to avoid

excessive air bubbles,

4) Thoroughly mix into the liquid eggs the selected edible additive

to assure a uniform and smooth liquid upon thawing,

5) Select a convenient size and durable container that will permit

rapid freezing of the egg product,

6) Include all necessary information on each container,

7) Direct the frozen egg product into a developed or planned outlet,

8) Become familiar with all existing rules and regulations that

pertain to the preparation of frozen egg products, and

9) Last and most important, DO NOT NEDLECT SANITATICN in any of the

necessary steps involved in preparing a frozen egg product.

500 copies

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