Group Title: Veterinary Science mimeo series
Title: Internal parasites of cattle, sheep and goats
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 Material Information
Title: Internal parasites of cattle, sheep and goats
Alternate Title: Veterinary Science mimeo series - University of Florida ; 59-4
Physical Description: 10 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Swanson, Leonard E., b. 1898
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Donor: unknown ( endowment )
Publisher: University of Florida, Agricultural Experiment Stations
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: August, 1957
Copyright Date: 1957
Subject: Cattle -- Parasites -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Sheep -- Parasites -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Goats -- Parasites -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: by Leonard E. Swanson.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "August, 1957."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00094194
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 433106039

Full Text

Veterinary Science
Mimeo Series No. 59-4

August, 1957


Leonard E. Swanson, Veterinary Parasitologis
Department of Veterinary Science

I. General Introduction

A. Parasitology is the science that deals with parasitism.

1. A parasite is an animal that lives upon or within another living

organism at whose expense it obtains nourishment and protection without

giving anything in return for this relationship.

2. Parasitism is the relationship between the host and parasite.

3. Helmii-'.h is a defined term for worms.

4. Helmi~chology is the study of worms.

5. Chemotherapy is the treatment of disease by administering chemicals

which effect the causative organism unfavorably but do not injure the


B. All animals are parasitized with one form or another of these helminths.

C. Wild animals are especially heavily parasitized and quite often serve as

reservoirs of infection for domestic animals.

II. Relationship of Parasites

A. Symbiosis The living together of two dissimilar organisms to the advantage

of both.

1. Mutualism is a form of symbiosis in which both symbionts are, in more

or less measure, benefited by the association.

2. Commensalism is a form of symbiosis in which one symbiont is benefited,

but its co-symbiont is neither benefited nor harmed.


3. Helotism is a form of symbiosis in which one organism enslaves the


B. In summary, a symbiont receiving the benefit is the parasite and the one

receiving the damage is the host.

III. Zooparasites are parasites which belong to the animal kingdom.

IV. Ectoparasites are those that are parasitic to the surface of the body.

V. Endoparasites are parasites which enter the body of the host, inhabiting the

alimentary canal, liver, lungs, blood and other tissue.

VI. The influence of parasites upon the host depends upon the number of parasites

present, location, the nature of their food, environmental conditions, and

age of the host. The effects of parasites on the host also depend on the

balance of minerals, vitamins and proper food intake.

VII. Parasites Injure the Host

A. Through mechanical injury such as biting and migration.

B. Through obstruction as in the case of a mass infection of lungworms

blocking the respiratory tract.

C. By injection of toxins such as occur in extreme hookworm infections.

D. Tissue feeding such as maggots.

E. Anaphylactic reaction extreme sensitivity to touch of ascarids.

VIII. Internal parasites of cattle fall into the following phylum and class

A. Phylum Platyhelminthes

1. Class Trematoda

a. Liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica)

2. Class Cestoda

a. Tapeworms (Moniezia expansa)

B. Phylum Nemathelminthes

1. Class Nematoda

a. Roundworms (Ascaris vitulorum)


IX. Internal parasites listed according to their location in the body

A. Bronchial tubes and lungs

1. Lungworms

a. Dictyocaulus viviparus (Cattle)

b. D. filaria (Sheep and goats)

c. Muellerius capillaris (Sheep and goats)

B. Liver

1. Liver flukes

a. Fasciola hepatica (Cattle, sheep and goats)

b. F. aegytlaca (Cattle, sheep and goats)

c. Fascioloides mgna (Cattle, sheep and goats)

C. Runen (Paunch)

1. Rumen flukes (Cattle only)

a. Paramphistomum cervi

b. Cotylophoron cotylophorum

D. Abomasum (True Stomach)

1. Wireworm

a. Haemonchus contortus (Cattle, sheep and goats)

2. Lesser stomach worm

a. Ostertagia ostertagi (Cattle and sheep)

b. 0. circumcincta (Sheep and goats)

3. Bankrupt worm

a. Trichostrongylus axei (Cattle, sheep and goats)

b. T. colubriformis (Cattle, sheep and goats)

E. Small Intestine

1. Threadworms (microscopic in size)

a. Cooperia spp. and Strongyloides spp. (Cattle, sheep and goats)

2. Hookworms

a. Bunostomum phlebotoman (Cattle)

b. B. trigonocephalum (Sheep and goats)

3. Threadworms macroscopicc in size)

a. Capillaria bovis (Cattle and sheep)

4. Threadnecked worm

a. Nematodirus spathiger (Cattle and sheep)

b. N. filicollis (Sheep)

c. N. helvetianus (Cattle)

5. Roundworms

a. Ascaris vitulorum (Cattle)

6. Tapeworms

a. Monezia expansa (Cattle, sheep and goats)

b. M. benedeni (Cattle, sheep and goats)

F. Large Intestine

1. Nodular worm

a. Oesophagostomum radiatum (Cattle)

b. 0. columbianum (Sheep and goats)

2. Whipworms

a. Trichuris discolor (Cattle)

b. T. ovis (Sheep and goats)

3. Species of Coccidia (Protozoan)

a. Cattle

Eimeria zurnii

E. bovis

E. canadensis

E. ellipsoidalis

E. bukidnonensis

E. cylindrica

b. Sheep and goats

Eimeria pallida

E. parva

E. nina-kohl-yakimovi

E. faurei

E. intricate

E. granulosa

E. auburnensis E. arloingi

E. alabamensis E. ah-sa-ta

E. subspherica E. crandallis

G. Skin and Body Cavities

1. Filaria usually causing summer sores. May be seen in or on any

part of the body, however, cattle navel is the common site.

I. Life Cycles

A. All parasites of the Nematoda class are what is termed as direct in-

fectors. No intermediate host is required, with the exception of

filariae, which require an intermediate host such as biting flies and

mosquitoes. The lungworm, Muellerius capillaris, life cycle is indirect

requiring snails and slugs as intermediate hosts.

1. Direct infectors depend on optimum moisture, temperature and vege-

tative conditions to complete their life cycle. The eggs are passed

out of the host animal in the feces and hatch, liberating a minute

larva. This larva, after three molts, is known as the infective

stage, at which time it crawls upon blades of grass and is eaten by

the grazing animal. Upon reaching the digestive tract the larva

finds its suitable location in the host and reaches sexual maturity,

mates and begins laying eggs.

2. Filariae depend upon mosquitoes or biting insects to complete their

life cycle. The female wonns lay their larvae in the host tissue.

These larvae are picked up and circulated in the blood stream and

transferred to a new host by insect vectors. The vector, feeding on

the infected animal and taking its blood meal, sucks up the micro-

scopic larvae, which further develop in the insect and at a subse-

quent blood meal are re-injected into another host animal.

B. All parasites belonging to the class Trematoda and class Cestoda require

an intermediate host.

1. Liver flukes, rumen flukes and others of the Trematoda class require

a fresh water snail to complete their life cycle. The young flukes

that hatch from the eggs burrow into the soft tissue of snails,

develop, and are liberated into water as tadpole flukes. These

young flukes swim around in water and attach themselves to blades

of grass and are subsequently eaten by aoPi als. This stage in the

life cycle is known as the infective or encysted cercariae stage.

2. Tapeworms, of the class Cestoda, in cattle, sheep and goats require

as an intermediate host a microscopic grass mite. The tapeworm

segments are passed in the fecal material to the ground. The grass

mites feeding in this material ingest the tapeworm eggs. These eggs

develop into the infective stage within the body of the mites. The

mites crawl on grass and are eaten with the vegetation by animals

normally grazing. Upon reaching the digestive tract of the host,

the infective stage of the tapeworm is liberated and subsequently

selects its normal location in the small intestine, where it reaches

sexual maturity and begins its life cycle over again.

C. Phylum Protozoa, class Sporozoa, commonly known as coccidia, are direct

infectors. The animal becomes infected by eating food or drinking

water which has become contaminated with the coccidia oocysts. House-

flies, birds, rats and man, etc., may serve as mechanical means of trans-

porting this infection.

XI. Damage done to the host.

A. In general parasites must live congenially with their host in order to

produce their kind; however, if by accident, overcrowding, improper feed-

ing, overgrazing or unsanitary farm management practices, the animals

become excessively parasitized, they succumb to the ravages of the para-

7 -

sites. The above statement, however, is not true for the human tapeworm

as man (the host for the adult tapeworm) must eat the uncooked meat con-

taining the infective cyst, which is found in beef or pork muscle tissue.

B. Parasites, depending upon their location in the host and type of food re-

quired for their existence, injure the animal by feeding on blood,

bacteria, tissue, bile, epithelium, lymph, or by mechanical blocking of

the essential physiological functions of the respective organs or tissues

of the body.

i. Internal parasite infection, whether it be in cattle or other

animals, cannot be seen in its protected home, wherever the loca-

tion in the body may be. They may be likened to a closed book; you

do not know of their presence or absence unless accurate methods of

diagnosis are utilized.

XII. Symptoms

A. It is very difficult to describe the symptoms of parasite infections in

ruminant animals. Furthermore, in heavily infected herds there is

usually a mixed infection of the various parasites. Again, it is diffi-

cult to differentiate between the symptoms of parasitism, malnutrition

and mineral deficiency.

B. In general a parasitized animal is weak, emaciated, has a rough hair

coat and is anemic, as shown by paleness of the mucous membranes of the

eyes and mouth. Occasionally there is an edematous swelling (bottle

jaw) observed in liver fluke, hookworm and stomach worm infection. It

has been further observed that these parasitized animals may have a

profuse diarrhea which alternates with constipation. If hookworm in-

fection is heavy the fecal material will be black or blood tinged. In

strongyloides infection there is a profuse, foul smelling diarrhea inter-

mixed with diphtheritic membranes. In lungworm infection the symptoms


are very pronounced in that the animals cough when excited or driven.

The mouth is held open, the tongue protrudes, the head hangs low, and a

creamy-like nasal discharge exudes from the nostrils. The calf continu-

ally licks its nose, and in later stages approaching death there is a

definite abdominal breathing and jugular pulse.

XIII. Diagnosis

A. The most accurate method of determining parasitism is to sacrifice the

suspected animal either by slaughter or field autopsy. Open each and

every organ of the respiratory and digestive tract, making careful in-

spection for the presence or absence of any parasites.

B. Whenever animals are slaughtered from the ranch it is advisable to

follow them to the packing house and to have the Veterinary Inspector

pay close attention to the organs to determine the presence or absence

of parasites. The inspectors and packers are very cooperative and will

gladly render a report on the parasite findings in your animals.

C. To diagnose parasitism in the living animal, take directly from the

animal approximately one-half pint of fecal material and place in a pint

jar or similar waterproof, clean container, and leave in the icebox over

night to chill. Mail this specimen to your local veterinarian or to the

Experiment Station for diagnosis and recommendations. Portions of these

samples are examined microscopically for the presence or absence of

parasite eggs. Each parasite egg has a distinct shape and color and can

be readily identified. In taking samples it is advisable not to pick

individual animals but to take a cross-section of your herd. A negative

specimen does not necessarily mean the animal is free of parasites, but

that the sample was free of parasitic infection. It is advisable to

make several periodic parasite checks to determine the true picture in

your herd. Observe your animals closely for symptoms of parasitism.


XIV. Prevention

A. Plant improved pastures, preferably of the taller growing grasses such

as pangola, torpedo, bahia, para, clover, etc. Low growing vegetation

such as carpet grass force animals to graze too closely to the earth.

Divide pastureE into small acreage and rotate cattle frequently, giving

the grasses an opportunity to develop, and in turn the cattle better

grazing. Provide clean drinking water from concrete or iron troughs,

controlling the flow by automatic floats. It is entirely impractical to

rotate pastures sufficiently long to eliminate parasites from cattle as

it takes from 10 to 12 months of nongrazing to eliminate parasites from

a given area. However, rotation of shorter duration is very beneficial.

Provide feeds such as hay and protein supplements for the winter when

the grasses are low. Keep before your animals at all times a balanced

mineral ration which is well protected from the weather. Avoid deep

shade, low wet areas, provide adequate drainage of muck pastures, and

cap or otherwise control artesian well flow. Do not allow standing

water in your pastures for a period of over 21 days, and if necessary,

drain with a V-type ditch.

XV. Treatment

A. Administer, either by bolus or drench, phenothiazine according to the

dose schedule which is found on the label of each and every package. In

general the dose of phenothiazine for cattle is 10 grams per 100 pounds

live weight. Do not treat ;ust visibly sick animals, but treat all ani-

mals in that particular herd and repeat treatment in 21 days. Further-

more, it is advisable to continue this treatment in the fall and spring

each year, especially those animals under 18 months of age. (See

Circular S-78, Internal Parasites of Cattle, Their Control with Pheno-

thiazine and Management.)


B. Administer hexachloroethane, as a drench, in doses of 10 grams per 100

pounds live weight, to all animals in herds where liver fluke infection

is found. Repeat in 21 days as the drug does not destroy the immature

flukes. Repeat periodically, as "A" above. In conjunction with hexa-

chloroethane treatment of cattle, drain your pastures, control water, and

treat all snail-infected areas with copper sulfate to destroy the inter-

mediate host snails. (See Bulletin 502, Liver Fluke Disease and Its


C. The combination of phenothiazine 10 grams per 100 pounds of body weight

and 10 grams hexachloroethane per 100 pounds of body weight may be given

simultaneously to all parasitized animals with very good results.

D. Piperazine, a new anthelmintic, may be given cattle, sheep and goats and

will add to the effectiveness of the drench. In addition, it will remove

the Cooperia spp. from the intestines. This chemical may be combined

with phenothiazine and hexachloroethane, or given alone in doses of 7.1

grams of anhydrous piperazine per 100 pounds of body weight.

E. Animals need not be fasted before treatment.

XVI. There are a number of parasites of cattle which are not removed by the above

drugs; however, the most pathogenic ones are removed, allowing the animals

to overcome the other infections. Research is in progress to find drugs and

methods to remove all parasites from the animal without injury to the host.

Parasites in this group include lungworms, hookworms, tapeworms, and


(250 copies)

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