Citation

## Material Information

Title:
Official report including a record of the national convention, American Association of School Administrators
Creator:
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publisher:
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ill., ports. ; 24 cm.

## Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Education -- Societies, etc -- United States ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )

## Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
1st-104th; 1874-1971/72.
Numbering Peculiarities:
No meetings were held in 1876 and 1878, proceedings for 1877 included in 1879 issue.
Issuing Body:
Issued 1874-1937 by the Association under its earlier name: Department of Superintendence of the National Education Association.
Issuing Body:
Issued 1874- as Circular of information of the U.S. Bureau of Education (L111.A5)

## Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
020124599 ( AlephBibNum )
01479407 ( OCLC )
AHB5399 ( NOTIS )
09004525 //r3 ( LCCN )
09004525 ( LCCN )

## UFDC Membership

Aggregations:
United States History Collection
University of Florida
Internet Archive

Full Text

OFFICIAL REPORT OF THE

CONVENTION NEVER HELD
This material comes to you
through ycur subscription
to ilht
EDUCATIONA-L RESEARCH SER VICE
1201 16th Stut w-s en cna. D.C.

American Association oT ScTioo-IF d iln-iI'trators
A DEPARTMENT OF THE NATIONAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION
OF THE UNITED STATES

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'.... COLLEGE OF EDUCATION .
J UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

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LOUIS 1943

UNIVERSITY
OF FLORIDA
LIBRARIES

EDUCATION LIBRARY

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AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF .,
. DEPARTMENT OF THE NATIONAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION .''
OF THE UNITED STATES

OFFICIAL REPORT

OF THE l

CONVENTION NEVER HELD

FLORIDA CURRICULUM LABORATORY)
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION U. OF FLA. AND
STATE DEPT. OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION

Seventy-third annual convention of the American Association of
School Administrators, a Department of the National Education
Association of the United States, scheduled at St. Louis, Mis-
souri, February 26-March 2, 1943, canceled at the request of the
Office of Defense Transportation.

1201 SIXTEENTH STREET, NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON, D. C.
March 1943
PRICE $1 PER COPY 370, . E[UCAT ON LIBRARY CONVENTION THEME The Role of the Nation's Schools in Winning the War and Earning the Peace OUR POLICY The American Association of School Administrators endorses no individual or group of individuals or any sentiment expressed by any speaker or other participant in its programs, except by resolu- tion or by motion approved by a vote of its members. FORE W O R D FOR THE FIRST TIME in more than sixty years the convention of the American Association of School Administrators failed to convene. Even tho its program was dedicated to "the schools' role in winning the war," it became a war casualty. Transportation problems and rationing pro- grams were more than even a convention so dedicated could withstand. The St. Louis program had been built around the theme, "The Role of the Nation's Schools in Winning the War and Earning the Peace." It was designed to be a working convention in which superintendents of schools and their assistants might become better informed on the many ways in which schools can cooperate in the total all-out war effort. Naturally we were keenly disappointed at the loss of the opportunity to meet for deliberation and counsel, to hear directly from our national leaders, and to participate in the discussions of the major problems of the nation at war. It was felt that the schools have important parts to play in the huge war program, and that a convention designed to throw light on the questions involved would result in greatly increased effectiveness on the part of the schools of America. In order that the program planned for the seventy-third annual conven- tion be not a total loss, we have brought to the membership of the Asso- ciation two summaries of what might have been heard at the convention. A major portion of the convention addresses are presented in this OFFICIAl REPORT; others were heard in the Convention of the Air, a series of radio programs which were broadcast over the four major networks. We hope that thru these two media you may find much of value in making more effective the contributions your schools are making to hasten the day of victory and peace. W\e are sincerely grateful to those who have sent us transcripts of their intended convention addresses and to the broadcasting companies and the participants whose efforts made possible the Convention of the Air. I should like to point out to you at this time that the convention is only one of the activities of our Association. The multitude of other activities must go on for the good of the schools. Research, yearbooks, liaison with governmental agencies, and many other services to the membership and to the schools must continue at even greater pace than before. If the demands for services are to be fully met, the unanimous support of the membership S is necessary during these trying times. I am confident that America's school administrators will maintain their professional Association so that it may be ready with renewed vigor whenever the next convention of the Asso- ciation may he held. Here's hoping it will be in 1944 with President Worth McClure of Seattle, Washington, presiding. \May I express to all of you my personal appreciation for the honor of serving the American Association of School Administrators as its president during 1942-43. HOMER W. ANDERSON President g3 >,_ CONVENTION 1943 FREDERICK JAMES MOFFITT Oh, the utters that might have been uttered, the wisdom that might have been spread, the speeches that never were spoken, the erudite papers unread, the problems that might have been settled, the col- leagues who might have been seen. These things are all part of the powwow, the convention that didn't convene. But we'll work a bit harder and try to dig in; W'e will meet and defeat all our troubles, and grin. W[e are ready to do all we can do to win O.K., Uncle Samuel, O.K. We wanted the upsurge of spirit which comes when the clan gathers round. VWe hoped for the voices of prophets amidst all the fury and sound and we needed to know that our problems were part of the national scene. For this we would meet and would survey the convention that didn't convene. Trainloads of soldiers roll on to their goal, Freightloads of armaments, guns, tanks and coal. Give then the trains and the track; let 'emi roll Speed the day, Uncle Sam, speed the day. There's a fight to be fought and we'll fight it, we have been in tough battles of yore. There's a war to be won and we'll win it as we've won other battles before. But we pause for a moment in tribute surveying with sorrowful mien the speakers with speeches unspoken, the convention that didn't convene. Reproduced by permission of the Nation's Schools. THE SUMMARY That Was Never Written FRANK W. HUBBARD, DIRECTOR OF RESEARCH, NATIONAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION; CHAIRMAN, CONVENTION SUMMARIZATION COMMITTEE "St. Louis surprised even the oldest native by the bright, clear days that prevailed during convention week." With these words the convention summary might have opened-surprising not only the oldest inhabitants but possibly the envious members of the Association who were unable to attend. But since the convention was never held it really doesn't matter what the weather was like-except possibly to the residents of St. Louis. We started to find out for this page just what kind of weather St. Louis had during the week when the convention didn't meet but finally decided that such an inquiry might be interpreted as interfering with the war effort. Anyway we have gotten the impression from Mark Twain that people talk about the weather only when they have nothing else to talk about. Our task here is to tell about the convention that never met. [4] THE SUMMARY THAT WVAS NEVER WRITTEN 5 For weeks prior to the convention, plans had been made to prepare a better summary than ever before. A number of superintendents had been asked for suggestions. Tentative selection had been made of the three dozen members who would forego their personal interests in order to cover the convention program. It was anticipated that some of these would scribble off their reports with the ease of old-time reporters; some would sit in :i corner of the Summary Committee Office chewing their pencils and muttering as they slowly fitted the nebulous words into place. But your sympathy can be saved for another year, for this year the Committee that was never appointed to report the convention that was never held destroyed no pencils and wasted no paper. Unlike last year, the convention was not well attended. Hundreds did not crowd around the Registration Desk on the first day to get programs that were never printed, to pay delinquent dues that have since been mailed, to greet old friends who never arrived, and to ask questions that were not asked and will not have to be answered. After turning from the Registration Desk that was never built, each member of the Association did not take time for a good look at the exhibit that failed to materialize. Exhibitors had made careful plans; even the government started out seriously to show school administrators how the schools could contribute more effectively to the winning of the war. But the superintendents who never arrived did not see the exhibit that was never exhibited and for that reason they will have to depend upon printed and mimeographed materials in order to learn of the government's plans. Fortunately reading is a school subject, but unlike the situation with personable exhibitors the printed page does not answer the unanswered questions. This was one convention where those who did not listen to the speeches that were never given did not complain about the hardness of the seats. Nor was any convention speaker disturbed by the perennial occupant of a front-row seat who had neglected to finish his newspaper at breakfast. None of the speakers had trouble staying on their subjects or keeping within their time allotments. Discussion groups enjoyed the lowest blood pressure that they had endured for many years. The members of the Resolu- tions Committee felt as most men would feel if the calendar reform move- ment should lead to the abolition of January 1. Unfortunately for many of the speakers, they did not escape preparing the speeches that were never given. The results of their efforts are printed in the present OFFICIAL REPORT and their invisible audiences silently applaud their contributions. Unlike most conventions, in 1943 the retiring president did not orally thank all those who had helped make his administration successful. The new president did not tell what improvements he hoped to make. No con- vention visitor had to rush around frantically at the last moment getting the family gifts that could not be purchased during the usually busy week. Nor, upon his return, did any superintendent have to give his board of education an explanation as to how he spent his time during the conven- tion that was never held. CONTENTS FOREWORD . . . . . . CONVENTION 1943 . . . . . THE SUMMARY THAT WAS NEVER WRITTEN Schools and Manpower-Today and Tomorrow If Ever There Was a Cause . . . . What the War Means to American Youth . Food-Our Weapon . . . . . Education, the Way to Freedom . . . The School's Contribution to the War Effort . The Myth of the Militia . . . . . Air-Conditioning Education . . . . The Campus and the Air Age . . . Coordinating Wartime Activities in the Schools Occupational Adjustment and the War . . In-Service Education . . . . The Chips Are Down . . . . . . . . -Anderson . . . -Mofit . . . . -Hubbard . . . -Morgan . . . -Stoddard . . . -Phillips ..... -Engle . . . -Sexson . . . . -Carr . . . . -Rosengren . . . -Engelhardt . . . -Jvilson . . . -Lake . ." . .. Lee . . . . . -Hunt . . . . -Odegard The Demands of the War upon the Financial Resources of the School D district . . . . . . . . . Educational Finance in Wartime: The View on the Higher Level Educational Finance in Wartime: Certain Fundamental Propositions . . . . . . . Economic Use of Supplies and Equipment . . . . Priority Dilemma . . . . . . Problems of Pupil Transportation . . . . . War Emergency Bus Uses . . . . . . . Teaching the Elementary Student the American Way . . A Prayer . . . . . . . Education for M orale . . . . . . Norway Fights on-Morale in Action . . . . . Personnel Policies in W artime . . . . . . War Comes Home to the Consumer . . . . . Schools Must Help Consumer Education . . . . Education and Propaganda . . . . . From War to Peace in the World at Large . . . . The Effect of Malnutrition on Education in Belgium . . Impressions of a Schoolboy in Belgium . . -Reprinted A Physical Fitness Program for the Schools from the Stand- point of M anpower . . . . . . The Principal as Director of Health Education . . . Health in the Habit-Forming Years . . . . . Secondary-Health Education in Wartime . . . . How To Improve High-School Health Education . . . Civilian Defense-Its Scope and Importance in the Schools . Civilian Defense in a Small City . . . . . . Air-Raid Protection for the Children in a Large City . . Teaching Values of War Savings and Conservation . . The Schools at War Program . . . . . . To What Extent Shall Junior Red Cross Be a Part of the School Program ? . . . . . . ... -Courter . -Simpson -Simpson -Holy -Parmenter . -Bryan -Power -Goodykoontz -Byers . -Morrison -Skard -Nuttall -Troelstrup . -Corking -Stoddard -Haile . -Camnmaerts from BELGIUM -Ro'wntree -McClure -Bauer . -WVilson -Grout -Heaton -Billingsley -Wade -Courter . -Patton -Hill . . [ 6 ] PA LGE 3 4 4 9 13 14 15 17 22 23 36 44 45 49 53 58 61 66 72 74 76 79 80 81 82 83 83 88 89 90 90 91 93 95 96 98 99 100 102 103 104 104 106 107 109 What Is the Best Setup in the Schools for the Junior Red Cross Program ? . . . . . . . How Can Schools Proceed Best To Carry on the Junior Red Cross Program ? . . . . . . . Swiss Aid to Foreign Children . . . . . Caring for the Children of Working Mothers . . . Child-Care Problems and Services to Children of Working M others . . . . . . . . The Unsupervised Child-A Community Responsibility . Some Provisions for Children of Working Mothers . . Extended School Services for Children of Working Mothers The Contribution of the High-School Library to the War Effort A Study of School Libraries in Wartime . . . . Discussion: School Libraries in Wartime . . . . School Libraries Meet New Demands . . . . . Wartime Acceleration in Education . . . . . Acceleration in the High School . . . . . Acceleration on the Junior College Level . . . . Critical Problems of Rural Education in the Present Emergency Should There Be a Reorganization of Schools in the Rural A reas ? . . . . . . . . Federal Aid To Save the Schools . . . . . . Educating Teachers for What? . . . .' . . Education for Inter-American Understanding . . . Canadian Schools in Wartime . Canadian Wartime Inf Message from the Teachers of Honduras . . . . Every Day Is "M-Day" for Us . . . . . . The American Education Award . . . . . . The School for Special Service . . . . . The School of Military Government . . . . . Education for Men and Women in Military Service . . Guidance in the Army . . . . . . Wartime Curriculum Guidance . . . . . . Education and the W\ar Effort in Britain . British Infor Postwar Training and Adjustment . . . . . The Social Studies Mobilize for Victory . . . . Social Studies Teaching in Wartime . . . . . Newspapers Honor Our Past Presidents . . . . THE CONVENTION OF THE AIR . . . . . . T he Exhibit . . . . . . . . Directory of Exhibitors . . . . . . -Hunt ... -Sutherlan d -Brugginann -Kletzer . -Lenroot . -Clark -Po'werr -Da.vis -Coulbouirn -Butler -Johnson -Batchelder -Cloud -Green . -llarbeson -Morgan . -Butterwcorthi -Givens -Bigelo'w -Winship oration Board -Spratt . -Judd . . -Spaulding -HIoldridge -Brown . nation Services -Kirk -Wilson -Hunt . -A Ilan . . . . . OFFICIAL RECORDS In Memoriam . . . . . . . . . Report of the Board of Tellers . . . . . . Report of the Auditing Committee . . . . . . Correspondence with the Office of Defense Transportation . . The Constitution and Bylaws . . . . . . Calendar of Meetings . . . . . . . Officers, 1942-43 . . . . . . . . . Committees and Commissions . . . . . . Index . . . . . . . . . . [71 PAGE 110 110 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 120 121 121 123 123 124 126 127 128 135 139 141 145 146 147 148 151 152 155 156 159 162 162 164 166 169 187 188 .202 . 203 . 204 . 205 . 212 . 216 . 219 . 219 ii ~i r o'e .Tr "olabama EEB^^ "." B ^^B x^dk. u ...... "IHF^= !^H^j olre .lrlt i TmsMrpl HhB hoo, obIAlbm The Convention NLever Held SCHOOLS AND MANPOIVER-TODAY AND TOMORROW DE WITT S. MORGAN, SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS, INDIANAPOLIS, IND.; CHAIRMAN, 1943 YEARBOOK COMMISSION The duty has been assigned to me, and I acknowledge it as a privilege, of presenting to the American Association of School Administrators the Year- book of 1943. The title is Schools and Manpower-Today and Tomorrow. Of course the title is a timely one. In fact it is so timely that it may appear to you as tho it were picked out for the express purpose of fitting into the present emergency. The fact is, However, that all developments within the Yearbook Commission, from the very beginning, have borne upon the significant issues oi youthpower as it develops into manpower. When the term "manpower" came into common parlance, of course it was appropriate to use it as the title of the volume which the Yearbook Commission has worked upon over a period of some thirty months. The early plans for the volume grew out of stark facts which superintend- ents of schools were facing when they saw hundreds of youth leaving the doors of the schools-high-school and college graduates as well-only to walk the streets in a futile search for a job. The problem of the schools as it was then related to youthpower was of a considerably different nature than the prob- lem which confronts us now. But as I shall try to point out to you later on, the essentials in the problem involve the same issues in 1943 as were involved in the year 1940, when the book was first begun. In its original form the issue which was first presented to the Yearbook Commission was this: How can schools do a better job to prepare youth for occupational life? Bluntly-to get a job, to hold a job, and to rise in a job. When the question comes to one in that way many subordinate issues arise. For example, can schools organize their forces so that they can more definitely and more effectively prepare each youth according to his abilities? How can schools find out individual abilities? How can schools better train the range of abilities discovered for the great variety of occupations? How can schools better prepare youth for understanding the human relationships which they will meet in their occupational life? What kind of reconciliation can be brought about between vocational and general education ? You will hear in mind that when the Yearbook Commission began its work we were in days of peace. We then faced a world condition in which there was a shortage of jobs, a plentiful supply of manpower. But with the threat of war and then with Pearl Harbor, there developed an entirely different situation. Almost overnight more tasks arose to be performed than there could be found manpower to do them. In the light of the world situa- tion, when the Yearbook Commission began its work, it first thought in terms of a book with the title, "Education for Occupational Adjustment." [9] 10 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS The war, however, soon brought the problem to a sharper focus, as you can see, and as the months went on it developed that the Commission began to think of the fundamental way in which schools faced the problem of man- power, not merely today but for the days to come. It was my privilege to preside at the meetings of the Yearbook Commis- sion. The names of the members of the Commission are listed in the year- book and I shall not repeat them now. I have this obligation, however-I must make to each member of the Commission a personal acknowledgment of my thanks for their many hours of hard work, their broad-minded con- sideration of all the issues, their tolerance in discussion, and their effective efforts in resolving the variety of issues which came before us. Of course, it could not be that all at all times could see eye to eye on the variety of problems involved. All members of the American Association of School Administrators understand that a yearbook is always necessarily the result of the long process of resolving various points of view into a statement to which all the members of a commission can subscribe. Your Commission on the Yearbook for 1943 has achieved that end. I can report to you that all members of this Commission stand shoulder to shoulder in support of the various theses as stated specifically in the volume at the opening of each chapter and in the statement of the "Final Convictions," with which the text of the Com- mission's report closes. War forces a nation to do elemental thinking. We see more clearly than ever today that there are only two things with which .a war can be fought and won-materials and men. On the one hand, America has her iron, coal, copper, and great forests. These America has in great abundance. But as significant as is the fact that we have much iron, coal, copper, and forests is the fact that we have good iron, good coal, good copper, and good trees. On the other hand, this nation has a population of more than 130,000,000 people. Approximately 30,000,000 of these are between the ages of eighteen and thirty. It is a cruel fact that upon these youth who are under thirty years of age we must now rely in such large measure for safety and security. We come very soon to the realization that just as it is significant that we possess resources of good quality, it is of equal significance that these youth under thirty are people of good quality, that they are strong physically, able mentally, able to develop manual skill, and possessed of such courage and conviction that it takes them bravely into any conflict, no matter how bitter it may be. One who realizes the essentials of the present situation, and first of all the quality of the youth upon whom America now depends, comes to a new appreciation of the part which schools have had in building this quality upon which we now rely for our preservation. The war is causing us to appreciate anew the fact that this generation of youth under thirty, upon whom we rely so much for our safety, is the best generation of people under thirty years of age which any civilization ever produced. They are bigger and stronger physically, they think faster, they learn more rapidly, they can cut metal to a finer tolerance, they can swim farther, dive deeper, work longer than any generation of youth which ever preceded them. It is not any THE CONVENTION NEVER HELD 11 accident that the United States of America was able in a few months to go into a program of production which could stagger the world. It was not by chance that we could produce an Air Corps, a Navy, an Army, and a Marine Corps which, in a few months, were able to meet every test that military conflict might require. The fact is that thru these years the schools of America have quietly, but effectively, been building into children and youth such quality that within a few months' time the potential youthpower couldd lie turned into production and into military strength which makes every American citizen very proud. Before our very eyes there has transpired aI great social phenomenon. Under the impetus of tragic war the youthpower and the manpower of this nation have been thrown into gear in such a way that we not only produce the thousands of planes, hundreds and hundreds of ships, and the clothing and equipment for a great military personnel, but at the same time produce all the items of consumption for an entire popula- tion. Who is there among us, in the face of all this, who does not realize now that because of our social disorganization in the years gone by, somehow we failed to develop and to utilize our potential manpower for constructive ends? The implications of the future in all this the Commission has expressed in its Foreword: When the war will have ended we shall need to think clearly and act decisively. We hope and believe that we shall still have vast resources of coal, iron, copper, and soil; that we shall still have machines in our factories; and that we shall have a population with skills and knowledge developed to make our machines better and make them operate more effectively. In short, we trust that then, despite the ravages of war, we shall have the essentials which can make and keep us a prosperous people in material things. If we can be wise enough to develop and to use our people and materials in the right w'ay and the right place in order to win a war against Germany and Japan, we should also be wise enough to keep on developing and using people and materials in the right way and the right place to win a war against poverty and despair. All this, of course, depends upon our vision and our skill. May neither be lacking in the critical days which are to come. To put it all in brief form, the fundamental thesis of this volume is that it is the schools which in very large measure build the foundations upon which the manpower of the nation has been developed and can be developed for even more demanding days ahead. IWhen the military struggle is over, the struggle of a tired world against poverty will be greater than ever before. The fight for maintenance of civilization, for production of food and clothing and shelter for a billion people on this earth, will call for manpower just as loudly as does the present fight against Axis ideology. The struggle now and for the future has its foundations in building a population which is com- petent in all the broad meanings of that term. We must know that increasing competence means many things. It means a rising level of physical endurance, a rising level of skill of hand, a rising level of understanding which will con- stantly improve human relations, and above all, it means a rising level of ideals and interests in the high instead of the low. If the level of competence of the 130,000,000 people of America can be lifted, the standards of living in the civilization of America can rise. And with this rise in level of com- 12 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHooL ADMINISTRATORS petence of our own people there can be achieved a rise in the level of com- petence of the billion people who inhabit this globe, and the standards of living and standards of civilization worldwide may rise. This yearbook takes the position that the schools-a major agency of education, the agency upon which we rely for building the foundations for manpower-are at the heart of the problem of making the world a better place for men to live. The Commission has tried to go beyond merely expressing this broad con- viction. It has tried, as space would permit, to deal somewhat specifically with the major elements which must go into this broad, and broadening, program of education. Every inference in this book is that the processes of education must be individualized to the degree to which such is administra- tively possible. The Commission takes the position that in every community the first responsibility of the school is to help each individual to discover his own potentialities thru guidance, testing, exploration, and work experience. These basic functions schools have just begun to exercise. In certain of its chapters the yearbook tries to set forth certain procedures which promote these elemental processes. But abilities once discovered must be given opportunity for development. Again, the yearbook recognizes that in this the school has not achieved its goal. We have but begun with our program of development of physical power. In the years past we have not fully given opportunity for the development of hand-skill. Altho we have the long tradition in "liberal education," we realize how far short we have fallen in a program of education which really "broadens the minds" of our people. This war has revealed again how much there is to do in the develop- ment of faith and conviction concerning things which must be maintained which are at the very heart of the civilization we hope to preserve. But again, if a school fully performs these functions of discovery and development of ability, the yearbook recognizes a further concern. It will not do in the days to come merely to find ability and develop it. Society must take responsibility for maintaining opportunity for youth to work at things for which they are prepared. It will not do to develop manpower and have it walk the streets looking for a place to work. All this calls for increasing the effectiveness of the technics of schools to cooperate with industry and the various community agencies which must use manpower. It comes to us all anew that in each of these fields relating to potential power, discovery, development, and placement, schools have but begun to realize their poten- tialities and their significant place. One thing of especial significance I would report to you-that as this .Commission has worked on this yearbook thru the past months, it has come to an increasing realization that it deals with functions of the schools which endure thru peace and war alike. The func- tions indeed are important in strenuous days of war, but all these functions will loom as even more important in the critical days which are ahead. It is with such a conviction that this Commission presents this yearbook to the Association which it has tried to serve. THE CONVENTION NEVER HELD 13 IF EVER THERE WAS A CAUSE ALEXANDER J. STODDA:RD, SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS, PHILADELPHIA, PA.; CHAIRMAN, EDUCATIONAL POLICIES COMMISSION Yesterday our schools conducted a registration for a rationing program; today they finished buying a bomber; tomorrow the third scrap metal cam- paign begins. Yesterday our schools helped 130,000,000 people find themselves and their destinies in a country at peace; today these schools are helping to forge a mighty people and their vast resources into the greatest fighting force the world has ever known ; tomorrow these schools may help the people to see thru their sweat and blood and tears to the dawning of a better day. The schools of America may play a noble part in the coming of this day if they can be maintained strong and free, both during and after the war, and can retain the power to adapt themselves to this new day. The institu- tions which men build tend to become overburdened with tradition, tend to protect the vested interests of those who serve within the institutions them- selves instead of the interests of the people whom the institutions were designed to serve. The schools have demonstrated a remarkable degree of flexibility in meeting the war situation and must surely respond to the challenge that will come after the war. But we cannot wait until the war is over to make plans for the part that the schools will play in the postwar world. It is not too early now to begin the establishment of a program of action that will rally in a concentrated manner the educational forces of the country. Financial resources must be placed back of our great professional organizations that will make them far more articulate than they have ever been. The million workers in our schools can provide these resources without undue sacrifice. Programs of action are needed that will make the voice of education more effective. There must be a greater professional unity than is usual within our profession. There is a way to make the voice of education count and we must find that way and we must find it now before it is too late. The program and procedures of the schools should be subjected ruthlessly to most critical appraisal to eliminate objectives and practices that have out- lived their day. There must be room in the program and in the budget for new services that are bound to be required. Two of these have already become so evident that adequate provision should be made for them at once. We must be prepared to offer a program of service to the millions of youth who dropped out of school before and who will do so again if we do not act and act boldly, whatever may be the cost. We must be ready to offer an expanded program of adult education thru which a free people can con- stantly he an informed people and thru which public opinion can be formed as the re-ult of the unrestricted give and take of free discussion concerning any and all problems of American life. There are many who are already advocating that the peace to come after this war shall be built upon and maintained by force. Some force may he nece-ary. But those who know the lessons of history best are coming to 14 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS believe more and more that the last hope for an abiding peace in the world rests with education, universal education, free education. Can the schools of America in the midst of this war formulate a plan of action under which free schools may possibly become the experience of all the peoples of all the nations, born and to be born, in the world ? Perhaps never before and probably never again will the schools and colleges of America, the leaders of education, the million teachers, face the opportunity and the responsibility that we face in this day. Horace Mann speaks down to us from another day: If ever there was a cause, if ever there can be a cause, worthy to be upheld by all of toil or sacrifice that the human hand or heart can endure, it is the cause of Education. WHAT THE WAR MEANS TO AMERICAN YOUTH MITZI PHILLIPS, STUDENT, WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY, ST. LOUIS, 1MO. Until today, American youth of my generation had viewed the war in an objective sense. To us, it meant primarily matters of impersonal concern- causes, effects, mass murder, economic and political disruption. Educators, many of whom had lived and fought in the First World War, gave us an accurate picture of its effects and mistakes. From them, even in early child- hood, we had ingrained in us the theory that all wars were instruments of destruction. Ours was a peace-loving, peace-living, peace-pursuing world. We were educated to believe wholeheartedly in the supreme equitableness of that peace. Today's war thus finds us in a querying mood. Painfully we are learning to see another phase of war, a phase lending growth to our already intensified mental rejection of a world constantly involved in it. Right now, we have lost our objective views. To us, this war has become a personal affair-our families are being disrupted, our plans delayed, our liberties restrained. We are becoming acquainted with the caustic hurt of war. As a result we find ourselves becoming the unwilling fosterers of the petty prejudices and hates so frequently engendered in the waging of war and unconsciously evidenced in the forming of peace. However, in one respect our educators have not failed us. In spite of the personal effects of the war on our generation, we are determined not to entirely lose sight of our pre-war objective views. Rather, our contact with war has but increased our curiosity as to war's root causes-as to man's failure to live with man. We find ourselves determined not to allow any personal hates to influence us in forming a just and equitable peace. We are resolved to retain our objective views-to put them to efficient use at the close of the war. To American youth, this war, fundamentally, means one principal thing. It means an opportunity to combine our education and experience in forming a peace at another peace table-this time with a clear recollection and under- THE CONVENTION NEVER HELD 15 standing of the mistakes at the last. It means another opportunity to help eradicate discontent, the ultimate cause of war-the right in so doing which we expect our elders to partially concede to us. In warning, may I say that the greatest mistake that you, our elders, could make would be to say to American youth at the close of hostilities: "Thank you. You may go back to your peaceful pursuits. The war has been won-our goal has been reached. We don't need you any longer." If our elders do not try and do not give us a part in the trying to scientifically and philosophically uncover and avoid the basic cause of war, we shall feel bitterly resentful at having been made the victims of an international shell game. American youth is fighting a war. American youth is preparing for peace. We are united in purpose and ideals. This time, we hope to succeed! FOOD-OUR WEAPON KENNETH ENGLE, ABILENE, KANS.; 1942 WINNER OF FUTURE FARMERS OF AMERICA PUBLIC SPEAKING CONTEST "Food will win the war and write the peace," states Secretary of Agricul- ture Claude R. Wickard. True-and the lack of food will lose the war. England, our co-helper in this fight against the Axis, even in normal times, imports two-thirds of her food supply. Today the English people are receiving what the cold-blooded scientist calls an "adequate meal." *What he means is a "minimum requirement." In other words, the English man or woman rarely gets up from the table with his hunger satisfied. Thousands of people in central Europe are starving to death under the ruthless ration- ing of the Nazi war machine. In the Far East, in Japan and China, where even in normal times starvation is not an uncommon thing, conditions are unimaginable. Food has always been important in wartime. But the United States government had not realized the necessary part played by the farmer in producing this food until the last two wars. In the Revolutionary War and the War of 1812 we thought, almost to the exclusion ,of all else, of having trained men on the fighting line. In these wars, the importance of the part of the "man behind the man behind the gun" was not realized. In the Civil War the United States recognized that the man on the equipment production line was important. During the first two years of the war the Confederate Army won almost every battle because it was ready. However, the factories in the North finally out-produced the factories in the Confederate states. In the First World War we discovered the essential "man behind the man behind the gun," the farmer. In the months that we have been in this war, the War of Survival, the American farmer has quickly accepted the challenge of necessity and is producing more eggs, pork, and dairy products than ever before. The United States must not only feed her own forces wherever stationed, but also take care of our allies in every corner of the globe. Cargo ships are taking life-sustaining meats and fats to our allies, tile English. We are send- 16 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS ing food to the Russian, Dutch, Chinese, and Australian forces. It is indeed an enormous task that our farmers have undertaken. As we look at that enormous task, we may wonder whether we can solve the problem. The Future Farmers of America, whom I represent, are just at the age when they are not quite old enough for the Army but are essential to their farmer fathers. During these years before we go into the Army, it is our part to help produce the food that is necessary. If we go into other work and try to make high wages, soon we will be without farm help. Then inadequate labor will have to do the work ineffectively. Since we are the most vitally interested and best trained, it is only logical that we should be the ones for this work. Let's glance over the Englishman's menu for a moment and see how much less he gets than we. Also let's see if more food would help him produce more war materials. A person in England gets one egg a week, no more no matter who he is. King George VI gets one egg a week. The rations in England allow two ounces of butter a week per person. The average American eats three times that much. As for meats, the Englishman gets as much each week as he can buy for one shilling and tuppence or about twenty-five cents in our money. If he has four in his family he can have a roast on Sunday and scraps on Monday, and that is all the meat for the week. Call that an adequate ration or what you will, but if the Englishman had more food he could do much more work and do it better. In other words, conservatively speaking, production could be increased 15 to 20 percent. This means that every six hundred English Spitfires might just as well be seven hundred, and that extra food would "keep 'em flying" in greater numbers. This is an example of how food will win the war. As Future Farmers of America we not only see the problems of people in other countries but also in our own homes and on our own farms. With the shortage of tires the farmer is going to have to be more and more self- sufficient. This is going to give the Future Farmers' mothers more work to do. Bread, butter, and cheese-things we have been buying at the store-can all be made at home, thus saving the tires which are necessary for taking the grain to market. This means more work, but the man in the factory is work- ing extra hours too. In fact, everyone in the nation is going to have to work longer hours and work harder. The farmer will be doing more butchering and curing of meat. These are tasks that the Future Farmer should be learning to do. Expensive luxuries in the food field will have to be discarded. In order to win we must deny ourselves. Victory is worth the sacrifice. More fruits should be grown on our farms. If we are to take care of the future it would be a good idea for Future Farmers to plant fruit trees. Larger victory gardens will help produce the food for our families. Purebred milk cows that will eat the same feed and yet give more milk than a grade herd will prove their merits. Purebred beef cattle that put on more pounds than grade cattle for the same amount of feed will also help in the food for victory campaign. THE CONVENTION NEVER HELD 17 The farmer is the very hub of the wheel of war, not only because of what he does but because of the patriotic, tireless, self-sacrificing spirit with which he performs every daily task. I know of no finer statement of the farmer's point of view than that made in the 1942 Kansas Future Farmers of America Public Speaking Contest by my friend and competitor, Albert VanWalle- ghan, who has kindly permitted me to quote him. He said: The all night vigils at farrowing time will be our sentry duly; the tractors we guide along contour rows will be our tanks; the seeds we plant will be our inland ocean mines; farm machinery we repair will convert our farm shops into our own ground crew work; agricultural information we use will be our own intelligence work; our neighbors will be our allies in a common cause. We will regard every dead pig, every missing hill of corn, every smutted wheat head, every scrub animal, every cull hen, and every bit of wasted material and effort as being of aid and comfort to our enemies. When we as Future Farmers look over the work before us, we see that it is not going to be easy. True, we are going to have good prices for our products, but we are going to have many bottlenecks in this fight to final victory. We are going to have trouble getting tires, we are going to have difficulty getting machinery or even repairs for the machinery we now have. The farmer is going to be handicapped by not having enough help to harvest his crops. He will not be stopped, but rather will be spurred to action by these difficulties. He will produce more of the vital foodstuffs than ever before. The Future Farmer is facing forward. He is vitalizing the Future Farmer Creed: "I believe in the future of farming . in the promise of better days thru better ways. . I believe that rural America can and will hold true to the best traditions in our national life." It can be done. It must be done. It will be done. Future Farmers will do it. "Food will win the war and write the peace." EDUCATION, THE WAY TO FREEDOM JOHN A. SEASON, SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS, PASADENA, CALIF. Victory-full, final, decisive-on the land, in the air, on the sea, over .all the world! This is the first and irreducible objective of the United Na- tions. America, Britain, Russia, China, and all the peoples of the world who seek no aggrandizement, who respect the rights of all, have joined forces to fight until they have won a military victory over the Axis and over all those who, in the words of Woodrow Wilson, have visited upon the world "this intolerable thing-without conscience or honor or capacity for covenanted peace." But a military victory is only a way station beside the long road mankind must travel to freedom, and it is along this long, long road to freedom for all peoples that the United Nations are trudging today- burdened, war weary, and sorely pressed by cruel and implacable forces who have no love for freedom, no tolerance for justice, no heart for mercy, and no mind for goodwill. In such a struggle there can he no compromise either with the enemy or 18 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS with our own resolution. WVe must press on beyond the military victory to that more difficult and more significant victory over the forces of selfishness, greed, and lust for power that blocked our road just beyond the military victory of the First World War and sabotaged the efforts of those who, at home and abroad, sought to set up a world order based on justice and fair play. We turned from the road that led toward magnanimity and goodwill and followed the paths that turned back to cynicism, hatred, brutality, selfish- ness, and to war. Space does not permit an inventory of the broken promises, the repudiated agreements, the double dealings, and the betrayals of the years that followed World War I. They are a matter of common knowledge. They are recorded in the history of our own nation and of most of the nations of the world. The League of Nations, that symbol of cooperation and mutual support between nations, dissolved in the corroding atmosphere of suspicion, selfishness, self-interest, and brutal disregard for the rights of mankind. Today we are engaged in another and more devastating war. We called the last war, because it surpassed in size and destructiveness anything man- kind had heretofore known, a "World War." But this war in which we are now engaged so far surpasses our so-called "World War" that we, in a search for super-superlatives have termed it a "Global War," realizing more and more as the struggle grows that we now stand in the path of an avalanche of forces of such stupendous magnitude that the finite mind of man is totally incapable of comprehending or forecasting the outcomes of the catastrophe. At best, we must be sustained by the hope that the long road that man- kind has traveled from creation down thru the ages to the present leads past the woes, agonies, defeats, and disappointments of the present to victory, peace, social justice, human welfare, and freedom. The taste of these blessings enjoyed by men who have attained a measure of self-government, who have partially perfected the machinery of cooperation, who have to some degree set up and practiced the democratic way of life is the basis for the hopes in the hearts of the United Nations that men may regain the highroad to freedom and in time attain a world wherein there is a measure of happiness for all mankind. Such men realize that war is not an end in itself; that a victory that merely ends a war and does not remove the causes of war is no victory; and that a war is not won until a lasting peace has been established. What, then, are the essentials of a lasting peace? What are the processes that produce the conditions of lasting peace? These questions are uppermost in men's minds today. Proposals calculated to produce these highly desirable outcomes are appearing daily. The list of definite formulas prescribed by various and sundry statesmen, sociologists, economists, religionists, and others has already grown to nearly one hundred fully formulated proposals. They range from a benevolent despotism at the hands of the victors to intricate world federations of independent nations. They deal with problems of economics, politics, race, nationalism, religion, military might, balance of power, and international ethics. Despite these, however, men everywhere THE CONVENTION NEVER HELD go on fighting, struggling, laboring, hating, scheming, bargaining, buying, selling, living, and dying unmindful of the basic considerations that might perchance produce the ends desired. This is true among the peoples of the United Nations; it is more marked among the peoples in tile conquered countries; it is desperately true among the peoples of the Axis nations. "Where there is no vision, the people perish." Unless there arises somehow, sometime, somewhere a will for freedom and an intelligent attack upon the problems of freedom, we shall win victories that end one war only to produce other and more devastating wars. We doom mankind to a death by crucifixion upon a cross of igno- rance, selfishness, and human ineptitude. Education alone supports the hope that man may finally win the age-old struggle over these forces and in time attain an armistice with the powers that cause wars, not merely win victories by means of them. Our President and the Prime AMiinister of England have announced the Four Freedoms. Are these freedoms in themselves more workable and more practicable than the pronouncements of statesmen and scholars of other days? Does "everywhere in the world" mean a voluntary acceptance by all peoples of these pronouncements, or does it mean their benevolent imposition by means of force? Are tolerance, liberality, and humane con- sideration for others to he spread at the will of the victors in this or any other war? Do such qualities inhere in any particular form of organization, con- stitution, scheme, plan, blueprint, or proposal? Do Americans or any other people owe their peace, prosperity, law, justice, and equity to the form of their organization or to their constitution ? If so, why did the League of Nations fail so miserably? Sir Norman Angel ably raises these issues and ably disposes of them. He says, "The fundamental convictions neces- sary for any form of international cooperation had not been established." He further observes that until such convictions are established, assurances about freedom of speech, security of possessions, and other like pronounce- ments are at best a bad joke. Convictions are not the outgrowth of victories or peace treaties. They grow out of learning, and learning grows out of experience and understand- ing. These are the things that are peculiarly the purposes and the objec- tives of education. By education we do not mean merely the individual mastery of tools of learning or the use of such tools to acquire an academic familiarity with the accumulated cultures of all humanity. Such concepts of education are partial and narrow. Their worst fault is that they ignore the humanities, those learniniigs that are found in the everyday' life of men as they associate together under the guidance of humane institutions, political and economic, social and spiritual. They place the school above the family, the schoolmaster above the neighbor, institutionalized and formal education before human association. The pages of history do not give the scholar much faith in the efficacy of military victories and peace treaties. They do not make a strong case for nationalism, for organizations, constitutions, or federations as substantial contributors to permanent peace or to a program of social justice and human 20 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS welfare for all mankind. What hope we have rests rather on those lasting con- victions that have lodged in the hearts of those men and women, those peoples who have experienced under many and varied organizations of society a way of life in which the conditions of freedom have been made a reality. These conditions of freedom have been stated over and over again down thru the' ages-by the New Testament in "Do unto others even as ye would that others should do unto you"; by the English in the Bill of Rights; by the Colonists in the Declaration of Independence; by our nation in its consti- tutional provision for life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; by Abraham Lincoln in his stand for government "of the people, by the people, and for the people"; by President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill in the Four Freedoms. In each instance these pronouncements gain their significance from the fact that they rest upon lessons well learned, upon convictions deeply laid in the hearts of mankind by long years of practical living and experiencing the principles enunciated. Men support these propositions because they have gained an understanding of their significance ; because they have learned their value; because they have defended them with their life blood. The United Nations owe the zeal and the dedication of their peoples to the cause for which they are fighting this war, to the opportunities those same peoples have had to learn the values of freedom in their daily lives under the organizations and institutions of constituted government. Free enterprise; free speech; equal opportunity; security of life, property, and person; free- dom to worship; and the right to learn, to improve, and to direct the forces of society are the byproducts of a way of life that recognizes individual worth, generates and utilizes human intelligence, and makes available for all members of the society the rights and benefits of that society. The military victory and the treaties of peace can contribute but little to world progress toward freedom unless they are forerunners of a regime wherein increasing numbers of the peoples of the world shall have an opportunity to learn the benefits of freedom, the blessings of peace, the advantages of justice, and the satisfactions of security by having an oppor- tunity to live under an order that makes these blessings attainable for all. This is education! This is building the convictions and developing the attitudes that will support a program of social justice and human welfare for all mankind. From the mist-shrouded Aleutian Islands down across the Americas to storm-swept Cape Horn, Walter B. Pitkin points to some 200,000,000 men, women, and children-white, black, red, brown, and yellow-who are working away at their common tasks under a widespread and com- fortable freedom and in so .doing are fast becoming a solidified society. They are mutually discovering their common interests; their common standards of behavior; their common methods of work, play, and human intercourse; and their common danger. Here is an educational program worthy of the name. The continents constitute the schoolrooms; the life of the people, the curriculum; the needs of the people, the schoolmaster; and the happiness of the people, the achievement test. THE CONVENTION NEVER HELD 21 Natural resources sufficient to provide for adequate standards of living are essential as are also a temperate climate with healthful variations; a dynamic population with adequate scientific, professional, and technical leadership; and most of all a way of life which challenges every individual member to live abundantly, enjoying and employing his fullest potentialities for using and producing all that his environment permits. If military victory permits the extension of these conditions of life to increasing millions of the peoples of the world, we shall be on the way to lasting peace and to the winning of the war. The important considera- tion is that opportunity be given to increasing numbers to learn the benefits of freedom by experiencing them. Planning is necessary. Leadership in reconstruction and rehabilitation is essential. To release such forces and to employ them will require an enlightened and active public opinion. Mil- lions must be made alive and awake to the difficulties that lie ahead, to the threat of totalitarian alternatives, and to the steps necessary for progress. A few voices in high places, effective study and research by scholars, even good planning by isolated individuals and organizations will not produce the desired outcomes. We must hear millions of voices. Millions must study the problems of peace; millions must participate and cooperate in the planning necessary to deal with our problems, foreign and domestic. We are failing so far to make much progress along these lines. Billions of dollars are being spent to win the victory; a few dimes to win the peace. Education for the long-time campaign to rebuild the faith and the hopes of mankind in the worth of men and women is being pushed aside for quick training to win the war. Intensive study of the issues and aims of the war is confined to academic discussions in classrooms on the one hand or to the propagandists who command the use of the press, the radio, and the larger controls of public opinion on the other. Our great system of public education, including as it does our great common and secondary schools and our colleges and universities, is only partially and loosely mobilized for the performance of its greatest con- tribution to our success, namely, the task of developing a sustaining public opinion in support of the program our nation and all nations must initiate if we are to establish the conditions under which there can conceivably be a lasting peace. Teachers alone, working in isolation, cannot succeed in devising or making effective an educational program adequate to meet the needs of children or adults. The teaching profession, if it could be united and if adequate agencies of planning and policy-making such as a policies commission or a planning committee were to be set up and adequately financed, could begin the formulation of an educational program and an educational policy of real significance. Such organization must at once cross national boundaries, cross the oceans, step over social prejudices and around religious barriers, even behind the enemy lines, and operate, as the war operates, on a global basis. Allied with this agency must he the civilian and governmental agencies of research and action, all united in the task of formulating an educational 22 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS program for all people that will bring education-the learning of the essentials of the new order-within the experience of all men everywhere. Once we have gained the attention of mankind, once we have opened the doors that now bar men from understanding each other's aspirations and purposes, we shall have taken the first step that leads to lasting peace. The voices of millions of teachers speaking daily to many millions of children and youth, to their parents, and to all citizens are potentially stronger than the voice of a tyrant lashing out over a state-controlled radio or speaking down from a ukase displayed in the public square. Education is the way to freedom, but freedom is the destination at the end of the road that leads on beyond military victories and negotiated peace treaties. It is not a short or an easy road. It is not in some areas a road at all. It is a maze of divergent paths, some leading forward to peace and progress; some back toward hatred and war. Education must plot our course. Edu- cation must be the navigator, not the pilot. It must read the stars, plot the drift, note the landmarks, and chart the course. Education precedes states- manship, scientific research, professional service, invention, discovery, leader- ship, and production. "As a man thinketh . so is he." As the nations of the world think, know, understand the issues of peace and freedom, so will they live with each other, not by victories and peace treaties, but by under- standing and cooperation. THE SCHOOL'S CONTRIBUTION TO THE WAR EFFORT WILLIAM G. CARR, SECRETARY, EDUCATIONAL POLICIES COMMISSION; ASSOCIATE SECRETARY, NATIONAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION The announcement from Casablanca that Great Britain and the United States are not seeking indiscriminate revenge upon the mass of the Axis peoples is of special significance to our war-centered schools. The greatest hazard of war for the schools is not that school buildings and equipment may be lacking, nor even that there is a shortage of teachers. The supreme peril is to the ethical concepts and values to which American schools should be irrevocably committed. The final degradation of education, as particularly revealed in Germany today, comes with the substitution of malice, revenge, hatred, and conceit, for mercy, tolerance, goodwill, and self-respect. Violent and confused rancors, sweeping indictments of entire races and nations are the character- istic weapons of dictators. They are out of place in the education of young people who are to inherit the great tasks of peace and reconstruction. The soldier in battle may need to be motivated by hatred and revenge. If so, let the Army conduct that kind of training for those who will use it. Meanwhile, the schools should take full advantage of the war to develop in the young such good qualities as valor, thrift, industry, and devotion to the common welfare; encourage and exemplify high ethical standards; and teach a strong and positive love of freedom and fair play. Young people so educated will contribute most to an early victory and to the achievement of the free and peaceful world for which the war is being fought. THIE CONVENTION NEVER HELl) 23 THE MYTH OF THE MILITIA MAJOR ROSWELL P. ROSENGREN, CHIEF, OFFICE OF TECHNICAL INFORMA- TION, CORPS OF ENGINEERS, WAR DEPARTMENT, WASHINGTON, D. C. If the hand that rocks the cradle rules the world, school systems are the sculptors of its thought. Nowhere is this axiom so true as in the field of educa- tion in the United States, and I am sure you will agree that the schools of the states you represent are the epitome of the American educational system. It should be understood at the outset that the field of politics is entirely outside the province of an army officer. Both internally and in international relations, the political position of the United States is determined, under the Constitution, by the President and the Congress. Both the President and the Congress are directly influenced in their acts by the will of the people whose free vote elects them to office. The greatest influence on the opinions of those people is the educational system which you represent. Once presidential and congressional determination decrees the existence of an emergency or a state of war, it then becomes the task of the officers of the armed forces to train, equip, and lead those forces in support of that established policy. It must be ever so clearly understood, therefore, that these remarks are addressed purely to that task, and that the historical references are a recital of the recurrent problems of military leaders, result- ing from the chain of circumstances just outlined. For over 166 years, since the signing of the Declaration of Independence, the majority of the people of this republic have labored under the delusion that a patriotic militia is a full measure of protection against the aggressive attack of any hostile nation or group of nations. This country inherited that delusion from its early Saxon ancestors, bolstered it with misconceptions of the significance of Braddock's defeat and the Battle of Bunker Hill, and our subsequent teaching of so-called history has preserved it for posterity. Unfortunately, objective tho we have been in our teaching of the arts and particularly of the sciences, we have been neither objective nor accurate in the teaching of history and the science of war. Glossing over our military mistakes, deifying mediocrities, the authors of some of our history books have produced tomes which reflect a continued blind adherence to the "Myth of the 'Militia." It is time we matured sufficiently to accept the truth. Now we are engaged in a global war, the extent and implications of which are incalculable. In the face of cold steel and under the reign of terror from the skies, we have learned again, in the hard school of experience, that only trained, disciplined, and well-led armies, backed by the production lines of mass industry, can defeat the skilled aggressors who oppose us. Thus, on December 7, 1941, we of the United States were blasted out of our lethargy, and the least interested of us became concerned with the deficiencies of the "Myth of the Militia." To illustrate the early influence of this "Myth of the Militia" we have only to turn to Braddock's defeat. Braddock, in 1755, en route to take Fort Duquesne (where Pittsburgh now stands) from the French, was attacked by an inferior force of about 300. He continued to march his 2000 troops in AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS solid mass against a hidden enemy firing individually from behind trees and other cover. The Colonials, under Washington, who were in Braddock's command, were amazed to see the defeat of regular army troops by the French, Canadian, and Indian partisans. They brought back to the colonies the dangerous conclusion based on half truth that militia and partisans could defeat the regulars and went the whole way in condemning regular soldiers and regular tactics. This generalization, reached from one example of erroneous tactics, was to cost those Colonials a long and expensive war as the result of an unsound military policy. This unsound military policy has been further preserved by the teaching in our schools that the embattled farmers of Bunker Hill were victorious over the best regulars of the then greatest nation of the world until powder and ball were exhausted. Had ammunition lasted, we are told, our soldiers would have triumphed. It makes an inspiring story, but unfortunately it is not true. Let us examine the facts. At Bunker Hill the Minute Men were led by three of the ablest com- manders of the time-Prescott, Rufus Putnam, and Stark-well-seasoned veterans of the French and Indian War. They knew green troops stood no chance against the regulars on even terms, so Engineer Putnam entrenched Breed's Hill and wisely disposed the colonial forces behind its breastworks. From this position, under skilled leadership, the fire of the militia, held to the last minute of each successive enemy charge, took withering toll. Fifty percent more casualties were inflicted than in any other battle of the war. When the exhaustion of munitions forced the retreat from Breed's Hill, however, the American casualties in the open field were proportionately even greater. Thus, in the war that ultimately won our independence, defeat followed defeat until the formation and training of our first regular army-the Con- tinentals-who ended the struggle with victory at Yorktown. Despite this lesson, we blissfully continued our policy of the "MIyth of the Militia" thru the disastrous War of 1812, in which the predominant employment of militia cost us the hard-won Northwest Territory, turned victory into a defeat at Queenstown, Ontario, and opened the door to the occupation of our capitol at Washington by the enemy. Short-term enlistments nearly'spelled disaster for General Scott's well- trained army, when, immediately following his total defeat of the Mexican army, seven of his eleven volunteer regiments went home at the expiration of their one-year enlistments and left him with sadly depleted ranks in a hostile country. A sixty-year-old statute prohibited President Lincoln from calling soldiers into service for more than ninety days at the beginning of the Civil War. As a result, there was the disaster of the first Battle of Bull Run. The value of trained soldiers, however, was illustrated in that same battle by the fact that one battalion of regulars stood its ground, covered the retreat in perfect order, and prevented the 35,000 Confederates from massacring the Union Army. The "Myth of the Militia" raised its ugly head in the lack of trained THE CONVENTION NEVER HELD men recruited for and employed in our war with Spain. Disease accounted for more deaths by far than did the Spaniards. In World War I there were instances where soldiers were inducted into the service, given a smattering of the infantry drill regulations, sent over- seas with virtually no training, marched into the front lines without even having previously fired their rifles, wounded, and invalided back home-all within sixty days of the date of their induction. Even after these repeated demonstrations, we still would not believe and we still refused to teach the truth that wars are won by trained soldiers led by skilled, experienced officers and not by amateurs. Let me not be mis- understood-we have always had a justified pride in the patriotism and the bravery of American soldiers from the very beginning; but we must not forget that the bravery of total ignorance and the patriotism of unpre- paredness are paid for in the needless slaughter of thousands of young men whom training would have saved. It was true when George Washington informed the Continental Congress, "What we need is a good army, not a large army." Today, we need both. Nowhere is our failure to learn the lessons of the past more apparent than in the state of our armed forces in July 1940. The misinformation possessed by the people of the United States and the subsequent influence of those people upon Congress were the prime causes of the results. Those results were indelibly impressed upon me by \Ir. Stimson at the press conference of that able Secretary of War on December 31 of last year. He stated: In July 1940, our regular army consisted of only 265,000 men, including an air force of 50,000 with only 2175 pilots. We had a National Guard somewhat smaller than the regular army and consisting, almost altogether, of small units in the dif- ferent states. Only a very few states had units as large as a division-most of them were companies. Neither the regular army nor the National Guard were organized in tactical units of the sizes being used in modern warfare. They were just begin- ning to do that in the regular army, and we did not even have the power to order out the National Guard in a manner to give them full training. None of our forces were trained in the methods of modern warfare, but merely in the old-fashioned elementary steps of twenty-five years ago. WVe were only beginning to experiment in the first steps of tank warfare, and only a very few of our officers had had experience in any war. In other words, the government was in the position a foot- hall coach would be in, at the beginning of the season, if he found he only had a mass of men, the bulk of whom had not played football, and those who had played, had only played soccer. We had no equipment in bulk, except that left over from the last war, and those stores which were left from the last war were types of weapons which were being rapidly left behind in the progress of the new war. We had almost no weapons in existence which we would use today, either in the shape of planes, tanks, or artillery, and comparatively few in the shape of small arms-only the Springfield and some machine guns. That was not the fault of our regular officers or general staff. They had faith- fully laid plans for modern organization of our forces, including acquisition of planes and other weapons, but until the fall of France neither Congress nor the people of the United States were at all willing to incur the expense of such prepara- tion. I can give you one very sharp example which fell to my notice almost as soon as I got here. Probably the most fundamental weapon of modern warfare is powder AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS and when I came here, in July 1940, we did not have enough powder in the whole United States to last the men we now have overseas for anything like a day's war- fare and, what was worse, we did not have any powder plants to make it. They had all been destroyed after the last war. . . And all this after the fall of France, when Britain stood alone against the Nazi hordes! A generation ago, a prominent statesman, imbued with the "Myth of the Militia," said, "I can stamp my feet, and one million men will spring to arms overnight." There are still some who persist in this delusion. One million men might desire to spring to arms, but who would tell them where to go? Who would build them shelter? Who would examine them physically, reject some, and isolate those with communicable diseases to prevent horrible epidemics among the rest? Where would they get army uniforms? An enemy shoots or hangs prisoners captured in civilian clothes. They might try to spring to arms, but the arms would not be there for them to spring to. If each brought a rifle, whence would come the thousand kinds of necessary ammunition? Who would divide them into units and provide each unit with a trained cook and a kitchen? How would they be paid? How would they receive medical care and medicine? How would they be trained for war? When one analyzes the magnitude of these necessities in the familiar terms of housing, food, clothing, illness, and pay checks alone, then multiplies the problem by millions of men, one gleans a small idea of the basic necessities of war and one perceives the inadequacy of a militia. Teachers and students of history alike avoid such cold and revealing statistical analyses as the masterpiece, The Military Policy of the United States, written by Major General Emery Upton of Civil War fame. So the weaknesses in our military policy, as pointed out by Upton, have continued to take "Gold Star" toll in all our wars. It is only human to glory in our own history, which makes it difficult to learn objectively from our own mistakes. In order to draw unbiased con- clusions, therefore, let us examine the historical mistakes of others.' Let us hastily scan the record which demonstrates the truth that small, good armies have always defeated big, bad armies. At the Battle of Leuctra, nearly four hundred years before Christ, 6000 well-trained Thebans under Epaminondas decisively defeated 10,000 Spar- tans. Tactically, he massed his best and most troops on his left wing, a column fifty deep, plus cavalry, with which he crushed one wing of the enemy where their leader stood. This basic movement was made famous at the Battle of Leuthan by Frederick the Great in a tactical modification which was called his "oblique attack," a strategy most popular with the Germans ever since. By its employment he defeated 80,000 Austrians with but 30,000 men. Alexander the Great, by both superior training and leadership, ended the Persian threat of his day. In the decisive Battle of Arbela, he crushed the oriental, polyglot might of Persia, defeating 1,000,000 infantrymen and 40,000 horsemen with but 40,000 infantry and 7000 cavalry. The losses TiE. CONVENTION NEVER HELD 27 constitute an eloquent argument for trained soldiery. The Persians lost 300,000 while Alexander suffered casualties of only 100 men and 1000 horses. It is interesting to note that Alexander thus went on to establish the Macedonian Empire and the civilization of the great Hellenistic Age cen- tered at Alexandria, which reached significant heights in scientific and literary activity as well as commerce and prosperity. Similarly, the hundred years of the Golden Age of Pericles, which con- tributed so much of the art, architecture, philosophy, oratory, sculpture, and drama of our own civilization, stemmed from the victory of 10,000 Athenians under Miltiades over 20,000 invading Persians at the Battle of Marathon. The tactics employed were essentially the great military plan made famous by Hannibal at Cannae, the same double envelopment the Ger- mans used in 1914, and a chief modern tactical plan. This victory could not have been accomplished but for a united people who enjoyed the advantages of military training-a people willing to fight to preserve their way of life. Julius Caesar laid the foundations of the Roman Empire, which ruled the most protracted period of peaceful civilization and commerce in the history of the world. It was the forerunner of all the modern European nations from which we largely stem. The arms of Rome were borne by her own citizens, and so well trained and disciplined were her armies that the'Roman legions preserved the Empire for centuries, even after the whole army became barbarian. And to date, more millions have been slain by the double-edged, thrusting Roman sword than by any other weapon. It was only when the Roman citizens themselves deserted the military and civil pursuits and degenerated and disintegrated from soft, luxurious living, that the barbarians took over their territory and made slaves of the effeminate people. At the Battle of Crecy, 19,000 well-trained and well-led English long- bowmen won a decisive victory over 60,000 armed but poorly organized French knights, took a toll of 30,000 French, spelling the end of the Age of Chivalry, and losing but 50 English. Napoleon's campaign after his retreat from Moscow is a tribute to his own leadership and the training of his armies. After forcing a six weeks' truce by means of a newly raised army, he marched 80,000 men ninety miles to Dresden in thirty days where he acquired some 16,000 additional fighting men. With these, he struck the 200,000 Russian, Prussian, and Austrian allies, and, employing a forerunner of the modern pincers tactics, completely routed the enemy, capturing 23,000 prisoners, and inflicting a total loss of 38,000, while his own casualties amounted to but 10,000. MIan is inherently a fighting animal. Even in our own peaceful country, we have engaged in shooting warfare in one out of every four years since the signing of the Declaration of Independence. The basic instinct of self- preservation, in a world which has never filled his wants, has led man to fight for his food, his cave, and the pelts of beasts to keep him warm. The complexities and developments of civilization have only extended his in- satiable desires until the luxury of today becomes tomorrow's necessity, for which he has always been willing to-and always will-fight! 28 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS As the family expanded into the tribe and the tribes grouped together into city states, the boundaries of the land each occupied expanded to the bound- aries of similar communities. Further expansion always came at the expense of others. As a result of such conflicts of interest, the stronger overcame the weaker, without respect to "the right" as we view it, enslaved its inhabitants, and annexed its territory. Without modification, in essence, we have seen the unveiling of the same drama among the nations of the world today. Eternal vigilance is indeed the price of liberty. History shows repeatedly that where peoples fail in this vigilance, strong nations conquer weaker nations by force of arms. Alight has frequently conquered right. To those who pretend to deny it, let them review the conquests of the Huns, the Tartars, the Moslems, the Turks, Genghis Khan's Mongolians, Prussia, Napoleon's France, Nazi Ger- many, and Japan. Let them also review the great civilizations which have thus fallen: Egypt, Greece, Macedonia, Rome, China, Holland, France, and Spain. But let us bring the story down to date. When England refused to "have its neck wrung like a chicken" and won the Battle of Britain in the air; when Soviet stoicism stopped the Nazi sweep; when the United States won the defensive battles of the Coral Sea, Midway, and the Solomons; and when the Allies secured the African foothold, the issue in the world's most titanic struggle of all time was completely joined. Mighty powers are now engaged on many fronts in a battle to the death. The Titans are Germany and Japan on the one side, and Russia, Britain, China, and the United States on the other. While Germany and Japan were arming at a furious rate, many of us still believed in the "Myth of the Militia." We refused to prepare for war. We tacitly permitted the occupation of Austria and the dismemberment of Czechoslovakia. Thus at Munich, Germany accomplished the removal of a powerful, well-equipped army of Czech patriots and secured the possession of the great Skoda Munitions Works. Then came Poland and the winter of "phoney war" during which the Nazis sharpened the "blitz" against the deadened senses of the democracies. In the spring of 1940, down went Denmark and Norway. Dairy products, paper-making material, and fish were cut off from Britain; but worse- much Norwegian shipping to carry vital supplies was gone, and Sweden's high-grade iron ore was isolated. The Maginot Line was pierced, the great French army was defeated, and France fell in a matter of days. The demise of Holland and Belgium had preceded that of France. Then came Dunkerque. With France went 19 percent of the world's iron supply and her munitions industries. In that black week in June 1940 Britain stood virtually alone against the Nazi on- slaught from the air. With the fall of France the United States began to question the "Myth of the Militia" sufficiently to enact its first peacetime Conscription Act in history. Meanwhile, the war in the Balkans put Germany in control of so large THE CONVENTION NEVER HELD 29 a base of operations in the Mediterranean as to virtually close that direct line of communications to the Far East and threaten the destruction of Britain's strongholds in Northern Africa, including Suez. Despite the pact with the Soviets, it next became obvious that Germany's long-delayed war with Russia was at hand, and on June 22, 1941, the latest of Hitler's assurances was ground into the mud by tanks and troops heading east. It took less than two months for Hitler to possess the rich Ukraine which produces nearly one-fifth of the world's wheat. Even that fall, the persistence in the tradition of the "M\'yth of the Militia" almost saw our newly trained Army sent home at the end of one year's training. Suddenly the blow fell, and the reality of lightning war flashed from across both oceans. The truth, which misguided peacemongers had prevented us from fully seeing, the equally misguided sons of Nippon taught us in the dawn of a peaceful Hawaiian Sunday morning. TWe were all in the fight together within the next few days. But we were to pay for delay and the "Myth of the Militia." The least military observer, after seeing the newsreels of the broken, twisted, smoking ruins of ships and planes at Pearl Harbor and after reading our casualty lists, must have realized the licking that we took on Decem- ber 7. The thing that couldn't happen, had happened! Time galloped on. On December 8, Thailand and Malaya were invaded, the Philippines on December 10. Guam, which we wouldn't fortify, fell December 12. Wake was captured Christmas Eve, and next day the forty-million-dollar fortress of Hong Kong was Japan's Christmas present after only ten days' fighting. MIanila fell January 2 and despite MacArthur's stand on Bataan, the Philippines were doomed. In swift succession, by former standards, Japan accomplished a six-and-a-half-year conquest in six and a half weeks! Count the milestones-Thailand, Malaya, Borneo, Singapore, Sumatra, Java, Bataan, Corregidor, and Burma! Let us pause to count our losses. With the Philippines went hemp and sugar and natural resources and we were pushed 5500 miles farther away from Japan. Positions in Thailand exposed Burma and enabled Japan to cut the Burma Road. Malaya and the Dutch East Indies, previously securing all the world's rubber supply to the United Nations, in falling, left us with but 2 percent, equally divided between Africa and South America. Still we complain of tire and gasoline rationing! And it takes 150,000 pounds of rubber for a 25,000 ton warship, 1750 pounds for a medium tank, and 1246 pounds for a flying fortress! Your paper gum wrappers and cigarette packages mutely testify to the loss of more than 64 percent of the world's supply of tin which Japan got in the East Indies and the Malaya states. Ninety percent of the world's quinine was cut off-and Corregidor fell as much for want of quinine to fight malaria as for any other reason. Within a radius of 3000 miles Japan now has that 61,000,000 barrel annual production of oil once so yital to the planes and tanks and ships of the United Nations. All that is left us in the Far East is a dribble in Mongolia. And how does that vital oil get there now? From New York to Perth is AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS sixty-five long days by tanker; from San Francisco to Sydney, more than a month. This oil must run the gantlet of German submarines, even if the Mediterranean is opened, and the navy and airplanes of Japan stand be- tween us and our South Pacific bases. The loss of Singapore moved Britain 3000 miles farther away in striking distance from Japan. The Japanese activity in the Aleutian Islands indicates that they are there to set up more than a weather station! There are some compensating facts. The manpower potential (18-35) of the Axis is 85,000,000, while the United Nations can muster, on the same basis, 187,000,000. Despite the magic of the speed of wings which blitzkrieg has imparted to the bulk and weight and power of the engines of war, men are still the most important element of all. But the Axis had the jump in preparation. We know that the free men who love the cause of liberty will triumph in the end. But what a price the "Myth of the Militia" has cost and will cost 'ere victory is achieved. In June of last year, while United States planes bombed Wake Island, Rommel was capturing Matruh and Fuka in Egypt. In July the Germans took Sevastopol in the Crimea and Rostov in Russia, pushing toward Stalin- grad. They reached El Alamein, only two hundred miles from the Suez Canal. The Japs completed the capture of the Nanchang-Hangchow Rail- way in China, occupied Agattu in the Aleutians, and landed at Buna in New Guinea. Meanwhile, a huge United States naval base was completed in northern Ireland. The following month the Japs took Kokoda in New Guinea, occupied strategic islands north of Darwin, Australia, and threatened Port Moresby by landing at Milne Bay. The Germans nearly ringed Stalingrad with steel and pushed deeper into the Caucasus. The United States fought two battles of the Solomons, electrocuted six Nazi saboteurs in Washington, landed on Guadalcanal, participated slightly in the Dieppe raid, and helped welcome our newest ally, Brazil, which declared war on Germany and Italy. In September began the siege of Stalingrad. While the British took the capital of Madagascar, United States troops occupied the Galapagos Islands defending Panama, and Wendell Willkie visited the fighting capitals of the United Nations. October saw some hope, with the Allies pushing the Japs back from Port Moresby, and the Japanese withdrawal from Attu and Agattu, as well as witnessing the move of United States troops out to the Andreanof Islands in the Aleutians. The Australians captured Templeton's Crossing in the Owen Stanley Mountains of New Guinea. The British Eighth Army started its powerful westward push from-El Alamein, and the U. S. Army Engineers completed the "impossible" engineering task which opened the Alaskan- Canadian Military Highway to traffic. In November, while the Germans made their farthest advance into the Caucasus by capturing Alagir and threatening the Georgia Military High- way, the British Eighth Army recaptured Matruh. Under the leadership of United States Lieutenant General Eisenhower and British Admiral Cun- ningham, the Allies invaded northwest Africa, subdued Algeria and Mo- THE CONVENTION NEVER HELD 31 rocco, and pushed into Tunisia. Almost simultaneously the Germans moved into Occupied France and took Bizerte and Gabes in Tunisia. The Italians occupied Corsica. Westward moved the Eighth Army of the British under the protection of the RAF and the American Air Force, decimating Rommel's Africa Corps. The Russians crossed the Don in force, and the siege of Stalingrad was lifted by fierce Soviet thrusts into strategic positions all along the line. The Germans seized Toulon (characteristically breaking another Hitler prom- ise) and, in response, the most heroic mass act of the war saw the suicide of the French fleet, physically, and the spiritual regeneration of France before the eyes of the world. Meanwhile, the RAF pounded Italy, the Aussies captured Gona in New Guinea, and Admiral Callaghan drove the San Francisco and its 8-inch guns between the battle lines and the 14-inch guns of Nipponese battleships to defeat the "Rising Sons of Japan" at the cost of his own life. WVith the turn of these events, which Winston Churchill has characterized as "The End of the Beginning," many people had their hopes raised for a quick victory and an early peace. Be not deceived. Already, despite a skilfully planned and executed North African campaign, the stiffening Axis resistance at Bizerte and Tunis is warning of the long and bloody time which will elapse before we occupy Berlin. The entrenched Japanese positions in the Far East, viciously defended, indicate the difficult road to Tokyo. In December the Aussies took Gona. The Japs reopened assaults on the Burma Road. Rommel's army was in complete retreat into Libya. The British drove into Burma toward Akyab. The Russians increased large- scale operations threatening Rostov and the German Caucasus positions. Darlan was assassinated and replaced by Giraud. With years of preparation behind them and with no real resistance to stem the tide of blitzkrieg political and military conquest, it has taken the Nazis over six years to possess most of Europe. It began with the occupation of the Rhineland in 1936, but the real push began March 12, 1938, with the Austrian Anschlus's. Japan moved into Manchuria in 1931 and has been on the move ever since. A glance at one map will indicate that after more than a year of training and an additional year of war, we have only begun to close with the enemy with large forces in the European Theater. In the Pacific the possession of Guadalcanal represents but the first steppingstone back toward Tokyo. There arc some twenty-seven more major ones. It took the Japs three months and ten days to fully consolidate these points. It took us longer to establish ourselves in a thirty-five-mile strip surrounding Henderson Field on Guadal- canal. This is an indicator of the difficulty of the task ahead. Thus we see that the first full year of war has been one of making "regulars" out of the total armed forces of the United States, of gearing the mass production of her peacetime industries to all-out war-not only to equip those forces but to become the "arsenal of democracy" for the United Nations. How far have we succeeded? I respectfully refer you to the aforemen- 32 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS tioned press conference of the Secretary of War and to the January 7 address to the Congress by the President of the United States-my Commander-in- Chief. As Mr. Stimson said: Today we have an army of over five million men . including literally thou- sands of pilots. . We are rapidly training the officers of these forces who are chosen by the most democratic method and educated by the most thoro system of officer schools we have had in our history. . This army of ours is being rapidly equipped with the best planes that are in the air today, with the best tanks on the ground today, with the best self-propelled artillery in action today, and with the best rifles, according to almost unanimous testimony, that are being used in any part of the world today. . The average American soldier today weighs eight pounds more than his fellow of 1918. The average soldier of today is also a sober man. Fifty percent confine themselves to soft drinks entirely; only forty percent drink beer and less than ten percent drink distilled liquors. He is moral. A much larger percentage of our soldiers go to church than the percentage of citizens outside of the Army go to their churches. He is healthy. The general disease rate is lower than in any previous war. . Upon this pedestal of sound physique we are trying to place the indispensable moral qualities. We are combining education with the train- ing and are furnishing them with every element which tends to produce what the old Romans called "Mens sana in corpore sano"-that is, "A sound mind in a sound body." As Mr. Roosevelt said: Yes, we believe the Nazis and the Fascists have asked for it-and they are going to get it. Prior to Pearl Harbor I ran across an advertisement which seemed to sum up the position of a defeated France. Today 1 think it of even greater value as a reminder of what might happen to our own people. It is called "Wonder What a Frenchman Thinks About": Two years ago a Frenchman was as free as you are. Today what does he think- as he humbly steps into the gutter to let his conquerors swagger past-as he works fifty-three hours a week for thirty hours' pay-as he sees all trade unions outlawed and all the "rights" for which he sacrificed his country trampled by his foreign masters-as he sees his wife go hungry and his children face a lifetime of serfdom. What does that Frenchman-soldier, workman, politician or business man-think today? Probably it's something like this-"I wish I had been less greedy for myself and more anxious for my country; I wish I had realized you can't heat off a deter- mined invader by a quarreling, disunited people at home; I wish I had been willing to give in on some of my rights to other Frenchmen instead of giving up all of them to a foreigner; I wish I had realized other Frenchmen had rights, too; I wish I had known that patriotism is work, not talk, giving, not getting." And if that Frenchman could read our newspapers today, showing pressure groups each demanding things be done for them instead of for our country, wouldn't lie say to American business men, politicians, soldiers and workmen-"If you knew the horrible penalty your1 action is bound to bring, you'd bury your differences imo0 before they bury you; you'd work for your country as you never worked before, and wait for your private ambitions until your country is safe. Look at me. . .I worked too little and too late." If you would know how long and tough a war we face, read General McNair's Armistice Day speech of last year. If you would know the kind of THE CONVENTION NEVER HELD 33 men we fight, read "Stuka Horror Over Greece" in the December issue of Reader's Digest. I know Leigh White, the victim of that story, well and can testify from firsthand information that the Digest story is but a suggestion. If you would properly appraise the Jap, consider the way he permits wounded Americans to crawl back to their lines crying for help for the sole purpose of ambushing and killing doctors and stretcher bearers as well. This is the toughest war 'we have fought in our history-against the toughest combination of enemies we have thus far faced. It is a war that we Ntill can lose; it can end with no winners, only a few survivors, or-if we exert the full power of the free men we have always been behind the will to win-those free men shall triumph. The significance of this all-out war is that it includes many battlefields without guns or tanks or planes. The battles that are fought are against the "divide and conquer" technic of the Nazis, by which the clever Axis prop- agandists have sought to destroy our nation, by setting class against class and group against group, in a softening process calculated to weaken us to the point where conquest will be simple. And what is this America we now battle to defend ? It is not a land of racial strain. Dozens of languages and dialects are heard within its borders. It has no state church. No ruling class dictates its mode of life nor stratifies its people into classes. America is a state of mind to which the freedom-loving people of all the world can come and bring their proud but stifled cultures from lands of oppression. Here the best seeds of those cultures have been planted deep in a friendly, fertile soil, and that soil has brought them to fruition in the fresh air of freedom and the light of liberty's sun-each the greater for the existence of all the others and all combined in the greatest democracy of history. How do I know ? I am the grandson of four immigrants to this land, two of whom lived long enough to teach me the plight of "little people" abroad and to impress indelibly upon my mind that this land is worth the sacrificing of one's life. If our way fails to survive, it will make no difference whom we elect to Congress, for under Axis domination, Congress would respond with only a Reichstag "Ja." In that event, it matters not how many eloquent orators preach from however many pulpits-for the text would be the same, or the orators would spend their lives in a concentration camp. Laws and courts to enforce them would be gone. Nor would it matter how much is appropriated for schools and teachers; for only one ideological lesson would then be taught. If our way fails to survive, then not in history shall we have been dashed into so deep an abyss of "Dark Ages," beyond the veil of which we dare not contemplate. There is another battle that you will have to fight, and that is the blitz peace of tile Nazi.,-as well prepared as was the blitz war. Despite the fact that the Roosevelt-Churchill Casablanca Conference doubtless anticipated ,ome future Hitler peace offer, the time will come when he will enlist the aid of the peacemongers with a cry for armistice to stop the killing. That is the time when you will have to steel your hearts against alluring words, lest *^- aIL Do you remember?-Sunday afternoon of the Washington convention in 1926 when Frank JW. Ballou, as president . . -- 7.,JJ ....i,,, 7, r .. .e .T,..o n .r....r THE CONVENTION NEVER HELD 35 this war end in armistice, too, producing no victory and no peace. Worst of all, if you fail to fight that blitz the very children now in your schools will have "to do it all over again" twenty years hence. While some have mourned the fact that World War 1 produced no lasting benefits, that war did give us a challenge. It is the finest thing that war pro- duced. Twenty-odd years ago, a doctor donned his Canadian uniform at Guclph, Ontario, sailed across the Atlantic, wrote a poem, and then marched out upon the Flanders fields of which lie wrote, to die. These are the words of Lieutenant Colonel John lMcCrea-this is the challenge of the ages: In Flanders fields the poppies blow Between the crosses, row on row, That mark our place; and in the sky The larks, still bravely singing, fly Scarce heard amid the guns below. We are the Dead. Short days ago \Ve lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow, Loved and were loved, and now we lie In Flanders fields. Take up our quarrel with the foe: To you from failing hands we throw The torch; be yours to hold it high. If ye break faith with us who die We shall not sleep, tho poppies grow In Flanders fields. And from the diminuendo of that challenge there has arisen in this new war, in crescendo, the answer-typified by Pilot Officer John Gillespic Mlagee, Jr., of the Royal Canadian Air Force. Born in Shanghai of American missionary parents, educated in Britain's famed Rugby School, he left the campus of Yale University, where he had earned a scholarship, and enlisted in the RCAF in September 1940. He served overseas with a Spitfire squadron until his death on active service December 11, 1941. Like McCrea in \Vorld War I, he left a heritage of poetry-a sonnet scribbled on the back of a letter to his mother in WVashington. This is the answer to McCrea's challenge. It is called High Flight. These are the words: Oh I have slipped the surly honds of earth And danced the skies on laughter-silvered wings; Sunward I've climbed, and joined the tumbling mirth Of siun-split clouds-and done a hundred things You have not dreamed of- Wheeled and soared and sung Here in Ihle sun-lit silence'. Ilov'ring there I've chased the shouting \wind along, and fliin: My eager craft thrui the footless halls of air. Up. uip the long delirious, burning blue I've lopped hlie i\lnd-swept heights with easy grace Wher-c never lark, mr even eagle flew- .\nd, bhile \fi\l -ilcnt lifting mind I've trod The high t r1111e-i'a'ed sanctity of -ipact, PI'ULt ilt mC l:iand and touched the face .iof God. 36 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS AIR-CONDITIONING EDUCATION N. L. ENGELHARDT, ASSOCIATE SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS, NEW YORK, N. Y. In 323 B. C. Alexander the Great died. It probably took many a long year before the school curriculum of that period covered his exploits and their political and economic significance. After years of conquest Genghis Khan bequeathed an enormous empire to his successors on his death in 1227. The impact of this consolidation of strength and wealth, no doubt, had only slight influence on the curriculum of world youth over many a decade. In 1492 Columbus discovered America*. The event stimulated much activity in exploration and aroused discussion in the halls of the European learned, but it is safe to state that hundreds of schoolmasters lived their full lives after the event and failed even to mention the discovery to the youth they instructed..In the past, the great event occurred and became a historical fact but its incorporation into the curriculum of the school was, in the very nature of things, a slow and irregular process. The conditioning of education is a continuing activity which cannot be cut off or halted thru any means that man can devise. There may be delay or postponement, but truth in the last analysis will prevail. By conditioning is meant the infiltration or penetration into education of the pertinent ideas covering an area of man's interests. The ideas of democracy growing out of a long series of events culminating in the American and French revolutions have ever since conditioned the curriculum. The blood spilled at Antietam and Vicksburg, Gettysburg and Chancellorsville has tinged the curriculum of civilized nations over the eighty years that have since elapsed. Air-conditioning education is a term first widely used after December 7, 1941. It was coined by Robert Hinckley, Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Air, with the hope that American educators would realize the need for speed in incorporating concepts about aeronautics into the presentday cur- riculum. Mr. Hinckley felt, and there has been wide concurrence with his judgment, that the rapidly growing importance of aeronautics in the life of the nation necessitated speeding up the usually slow processes of curriculum infiltration. It was essential that teaching concerning the airplane and its pilots be taken out of the "wonder story" period and that the full import of aviation for human living be explored and explained. For centuries man has used land and water for his advancement and profit. There was a time when ships were small and few and man had to learn much about moving thru or over a body of water. In the main, however, adjustments to travel on lnmd and water were made with relative ease. Land travel gained greatly thru the invention of the wheel and its progressive development to rubber-tired locomotion. During a long period of history the lands and seas satisfied man's wants, altho a few ambitious, fearless souls were always experimenting with new ways and machines for traveling thru the air. The great masses of men were content to use the air for breathing alone. Even up to recent years such a phrase as "I would just as soon fly," implying impossibility of achievement, was commonly used. THE CONVENTION NEVER HELD 37 A telegram sent December 17, 1903, by two young men from Kitty Hawk to their father in Dayton, Ohio, assured the beginning of a new era in man's conquest of his environment. The telegram read: "Success four flights Thursday morning all against twenty-one mile wind started from level with engine power alone average speed through air thirty-one miles longest 59 seconds inform press home Christmas. Orville Wright." Telegrams usually carry important news but none has ever transmitted a message with broader implications for mankind. Man, who could walk on the land and float on the water, could now travel at will thru the air. Alexander the Great, Genghis Khan, Columbus, George Washington, Napoleon, and U. S. Grant-these and all others in centuries past, had to be content with plans and policies relating only to land and water. They could not move thru the air. Their men and machines had to contend with all the geographic barriers. Their couriers used horses and not the ships of the air. What differences would have taken place in world history if man had learned to fly a thousand years earlier! It is difficult to find an event or occurrence in world history comparable in meaning or as far-reaching in its significance as the invention and perfection of the airplane. Almost forty years have passed since the modest brothers sent their telegram. The progress of those forty years is truly stupendous, but it may merely represent the beginnings of man's achievements in the conquest of the air. Man's destiny is now associated with three dimensions. He has moved from a land and water being to a creature of land, water, and air. Of the three, perhaps the air has the greatest implications. From the standpoint of controls and mastery, this is undoubtedly true. At what other time in history has any transition in human ecology, similar to this one, taken place? When Hannibal's elephants crossed the Alps? When Magellan's men sailed around the world? When Fulton's Clermont made its noisy way up the Hudson ? When man bridged his rivers, tunneled thru mountains or under waters, or invented the Monitor? The forty years since the Kitty Hawk success have reduced the size of the world but multiplied its problems. They have witnessed man's full surrender to science. They have forced into the discard much of man's planning and thinking about nations and cities. The individual has new importance and new values. No other event or period in history can compare in regard to the change of man's perspective with these first forty years of successful advancement in aeronautics. Man can now move thru the air at incredible speeds. Not only can he carry himself, but his raw materials, his finished products, and all the material needs of war and peace. The speed of change in all other facets of man's living will be greatly influenced by the speed with which man himself moves. If the school curriculum is to serve the generations of the three- dimensional world, speedy changes must occur therein. This means air- conditioning education. Such air conditioning does not represent a choice of the educator. It is his obligation and essential duty. The school man or woman cannot resist the inclusion of aeronautic materials in the curriculum any more than he could oppose teaching about land or water. Imagine a "land and air" curriculum or 38 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS an "air and water" one! l'hey are today just as absurd as a "water and land" curriculum. The Wrights and the Langleys, the Lindberghs and the Ricken- backers, the Mitchells and the Colin Kellys have laid a heap of problems at the educators' feet. The three-dimensional world, with a curriculum to match, represents the new sphere of educational activity. The new curriculum must be equally land, water, and air conditioning. In anticipation of this change, Rudyard Kipling once said, "We are at the opening verse of the opening page of the chapter of endless possibilities." In the fifteen months since the Japanese, ill-advisedly, wrecked our sea and air ships in Pearl Harbor, the American schools have been increasingly stressing air navigation and its import to civilization. Two aspects of the program have been carried on, but their differences have not been too clear to many persons. The two phases of this program are "preflight aeronautics" and "air-conditioning education." "Preflight aeronautics" usually is a course or consists of a series of courses designed primarily to give juniors or seniors in high schools, or the sixteen- and seventeen-year-olds of this country, insight into and familiarity with many areas of aeronautics. This includes, among other things, aerodynamics, meteorology, air navigation, airplane engines, and principles of airplane structures. The course is designed primarily for youth who are selected or expect to be drawn at an early moment into the air service of the nation. The objectives include air orientation, familiarization with the terminology and material of aeronautics, and removal of unnecessary handicaps for youth who will man America's ships of the air. The ground- work developed at school will stand the air recruit in good service as he enters and carries on thru his military training. The course is not intended as a substitute for high-school science or mathematics courses, but may be taken simultaneously with or subsequent to such courses. To teach the youth to do better the things he will do in the service and to give him the feeling of confidence concerning the air that the tank youth have concerning the ground are some of the aims. Any contribution that the schools can make to assure the safe return from air combat of youth, who are the natural selections for flight service, is one of the main contributions the schools should strive to make thru the preflight course or courses. Air-conditioning education or the educational curriculum constitutes an- other major problem for the schools. Perhaps it is of even greater importance than the preflight aeronautics course. By air conditioning is meant bringing all curriculum material in tune with the problems of the three-dimensional world. Air conditioning does not select a few students for a special course but affects every pupil in every subject in every classroom in the country. Most subjectmatter prior to December 1941 emphasized the problems and conditions associated with land and water. Air conditioning suggests the threefold emphasis on land, water, and air, whether it is in third-grade arithmetic or high-school senior English. The aim is to give full and frequent opportunity to every child to learn the facts about the world in which he lives. The teacher, as well as the child, needs the orientation, altho today it is strangely enough true that many a child may be better oriented to the world of the air age than the teacher who is expected to guide him. THE CONVENTION NEVER HELD 39 Thousands of our teachers and administrators as well have never had the experience of flying, especially on a reasonably long trip. Fear still controls. They do not realize that the teachers must, as far as possible, know thru firsthand contact the world concerning which they teach. In the early rail- road days, many persons were afraid to travel by that method. A few persons still stick to the horse and buggy and will not travel by motor car, and there will always he a few who will stick to the earth after all others have ex- perienced travel thru the great ocean of air which surrounds us. Air pas- sengers see the rain circle in all its harmonious unity. The earthbound see only the rainbow, or things by halves. Perhaps this illustration will persuade more of the educators to join the ever-increasing ranks of the air-borne. Air-conditioning the curriculum is not just a passing fad. It represents a permanent need. The 1903 telegram of the Wrights ushered in a period of American supremacy in aviation, hut by 1939 the Germans had developed air invincibility which made them the world's leaders of aeronautics. Much of this was accomplished thru air-conditioning German youth. Germany and Italy began their educational programs in aeronautics as much as ten years ago. The German Minister of Education, in his decrees of 1934 to 1939, commanded that aeronautics instruction be given in all schools and be related to all phases of subjectmatter. These documents are interesting reading because they show how the Nazi state controls the curriculum of its schools. The Sichel memorandum,' which gives a synopsis of these decrees, will be of interest to every American teacher. These decrees apparently contributed much to the success of German aviation. Their promulgation not only made German youth air-minded but aroused an enthusiasm the results of which are perhaps best illustrated by the epoch- making success of the Nazi aerial attack with both planes and gliders upon the island of Crete. Japan also started long ago on its educational program of aeronautics. The approximately two hundred volumes on aviation in Japanese now in the library of the Institute of Aeronautical Sciences, Radio City, New York City, are evidence of what that nation was teaching about aeronautics without our being much aware of what was going on. Aeronautics education in the schools of America was quite sporadic during this period of its development among the enemy nations. Colleges and uni- versities, outside of the civilian pilot-training programs, were giving scant attention to the problem. A few high schools in our large cities were making splendid contributions, but the American teachers as well as the American people, even as late as the beginning of this World War, were inclined to look upon aviation as a sport or as an infant enterprise. Our nation, which had pioneered most successfully in this field, began to lag behind in recogniz- ing the importance of the airplane in all phases of human developments. America owes a great debt to the aviation leaders who, thru their develop- ment of the industry and their promotion of experiments in the first four decades of this century, perservered in the advancement of aeronautics in spite of public lethargy and even, at times, public scorn and ridicule. I Copies may he secured from the Civil Aeronautics Admini'lration, Department of Commerce. Washington, D. C. 40 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS During this period of apathy on the part of the American schools, the youth of America, with characteristic alertness for pioneering, applied them- selves to making airplanes, to having airplane contests, to learning how airplanes fly, and to acquiring a comprehensive knowledge of world aviation. The self-learning pursued by youth and stimulated by aviation periodicals, newspapers, and aeronautical science bodies of various kinds, has been found of great value in our national struggle. The question today is, "How can the United States continue to maintain its aviation status among nations without resorting to government decrees on air conditioning ?" Let's bear in mind that skill in air conditioning does not reside in a few curriculum experts, but may be the acquisition of many and perhaps all teachers. Its foundation is knowledge about areas of learning into which all too few teachers have delved. Too much past teaching has been confined to textbooks of narrow restrictions. The teacher can be assured the textbook of yesterday is obsolete unless written by a far-sighted author. If its subjectmatter is not related to the air age, it should be speedily supplanted with a modern text. Such texts are being issued daily and are to be found in the lists of most reputable publishing houses. If the school curriculum material is not attuned to the air age, teachers' committees should begin at once to modernize the material. The U. S. Office of Education and the Civil Aeronautics Administration of Washington, D. C., are prepared to provide materials or directions for most of the pertinent questions that can be raised. The Bibliography of Aviation Education JMaterials, published by the Macmillan Company, New York City, will lead teachers directly to the answers to many questions. Commercial aviation magazines provide some fascinating literature for presentday youth. They find here much of interest to associate with their sciences, their mathematics, their social studies, or their industrial or fine arts. In fact teachers, looking for topics of interest for almost any branch of the curriculum, will find more than they may wish to use in this periodical literature. The importance of aeronautics in our industrial world is well illustrated by a 400-page monthly magazine dealing with the area. What other activity can support a 400-page monthly, in addition to scores of other magazines? A publication on aviation, designed for school use, has already found its market and is merely a forerunner of similar educational aids to come. The teacher will find it advantageous to a class to comb the newspapers for a week or two for aviation topics related to the pupils' interests. Let us see what they would have found during the past ten days. These, among many others, include: "Clipper Pilot Flies Atlantic for 100th Time," " 'Light-Up' Map Keeps Pilots on Course in Dark," "Each Airplane, Like a Mule, Has a Temperament of Its Own," "Rickenbacker Says Air Power May Win in '44," "Flyers Use Spherical Slate To Find Position," "Mac- Arthur Says Air Technic Ends Island-to-Island Strategy," "President Roosevelt Flies to Africa," "New York Closer to Moscow by Plane than to Our Neighbor, Buenos Aires," "Now Guadalcanal Is a Springboard." What a wealth of topics for learning in any area! Among them, "Our THE CONVENTION NEVER HELD 41 President Flies." Precedent is broken, but he does not fly from Washington to LaGuardia Field, but from Washington to South America and over the Atlantic to Casablanca. When a president makes such a trip, the need for air conditioning cannot be denied. During the war, much of the advertising by aviation companies in popular magazines has been of an institutional character rather than for specific purposes. Schools may glean' from these advertisements, which include some of the most fascinating ever written, what the future holds in store. They are not fantastic dreams but represent imminent possibilities about future airplane sizes, cargo tonnages, speed of travel, annihilation of distance, con- quest of geographic barriers, overcoming disease and famine, advancement of communication, experimentation with new construction materials, and settlement of hitherto inaccessible areas. Peacetime employment of thousands of young men and women, whose war associations with the airplane have opened up new world vistas, may be expected to help make realities of what the advertisements picture so vividly. As future schoolboard members, these youth will give further impetus and support to the air-conditioned program. This present era represents an alluring period in which to be engaged in curriculum development. In reality, recognizing the air as one of the trio of air-land-water places three curriculum possibilities where two existed before. Every teacher can participate and, of course, thousands have already led the way. In the primary grades, birds and seeds and plants may be used to focus the child's attention on problems of the air. In the intermediate grades, a vast source of enrichment materials will be found in aviation. Airport visitation, globe construction, and airplane models furnish common interests for dis- cussion or action. The "great circle" measurement of global distances, the centrality of Alaska in world areas, and cargo transportation from South America are points around which worthwhile learning may develop. In the junior high school, the biography of air heroes will be a most inter- esting field. Great events in the history of aviation will provide a fertile field for library assignments and special reports, and early attempts at flying written into poem and story will make a most interesting part of literature. There are many problems growing out of aviation which involve the principles of mathematics customarily taught in the junior high-school years. Emphasis should be placed upon understanding, skill, and accuracy in com- putations. Drawing examples from aeronautics -will add to motivation. Problems involving distances, lengths, fractions, averages, and percentages, and finding unit costs of travel, operation, and maintenance can readily be constructed from facts of aviation. Vital also are problems dealing with areas and volumes. Graphs and the use of the metric system are important. As two superintendents of schools, describing junior high-school possibilities, wrote recently in a joint paper: 2 Aviation will do much to remove the last vestige of national isolationism. The social studies in the junior high school must take this fact into strict account. Inter- 2 Ernest R. Britton, superintendent of schools, Effingham, Ill., and Ray C. Hawley. superintendent of schools, Marseilles, Ill. A Guide for Enriching the School Curriculum with Aviation Education. AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS national relations will depend upon an acquaintance of peoples and exchange of goods based upon daily contacts between all nations by air commerce. Emphasis should be placed upon the natural,social,economic, and political influences whichaffect the several nations in common. In addition it will be necessary for youth to learn of the differing life habits, ideals, work, production, and governments of the peoples in all nations in order to bring about a basis for international understanding. The airplane will aid our "good neighbor" policy. Junior high school young people should be led to see the effect of the airplane upon the balance of military power among nations. The influence of air travel and commerce upon community life will be one of the great factors in post-war community planning. It should, by all means, find a place in the junior high school social studies program. The airplane has changed our ocean basin concept of geography to one which is pole centered. This in turn affects our ideas of distance, location, environmental influences, effects of weather, and hemispheric concepts. The idea of living in the air instead of on the earth puts a new emphasis upon science teaching in the junior high school. In the earlier grades the primary func- tion of science was to enable the child to make agreeable adjustments to his environ- ment. In the junior high school he explores the possibilities of making his environ- ment serve him. Thus the air becomes a medium of travel as well as something to "breathe deeply" for health's sake. The student becomes interested in its structure and behavior and finds that birds and seeds foreshadowed man in making use of air for flight. He is interested in appliances and means by which air can be made to conform to his purposes. Elementary experiments in energy, matter and motion, mechanics, weather, carburetion, and even simple applications of theories of flight become appropriate in the junior high schools science classes. In the field of life sciences, including health, the effects of flight upon the human body should be taught in an elementary degree, including effects of changes of speed, temperature, air pressure, and oxygen. The effect of the airplane upon disease control is im- portant. The junior high school age is the "club age." Enterprising teachers will take ad- vantage of this characteristic of youth to form kite clubs, airplane model clubs, nature clubs, etc. The Boy Scouts of America is doing much to promote airminded- ness and a new branch of Air Scouting is being organized. Art clubs and classes may feature posters embodying air-age motifs. The industrial arts classes should study materials of airplane structure and carry it over into model building. Every enterprising high-school teacher will enrich his subjectmatter with the wealth of material from aeronautics. Take English as an example. A new esthetics seems to pervade the literature of aviation. Saint-Exempury's words carried appreciations far beyond earthly levels, and John Magee's High Flight is a literary gem that only a youthful aviator could produce. Kipling's prophecy written under the title WFith the Night Mal might be alluring to every high-school youth. Here is an excerpt picked more or less at random: We held a good lift to clear the coastwise and Continental shipping; and we had need of it. Though our route is in no sense a populated one, there is a steady trickle of traffic this way along. We met Hudson Bay furriers out of the Great Preserve, hurrying to make their departure from Bonavista with sable and black fox for the insatiable markets. We overcrossed Keewatin liners, small and cramped; but their captains, who see no land between Trepassy and Blanco, know what gold they bring back from West Africa. Trans-Asiatic Directs we met, soberly ringing the world round the Fiftieth Meridian at an honest seventy knots; and white- SKipling, Rudyard. Actions and Reactions. New York: Doubleday, Page and Co., 1909. p. 150-51. THE CONVENTION NEVER HELD painted Ackroyd & Hunt fruiters out of the south fled beneath Ius, their ventilated hulls whistling like Chinese kites. Their market is in the North among the northern sanatoria where you can smell their grape-fruit and bananas across the cold snows. Argentine beef boats we sighted, too, of enormous capacity and unlovely outline. They too feed the northern health stations in icebound ports. Yellow-bellied ore-flats and Ungava petrol-tanks punted down leisurely out of the north, like strings of unfrightened wild duck. It does not pay to "fly" minerals and oil a mile farther than is necessary; these heavy freighters fly down to Halifax direct, and scent the air as they go. They are the biggest tramps aloft except the Athahasca grain-tubs. But these last, now that the wheat is moved, are busy, over the world's shoulder, timber-lifting in Siberia. We held to the St. Lawrence (it is astonishing how the old water-ways still pull us children of the air). In 1909 Kipling envisaged these possibilities for the year 2000 A. D., or fifty-seven years hence. The boys and girls in our schools will make them realities long before those years have elapsed. The teaching in American classrooms must expedite the process. High-school classes will help in setting up their own air-age curriculum. Any class in English might produce its own anthology on aviation; a class in the social studies, its series of problems; or a class in drawing, the art illustrations that are multiplied by aviation; and, in similar manner, thru all other subjectmatter fields. Beginning immediately, high-school students should be assisted in studying the future problems associated with the "mistress of the air." Should the air be free? What commercial, political, and military problems arise? Let the students pit "globaloney" against "globaltruism." Encourage them to ground themselves thoroly in the understanding of America's function in spreading the Four Freedoms to all the earth and the part airpower and air suprem- acy will play. The fact is our school curriculum has been so greatly enriched by aero- nautic developments that every teacher can find countless ways to make adjustments. The new age in which the problems of air-water-and-land have been inextricably merged is with us to stay. It is not asked that you condition the curriculum less with problems of land and sea but that you air-condition more. In the process, child and teacher may not see eve to eve. This is best illustrated by the drawing sent me last spring by an alert art teacher from Illinois. She pictured a kindergarten with its groups of pupils. Apart from the other children two boys near the fireplace were discussing a model air- plane which one of them was holding in his hands. Said Billy, "You know, Bobbie, we must determine the center of gravity of this plane today." "Yes," said Bobby, "we better do it, tho, in the recess period, because the old lady wants us to string beads this hour." The art teacher had a real sense of values as well as humor. Air-conditioning the curriculum means for you and your teachers a revaluation of curriculum content and the selection of materials made vital by man's conquest of the air. 44 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS THE CAMPUS AND THE AIR AGE GILL ROBB WILSON, DIRECTOR, DEPARTMENT OF AVIATION, STATE OF NEW JERSEY, TRENTON; PRESIDENT, NATIONAL AERONAUTICS ASSOCIATION The development of the airplane ranks with the invention of the wheel, the steam engine, and the use of electric energy. Coming at a time when transportation is so vital to social progress, the airplane will have a historic impact on civilization. The use of aircraft in war is a tragic interlude in the humanizing possi- bilities of flight. However, the decisive importance of aviation in battle and military logistics gives the layman an idea of what may be expected of flight when applied to peacetime pursuits. The swiftness with which we now tie together the continents and far islands of the seas hints of an indivisible destiny for humankind. "Am I my brother's keeper?" is no longer a moral interrogation but an economic affirmation. For the first time in history we have the tools with which to create a practical human brotherhood. Thru the medium of the air no place on earth is far from any other place. The abolition of geographic isolation presages the abolition of social isolation. Human misery will not be tolerated in its historic forms when laid intimately on the conscience of the civilized peoples. Only behind the mystery of distance and the veil of time can degradation survive. This mystery and veil the aircraft will tear away with insistent cov- erage of every area of the globe. To meet the opportunities and demands of a world so affected, we must set in motion the imagination of the American campus. Vocations and avocations, professions, and careers of coming generations will mold with the currents of events. The free nations have very nearly lost their existence because of failure to evaluate the agency of aviation. It will be possible to lose more than a war unless preparation is now made to inherit the social, political, and economic frontiers of the imminent decades. Hitherto inaccessible areas will become habitable. Buried wealth will be made available. Vast areas of the backward continents will soon be seen to have by-passed the railroad age. Men will become more and more citizens of the world. No person will be considered educated who is not at least bilingual. There will be such a creeping and crawling of humanity about the globe as was never before possible. Knowledge of man for man will be more than the satisfaction of an intellectual curiosity. Because of the certain mingling-of the races, tomorrow many of our pre- conceived ideas will be changed. The philosophy of government, the ob- jectives of religion, the manners and customs of the masses will shift and change. There will be dangers as well as advantages. Disease will no longer be localized. A proper conception of culture will have to prove itself against an improper conception. The weak must be protected against the aggressor who can now strike more swiftly and effectively than ever. Human character will weigh largely in the balance of tomorrow. THE CONVENTION NEVER HELD I do not plead for the study of aviation in the schools because I want to train pilots or mechanics or traffic men. I do plead for the utmost considera- tion of this subject because thru it we can reverse the unsocial conditions which have bred wars and miseries. I would bring aviation to the campus because aviation is a new tool of great potential. To hew the future of our nation we must have this tool. I would not replace the culture of the campus with mere vocational pursuit but rather would provide culture with a vehicle of expression. Human brotherhood can be developed by the medium of flight just as easily as de- struction can be wrought. I am not so eager to teach men how to fly as to teach them why to fly. Preflight courses are not "pre" to military induction but "pre" to the high art of living intelligently in a modern age. COORDI NATING WARTIME ACTIVITIES IN THE SCHOOLS CHARLES H. LAKE, SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS, CLEVELAND, OHIO This is particularly a time for competent and effective leadership in education. Every person engaged in the work of education is asking himself the question, What can I do to help most in the solutions of the great problems before us? These problems are the winning of the war and preparation for the reorganization of the world to insure just and lasting peace. In the United States education has developed rather rapidly if we are to consider some of its aspects. On the other hand, it seems to have devel- oped rather slowly when we consider the fact that it is the one plan which thru the years consistently has been proposed for the amelioration of our social ills and the development of a world in which the affairs of men and of nations may be directed by reason, rather than by blind force instigated thru fear, suspicion, and avarice. Our social ideals have looked all right on paper and in tracts, which have so often found the wastebasket, but from a practical standpoint they have often been a bit hazy and by no means as definite as have been our formulas for the mastery of the economic factors involved in the develop- ment and the acquisition of wealth. The desire for power and the acquisi- tion of wealth are individualistic. They are largely dominated by the ambitionss of the individual, while society as a whole develops much more slowly because in what we have chosen to call "normal times" so few people can spare the time from their individual pursuits or have the inclination to think of the problems of society as a unit. We never have approved, except in times of great stress, the thesis that the welfare of society depends upon taking thought and working for satisfactory solutions to social problems. We have had numerous remedies from time to time proposed for the amelioration of our social ills. We have made progress but the progress has been slow. The discussion of the plans proposed has been a sort of parlor and academic exercise soon forgotten in our dreams of economic progress for tomorrow. W e have not been willing even to 46 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS liberate the intelligence of the students in our classrooms for a discussion of the real problems of civilization. The kind of world we talk about and idealize can be reached only thru education. We have the best system of universal education in the world. Still the results at times have been disappointing. Many of the claims we have made for education have not been substantiated. Many of our hopes have not been realized. Education reaches, or can be made to reach, all the people of the world. It can, in time, eliminate the domination of the tribal gods. It should eliminate fear thru the development of confidence in the ability of the human race to direct its affairs thru reason for the security and welfare of all its people. "What you wish to see appear in the life of a nation must first be introduced into the schools," said Von Humboldt, and there probably has been no more pertinent thought expressed with reference to education. It also brings to our attention the thought that those things which are taught in the schools will inevitably appear in the life of a nation and, to a very large extent, will determine the direction in which that nation will move. This statement applies to weaknesses as well as to strengths in our educational plan. What we fail to teach or what we teach ineffec- tively may leave us too weak to carry on a system of constructive self- perpetuation. Why is it that so many civilizations have developed on the face of the earth, flourished for a time, and then have gone into decay? Why is it that many civilizations have perished from the earth leaving but a vestige of authentic material to attest to their existence? Why is it that many civili- zations are recorded in our chronicles only thru the stories of the debacles which just preceded their removal from active participation as factors in the world's history? What has happened to those people? Must such a history of civilization continue? Must ours be no exception to the common fate of nations? What are the factors that have enabled some nations to maintain their integrity for centuries while others have declined after a few generations of leadership and prominence? The history of these cases leads us to ponder and take stock of our intellectual and physical equipment to see whether there may be certain fundamentals which have been neglected, whether there are certain ele- ments which we have failed to appreciate and which we can put into our system of training and education to insure for us and for mankind a fate slightly better than the fates of those who have preceded us. It is always a disagreeable experience to find that one is beginning to doubt. We are quite prone to revel in the belief that we are strong in our opinions and thoroly fortified in unassailable positions based on logical deductions. To be in doubt is to he quite uncomfortable and ill at ease. As soon as we begin to doubt or question the things we do, we become so involved in our destructive philosophy that we are likely to give up in despair and say, "Why worry?" Yet the great advances in human betterment have come because someone raised a question and dared to work and hope for an answer. T*13CONVI-NTI'IN NiEvEr-i HEL Things are not dull today in the field of education. There is much to be done in each day. As in other activities, however, it is most essential that we keep our objectives definitely before us, or when we win the war we shall find that we have lost much that we are fighting for. The great business of this country now is to win the war and build a foundation for the lasting peace that should follow it, and our schools have much to do in the program. Coordinating wartime activities in the schools means coordinating all the work of our schools to promote most effectively the war effort, to develop in our pupils an intelligent under- standing of the issues and conditions confronting us, to develop confidence in our pupils that we can meet the tests which the war imposes upon us and meet them successfully, to give pupils practice and training for mental and physical fitness and balance so essential in trying times, to organize pupils for essential civilian services and lead them in their cooperative efforts, to educate and train pupils to do what is to be done now and what they will be called upon to do in the years that follow. This war is a worldwide revolt against some of the elements of the civilization which we have been developing for years. This revolt would not have been possible if our civilization had been as strong as we have taught in our classrooms that it was. This war is not the disintegration but the result of the disintegration of a civilization which has been growing progressively worse while we have been teaching that it was becoming better with every year. Education, in terms of specific accom- plishments, has improved much over the last century, but it will have to improve much more in the years that follow this war if the disinte- gration of civilization which preceded the war is not to continue after it. The disciplines which civilization imposes upon us must be renewed, revaluated, and greatly strengthened if the ideals of peace which we have taught in our schools are to be even partially attained. WJe have taught the promises of civilization without teaching the means to make the prom- ises come true. It is not too late to begin a basic teaching of the elements of civilization which will assure its continuity, but tomorrow will be too late. What is our job in such a situation ? The disciplines of wartime education must he built upon and strengthened for each year that follows. Education can be much improved thru what we are learning from the present demands of wartime activities. In the past years we have had many social problems that we did not solve satisfactorily. There was enormous waste of materials, of man- power-spiritual, intellectual, and physical. Our love of luxury and the ease with which luxury was attained deadened our best thinking on the purposes and futures of the human race. Like the barons of old, we thought we could build a fence around a portion of the world and segregate its use to our immediate and selfish purposes. The world belongs to those who will use it most advantageously. The war, of course, did not start with any specific event. It started in the many points of weak- ness in the social structures of the world, many of them in our own country. We are fighting now for another opportunity to solve our 48 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS problems which have become worldwide in scope. What will we do with these problems when we have won the physical battles of the war? Education in any country always will be a part of what is going on in that country. It will be affected by what is going on in the world, whether the world is at peace or at war. But education, if its purpose be attained, must also affect what is going on in its country and in its world. In this country it has been quite apparent that social con- ditions-local, national, and international-affect our schools. To what extent is the converse of the statement true? How and to what extent do our schools affect social and governmental conditions? I have no fear that our schools will not meet successfully and creditably the problems imposed by the immediate stress of the war, but I respectfully suggest that it will take far greater leadership and courage among educators to meet the conditions which follow the war and to help solve the problems which the war has taught us must be solved if life on the earth is to continue even as a possibility. For the present, our educational program must be geared to the war effort but in so doing we can learn much that will be of value to the program which must follow. Just what are the things that the schools can and should do in this critical emergency to improve the quality and quantity of the war effort? There have been many suggestions and there will be many more from many sources as to what schools should do. The school system of the United States is an almost perfect line organization. In a few hours we can plan for almost any service that needs to be given. We can organize for rationing, collection of essential materials, civilian defense, selling of war bonds and stamps, salvaging of waste, dissemination of essential information, furnishing a wide range of community services, preinduction training, and the use and conservation of manpower. How shall we work to keep a proper balance in education, anticipate real needs, and adjust our procedures to produce the best responses to the varying pressures that are being brought to bear and will be brought to bear upon us? We must evaluate critically and relatively the tasks before us and have the ability and the courage to do what our thoughtful conclusions dictate should be done. Our schools must in reality be the great source of strength we have claimed for them. The most difficult readjustment in life to make is readjustment in thinking. The older we are, the more difficult it is but the time element for such readjustment varies much with individuals. From where do we start to revalue our postulates, our premises? Many of our old ones may be correct but pigeonholed because of the pressures of the moment. It is time to restudy them. Coordinating war activities in our schools means that our work must be so conducted that things of most importance will come first. In the conduct of this war, many special and emergency services will need to be performed in our schools by pupils and teachers. Such work must not be minimized, but in the performance of the regular teaching work there is for every teacher an opportunity to make a far greater contri- THE CONVENTION NEVER HELD 49 bution toward victory and peace than in any other way. Our pupils must have something genuine to believe in. They must understand and be trained to face each day with confidence and assurance in the future. They must be trained for competence. The biggest problem in the coordination of war activities in our schools is not that of doing all the things that are brought to our doors to do but that of determining ,what things are of most value and should be done first. Never before has the destiny of the human race been so much in doubt. Never before has there been so much to work for. The freedoms we have extolled must be earned each day. We shall get no more than we earn and unless we work hard enough and intelligently enough, the progress we have made will be but a few pages in history. OCCUPATIONAL ADJUSTMENT AND THE WAR EDWIN A. LEE, DEAN, SCHOOL OF EDUCATION, UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA AT LOS ANGELES One of the circumstances for which superintendents have been giving thanks since December 7 and before has been the existence of a fairly well-organized program of vocational education in most of the states of the nation. Today there is no administrator who does not spend a major share of his time and effort in gearing his school system to the war effort, a large part of which is in terms of preparing boys and girls and men and women for active participation as workers, either in plants or on farms or in the armed forces. War manpower needs take precedence over all other needs. The manpower needs and the schools' responsibility for meeting them is the theme of the 1943 Yearbook of the American Association of School Administrators. Every administrator who is seriously interested should, by the time this OFFICIAL REPORT OF THE CONVENTION NEVER HELD reaches him, have read the yearbook. What is here written assumes the background which is therein presented. The occupation in which a large majority of American male youth will most certainly be engaged in the years immediately ahead is some form of armed service. Every able-bodied boy of eighteen years of age will be inducted into the armed forces within a few months after reaching his eighteenth birthday. Public-school educators dare not any longer, if indeed any still do, teach and administer classes and schools as if this overwhelming fact were not true. Let us examine this occupation of soldiering. The most significant characteristic of the occupation is fighting-a man must kill or be killed. Two elements enter into the ability to fight. One is physical fitness, the other is intellectual literacy. A school system that attempts to give the preliminary preparation to youth for the job of soldiering inevitably must lay great stress upon physical education, not alone in the months imme- diately preceding induction, but in all his schooling prior to induction. AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS Similarly it is an occupational requirement that youth shall be equipped not only to read and write at a standard roughly approximating a fifth- grade education but that they shall be taught to do it with the maximum intelligence and understanding which each can achieve. This means that some of the occupational adjustment will reach back as far as the upper grades of the elementary schools and will become increasingly objective as the youth approaches his final years of schooling. A second significant characteristic of service in the armed forces is that fighting is not the sole occupation. A modern army is made up of many workers. General Somervell estimates that of every hundred in- ducted men, sixty-three will engage in occupations or jobs which have their counterpart in civilian life. There are cooks, chauffeurs, photographers, barbers, stenographers, plumbers, radio-technicians, map-makers, policemen, airplane mechanics, meteorologists, carpenters, electricians, and scores of other vocations, all of which are essential to the smooth and effective func- tioning of a unit, whether it be on land or sea or in the air. Admin- istrators should be at the job of ascertaining the nature and size of such demands, and to the extent that shops and other facilities can be utilized the schools should be preparing youth for such service. It is, of course, true that out of many thousand male youth reaching eighteen at a given time a certain number will be placed in the 4-F category. For most of these there is a double problem-one the purely occupational and the other the emotional problem. If the disability be functional in terms of sight or hearing or heart or any one of a number of possibilities, there is the problem of finding some job in the war effort which can be handled despite the disability and of providing train- ing for effective achievement at that job. Much is already being done in a number of communities, and imagination and daring will uncover many more. The same is true for those who are crippled or malnourished or otherwise handicapped by accident or disease. No one, literally, who wants to share in the war effort thru the work of his hands or his mind need be denied the opportunity. A poignant demand grows out of what has just been said in terms of the injured soldiers and sailors who even at this writing are being returned to our shores in increasing numbers. That the problem will become tragically larger in scope and numbers involved is inescapable. Every community will have its maimed sons who somehow or other must be reabsorbed into its work life. Largely we shall be told what to do and how to do it by agencies of the state and federal governments. Let every administrator be alert.to the possibilities latent in his own city and whatever there be to do let it be done with a will. No matter how well the situation may be met, the debt owed to those youth who gave all but life itself will never be paid. Thus far the discussion has centered on occupational adjustment of the potential soldier or sailor. Back of the men in the services there are scores of civilian workers-one dependable estimate says sixteen civilians for every man in uniform. These workers grow and harvest and process the THE CONVE~NTiION NE VE-R 14 EL D food that feeds our forces and those of our allies. They make the planes, ships, guns, tanks, and ammunition, which modern war requires. They keep the trains and buses rolling; they serve in the banks, restaurants, and stores. They are the people at home who support and supply those who are scattered round the earth. The important thing to note is that they support and supply mainly thru the work they do. If they work well and efficiently, the flow of goods and equipment is smooth and effective. If they are inept or lazy, just to that extent is the flow broken and ineffective. Therefore, nothing is quite so important as that all workers shall be as well educated for the jobs at which they will be employed as wisdom and ingenuity can devise. The record of public schools in this matter is extraordinary, as every administrator knows. Nevertheless, "the one outstanding fact of the man- power situation today is that after two and one-half years of federally financed and locally executed training programs, there is today an acute shortage of potential workers in training." The chairman of the War iManpower Commission says that 320,000 to 500,000 persons should be in training now, while enrolment is only 160,000.' The schools, just as every other institution in American life, must exceed even that which the best have done. There is no alternative! Certain implications grow out of all that has preceded this paragraph. To a degree unimagined even a few months ago, the programs described apply to women as well as men. Women are enlisting in recognized governmental organizations. There is reasonable possibility that women will be subject to a selective service program to all intents and purposes the same as that now existing for men. Their duties may conceivably include everything now done by men except actual combat. They are ferrying planes, they are serving as aides and chauffeurs to army and navy officers; in countless ways they are freeing men for frontline duties. Even more striking are the facts concerning industry. In airplane fac- tories, in ordnance plants, in shipyards, wherever war work is going on women are quietly and effectively changing the complexion of the working force. In some plants they already exceed male employees on the payroll. This is one of the most interesting sociological changes now taking place in this country. From the viewpoint of occupational adjustment neither of the above developments imposes difficulties because of the infiltration of women workers. What we already know about teaching occupations needs to be modified but little, if at all, because women are being taught instead of men. Tihe second implication concerns adult education. It seems clear that much of the work not strictly military in its nature will be done increas- ingly by mature and older men and women. Young men in large measure will be actively engaged in war, and young in the draft age includes the middle thirties. As the war progresses it may be expected that deferred 1 li'arlime I'ocational Training. Conference Committee of Ihe American A,'sociation nf Schnol Ad- ministrators andi the Committec on Education of the Chamber of Commerce of the United Slates. Washington, ). ('. I'a 4 . Sec also: .ll-out Drfrnma Job Training. Occupational education tour for schooll superintendents, 1941. 52 A.MERICAN AssocIATIrON oP SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS classifications will shrink in all categories. The inescapable conclusion is a greatly increased program of adult vocational education, including men and women in the forties, fifties, and if the war lasts long enough, the sixties. That an extension downward at the other end into the fifteen-, sixteen-, and seventeen-year-old brackets will occur is unlikely and should not be resorted to until the full adult man and woman power has been harnessed to the war effort. It should be emphasized that all that we now know from experience and reflection concerning occupational adjustment needs to be focused upon the immediate problems. It is clear that such accomplishment as has been suggested in this paper must rest on a program of vocational guidance which has been wisely conceived, skilfully taught and adminis- tered, and carefully and fearlessly evaluated. It is equally clear that the actual teaching of occupations, which have been chosen thru adequate vocational guidance, requires capable and well- trained instructors who not only know their crafts but also know how to teach effectively, and that such teachers must have facilities and equipment reasonably adequate to the tasks they face. At this writing the problem of placement and induction does not loom so large as in other times, due to the almost insatiable demands of employers. Nevertheless, administrators must never lose sight of the ne- cessity of considering occupational adjustment as incomplete until place- ment satisfactory both to employer and employee has occurred. There may be superintendents who, longing for the quiet, cloistered days of an almost forgotten era, envision drastic reductions in such programs when peace shall come once more. To such it must be said that never again will the public schools consider the vocational objective to he unworthy of recognition and support in a complete program of education. We have learned thru bitter experience just short of major defeat how dependent a nation is upon trained minds and hands. Our miracles of production are in part the result of clearly conceived and brilliantly exe- cuted programs of vocational education. Our schools have proven them- selves to be bulwarks of democracy without which we could not have built planes or tanks or ships. Our schools will feed our workers and our soldiers thru those who are trained in agricultural skills and knowl- edge. At a thousand critical points they contribute to a vocational effec- tiveness absolutely essential to the winning of the war. Let no one then underestimate the scope and the significance of the educational revolution which is taking place before our eyes. Careful plan- ning and thinking are now being devoted to the development of wise and comprehensive programs of occupational adjustment for youth and adults. Inefficient practices are being eliminated, new and better methods and curriculums are. constantly being devised. It is unthinkable that we shall not .build upon what we are learning to the end that never again shall any person be unprepared to carry his economic weight. In truth, that which was rejected has now become the cornerstone. THE CONVENTION NEVER HELD 53 IN-SERVICE EDUCATION: HOW TO HELP TEACHERS IN SERVICE TO MEET WAR AND POSTWAR EDUCATIONAL NEEDS HEROLD C. HUNT, SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS, KANSAS CITY, MO. Just as the impact of the war is being felt in every walk and corner of American life so is its seriousness reflected in every area of education today. "Education as usual" was an idea discarded as readily as "business as usual" in the days immediately following Pearl Harbor. Even before the actual declaration of war, curriculum changes had been introduced, particularly into the secondary schools of the nation, to provide for addi- tional emphasis on vocational education which had assumed greater prom- inence with the initiation of Lend-Lease. With the advent of genuine hostilities, however, the necessity for adaptations in all fields early became apparent, and in use in schoolrooms thruout the country today are to be noted curriculums definitely based on wartime needs or in process of being fitted to those needs. While the adaptations are not felt so keenly on the elementary level, certain emphases have everywhere become evident. These are exemplified in programs which stress the promotion of health, the provision of oppor- tunities for community service, new interest in geography, and additional attention to the ideals of freedom and equality for which we are fighting. These areas are stressed, but at the same time attention is directed most forcefully to the laying of foundational skills and habits and to the main- tenance of a feeling of security, calmness, and well-being. On the secondary- school level the big changes have come thru introduction of new courses and complete revision of old ones. Preinduction courses in radio, machines, automotive mechanics; additional courses in mathematics and science; new emphasis on physical fitness, on conservation, and on experiences leading to occupational competence now characterize the high-school program. In keeping up with these new and varied wartime demands the school administrator faces, further, an additional problem, for he is at once confronted with the limitations of his staff to assist in the making, inaugu- rating, and carrying out of the required changes. Teachers of the pre-war era, to do an effective wartime job in education, must be sensitized to wartime needs and their teaching adapted to wartime demands. Conversion of many teachers must be directed from fields of declining interest during this emergency period to fields in which the felt pressure of critical days is resulting in increased enrolments and, consequently, the need for addi- tional teaching personnel. Likewise the school administrator is faced with the steadily mounting problem of teacher turnover. Lucrative offers of work in war industries are proving too tempting to be rejected in many instances, and war plants now number many erstwhile teachers among their employees. An addi- tional number from every school system are to be found in active service with the armed forces. Teaching staffs are indeed less stable than at any time within the memory of today's school administrators. An appalling AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS number of vacancies have occurred, many of which it has not been possible to fill. At the same time many who have been elected to teaching posts are individuals recalled to service after long absences. Reeducation of these teachers is vitally important to assure some measure of success for the schools' wartime program. Not to be overlooked, too, is the changing emotional character of the continuing staff. The trials of war leave their mark upon many and teachers are no farther removed from casualty lists than are other citizens. Clearly a program of in-service education, and a strong one, is imper- ative-more imperative perhaps than ever before-to overcome the limita- tions and the obstacles. New points of view must be instilled, old patterns made more meaningful; new capabilities must be found and put into action, old calmness and assurance strengthened; new vitality must be imparted, old courage and determination brought to the fore. In-service education reaches prime importance in the administrative program today in order to maintain a well-qualified, capable, and professional staff. But how is this to be accomplished ? First, let us define our term. In-service education today is justly interpreted broadly to include all technics, devices, and activities of school life and daily community living which will stimulate thinking of teachers and create an awareness among them to the crucial issues with which they are confronted-those technics and devices which will assure determination among teachers to take positive action in solving the problems that they meet daily. Those who have effected democratic, administrative organizations believe, and logically, that following the democratic pattern, in peace or in war, is the most effective way to meet in-service training needs. Participation in the administration continues to be a certain means of assuring the acquaintance of the personnel with the changing program and the changing requirements of the times. Participation of itself means awareness and only thru individual awareness to current conditions, needs, and demands can classroom programs be made successful in meeting these situations. Following democratic practices is indeed the most effective in-service train- ing technic that school administrators can put and continue in operation. Cooperative planning for determining curriculum and administrative adaptations, their introduction and evaluation, will assure maximum effec- tiveness in meeting needs. The participation of many minds brings about the inclusion of all aspects of a problem, and the different points of view represented assure adequate coverage. Likewise does cooperative endeavor provide its own essential interpretation so that those concerned with the program are at once capable of putting it into operation because of a knowledge of its purpose and objectives. Determination of necessary adaptations thru the participation of those whose responsibility it will be to follow out the recommendations assures the essential nature and the effectiveness of the proposals, both in their initiation and in their follow-thru. The committee technic for curriculum revision likewise serves not only to bring about the necessary course-of-study changes but provides as well effective educational experience for the participating teachers. Determina- 54 THE CONVENTION NEVER HELD 55 tion of adaptations of other educational procedures thru group conferences also affords professional stimulation and keener awareness on the part of the group membership. Advisory boards on grade and subjectmatter levels serve the dual purpose of determining policy for the activity of the group and chal- lenging the thinking o'f both the board itself and those to whom the board's recommendations are presented. A council of teachers conversant with the actual problems' confronting their associates in similar situations may well stimulate the thinking of an entire group, in working out solutions to the problems, to a far greater extent than do recommendations imported from sources differing in some measure from those in which these particular teachers are working. In these critical days, which are beset with difficulties of transportation and heavier than usual schedules, economy of time is of prime importance. Even so the professional advantages to be gained from stimulating faculty meetings outweigh the restrictions imposed by the war. School systems which have been in the habit of conducting for their staffs at regular intervals professional meetings, institutes, lectures, and the like, in centrally located places, should consider overcoming the difficulties of transportation and crowded schedules thru wider use of the radio. By means of the technic of "Faculty Meetings of the Air" school staffs, assembled in the individual buildings of a school system or of an entire area when such can be arranged, listen in to specially prepared broadcasts by members of the administrative and teaching staffs, guest speakers, pupils, parents, or any combination thru which important presentations may be made to the entire staff. Following the broadcast, which may well run for a half-hour period, the individual faculties continue the discussion in its relation to their own interests and needs. This technic is perhaps even more thought-provoking than the general faculty meeting at which the meeting is adjourned fol- lowing the conclusion of the platform presentation. Gathered in their respective schools, groups of teachers are more willing to discuss the issues raised in a radio program in the light of the implications for that par- ticular building unit. In informal manner are minds stimulated to develop plans and evolve solutions. Teachers feel more freedom and are more ready to express themselves in the friendly atmosphere of familiar environ- ment, and such expression is a stimulant to further thinking, leading to individual development as well as effective group action. Technics that present new challenges to teachers are also effective in-service educational experiences. In this category may be listed the simple change of scene provided by assignment to a different building. In many school systems, particularly those in cities paying the more attractive salaries, local tenure and building tenure are synonymous-or practically so. Even the superior, ultraprogressive teacher is apt to permit a letdown of exertion creep into classroom performance after a number of years at the same post. Having run thru a wide variety of individual differences, new pupils may with little difficulty be likened to former ones and the necessity for providing ever new and fresh experiences may seem to become less 56 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS and less urgent. A new building, a different group of associates, a parent body representing a strange variety of interests, to say nothing of unfa- miliar faces and unanticipated mannerisms, will generally provide a chal- lenge that will result in improved teaching and, actually, professional advancement. This technic, simple in operation, is welcomed, once it has been tried, by teachers and administrators alike. The occasional unsatis- factory new assignment may be adjusted by reassignment or return to former position. Even when this latter alternative must be adopted, how- ever, stimulation and challenge are usually imparted to the teacher by the very fact of the consideration and the necessity for the change. Sponsorship by a school system of lectures, series of lectures, forums, panel discussions, and other such meetings, serves likewise to stimulate the thinking of the staff. Topics for these lectures and discussions may be educational, inspirational, or of other current interest. The mere fact of their presentation and of teacher attendance at them is thought-provoking. Supervision has long been carried on as a means of in-service education of teachers. Visits of supervisors to classrooms generally serve to spur effort and create better teaching situations. Supervisory practice which is, how- ever, largely in the nature of a rating of a teacher or of classroom performance is not nearly so effective in bringing about continued improve- ment as is that supervision which may best be described as a "working together" or a "joint planning experience" between teacher and super- visor. The supervisor who observes a classroom teacher to note needs and then takes up with the teacher the next steps and the ultimate satisfaction of those needs-that supervisor is providing actual in-service training for the teachers observed. Likewise can a supervisor place at the disposal of the teacher a wealth of material and information concerning the sources of helpful literature or other implementation on any particular subject on which a class is working or plans to work. Supervisors thru their various contacts are familiar with a wide variety of useful and helpful materials-reference, enrichment, supplementary, or just plain "additional"-most of which will be extremely valuable to the teacher in carrying out classroom plans and experiences. From this knowledge and familiarity it is possible for the supervisor to place in the hands of teachers selected, annotated bibliog- raphies from which may be chosen the most effective teaching aids. Under the direction of supervisors, further, with the cooperation and assistance of members of the school staff, professional libraries can be built, making immediately and readily available to the entire personnel outstand- ing professional books and other worthwhile literature. In a similar way curriculum libraries and laboratories may be assembled, in which interested teachers may utilize course-of-study materials from a variety of school systems, many of which will offer valuable suggestions for adapting curriculums in use or building new ones. Professional publications pre- pared under the direction of the administrative and supervisory staff, with cooperation and participation of teachers, may be designed to meet par- ticular needs that have been recognized or as a means of imparting new THE CONVENTION NEVER HELD or unusual professional information. Availability of all these materials thru distribution to the entire staff, or circulation in the case of single copies or a limited supply, is a most effective supervisory technic. A still further means of strengthening in teachers the ability to meet successfully any situations arising in their classrooms as a result of critical times is thru encouragement of participation in community life. To the extent that such participation serves to stabilize teachers and impart a feeling of satisfaction in 'their share in the war effort may it be con- sidered a form of in-service training and as such may it be advocated by school administrators. Community contacts assist teachers to recognize community needs and this recognition enables adaptations in teaching pro- cedures to assure the meeting of these situations. The community contacts of the teacher thus lead to genuine community service rendered by the teacher because of awareness to critical needs. These experiences contribute immeasurably to the growth of the teacher professionally as well as personally. No accounting of in-service training technics would be complete with- out the inclusion of regular courses in education and in related fields offered by colleges, universities, and teacher-training institutions thruout the country. In localities near these universities, and in extramural centers established by them, teachers may be encouraged to take one or two courses during the school year itself, concurrent with their teaching activity. Par- ticipation in university classes always serves to bring new ideas and stim- ulation into the teacher's classroom performance by the very facts of the formation of new contacts and the direction of attention to new or forgotten sources of information or ideas. In more remote areas these university courses must of necessity be postponed to the summer season. The more intensive type of study during vacation periods should likewise be encouraged for teachers, both in the form of regular summer courses and in the newer "educational workshops" now being sponsored by many school systems. The workshop idea provides opportunities to apply modern educational theories and practices to actual situations with which a teacher has been or will be confronted, leading to the determination of the most adequate handling. Sponsored by a board of education and the administration of a school system in order to secure the desired leadership, the educational workshop is characterized by cooperative planning on the part of a selected university staff and a representation of the school personnel, both in its initiation and continuously thruout its duration. The workshop is con- cerned with local problems and areas of special local interest. Participation in it results in the satisfactory solution of these problems thru the experi- ences of the teachers in the handling of the situations and the working out of the most effective course of action. It may thus be seen that a workshop is a practical means of educating teachers concerning the aims and objectives of a school program thru their participation in the devel- opment of procedures for the solution of actual problems. Always aimed at "rejuvenation of thinking" thru the guidance of skilful 58 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS leadership, courses which teachers take in order to meet the in-service training requirements of their school system or just for their own profes- sional interest and advancement unfailingly gear thinking to the implica- tions of the times. In critical days the value of such in-service education cannot be minimized in its production of alert, professional teachers capable of adapting classroom procedures to each new demand or requirement as it becomes even remotely apparent. Thus it appears that various devices and technics may be employed as in-service training measures. Those which are most successful, however, in keeping an educational staff in line with current developments are the ones which, thru actual participation, create an unmistakable awareness to conditions as they exist, and as they are in process of constant change; an awareness to situations which must be immediately met, and to situa- tions which will soon have to be met. Such an awareness implanted upon the basic foundational equipment of the teacher will result in the taking of positive action toward meeting the needs that are thus recognized. Any program of in-service education which is successful, therefore, in creating in teachers an awareness to constantly changing conditions and an ability to meet the demands of these changes thru everyday classroom procedure will be effective in meeting not only wartime but postwar educa- tional needs. Such a program is constantly tuned and timed in recognition of current activities, events, and needs, and thru the participatory aware- ness thus achieved, with its stimulation to positive action, will it guarantee a ready and continuous meeting of all situations. THE CHIPS ARE DOWN PETER H. ODEGARD, ASSISTANT TO THE SECRETARY, U. S. TREASURY DEPARTMENT, WASHINGTON, D. C. One of the questions raised by the war is whether or not American education has given us the economic intelligence to reduce our living stand- ard voluntarily. To cope with total war and its aftermath, this has to be (lone rigorously enough to let the steam out of war production's pressure on prices. We have never done it before. Sugar cost$20 a pound at one
time during the Revolutionary War. And Washington-George not D. C.
-filled many a page with his complaints on the inflationary practices of
the merchants with whom his quartermasters had to deal. Gone With the
Wind describes what happened to prices in the South during the Civil
War, while rising prices added 500,000,000 to the government's outlay in the North. The price history'of World War I is familiar. "In the past," said the President in his budget message to the Congress, "wars have usually been paid for mainly by means of inflation, thereby shifting the greatest burden to the weakest shoulders and inviting postwar collapse. We seek to avoid both. Of necessity, the program must be harsh." In the ivory tower of economic theory, production and consumption must achieve approximate balance if the body economic is to function THE CONVENTION NEVER HELD 59 in the classical manner. TM\oney and the equivalent thereof aire the mediums of exchange that make this possible. War increases production and the circulation of money, but the two of them do not balance just because the money goes round and round. Too high a percentage of production is consumed on the battlefield without any reference to money whatsoever. Dollars in search of commodities naturally bid prices up. The war savings program was designed to divert this "excess" money and so to maintain the balance between production and consumption. Secondly, it is expected to create a reservoir of savings that will flow back into postwar circulation in support of private production. The spec- tacular ease with which the Treasury has raised billions of dollars from the big holders of savings obscures the fact that such savings are virtually absorbed now. That does not mean the ability to borrow has been affected, but it does mean government borrowings must come out of current income if excessive creation of credit-purchasing power-is to be avoided. This need for savings out of current income points up one of the premises of the war savings program. Unlike the Liberty Loans of World *War I, when the highest total amount was the sole goal, our present war savings program is also designed to achieve maximum participation in savings. Maximum volume of savings is important too, but this time it is only one of the goals. Not only must the money to pay for this most costly war be raised, but to an unprecedented extent it must come from current income, so as to take purchasing power out of the market and to create a genuine mass purchasing power in the future. Science and industry are preparing a bonus for those who follow this policy in the form of new and cheaper products. School administrators have a double stake in the success of the war savings program. Should its objectives not be reached, the problems of school support would be multiplied. The incidence of children and tax- paying ability is frequently inverse, and financing the schools so that the purposes of democracy are achieved depends on taxpaying ability. Retire- ment plans of many teachers would be upset by drastic changes in the value of the savings set aside for the purpose. Avoiding postwar problems in school administration is, of course, only the frosting on the cake. The basic fact for educators is that war indicts education. Eradicating the effect of Fascist education for death will be a postwar problem of the first magnitude. It concerns American educators as well as German and the improvement of education here and now is an essential preliminary to worldwide postwar advance. Educational outcomes are customarily marked for future testing, but in time of great national undertakings, it is not satisfying to be insulated from the present. Sharing and leading vigorously in the war savings pro- gram, as a citizen as well as an educator, is a bridge between your pro- fessional obligations and the need for all of us to help now. Buying war bonds, doing without, are direct acts of war. To bring about widespread sharing in war savings, we have relied in part upon the creation of a fashion for saving by general propaganda and AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS in part on specific group approaches. Specific clinchers of general appeals have been made with most success thru the payroll savings plan. Nearly 30,000,000 people are saving out of current income thru payroll allot- ments. War costs have reached the point, however, that makes still further cuts in current income imperative. Equally specific methods and equally extensive coverage will have to be achieved. General propaganda to main- tain savings as a war habit is not alone enough to hold savings at the level necessary to accomplish the objectives we have in view. This moves the main problem of war savings into the field of education. To define the educational phase of the problem is not simple. The question, "To spend or not to spend ?" is not answered on a stage. The answer is personal and subject to change. With those above the subsistence level, the definition of "necessary spending" is highly flexible. Further- more, it is quite likely to reflect the peacetime social customs and personal habits of the spenders. It seems to follow that since what you spend and what you save are based on subjective decisions, thrift education by itself is a negative idea. It needs to be linked with spending education, and in a total war economy spending above the necessity level is antisocial behavior. Since saving by those with a margin for saving is based on subjective factors, it seems reasonable to say that there are more savers who can save more than there are nonsavers who can save. British studies indicate that this is so, and it can be confirmed by rule-of-thumb observation among one's friends. Savings such as the offensive war demands-that is, something more than skimming the 10 percent cream from enlarged incomes-becomes therefore a problem in leadership, a type of leadership in which schools are most able. As a basis for exerting this leadership, I would like to propose to the American Association of School Administrators that it create criteria for necessity spending as part of the traditional thrift education program of American schools. In each of your communities con- spicuous, active leadership for war savings can come from the schools. National patriotic appeals to war savings will continue as a backdrop for such a program, but no better instrument exists for telling the personal side of the story than the schools. Even tho the personal, habitual choice of all of us should be what the British label austerity, it is not a hard choice to make, once the will to do so is habitual. All that the government is asking is that we take a lien on the future instead of scrambling now for the comforts of the past. You can say with some justice that the kind of educational program I am talking about lies in the adult educator's field. This is true, but only partially so. First, the youngsters themselves can help adults be intelli- gent about savings. They can be the carriers of information on intelligent wartime buying as well as the fervent interpreters of nonspending. Few families can resist the insistence of the youngster who wants to make sure that his school is flying the Schools at War flag for 90 percent participation in the war savings program. School youth who earn money offer a specially fertile field for saving- THE CONVENTION NEVER HELD 61 spending education. In some places 50, 60, 70, even 80 percent of the high-school group arc working and making more money at an earlier age than ever before. Where they have their basic necessities provided by their families, their income is almost entirely free and eligible for savings. In any case, a much larger percentage of savings can be expected from these earners than from adults. And the spending of new earners is one of our most serious problems since it does represent new demand, usually for nonessentials. WVhy not a positive thrift-spending program to get these youth to spend in the form of savings for particular war uses and for particular future desires? The chips are down. Will school administrators come thru with aces? THE DEMANDS OF THE WAR UPON THE FINANCIAL RESOURCES OF THE SCHOOL DISTRICT CLAUDE V. COURTER, SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS, CINCINNATI, OHIO It is axiomatic in American philosophy in the present crisis that all the nation's resources, financial and material, cultural and spiritual, have one standard of value. They are of value in terms of their importance in the successful prosecution of the war and in preparing for the peace. They are fully expendable, therefore, for the one purpose-the achievement of complete victory, which is the double victory of winning the war and winning the peace; for unless the democratic way of life based upon freedom in its noblest sense and guided by the precepts of Christianity is preserved to the world, none of the nation's resources has further sig- nificance for our civilization. With all other agencies in our national life, public education is privileged to spend its resources to this end. Tax-supported public education in our country is the processing of financial resources into material and cultural resources. In the total process, money raised from taxes creates buildings, grounds, equipment, and sup- plies, and trains and pays teachers. Teachers use buildings, grounds, equipment, and supplies to create the cultural and spiritual resources of our civilization in training young Americans to inherit, maintain, and improve our culture. In this cycle, financial resources have significance only in terms of their adequacy and the intelligence and efficiency with which they are transformed into the resources of mind, body, and spirit of the American citizen. They are fully expended when the processes of training and releasing a citizen into our society to inherit its privileges and carry on its purposes have been completed as well as may be. The demands of the war upon the financial resources of a school district are in reality demands upon this entire process. By this analysis there are two groups of demands made by the wiar upon the financial resources of a school district. They are (1) demands which consume the financial resources of a school district for purposes other than the education and training of future citizens, and (2) demands upon the financial resources that are available for the educational process 62 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS itself. In the first group of demands may be listed (a) the demands of the war upon the tax source, (b) the demands upon operating revenues, and (c) the demands upon invested capital. In the second group are (a) demands upon the curriculum, and (b) demands upon the time and energy of the teaching staff. WVe shall examine each of these demands. The primary financial resource of a school district is its source of taxes. This tax source is a composite of the taxable wealth of the school district, of the state, and of the nation, the will of state and national legislatures, and the will of the people of the school district. Taxable wealth in itself is a passive, inert financial resource, possessing only potential value. It becomes active and dynamic when taxes are levied against it by legislatures or by the will of the local electorate. This wealth transformed by the will of the people into tax income or supporting a structure of public debt, finances the discharge of the functions of local, state, and national gov- ernment, and the activities of public education. The tax source, then, made an active financial resource of-the school district by the will of legislatures or by the popular will, is called upon now to support the increased cost of government and the astronomical costs of the war. This wealth must also supply the greatly increased needs of nontax-supported, quasi-public charitable and social agencies, and maintain a reasonably decent standard of living. The owners of the tax source-the taxpayers-after the demands of the federal government have been met, are now called upon to determine the amount of their income they will share with local and state government, social agencies, and public education, and the amount they will retain for the considerably inflated costs of satisfying personal and family needs. The demands of the war upon the tax source of school revenue are in reality, therefore, demands upon the intelligence, patriotism, unselfishness, and vision of the American taxpaying citizen. They are demands upon the statesmanship of legislatures and the will of the local electorate to continue the normal yield of the tax source for the operation of schools, in order that one of the nation's most important instrumen- talities supporting the war may not be weakened, and in order that this virile agency may continue to train future citizens to meet the serious problems of the postwar world. The demands of the war upon the operating revenues of the school district for purposes other than the education and training of pupils of the district are many and varied. There arc first, the demands which require the use of teachers for activities other than teaching, and which remove from the education al processes that portion of tile school district's resources that represents teachers' salaries spent for nonteaching activ- ities. A particular example of this use of teachers is the necessary placing in schools of the rationing programs. There have been four such programs so far-the rationing of sugar, fuel oil, gasoline, and processed foods. In most places, the sheer magnitude of these programs has necessitated the closing of schools for a portion of the rationing period. It is probably conservative to estimate that two or three hundred million dollars' worth of teaching time has been used thruout the nation in these activities. THE CONVENTION NEVER IHIEL) 63 Examples of other demands upon operating revenues are costs of greatly increased use of schoolbuildings for civilian defense and the training of civilian volunteers; costs for overtime of building-operation employees; the reflection of increased living costs in salaries; costs of training teach- ers for replacements; and increased costs of fuel, supplies, and transpor- tation. In the total, these expenditures represent heavy demands upon school revenues that are normally available for the educational program. The demands of the war upon the capital investments of the school district are also severe. Capital investment usually represented in buildings, grounds, and equipment has accumulated thru several generations. This investment is maintained by repair and replacement of buildings and equipment. Most cities' expenditures for this purpose have been seriously curtailed because neither workmen nor materials are available. In some cases, considerable available equipment has been sold to the federal gov- ernment. Such income and expenditures normally made for repair and replacement are in many cases being used to finance the special expendi- tures which have previously been referred to. This process is, in the final analysis, a spending of capital. It represents the using up of an important financial resource which may be extremely difficult to replace. Not usually so regarded, there is nevertheless another capital invest- ment in public education within the school district that, as a result of the war, is being spent for purposes other than that for which it was made. It is the investment that has been made in the education and training of the teachers who are inducted into the armed services, who join the auxiliary branches of the services, or who are working on the production front. Every trained teacher who comes into a school district represents capital invested in public education, irrespective of where the training was done or who paid for it. The total invested in the training of an active teacher is, in a very real sense, capital working for the school district. There are at the present time at least 100,000 trained teachers who have left teaching for military service or for work in war industries. In many cases their places have not been filled. In other cases their places have been taken by teachers less well trained. This process constitutes a withdrawal from school systems of several hundred million dollars of capital invested in public education. It is a justifiable withdrawal of capital from the school district to the extent that the services of these teacher. in the war Qffort are more important outside the classroom than they are inside the classroom preparing youth for the armed services, for war production, and for future citizenship. Up to this point, this discu.sionm has concerned itself with the demands the war has made upon the financial resources of the school district for purposes other than the education and training of children and youth. The war has likewise made extensive demands upon financial resources that are expended for the operation of the education program itself. Few school dis- tricts are continuing education as usual. They are spending their resources to the end that their educational program may make the largest possible contribution to the support of the war. This has demanded a reshaping AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS of the curriculum and large expenditure of time and effort of the educa- tional staff in the supervision and direction of the wartime activities of some 30,000,000 American boys and girls. The demands of the war upon the curriculum are threefold. The war has demanded (a) the formulation of new courses and new materials, (b) the reshaping of established courses, and (c) the redirection of the counseling and guidance program. The demand for the reshaping of the curriculum by teachers is a demand that financial resources paid out in teachers' salaries shall make vital contri- bution to the successful prosecution of the war. To do this most effec- tively it is necessary to instal a considerable array of fairly specific pre- induction courses in high schools. This means providing educational activity for the very definite purpose of shortening the time required by the armed services in training the technicians which modern warfare requires. There are some who maintain that the entire effort of teachers on the secondary-school level should be directed to the preparation of their students for wartime responsibilities. There are others who believe that while the direct preparation of students to carry on the war is now a major responsi- bility of secondary schools in particular, the long range program of training citizens and workers for a peacetime economy must also be continued. Whatever the viewpoint, the war demands some very considerable realign- ment of the objectives and technics of public education. In addition to the new and specialized courses developed in the schools because of the war, it has been necessary, therefore, to survey every subject field and determine the particular contribution that each of the established subject fields can make in the prosecution of the war and in preparation for the period of peace. At the same time these activities have been in progress, it has been found necessary to direct the counseling and guidance of high-school students toward the achievement of the best possible adjustment within these fields of service. Perhaps the best example of what is taking place in the estab- lished subject fields is the rapidly developing and expanding program of physical fitness in the field of physical education to equip students with stamina and physical ruggedness demanded in modern warfare. Thus the demands of the war upon the curriculum, particularly of secondary schools, has been a demand for the training of the personnel for the armed services, for production of war materials, and for the most essenti;il of civilian occupations. On the elementary level, the demand has been for the development of activities designed to improve and strengthen health, protect and safe- guard children, maintain emotional balance and wholesome attitudes, and improve the understanding and appreciation of the meaning of democracy, the meaning of the war, the privileges and responsibilities of Americans, and the ways in which every child can help his nation. The war has also made many demands upon financial resources paid in teachers' salaries for the supervision and direction of the wartime activ- ities of children and youth, and many adults, outside of the classroom. Schoolteachers have organized and are administering the Junior Army of THE CONVENTION NEVER HELD 65 America created for tilhe purpose of gathering scrap and other vital waste materials. Teachers have been directing and administering with the help of students the Schools at lWar Program designed to promote the sale of stamps and bonds in schools. Teachers have organized and are admin- istering the High-School Victory Corps as a framework for the organi- zation of student activities and curriculum offerings as direct preparation for the impending participation of students in the war. Teachers have organized outside the classroom and are administering courses in consumer education and the meaning of rationing. Teachers arc sponsoring and directing a multitude of service projects for pupils under the banner of the Junior Red Cross. Teachers have organized and are administering training courses for civilian volunteers needed by the Red Cross, the Civilian Defense Corps, child-care agencies, recreational agencies, and for many other activities. Teachers also have engaged in a multitude of volun- teer activities within the communities of which they are a part. All this spending of teacher time and energy is a direct contribution of financial resources of the school district brought about by the demands of war. Such, then, is the nature of the demands of the war upon the financial resources of the school district-demands on the one hand that are outside of and beyond the school's traditional functions; and on the other hand, demands that financial resources be spent upon an educational program geared as closely as possible to the wartime needs of the nation. These demands have been entirely legitimate and school districts have been very willing, in fact have felt privileged, to spend their resources for these purposes. The listing of these demands, and the indicating of how they are being met, serves only the purpose of setting forth in some completeness the nature of the contribution that the public schools of the nation are making in the prosecution of the war. The ways in which these demands are being met should be fully known not only by school people but by the people of the school districts as well. Such knowledge can only be accompanied by a sense of confidence and pride in the virility and integrity, of educational institutions in a democracy, when they are maintained and supported by a far-seeing, patriotic, and intelligent citizenship. To the extent our citizens understand the nature and meaning of these contri- butions, and the part they as taxpayers are playing in the prosecution of the war and in preparing for the peace by supporting and maintaining their schools-to that extent will the schools be permitted uninterruptedly to continue and improve their great service to the nation in the critical days and years which are ahead. 66 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS EDUCATIONAL FINANCE IN WARTIME: THE VIEW ON THE HIGHER LEVEL ALFRED D. SIMPSON, HARVARD GRADUATE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION, CAMBRIDGE, MASS. Traditionally in America we have been community-centric in our thoughts and actions in relation to the financing of education. Nevertheless, since World War I we have tended rather definitely to widen the scope of our approach to school support. In the financing of education, we may characterize the period between the two great world conflicts as a period in which we have become, tho with creeping progress, more state-cen- tric. As we look back, we may point to the Educational Finance Inquiry as originally instrumental in developing what emphasis upon the state in educational support has characterized the past quarter-century. The needs revealed during the last war prompted this emphasis. Thru World War II we shall, both in education and in its support, become vastly more nation-centric than we have heretofore imagined might be the case in America. The conditions of this day lead us inexorably toward the defining of education as a national function. It seems clear to me that we are in a period when our very future as a nation requires a substantial educa- tional endeavor at the national level. Because of the nature of the programs for the several 1943 meetings at St. Louis, my discussion of educational finance during wartime has been divided into two parts: first, a consideration of some problems derived from what I refer to as the view on the higher level; and second, a statement of certain fundamental propositions which seem to me to lie at the heart of any program for financing education during war or in the postwar period. The latter I planned to do at the meeting of the National Council of Education. The former is the purpose of this dis- cussion. At this point, I must warn you that what I have to say here may seem not to have much direct bearing upon the financing of educa- tion. If so, I am sorry, because what I want to do is to deal with some underlying problems and to indicate some of the clearings of concept and attitude which I believe to be necessary if we are to secure a more adequate, equitable, and adaptable financing. Approach Lies Less in Finance than in Educational Concept With me, it is a generalization from my experience that the basic approach to the problem of educational finance lies less in finance than in education. Here I am reminded of what Dean Donham of the Harvard School of Business Administration once said to me with characteristic emphasis (and a pound on the table). "Young man," said the venerable Dean, "I want you to understand that the important word in 'business administration' is not 'business' but 'administration.' Similarly, and how- ever much as an operator I may have seemed not to think so, I bear witness that experience and study alike tell me that in "educational finance" the important word is not "finance" but "education." THE CONVENTION NEVER HELD 67 I do not depreciate the scientific study of financing education, nor do I underestimate its importance or its contribution to more adequate financ- ing. The point I emphasize here is that we know more now about how to arrange a system of financing education-a facilitating finance-than we ever have a chance to put into practice. The trouble lies not in financial technic but in timid souls, in those who are too exclusively "centric" on too low a level, in those who have limited and traditional educational concept, and in those who because they themselves are in fiscally favorable states or local units think too little of youth in units not so well situated. And these conceptual inadequacies are not monopolized by those outside the gates of education. It is time we came to grips with the problems underlying the financing of education. We need to get the view on the higher level. Hope in the Great Crisis But there is hope, too, and the hope lies, as often it does, in the great crisis. It is important that we examine it and find its meaning for edu- cation. In times of intense crisis, a people tends inevitably to broaden its view. This, in simple terms, is what is happening now. The crisis forms itself into war-into war which, being global, is at its very minimum, national in effort. Admittedly, then, war calls for a view which, in its lowest possible aspect, is national. War is a national function. Whenever a people deals with war, therefore, a people has to broaden its view, to say the least, to one coterminous with the national interest. This simple fact logically carries us much beyond national viewpoint. Of course, it takes us to the far corners; it broadens our view to international limits. AMerelv to recognize this makes it clearer that at the least viewpoint crisis becomes national. School Systems Become National Agencies Another thing, among many, is also self-evident regarding the crisis: it totally pervades a people. This needs no elaboration because it must be ap- parent that no corner of American life fails to be pervaded by the war crisis. By the same token, no phase of American life exists apart from the national concern. Education, for example, which is the phase of American life with which we are here primarily concerned, is in its currently dominating inter- est both pervaded by the crisis and broadened into national perspective. Schools become, indeed, war service stations and school systems become na- tional agencies of state and local jurisdiction. Nor is this so merely when we consider schools as agencies for "education for work," in the sense of preparation for the work of war. It is so as truly when we consider schools as agencies for "education for citizenship." Likewise, it is so when we ex- pand "schools" into "education" an.d consider the area of higher education, family life, adult education, or education as a subfunction of every other governmental function. Even our search for the solution to the problem of the future of "general education" finds our thinking pervaded by the facts and meaning of the crisis and broadened into national perspective. 68 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS But, it will be asked, if we grant that all this is so and proceed accord- ingly, shall we not be overestimating a merely current phenomenon? Shall we not by planning in the light of war be planning erroneously? Are these not abnormal times and are not, therefore, the pervasion of the crisis and the national perspective representative of consideration which we may not wisely allow to weigh heavily in our thinking? I cannot attempt to deal extensively with these questions. If they have any pertinence, there will be plenty of our people and our educators, too, who will embrace them. As I see these counterinquiries, they are of the unadaptive, the parsimonious, the reactionary, the extreme localists, and the fearful. They are the queries of those who would not forward the equalization of educational opportunity, much less give it the fiscal leeway to be richly adaptive to changing conditions and needs. I am not much given to pause by these inquiries. I am persuaded, rather, that the only constructive view is to admit to the councils of our minds the fullest meaning of the crisis and to see with a broadened perspective. I am persuaded that crisis, at its apex, is "the decisive moment; (the) turning point." Crisis, however, but represents the increasing tempo of change. There is not vast difference between the apex of the crisis and the times before the crisis. Conditions are cumulative. When they 'have piled up and have not been reduced by coming to grips with them, they produce a state of affairs which becomes so dominant that the condition of crisis becomes patent. Likewise, the conditions commonly recognized as constituting crisis are also crisis conditions subsequently, unless people come to grips with them. We may come to grips with the uppermost problem of crisis but not with other problems which we do not recognize as uppermost. In other words, we now come to grips with war as an uppermost characteristic of the crisis; but even if we dispose successfully of war, this fact does not mean that we have disposed of crisis. By disposing of war-the most commonly recognized embodiment of crisis-we have not disposed of the conditions giving rise to crisis. In substance, crisis, or war as the embodiment of crisis,- brings us to a new level of complex concern from which we shall not be able to recede. If we recede, we are lost; if we seek merely to hold our own on this level, without solving the problems truly embedded in the condi- tions of crisis, we are lost. We must solve these problems, not for the sake of returning to normalcy but in order that we may live and grow as a people among other peoples who live and grow. In coming to grips with these crisis-borne conditions and the problems which must be solved if we are to live and grow, we naturally proceed along several roads. One of these roads is education: and this is the approach with which we in education are most closely concerned by virtue of our trust. To think of education in the frame of crisis is to me a significant part of the view oh the higher level. It has seemed to me necessary to consider education from this viewpoint in order to help prevent ourselves from sloughing off our task, to enable ourselves to see the task which confronts education as one which is as broad as America and her total THl' CONV~ENTrloN NEVER HELD 69 concern, and above all, in order that we may see our problem not merely as a wartime problem but as a postwar problem as well-a problem that will persist as long as the conditions of crisis persist, even long after what we are too prone to regard as the whole of the crisis has been successfully coped with. I have been trying to say, also, that the problems of education and its support can no more be neatly divided between those of war and peace than can the totality of the problems of America herself. that the problems of war and peace have continuity and are coexistent. Our problems in education have to be attacked during war; but such an attack is also a postwar attack. So far as education is concerned, or America herself is concerned-so far as her destiny depends on popular education- the crisis will continue as long as the conditions and the problems of the crisis remain unresolved. Convincing of Need, the Important Problemn Now If we can convince people widely, convince governmental leaders, con- vince educators themselves, that there is a need for a more adequate financial support for education, I have confidence that the needed support will begin to flow to education. By and large, American people support that which they want to support. The crux of the problem lies, to a great extent, in limited educational concept. Mort refers to this oftentimes as "conceptual design," when he at the same time points out with equal effectiveness the traditional and widespread lag in practice. As iM\ort has also established thru his research, there is an appreciable going-togetherness between the overcoming of lag and financial support. For the most part there is evidence of high gauge conceptual design and less of operational lag where financial support is high. Unfortunately, the places or areas in which financial support is high are relatively few. Admittedly, this raises a sort of "hen and egg" or "which comes first" question. As a result. we get into a vicious circle. The thing that I urge we must do is to break thru the dilemma. The point of attack, it seems to me, in breaking thru the dilemma lies in increasing our efforts to effectuate an enough broader dispersal of advanced conceptual design and an enough increased diffusion of practice to more clearly establish in the minds of people the need which education has of more adequate support. In general, it is to this matter of diffusion that we need particularly to address our efforts. Here I am talking about the ordinary run of school systems, those where there is not a high degree of financial support and those in which both conceptual design and practice are ordinary. The very least we could have, it would seem, is to find the ordinary school system thinking of something better, thinking of the limitations of their practices, thinking of the unmet needs of American youth which they long to serve. If the educational concepts of the thousands of "run of the mill" school systems in this country could be raised to think about educational service in terms of the conditions, the problems, and the critical needs which are embedded in the crisis-if we could just get AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS them to thinking realistically and even talking about a higher concept of educational need-we would be on the road to .breaking thru our dilemma. I never cease to be impressed by the complete satisfaction with present systems of educational finance and with present levels of school support on the part of great numbers of our educators. Many of them seem to have no notion of any auspices-any potential auspices-in the support of education beyond the traditional auspices of the local school system and the local property tax. I cannot help but think that what this means is that they think of no further educational service which they would like to render even if they could find support. We must find a way to break thru this situation. Some Underlying Emphases There are certain lines of emphasis and certain approaches to this problem which I cannot go into at any great length here but to which I want to call attention. School systems place too much emphasis on courses and subjects and too little emphasis upon pupils as individuals. Somehow, the center or focus of the ordinary school administrator's thinking and of the ordinary teacher's thinking must be directed away from courses and subjects toward the individual needs of youth. And I do not refer here to mechanistic devices of so-called individual method. We must have more purposing regarding the fundamental services which youth need from school systems. For example, what "general education"-a problem now commonly de- bated-needs most is the attaching of life purpose to work in school and college, not unlike, yet differing from, the function of purpose attaching to vocational and professional education. General education cannot expect youth to see purpose when those who practice general education center upon subjects and courses and do not themselves clearly see purpose. Somehow, we must come to center our attention upon education as not merely preparation for something later to be done in life, such as preparation for citizenship, but rather as the actually living and carrying on now of the civic phases of the life's work. This calls upon us to be continuously alert, to relate the work of the school to the actual life conditions, to the activities of the community, and to the world about the school. It is wrong to think of even a doorway between the school and the community because to so think implies that there is a partition in which such a doorway must be set. For example, we talk glibly about work experience. We talk about citizenship in action; but we have all together a paucity of actual demonstrations of meaningful and significant participation on the part of youth in the work and civic phases of life as contrasted to what we call preparation for these things. It is not enough that we get these emphases in certain richly supported school communities or areas. We must have these things on the tongues of the ordinary run of school people. 'I'llE CONVENTION NEVER HELD 71 Central agencyy Magnification of the Service Concept One would think that state departments and central governmental agencies for education could help in this diffusion and broadening of educational concept about which I am talking. We do have illustrations of this but they are altogether too few and scattered. One of the great and important areas concerning which we are getting more conscious is the area of intergovernmental relations. Why cannot the state departments of education be more influential in this diffusion which we need, in this heightening of educational concept on the part of the ordinary run of school systems? They could if they were not so much bent upon their functioning along the line of "controls," as contrasted to their functioning along the line of "service." I am persuaded that the two great areas of relationships between any central unit and local operating units are the area of controls and the area of service. Always central units tend to magnify controls and to minimize the service function, but for this central units are not by any means exclusively to blame. Whenever legislatures or congresses are appropriating money for the staffing of central units of educational administration, they too fre- quently stop at staffing the controls and the direct administration require- ments. They tend to supply no money or no margin of support for the staffing of the service function in the exercise of intergovernmental relations. One of the shocking illustrations of this during war is the failure of the federal government to provide a great and nationwide guidance service. The crying need is for central units to staff the service function. To do so will pay dividends in the heightening of educational concept and in the diffusion of advanced educational practice and, in turn, these things will bring new concepts home to the public and lay the foundation for a more adequate financial support of education, for the support of that education which,is really worth its hire. It may seem to you that these things which I have been emphasizing are somewhat far afield from problems of educational finance, but I tell you that they are at the heart of the financial problem. I am convinced that advance along these lines is indicated by the conditions of the crisis and is essential to a significant moving toward greater state and national support of education. Finally, I am convinced that our reliance for the more adequate, equitable, and adaptable support of education in the future must lie in moving centrally. I see no need of this being disastrous to state and local initiative or in this lessening the importance of state or local school systems. Operationally, education will have to be where youth is-in the locality. What we most need in state and local school systems is vigor. We could have more of this needed vigor now if states and localities would but seize it. Nevertheless, for the essential nourishment of vigor, adequate financing is necessary. Ultimately, it will have to come from the central governmental unit. This means that, more and more, we shall be con- cerned with relationships and the problems of relationship between national, state, and local units. 72 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS The rock on which relationships as well as central financing so often get hung is the issue over controls. I am convinced that the issue over controls is not an impossible one. Obviously, with centralism we shall tend to have more central control. This is not disastrous or, at least, it need not be. Great promise lies in what has been suggested as to the importance of magnifying the service concept, but I am convinced that beyond this, the resolution of the issue over control lies in a fundamental national purposing with respect to education; in the clear determination of national responsibility for education; in the allocation or reallocation of educational functions among the national, state, and local units; and in the development of appropriate structural patterns, particularly on the national and the local level. The problems of finance have never been and cannot now be solved apart from these basic determinants. A National Education Planning Commission Demanded America must be purposing as to the role of education in national and world destiny. Our country must write a national declaration of responsi- bilities in education, create a complementary national structure, and on these bases, provide the national fiscal power. To be sure, due consideration must be given to refined allocations of responsibilities to state and local units. These need not be by-passed, but certainly interstructural relations must be worked out to provide for a more agency-like relationship. To do these things requires planning-planning as never before under- taken. America must be about it. A National Education Planning Commis- sion is called for at once. This planning should be official and a mandate lies on Congress to establish the planning agency. This is the grand strategy both of war and of peace and reconstruction. This is the road to national education-the view on the higher level. EDUCATIONAL FINANCE IN WARTIME: CERTAIN FUNDAMENTAL PROPOSITIONS ALFRED D. SIMPSON, HARVARD GRADUATE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION, CAMBRIDGE, MASS. The problems of education and its support in this era can no more he neatly divided between those of war and peace than can the totality of the problems of America herself. The problems of war and peace have continuity and are coexistent. The financing of education during war neither can nor ought to be dealt with as an American problem without reference to the problem in its longer swing. Expenditure for education in America is an investment in American destiny. If it isn't this, it isn't anything. Therefore, our primary thesis has to be that the support of education during wartime should not only be as vigorous as the complete function of education requires but also as vigorous in the fullest sense as is the support of our total public endeavor, nationally and internationally, for war and for peace. THE CONVENTION NEVER HELD 73 The requirements of national vigor dictate a public policy of vastly more substantial support for the function of education during war than has thus far in our history been allocated to this function. This policy stems from the facts not only of the progressive role of education in peace but also of the recognition of schools and colleges as wartime service stations. Public policy should recognize, at least so far as it recognizes the indis- pensableness of the educational service, the principle of adequacy in educa- tional support; that support must be complementary to functional require- ments; that this in particular means recognition of both the height and the breadth of educational scope, the conservation and improvement of personnel, and the recognition of cost indexes. America cannot hope to rely for its invigorated and adequate support of education upon anything short of the strength of her total economy. Conversely, reliance upon independent, geographical segments of our econ- omy, as represented by states and local units, is to adopt a public policy of inadequacy and of enervation. Our national concern for the support of education in wartime, as in peace, must encompass, in proportion to the need and to the strength of our total economy, the entire range of educability. The pointed meaning of the war for public policy in education is that now and henceforth the sharp focus of America's concern over the support of education must be turned upon the role to be played by the national government. War is a national function. Facing the fact that this national function of war makes heavy and particular demands upon education, which by strict constitutional interpretation is a state function, public policy should recognize that state educational systems are, at least during wartime, national agencies of state and local jurisdiction. Hence, financing should follow such recognition. The crucial factor in war is manpower. Public policy should recognize that manpower is only potent as it has education, broadly conceived, and that the education of manpower is coterminous with the life of manpower. Because education is now in the service of an America at war, the problem of educational support should be dealt with at once as a national problem and as a critically present problem, but in full recognition of the role of the state and local units. The exigencies of the situation are such as to require immediate, if tentative, action by the best available and immediate, if tentative, means. In the long run it is futile to expect to solve the problem of the support of American education apart from its basic determinants. Finan- cial support is always to be considered a facilitating agency. Beyond imme- diate, even if tentative, financing America should at once set in motion the processes which will result in the definition of policy with respect to the following basic determinants of national financing:: (a) the national purposes to be served by education in the life-stream of the nation, (b) the national responsibility to be declared for achieving these purposes, and AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS (c) the determination and establishment, nationally, of the structural counterparts of purpose and responsibility. A corollary of this thesis is that only by dealing with these basic determinants can we as a nation effectively deal with the issue over controls. Sound public policy dictates the necessity of beginning the steps now, during the war, and of proceeding to this end by the establishment and servicing of an official national planning commission on education as a national function during the war and in the postwar period. The great principles of educational finance which have emerged out of American experience under a system of state responsibility, and especially the principles of equalization and adaptability, stemming from the funda- mental principles of American democracy-equality and liberty-not only require national financing of education but also should be utilized as criteria in the formulation of a program of direct national participation in the financing of education. ECONOMIC USE OF SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT T. C. HOLY, BUREAU OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH, OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY, COLUMBUS, OHIO In order to have specific information from which to prepare a discussion of this topic for the meeting of the American Association of School Admin- istrators at St. Louis in February of this year, an inquiry was sent to a small group of cities asking information on the three following items: 1. How will your expenditures for supplies and equipment in 1942-43 compare with those for 1941-42? If you can give this information separately for supplies and equipment I should like to have you do so. 2. If your current expenditures for supplies and equipment are below those of last year, in what specific ways have these reductions been brought about? 3. In your judgment, have such reductions in expenditures for supplies and equipment had serious effects on your educational program? If so, I should appre- ciate specific instances where you believe losses have occurred as a result of these reductions. At the time the convention was canceled, replies giving detailed informa- tion on these items had been received from Akron, Chicago, Cincinnati, Columbus, and Lakewood. In addition to these, replies giving more general information had been received from Cleveland and Philadelphia. From the information thus obtained, the following tabulation, showing actual expenditures for instructional supplies and equipment for either 1941 or 1941-42 and proposed expenditures for these two items for 1942-43 or for the calendar year 1943, has been made. It will be observed from these figures that little decline in expenditures for instructional supplies is expected during these two years. As pointed out in some of the responses, the increased cost of supplies is a partial factor in the amount remaining essentially the same. On the other hand, in the matter of new equipment and equipment replacement, a sharp drop from approximately443,000
to $264,000 is expected to occur between the two years. The obvious THE CONVENTION NEVER hIELD 75 City Akron........... Chicago ......... Cincinnati....... Columbus'....... Lakewood ....... Instructional New Equipment and Supplies Equipment Replacements 1941 or 1942-43 1941 or 1942-43 1941-42 or 1943 1941-42 or 1943$230,678 $213,671$19,073 $13,510 2,264,725 2,194,698 321,851 196,259 128,792 109,900 55,746 29,500 224,356 225,000 24,292 8,000 23,276 24,571 22,007 17,063 Total. ......$2,871,827 $2,767,840$442,969 $264,332 1 Figures for Columbus exclude their contract and open-order services which include expenditures for schoolbuilding repairs, new educational equipment, and equipment for operating employees. These amounted to$131,755 in 1941.

answer to this is that due to priorities it is extremely difficult-even well-
nigh impossible-to obtain certain types of equipment. One person in
responding mentioned that in his system they would ordinarily replace
150 typewriters per year. This same person also pointed out that normally
they were able to replace sewing machines and gas stoves-neither of
which can now be obtained. It appears, therefore, that the main reductions
in expenditures for equipment will be due to those items which cannot be
purchased.
In response to the last question-namely, the effect which such reduc-
tions will probably have on the educational program-some extended re-
sponses were received. Quoted from these are the following:
Akron: In your third question you asked whether or not this whole situation has
had any particular effect on our educational program. We feel that it has. Definite
instances are to be found in our trade school where the welding class was aban-
doned and we were unable to open the electrical department. There is, of course,
a certain amount of loss in that we must operate with equipment that normally
would have been brought up to date. It is our opinion, however, that our
greatest loss arises from the fact that many of the things we had planned to do
and which we feel we should be doing, cannot be carried on. We had planned
to open up six or seven additional centers in our elementary schools where home
mechanics would be taught. This was abandoned because we could not get sufficient
materials and because we could not get satisfactory teachers. The hand-work
program, an essential part of any educational plan, is definitely suffering.
Chicago: Due to a substantial backlog of equipment already on hand, it is not
expected that the schools will be hampered or their work seriously curtailed during
1943. However, such hampering may simply be deferred into 1944 or later years,
if the war continues, and certain types of equipment and supplies continue to be
unobtainable.
Cincinnati: We have been handicapped particularly at one point by lack of
equipment, namely our new practical arts set-up. In several schools during this
past year we have not been able to secure equipment in order to make the room
usable. Even such items as stools have been impossible to secure.

Cleveland: Our difficulty today in obtaining supplies is not one of increased prices
but is due to governmental regulations of various kinds, such as priorities,
"freezing," and rationing. All schools having special subjects have been obliged
to make certain curriculum revisions, especially where materials such as steel,
copper, brass, aluminum, chemicals, etc., are involved.
Columbus: In my own judgment the educational program has been handicapped.
There are new items which we can no longer purchase and this cuts into our
program considerably. The current year will see reductions that will handicap our
work to a greater extent than we have seen thus far both in the educational field
and among the operating employees as well.
Lake wood: We have not had enough reductions as yet to cause any serious
effects on our educational program. Industrial arts may have to make changes
in their projects as materials get more difficult to secure.
Philadelphia: Practically all reductions in supplies and equipment are caused
by priorities and the inability to get materials involving metals or rubber. Among
such articles are filing equipment, army cots, pencil sharpeners, erasers, and
rubber bands. These losses are a part of the total war experience and in my
opinion involve no serious effect on the educational program.

If it is assumed that the situation as described in these cities is typical
of schools in general, then for the current year little change in expendi-
tures for instructional supplies will be made. On the other hand, due to
priorities, sharp reductions are being effected in the matter of equipment
and equipment replacements. Undoubtedly, further reductions may be
expected in these items as long as the war continues.

PRIORITY DILEMMA

L. E. PARMENTER, EXECUTIVE SECRETARY, NATIONAL SCHOOL SERVICE
INSTITUTE, CHICAGO, ILL.

Representing, as I do, the commercial end of the educational field, I
feel that first of all I want to make it clear that the National School
Service Institute (formerly the National School Supplies and Equipment
Association) is a real cooperating and contributing member of the educa-
tional fraternity.
Priorities for schools in the past year have been in such a muddle that
no one has known what to do today and certainly no one has known
what was coming tomorrow. Many changes have been made but very
few effective ones have come about to help the school situation. The fact
that schools have not been particularly pinched in securing the needed
supplies and equipment is a tribute to the manufacturers and distributors
who have been far-sighted in building their stocks and maintaining their
manufacturing and distribution up to this time. Now that the schools
are beginning to recognize many shortages, it will be necessary for the
schoolman to give every cooperation to his suppliers in securing priorities
or soon there will be no distributors in business and certainly no manu-
facturers. In fact, some of them have already fallen by the wayside.
To evaluate the situation as we find it, I would like to enumerate a
few situations.

T'HE CONVENTION NEVER HELD 77

All public utterances of government officials proclaim the absolute ne-
cessity for the continued efficient operation of schools, yet every written
order or letter coming from the governmental agencies refutes this state-
ment by disallowing priorities for the necessary tools of education.
In the words of Donald Nelson, "Schools are critical essentials to the
welfare of the nation." Yet, neither the War Production Board nor any
other agency of the government has yet seen fit to arrange an allocation
or priority for the necessary supplies and equipment to carry on efficient
educational institutions other than those low worthless priorities which
are given to all the lowest of nonessentials, thus classifying schools with
them.
To quote a navy official, "Let's never forget that the production lines
of education are as vital to the welfare of the United States as the produc-
tion lines of industry." It took over a year to retool American industry
so that it could produce for the war. By withholding tools from schools,
how is the production line of education to be met? Trained teachers are
as necessary to efficient education as are trained key-workers in munitions,
airplanes, and other war industries, yet the draft is depleting the ranks
of these teachers who make efficient education possible.
The question is-if as all officials say, "schools are essential"-is there
anyone anywhere who has authority, willingness, and the desire to see
that schools can function properly by allowing them the .essentials with
which to operate? If schools are not essential to the war program or to
the welfare of the government, then let us definitely know that, and we
will quit attempting to keep them functioning. The schoolhouses can be
turned into factories; the teachers and administrators can join the armed
forces, or, if they are not qualified for that, they can join the great army
of war workers. If the schools are essential, then let's make them efficient,
keeping the best teachers doing the great job of which they are capable
and formulate some practical way by which schools may obtain the neces-
sary tools with which to do the job. Let's do one or the other. Above all,
let's not lose valuable time.
"The schools must be kept open at any cost." The effectiveness of a
school as a meeting place where the roll can be called and then a few
things done and said does not make for an efficient institution of learning.
It is like assembling all the workers in a munitions plant who punch the
time clocks but have no tools with which to work. The production in
each case is about the same.
At the request of the government, schools have done a very meritorious
job in changing the curriculum to meet presentday emergencies. What
about the tools with which to teach these new subjects of the curriculum ?
True, thru a process of asking for each piece of equipment singly, after
long waits, a single item might be obtained if some bureaucrat had a
good breakfast that morning. Otherwise, and in most cases, this necessary
equipment has not been received by schools.
The government t demands a program of physical fitness in the schools,
yet, by Limitation Order 1-126. "playground equipment," which i< phy;-

78 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS

ical fitness equipment, was placed on the restricted list stopping all manu-
facturing and assembling of this important apparatus.
Upon the closing of schools in Great Britain, juvenile delinquency
jumped up over 50 percent. The last reports in the United States for 1942
show that juvenile delinquency has increased 20 percent. Nearly everyone
agrees that the answer to this problem is the school. Yet playground equip-
ment and physical fitness materials are still denied. These would be the
savers of the youth of the nation. Crime marches on!
Thomas Jefferson once said, "Democracy depends upon the education
of its citizens." Modern education is made efficient by excellent teachers
with the proper learning and teaching tools, for which there is no effective
priority.
It was stated that school supply distributors were essential to the effi-
cient continuance of education, yet they were classified in the same category
as all other distributors-the same priorities being given them as to distrib-
utors of beer, chewing gum, cosmetics, and sleeping-eye-shades-which
shows the realm of essentiality in which schools were included.
It has been admitted by everyone who knows that for efficient manage-
ment of schools it is necessary that the traveling representatives of school
supply houses get to these schools for the service, technical assistance, and
engineering assistance which is absolutely necessary. Yet these school service
representatives are put in the same category as salesmen of pop-drinks,
toy balloons, and such other morale-building essentials.
The trouble in Washington has been that they haven't had enough
complaints. If you want the services of technical representatives and school
supply service to be continued, write a letter to your congressman and to
the U. S. Office of Education immediately saying that you aren't getting
that service because of the lack of gasoline for school supply representatives.
So far the manufacturers and distributors of "school tools" have had
to carry on the fight for recognition of the essentialness of the schools
by attempting to get priorities. Truly, it should be the responsibility of
school administrators and the teaching profession to make known school
necessities to the War Production Board, to the U. S. Office of Education,
and to everyone, so that education may take its rightful place as the lifeblood
of American democracy.
This democracy of ours which our forefathers won and later defended
is now again in jeopardy. Perhaps we are to expect that during the time
of war we are to be governed by a bureaucracy. Perhaps we are to expect
that bureaucracy to cater only to pressure groups. Anyhow that is where
we find ourselves. The government is not a representative government of
its citizens but representative of its pressure groups. Yes, that is where
we are whether we like it or not. Are we willing to flounder in hopeless
obscurity without a joint effort to obtain the rights for the school children
of America?
Last week I reread Tennyson's The Holy Grail. Those gallant knights
of old were crusaders for right and glory-they had faith and the will
to carry on together for a great cause. Have we faith? Have we the will?

THE CONVENTION NEVER HELD 79

Have we humility to cast aside our selfish motives and to combine with
all the other forces of education? The National Education Association,
American Association of School Administrators, State Teachers Association,
National Association of Public School Business Officials, all educators, all
parents, all who believe in education should unite and form a group to be
heard. Yes, a pressure group if you will-inasmuch as a pressure group is
the only means to gain an' ear at headquarters.
\Vhv should other groups, purely selfish in attitude, push our group, an
unselfish one, aside while they ride roughshod over us? Are the schools
essential to the war program, to the welfare of our country, to the prospects
for an understanding future, a just peace? If so, aren't they worth fighting
for? Aren't they worth organizing for? Aren't they worth crusading for?
We, the best citizens America has, will spend every last ounce of our
energies to win this war.
Upon us, the best citizens of America, must depend the winning of the
peace.
The peace of freedom unalterably depends upon education.
Let us here resolve to win the war, win the peace, and preserve posterity
by individually and collectively responding to the call of our country-
our country.
Be Minute Men! Be ready! Fight the battle which is ours.
Two things we have been fighting for are about to come to pass. Form
PD-408 for large school districts and the new Controlled Materials Plan
regulation No. 5A, which will be given to governmental units including
schools, will give the right to purchase repair, maintenance, and operating
supplies with the rating of AA-2X. Let me appeal to you to use it on
every order you give to a supplier so that the wheels of industry may be
kept open to manufacture the tools which you so thoroly need in your
educational institutions.
Educational institutions are critical necessities to the winning of the
war and to our government. Proper recognition will be given to them
if they demand it. If they remain silent, the grease will be given to the
wheel that is squeaking even tho that wheel is merely turning on a beer
truck. Education deserves to get priorities next to the fighting machine.
It is up to educators to make that fact known on every, any, and all
occasions.

PROBLEMS OF PUPIL TRANSPORTATION
JOHN E. BRYAN, COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS,
BIRMINGHAM, ALA.
The war has produced new and serious problems of school transporta-
tion. Without transportation the system of education which has been devel-
oped thruout the United States during recent years would completely
collapse in many areas and particularly in rural communities. School trans-
portation has become essential to an adequate education program for nearly
a sixth of all the children who are attending public schools in this country.

80 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS

President Roosevelt, referring to essential civilian needs for rubber in
his message to the Senate on August 6, 1942, stated, "It includes also
certain necessities for the community, like getting milk to the consumer
or children to school."
We are at war and cannot expect to continue a "transportation as usual"
program any more than a program of "business as usual" can be continued.
There are many adjustments in school transportation that can and should
be made without needlessly interfering with the basic minimum transpor-
tation program. School officials who are responsible for making these adjust-
ments will want to know what policies may reasonably and safely be
followed during coming months. They will want to avoid as much uncer-
tainty as possible and yet cooperate fully in the war effort.
Policies and procedures in connection with this problem have been set out
in a splendid handbook, School Transportation in Wartime, prepared for
and approved by the National Council of Chief State School Officers, and
developed at work-conferences at Yale University and in Washington,
D. C., during the early summer of 1942. This handbook is published by
the Traffic Engineering and Safety Department, American Automobile
Association, Mills Building, Washington, D. C. The price is fifty cents.

WAR EMERGENCY BUS USES

F. RAY POWER, ASSISTANT STATE SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS,
CHARLESTON, W. VA.
School buses are being used in a number of communities to provide trans-
portation for war workers. Such use is entirely proper if the service is pro-
vided in such a manner that it does not interfere with essential school
transportation. Data are not available for the country at large on the extent
to which school buses are being used for war emergency purposes, but reports
indicate that there is a steady increase in this practice.
The following principles applying to war emergency use of school buses
were developed at the work-conferences on school transportation in wartime
and are set forth in the handbook described above by John E. Bryan:
School authorities must recognize that the school bus fleet constitutes a great
transportation reserve and that, when not required for essential school transpor-
tation to maintain the basic minimum education program, it must be made avail-
able for use, if needed, for transporting persons essential to war activities.
It should be clearly understood by school officials that, in case of war emergency,
such as invasion, military authorities have authority to requisition school buses.
School buses should not be used for war worker transport without the approval
of school authorities and the state agency regulating public transportation.
The authorized state agency regulating public transportation should make definite
agreements with the chief state school officer regarding arrangements for the
transportation of war workers so as to avoid serious interference with the essential
school transportation program.
School buses were not designed for adult transport and should be operated with
care when placed in public service.
It is recommended that the responsible federal agency or agencies take appro-
priate action immediately to prevent the sale or transfer to other services of
school buses essential to a basic minimum education program.

TIHE CONVENTION NEVER HELD 81

TEACHING THE ELEMENTARY STUDENT THE
AMERICAN WAY
BESS GOODYKOONTZ, ASSISTANT COMMISSIONER, U. S. OFFICE OF
EDUCATION, WASHINGTON, D. C.
"What you would have appear in the life of a nation you must first put
into its schools" is a statement which challenges educators. It is a challenge
to make the total educational program such a practical and workable dem-
onstration of democratic living that when the children of today become
tlhe citizens of tomorrow, they will merely be continuing responsibilities
If teachers are to take leadership in guiding the education of children
in a democracy, they must first of all have a clear-cut conception of what
democracy is. Briefly stated, democracy stresses the fundamental worth
and importance of the citizen as an individual and as a member of society.
Personal integrity, self-discipline, respect for others, and willingness to
contribute to the welfare of others characterize the good citizen.
If children are to develop in terms of this concept, they must have a wide
variety of experiences in practical situations which emphasize meeting and
solving problems. No individual is prepared to make wise choices as an
adult citizen unless he has had practice from his earliest years. In the im-
mediate present the child is concerned as a member of a family group and
of the community with problems relating to food, clothing, shelter, recrea-
tion, government, conservation, and contributions to the war effort.
Opportunities are many for bringing problems into the classroom or for
going out into the community to see them at firsthand. Children will under-
stand, like, and respect the American way of life because they have prac-
ticed it in their classrooms and in their school community. As they elect
other children to represent them on a student council; as they discuss,
plan, and carry out projects for beautifying the classroom or collecting
scrap; as they take responsibility for the care of play equipment or for
the preparation and serving of the school lunch; and as they come to
believe that other peoples of the world are persons who think, feel, and
act much as they themselves do, they will live democratically.
Teachers can accomplish their part in building the American way by
recognizing that children are different in temperament and background;
by giving children opportunities to be of service, to make sacrifices, to
join cooperative undertakings; by encouraging precise thinking about
personal, community, national, and international problems; and by helping
boys and girls to interpret all these experiences in terms that they can
understand.
The concern of educators for the more than 20,000,000 children in
elementary schools must be not only for the immediate present but for
the long future ahead. The perpetuation of the American way depends
upon a firm foundation for citizenship laid in the elementary schools. The
education of children at this level cannot be slighted without permanently
disastrous results.

82 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS

A Prayer

JEAN BYERS
Teacher, Public Schools, Oakland, California

Oh God, let me be an American,
But not for the name alone.
Let me feel the height and splendor of her mountain peaks-
Let me take into myself the steep ascent of ancient crag, the nearness
to the sky.
Let me look up as her mountains look up.
Give me the calm of her quiet hills.
And when I go into her cities*
There let me stand in amaze
At the wnan-made heights of her buildings,
The architects' towering triumphs
That breathe high above the streets-
Proudly, clearly, for theirs, too, is splendor.
Let all the heights of this, my America, be mine
In my heart to make mne aspire and hope.
Oh God, let me take into myself
The breadth of our fertile farm lands.
Let nme breathe into my soul the stretch of her bearing miles,
The redolent orchards and grain fields,
The lush green of valley and pasture!
Give me the vision of long straight rows
Give me the tolerance born of the seeing-
The waiting, the seed, and the nearness to soil!
Ohi God, drive into my veins the power,
The pulsing strength of my Country!
The millions of men-the machinery-
The crash and roar of production-
The surge of the falls and the rivers,
Of the mighty dams and constructions,
The giant force of electric energy!
Let me feel the depth of the rich, resources,
The oil and the rocky minerals,
Coal and the vast, deep forests.
Let it all come into me, Oh God,
That the flow of my life may be great-
May be high and broad and deep
As the life and need of 'my Country.
Let it all come into me, Oh, God,
That I may be an American,
Not for the name alone
But for the hope, the vision, the power
That are deep in this, my America.
-From the musical dramatization "Listen, Mr. Speaker."

THE CONVENTION NEVER HELD 83

EDUCATION FOR MORALE
J. CAYCE MORRISON, ASSISTANT COMMISSIONER FOR RESEARCH, STATE
EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, ALBANY, N. Y.
Morale is a war word ; but it also connotes something new in American
life. Not only does it name a quality essential to the prosecution of war;
it symbolizes a trend in American thought vital to the future of democracy.
Education for morale implies more than developing the will to win
the war. It is concerned with maintaining a peace based upon the virtues
of justice, truth, and goodwill. Underneath the visible currents of the
present war runs the continuing struggle of men to be free, to attain
the inalienable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
To build a morale that will appeal to all peoples, American educators
must contribute to solving the problems of our own people. Education
that ignores the social ills of the United States will carry little weight
with peoples confronted with solving their own social problems. Similarly,
the schools can make their best contribution to the morale of the free
peoples of the world only as they achieve success in building morale in
their own ranks.
To dwell on our failures rather than to stress our advancements would
be to defeat the purpose of morale teaching. Democracy is not a static
goal to be won but a dynamic process to be pursued. The test is whether
the schools see the direction to go.
life in the United States, to develop a sympathetic understanding of all
peoples who are striving for the freedom of the common man, and to
gain understanding of America's new role among the nations of the world.
The task of gaining an enduring peace calls for greater effort, greater
sacrifices, greater vision than winning the war. To the schools goes the
major task of preparing our people to meet the trials and mortal strain
of nations, which, as VWhitman foresaw, "come at last in prosperous peace,
not war."

NORWAY FIGHTS ON-MORALE IN ACTION
SIGMUND SKARD, FORMERLY TEACHER OF LITERARY HISTORY, UNIVERSITY
OF OSLO; AND LIBRARIAN, ROYAL ACADEMY OF TRONDHEIM, NORWAY
/1An address that was to have been given at the annual banquet of
the National Association of Secondary-School Principals at St. Louis
on February 27, 1943, by Sigmund Skard, a prominent Norwegian
writer and scholar. Mr. Skard was formerly a teacher of literary
history at the University of Oslo and was librarian of the Royal
Norway. After some time in occupied Norw'ay, he escaped thru the
enemy lines on skis over the mountains to Sweden. An adventurous
journey thru Russian and Japanese territory culminated in America.
This war is making the world smaller than it was before; and it will
never be large again. Differences and distances, which seemed important

84 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS

a few months ago, are of little avail now. Nations divided by thousands
of miles suddenly are close to each other, fighting shoulder to shoulder
for basic principles of life. Russian peasants, Chinese coolies, Yugoslavian
snipers, and bombed British children are welded together in one single
fighting team, in a community of ideals.
In this worldwide democratic front, Norway has come to play a greater
part than was expected from a small nation in a corner of Europe.
In few nations was democracy so well developed before the war, and hardly
anywhere had its principles penetrated so deeply into the people's minds.
The reasons for this were many. The country had a homogeneous popu-
lation of moderate size and a relatively simple economic life; it had lived
in uninterrupted peace for more than a century. By national growth
democracy had become general in Norway. It not only worked in the
political field but in social and economic life as well, restricting the freedom
of the few in order to create equality for the many. Gradually a spirit
possible in Norway a higher and more even living standard than in most
European countries. The whole political and intellectual tradition of the
people was instrumental in building up this way of living; and in keeping
and developing the heritage, the schools played an all-important part.
Democracy had become a matter of personal concern to the Norwegians.
They believed in their social system and in its possibilities of further
development.
The idea of collaboration marked their international attitude. It was
a matter of course for Norwegians to believe in fair play among the nations,
in peace, and in disarmament. In a world armed to the teeth, they tried to
isolate themselves in the hope that their country should remain a refuge to
peace, even if the rest of the world should be engulfed by the war. Even
n'w, the nation is not regretful of this attitude. In the long run the intel-
lectual armament built up in the time of peace has proved to be more impor-
tant to resistance than tanks and guns. When the Germans came to Norway,
it was not necessary to begin building morale. It was not necessary to tell
the average man and woman that it is better to fight for democracy than to
live under any kind of dictatorship. They knew that already from their own
life.

To this Norway the Germans came, April 9, 1940.
The attack was as sudden as that on Pearl Harbor. The most important
ports and the main arsenals were taken during the first night of fighting;
not by treason but by the overwhelming might of the onslaught. The
situation seemed totally hopeless. In spite of this the government decided that
the country should fight. When, after two months of gallant resistance the
army had to capitulate, the King, the government, and the staffs left
Norway. They continue active resistance from abroad. A new army and
air force have been built up, and a new navy fights with the Allies on the
seven seas. The government took over the hulge merchant marine, one of

THE CONVENTION NiEVE.Ri HELD 85

the largest and most modern in the world, and it plays a major part in the
battle of supplies all over the globe. But still more important to the future
of the Norwegian nation is the fight in Norway itself.
From the first days of occupation the Germans clamped on Norway their
elaborate system of oppression. They abolished all political freedom, broke
down the local self-government, meddled with the courts, dissolved the
organizations. They looted' the country mercilessly of all valuables, they
drafted the manpower for forced labor, and with the assistance of the
handful of quislings, they started out to "change the mentality of the
nation," interfering with cultural life in all its aspects. They backed their
moves with reckless brutality, censorship, secret police, imprisonment, con-
centration camps, tortures, and executions.
Norwegian Resistance
In the beginning, the Norwegian resistance was spontaneous. Attempts
were made to isolate the Germans and counteract their orders. The dry
Norwegian humor was helpful here. Everybody felt and acted as the young
girl who refused to dance with a German officer in a restaurant. When asked
if she did so because he was a German, she replied, "No, just because I am
a Norwegian." In a thousand ways life was made intolerable to the "guests";
by unobtrusive means the population was able to tell them what they
really thought about them. They boycotted the propaganda, leaving the
speakers alone in the big halls; they hampered the movements of the
Germans in every way imaginable. From these beginnings an organized
resistance gradually created itself. Thousands of independent groups sprang
up. Even now they usually have no definite knowledge about each other,
but they cooperate with utmost precision, in common action.
The result is a general inefficiency of the Nazi administration. Norway
does not fit into the way of the New Order. The officials refuse to obey
the regime. Thousands have been discharged and are left to starve, but in
secretive ways, they are always helped. The whole judicial system has
broken down ; the Supreme Court resigned in a body as a protest against
the arbitrariness of the Nazis. Organizations of all kinds cease to function.
Boards resign and members leave. There is a general sports strike-no games
or competitions. When clubs have been forced to arrange something, the
results have been so poor as to become the laughing stock of the country.
The church, which was previously supported by public means, solemnly
broke its connection with the state and denounced naziism as contrary to all
Christian principles. The boldness of the underground service is amazing;
several times condemned prisoners have been spirited away from the con-
centration camps under the very noses of the Gestapo.
In spite of the German efforts to keep the country isolated, the fighting
spirit has been on the upswing ever since the occupation. The Norwegian
public is kept constantly up to date about the happenings in the world, and
the people clearly feel they are a fighting United Nation. As early as July
4, 1941, almost half a year before Pearl Harbor, the German police had
to disperse a tremendous demonstration in Oslo in front of the Lincoln

86 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS

Memorial. Those Norwegian men and women knew pretty well what they
were celebrating on the Fourth of July.
The Germans have only one answer-increased brutality. The docu-
mentary reports which were recently brought out by the Norwegian Depart-
ment of Justice in London give the well-known picture of tortures and
bestial cruelty, wiping out of whole communities in reprisal, and wholesale
execution of hostages. In the town where the author of this article used
to live, a town of 50,000 inhabitants, thirty-four hostages were shot
in the month of October last year-shot for things they could not possibly
have done, because most of them were in prison when they happened.
But this method does not work in Norway; it does not work anywhere.
The insane brutality just makes the issue clearer, the fight more determined,
the will to win still more unbreakable.

Education Fights Too

All the time the schools have played an important part in this fight. Long
before the invasion the Norwegian educators were aware of the morbidness
of the educational ideas of naziism. When the Germans occupied the
country, the teachers became the vanguard of resistance.
So clear and determined was the opposition, that for more than a year the
Germans made no serious move against the school system. When the teachers
were asked to sign declarations of loyalty to the Nazis, they answered by
signing a common statement to the effect that now, as before, they intended
to obey all legal orders given by legal authorities. When a "revised edition"
of the catechism was published by the Nazis, the book was just ignored.
When the colleges were asked to admit Nazi speakers, they refused "because
it would be against the general purpose of the schools-to create independent
thinking."
Teaching in Norway became a course in anti-naziism, frankly underlining
the democratic traditions of the country. Even children in elementary schools
staged tremendous demonstrations in the streets against the Germans and
had to be dispersed by the police. The college youths eagerly engaged in all
kinds of underground work. Attempts to win the university students re-
sulted in a total failure. Out of 1200 medical students in Oslo, only twelve
agreed to study in Germany, in spite of great advantages offered to them.
All over the country the students were unanimously backed by their parents
and encouraged to resist. More than ever the nation felt the school was an
instrument of its vital interests.
The final test has come during the last year when the attitude of the
educators has become the main example of the utter futility of the German
oppression.
In the spring of 1942 the Nazis decided to break the resistance of the
schools; they ordered all Norwegian teachers to join the teachers' union
of the party, and ordered all children between ten and eighteen years to
join the Nazi Youth Movement. Practically all teachers left their jobs
in protest. Regular teaching now is continued in the homes of the teachers

THE CONVENTION NEVER HELD 87

and the parents. In a proud declaration to all students, the teachers an-
nounced that regular classes probably would not be resumed "for the
duration." They asked them to continue their studies alone, with their own
books, thus preparing themselves for the important tasks that were awaiting
them in the service of their country.
In order to intimidate the teachers, the Germans then arrested 1100 of
them. Five hundred of the men teachers, many of the older ones, were
picked out for torture. They were kept for a week in a concentration camp
and subjected to strenuous drills and punishments. They were forced to
creep on their stomachs thru ice water, snow, and slush, while keeping their
hands on their backs; they were made to transport snow on broom handles
or with bare hands, or move a woodpile from one part of the camp to
another and back again. Then they were sent northward, a trip of thirty
hours in cattle cars, packed so tightly that they were unable to sit down. En
route they were transferred to an old, condemned ship which had accom-
modations for only two hundred. In this ship the teachers, many of them
seriously ill, were transported to the far north of Norway, on the Arctic
Coast-a voyage of two weeks of indescribable suffering-in order to build
fortifications with the Russian war prisoners.
This experience did not break them or make them surrender. Before they
left, they stated their position in a joint declaration which was read to all
school classes all over Norway-a declaration and pledge which states, in
simple words, what kind of life the United Nations are fighting for.
The teacher's duty is not only to give the children knowledge. He must also teach
the children to have faith in, and to earnestly desire that which is true and just.
Therefore, he cannot, without betraying his calling, teach anything against his
conscience. IHe who does so sins both against the pupils he is supposed to lead and
against himself. This, I promise you, I shall not do.
I will not call upon you to do anything which I regard as wrong. Nor will I
teach you anything which I regard as not conforming with the truth. I will, as I
have done heretofore, let my conscience be my guide, and I am confident that I
shall then be in step with the great majority of the people who have entrusted
to me the duties of an educator.

Nortway Continues the Fight
It would not be truthful to say that the Norwegians see this determined
resistance only with joy. Since 1814 they had lived in peace ; they knew what
peace does for a nation and what it builds up. It had made them believe
deeply and sincerely in the principles of collaboration, of goodwill, and
understanding between nations and races and classes and groups of all kinds.
It is hard to see this attitude destroyed and to see the nation again forced
to think in terms of violence and brutality.
But the people of Norway had no choice, just as the Americans had no
choice. Out of the thousand questions of everyday life, two questions
are left: Have you the force to resist? Have you the force to exist? The
Norwegians have proved that they have. They know that if they chose
to fight instead of surrender, they fight on today with their allies all over
the globe against war, against the principles of morbidity and destruction,

88 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS

for a life that is worth living, founded on freedom and justice for all. They
are determined to fight for those principles which have proved their value
in peacetime Norway. One hope is living in the Norwegians, as in all
occupied nations, during this long and terrible night-that, when the war
is over, we are not going to forget this time in making the peace the kind
of world which lived in our dreams while we fought.
It was stated admirably by an American student, as early as November
1941, writing'in the newspaper of the students of the University of Pennsyl-
vania: "We know that many of us will never come back. And we know that
those who do will suffer tremendous privations. But we also know that there
will be a country to come back to, futures to look forward to, ambitions to
be realized, and freedom to be enjoyed."

PERSONNEL POLICIES IN WARTIME

L. JOHN NUTTALL, JR., SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS,
SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH

It seems that certain points of view will orient the administrator in
analyzing wartime personnel problems.
Nothing must be done to interfere with the war. Patriotism dictates that
serviceable people should leave civilian life for military service. The schools
are no exception to this. For example, a biology teacher who had worked
several summers at mosquito abatement work was called to the South
Pacific. On the other hand, the duty to American life involved in keeping
schools operating is convincing many capable school workers that it is
patriotic to remain in educational work.
After the actual war needs are met, then competition among civilian
activities has been common. In this contest for manpower, schools rank
high in importance. Communities should strive to keep schools effectively
manned by reasonable salaries and high social respect. Administrators must
keep personnel employed and efficient by satisfactory personnel practices
involving salary distribution, security, type of supervision, promotion in
service, and professional growth.
As shortages occur it is necessary to recruit temporary help, usually
from the ranks of former teachers. These are young and old, well trained
and with meager training; some are in need of work while some volunteer
with quite a spirit of independence. Problems of assignment become imme-
diately apparent as efforts are made to assure successful teaching by these
recruits. Invariably there will be real needs for in-service training and
specialized forms of supervisory activities. Problems of justice and fair
play with regular teachers arise if these temporary people are brought in
on a competitive wage basis. Further recruiting of newly trained teachers
becomes necessary as the number of students preparing to teach is gradually
reduced.
As this process of personnel adjustment goes forward it becomes neces-
sary to study the educational program in terms of available workers. Some

THE CONVENTION NEVER HELD 89

departments of study must be eliminated. New demands, especially in high
schools, require' adaptations of course contents and methods of teaching
to war demands. Lack of skill in school management on the part of many
of the recruited instructors forces a new question of pupil control which
in turn may force a return to more regimentation of pupils and formality
in school programs. Some of the emotional and social purposes of education
may not be possible for the makeshift teaching staff. The realization of
these changes in expected teaching outcomes is necessary for a successful
These times have stressed more than ever before the close relationship
between the nonteaching staff and the instructional staff. Schools can he
closed because of a lack of janitorial workers. Detail work can be left
undone by a shortage of clerical help. School administrators need now to
formulate policies of personnel management which unify in purpose and
planning the entire group of people who make up the staff of a school system.

WAR COMES HOME TO THE CONSUMER

A. W. TROELSTRUP, STEPHENS COLLEGE, COLUMBIA, MO.
Since Pearl Harbor there has been only slight pressure on consumers from
the war, but American industry has been literally placed in an economic
strait jacket. The impact on civilian consumers will be felt more directly
as the conversion of the $3,800,000,000 civilian durable goods industries to war production gets into full swing and when present inventories dry up. Millions of tons of strategic materials must be released for direct war production. The Commerce Department estimates that in 1943 only 35 percent of industrial production will go into consumer goods in contrast to 79 percent in 1941. Those figures should dispel any doubt as to whether we must be ready to accept a lower standard of living or learn how to live as well on less. The war has affected the attitude of civilians toward social change. It is difficult for us to visualize a social change before it actually occurs. But today with rationing in effect we can realize that we are rapidly approach- ing an economy of scarcity. There have been fears that the violations of rationing and price control regulations-the lack of appreciation of the issues at stake-would be so general that the machinery of controls would be wrecked. It would not take long to sink$50,000,000,000 into higher prices-money going into
the thin, blue air of inflation.
The accent now is on use. We must get full use from the things we
have and the money we have to spend. Thus emerges from the past
economy based on waste an economy of scarcity based on need.
We shall have to live more economically, buy more bonds, and pay
more taxes now. We shall have to do without many more essentials
and reduce our consumption of many more items. \Ve shall have to

90 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS

cooperate actively with the government's seven-point program to sta-
bilize the cost of living. The government cannot control the cost of
living by itself and certainly the consumers cannot handle the problem
alone. Clearly what is needed is a practical and effective partnership
between consumers and our governmental agencies. To do less is to in-
vite economic chaos and suffering at home, and certain defeat on the
fighting front.

SCHOOLS MUST HELP CONSUMER EDUCATION
WALTER D. COCKING, CHIEF, EDUCATIONAL SERVICES BRANCH, DEPARTMENT
OF INFORMATION, OFFICE OF PRICE ADMINISTRATION, WASHINGTON, D. C.
The outstanding lesson for consumers in this war is the vast potential
productivity of this nation, a potential that permits us to protect our living
standards in the midst of war and to raise the standards of all when the
war is won.
In 1943 our gross national product will be roughly four times as great
as in the worst year of the depression. However, the last report of the
Tolan Committee says: "We cannot afford the luxury of self-congratulation
on the production record. . It represents substantial gains . but it
is the product of America's unorganized might and far short of our pro-
ductive capacity."
Price regulation, rent control, and rationing have contributed mightily to
the achievements in production, as far as they have gone. With planned
production and distribution, and with a tax program appropriate to the
income requirements of the government-during the war the greatest single
customer for American industry-we can open up vast new horizons for
the lives of the people of this world. Schools must teach this lesson as
ardently as in the past they have taught the three R's and the fundamental
moralities of democracy. This is the great story of the twentieth century.
It is no exaggeration to say that the maintenance and continuance of our
educational institutions are dependent upon the successful teaching of this
lesson. As we learn to use the great untapped resources of our people and
our land, we shall certainly strengthen the institutions that teach. If we
fail to learn that lesson, the schools will bear the burden of responsibility
for that failure.

EDUCATION AND PROPAGANDA
ALEXANDER J. STODDARD, SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS,
Human beings are always trying to change or modify the thoughts, emo-
tions, or actions of one another. Sometimes their motives are quite altruistic,
but all too often they are very selfish.
There are three ways in which we try to influence other people's reactions.
We use force or law based on force; we use indoctrination, which consists

THlE CONVENTION NEVER HELD 91

of presenting an idea or point of view, either good or bad, in as effective
manner as possible; or we use education, which depends for results on faith
in the growth of free men in an environment of freedom. It is this emphasis
on faith in the human being that distinguishes education from indoctrina-
tion as a process. Indoctrination is designed to insure the end result while
those using education are willing to risk the outcome.
It is not that one of these ways should be used to the exclusion of the
other two. Almost every individual or group uses all three ways at some
time or under some conditions or at different stages of development. What
teacher or parent does not depend sometimes on force or law? Or, do we
not all try to indoctrinate each other at one time or another? Even govern-
ments with their people, or the nations in their relations with one another,
seem to resort more often to force and indoctrination than to education. It
is true also that frequently force must be used to control those whom we
would change, until education can get a chance to operate.
The use of law or indoctrination evidences either a lack of faith in one's
cause or a lack of confidence in the stage of development of the one to be
changed. As the human being develops in his own life cycle or the race
develops thru the centuries, there should be a growing dependence on edu-
cation as opposed either to force or indoctrination as the cause of change.
The people of a democracy believe men have a right as human beings
to be educated rather than coerced or even persuaded. There is something
about the word "education" that seems synonymous with freedom. One does
not have exactly the same feeling toward the word "indoctrination" and still
less toward the word "force."
This does not mean that all force or indoctrination is bad. Nor is all
education good. But education involves a faith that men of goodwill and
the good way will triumph in the long run if the mind of man is free to
grow. So it is that in America we have placed our hope in free schools and
other unfettered educational agencies, resorting to force and indoctrination
only as intermediary steps in the long trek toward freedom. \Maybe we
shall never be able to depend wholly on the processes of education, but
surely in this democracy, if it can be preserved, we ought increasingly to be
able to do so.

FROM WAR TO PEACE IN THE WORLD AT LARGE

PENNINGTON HALE, ASSISTANT DIRECTOR, COMMISSION TO STUDY
THE ORGANIZATION OF PEACE, NEW YORK, N. Y.

Now that the United Nations have taken the offensive there is no longer
any reasonable ground for reluctance in discussing the sort of world for
which we are fighting. In fact, the development of a vision of that world
must become an important part of the strategy of our offensive if victory
is to be achieved in the shortest possible time and at the least possible cost.
I have two propositions: one, that the next peace will be won or lost before
the end of hostilities; two, that the chief battleground on which the struggle

to win the peace will be fought is in the minds of the people of the United
States.
Rather than consider the various plans or blueprints for the organization
of a peaceful world I prefer now to discuss the policies which must be sup-
ported by the people of this country if there is to be any possibility of estab-
lishing whatever plan seems best. I want to do this because the problem
of the organization of the next peace is not an abstract problem. It is one
which involves our own future and the future of our children. I believe it
to be true that we want to find what men have always sought: freedom
and dignity in their lives, freedom from fear, and freedom from want. If
this is true, how can we best achieve these goals in the sort of world we
inhabit today? The time has gone when any nation thru its own strength
alone can give security, either economic or political, to its people. The de-
structiveness, speed, and range of modern weapons of war make oceans and
boundaries inadequate as a basis for protection. No nation can be secure
in a world of national anarchy. Our own security, like that of all other
countries, depends upon our participation in some system for the organiza-
tion of power behind international authority. It depends also upon the co-
ordination of our economic policies with those of other nations of the world
within an international system. As for our liberty and dignity, we cannot
preserve these desired values in a world which lives under the constant
shadow of war and in which we live under a system of militarism and
regimentation, as from now on we shall always have to do in a lawless world.
It is well to consider the comparative costs of joining with other nations
to establish a world of order and opportunity with the cost of refusing to
do so. In one case we shall have to participate in some system of international
police. This may cost us the lives of two or three hundred Americans over
a period of ten years. The alternative is the shedding of the blood of perhaps
millions every quarter century. If we coordinate our economic policies with
other nations, certain of our industries for a limited period of time may
suffer. The alternative is the complete dislocation of our economic life and
our threatened financial ruin every quarter century. If we wish to live
in a peaceful world we must try to do what we can to give men everywhere
a better chance in life. This need not mean a quart of milk a day for every
Hottentot, but it may mean that we cannot retain all the whipped cream
in the world for our own use.
If the United Nations can develop a better integrated organization in
the fields of military direct-ion, of economic planning, and of organization
for social welfare during the course of the war and maintain that organiza-
tion thru the difficult period of transition from war to peace, we have a
chance of moving forward into an era of international organization. Our
own nation must play a leading role in this endeavor, for it is almost
certain that we shall be increasingly the most powerful nation among our
allies and consequently in the world. If we again refuse the responsibilities
that go with power we have no right to hope for a better world.

THE CONVENTION NEVER HELD

THE EFFECT OF MALNUTRITION ON EDUCATION IN
BELGIUM
EMILE CAMMAERTS, PROFESSOR AT THE UNIVERSITY OF LONDON
(Reprinted thru the courtesy of the LONDON TIMES Educational
Supplement)
The appeal made by the Swedish Committee for the Relief of Belgian
Children, published recently in the London Times Educational Supplement,
has already drawn the attention of British teachers and educationists to the
appalling condition under which the youth of Belgium pursue their studies.
This appeal was based on a report of Dr. Dutholt, head of the Medical
Department of Public Assistance in Brussels, which stated that all children
from one to fourteen years of age were either losing weight or making sub-
normal progress. The Swedish Committee declared that the present situation
was "infinitely worse than a year ago (when this information was obtained)
and that the state of Belgium would soon be as bad as that of Greece."
Reliable information received in London from different sources entirely
confirms these conclusions. I have personally interviewed quite recently cer-
tain doctors and political leaders who were compelled to leave the country
owing to their anti-German activities, and whose names, for this reason,
cannot be published. They all agree that the school children and adolescents
are particularly affected by malnutrition and that public education in the
urban districts is disorganized owing to the physical weakness and ill health
of an ever-increasing number of scholars. Some of the pupils are too weak
to go to school, others go without having eaten any breakfast; cases of faint-
ing are frequent; afternoon classes have been interrupted; games and sports
have been cancelled. The children have neither the physical nor the in-
tellectual energy necessary for any prolonged effort.
Debility and Tuberculosis
One of the last numbers of the clandestine paper La Libre Belgiquc to
reach this country states that since September 1941 30 percent of the chil-
dren have actually lost weight, and that the increase in weight of the ma-
jority of the remaining 70 percent is 40 percent below normal, in spite of
the distribution of extra meals by the municipalities and charitable organiza-
tions. These figures refer to the whole country. The same paper quotes a
report of Dr. Nyns, head of tile Instruction Jlledicale Scolaire in Brussels,
according to which cases of acute anemia, fainting, and swollen glands are
becoming more and more frequent. Slight accidents cause fractures which
do not mend easily owing to the weak condition of the patient. From other
reports we gather that in certain districts the loss of weight of the large
majority ranges between four pounds and thirty pounds. In one form, of
thirty-four boys subjected to medical inspection twelve were in an advanced
stage of debility and fifteen in various stages of tuberculosis.
This may he an extreme case, and conditions evidently vary according to
the ability of parents to procure extra food on the black market, in order
to supplement the official ration, but the number of those who are able to

do so-formerly 15 percent of the population-becomes smaller every month
owing to the exhaustion of private resources and to the increased cost of such
supplies. The bad quality of the rationed food should also be taken into
account. The bread is of very poor nutritive quality and difficult to digest.
Children suffer constantly from sickness and headaches. Cases of oedema
in the legs, a condition practically unknown among the young, have become
so frequent that extra allowances of food have had to be granted to those
affected by this new illness. The winter brings additional suffering owing
to a far from adequate supply of coal.
Teachers and masters struggle bravely to pursue their work in these
tragic circumstances. Most of them are patriots who, forbidden to use their
old textbooks, refuse to use the new ones which the Germans try to force
upon them, especially history books interpreting the 1914-1918 events ac-
cording to the Nazi point of view. They do so at their own risk and dare
not even dictate notes to their pupils, since the German inspectors might
examine them. The teaching in certain schools has become purely oral. The
lack of paper and of copybooks-sometimes there is only one available for
seven scholars-provides an excellent excuse. Slates are used instead, even
in the higher forms, and slates can be quickly cleaned in case of emergency.
But there is always the danger that the child of some quisling might report
to his father any patriotic statement made by a lay teacher, or the fact that
prayers have been said in some religious schools for the victory of Britain
and her allies and the deliverance of the mother country.

Education Paralyzed

The proof that this resistance is the rule in all schools, whether free
Catholicc) or official (state or municipal), is the bitterness expressed by the
German-controlled papers, such as Volk en Staat which denounces them as
centers of "pro-British feelings." "After two years of occupation," it de-
clares, "a complete reform of public education seems necessary, in order to
introduce a new spirit." These attacks are prompted by the fact that the
children of the collaborationistss" are ostracized. The lead given by the
University of Brussels, which the Germans were compelled to close in the
fall owing to the refusal of the academic authorities to comply with their
instructions, is followed everywhere.
It is in this oppressive atmosphere, with the tramp of marching soldiers
resounding under their windows and the threat of arrest hanging over their
heads, that the Belgian teachers endeavor to pursue their painful work and
to prepare the younger generation for the task of tomorrow. They are
faced with rows of pale and hungry faces, and obliged to alter their time-
table and their curriculum according to the tragic circumstances in which
they are placed. How long will they be able to keep up their pupils' courage,
and how long will the scholars themselves be able to attend classes in suffi-
cient numbers? Education is already practically paralyzed. Unless something
is done to alleviate present conditions it will die a natural death.
It is necessary to make plans for the postwar period and to collect and

THE CONVENTION NEVER HELD

prepare supplies for the day of victory and liberation. But present urgent
needs should not be overlooked. The fate of the next generation in Belgium
does not depend on what can be done on a lavish scale in two or three years
from now. It depends on what can be done, even on a small scale, within
the next two or three months.

IMPRESSIONS OF A SCHOOLBOY IN BELGIUM
A twelve-year-old Belgian schoolboy has just travelled alone from Brus-
sels to London to join his father, an officer of the Belgian Forces in Great
Britain.
Peter is a bright little boy, and loves to chatter, laugh, and tell secrets.
A few weeks ago Peter was attending a communal school in a Brussels
suburb.
"My school," he says, "is a good school. The teachers were all on our
side: they did not like the Boches. It was the same with the boys and girls.
In any class there were thirty children, and only three of them were on
the wrong side. How do I know? That's easy. You can recognize the pro-
Germans right away, because they look nervous. WVe never spoke to them,
and they kept very quiet. Because, if they had made a move. . ." And
Peter put up his fists, by way of further explanation.
The Germans, he reports, only came once to the school. That was to
take away the door handles, the copper art pots, and all the other metal
objects.
"We had no atlas and no history books. They say that in other schools
the children have got new history books-books full of lies. But in my
school I know that we were taught true history. Naturally, we did not
put down everything in our exercise books. We were told that the Belgians
have always wanted to be masters in their own house; we learned about
the Duke of Alba, who burned the Belgians; and we also heard about the
heroes of 1830-Charlier, the man with the wooden leg, and all the
rest..
Peter said that he had not been hungry in Belgium. "My grandfather
had a garden in the country," lie explained; "he sent us vegetables. We even
had, now and then, a little piece of meat on Sundays. But people used to say
I was not very well and ought to live in the country. My pals were not
so lucky as I was. Two or three times children who had had no breakfast
before coming to school fainted in the classroom. Then they were taken to
an empty classroom and looked after, and I believe they were given some-
thing to eat. Besides that, some children were ill because they could not
digest the bread which is damp and sticky, or the potato peelings that the
cakes are made of nowadays. Most of the scholars brought money to school
every week and were given a bowl of soup for it at eleven in the morning.
The bigger boys, those who were twelve like me, had the job of serving
it out. For a time we used to get a little glass of milk every day at three
o'clock. Then the milk ran short.

96 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS

"It was very cold in the winter," Peter went on to say. "We had a fine
stove in the classroom, but very little coal. Teacher used to go and look
every quarter of an hour to see if the fire was still alight. Now and again
she put a little tiny shovelful of coal on. In the middle of the winter, even
in 1940, the schools were closed for a long time because there was no way
of heating them. We had very long holidays at Christmas.
"I had some good shoes, with leather soles, that had belonged to the son
of a friend of ours and had got too small for him. But nearly all the other
children had shoes with wooden soles-sometimes just plain wood, and
sometimes in strips. They made a terrific noise at playtime. Nobody had
any new clothes, but we didn't care about that. Now that I am here, I
realize that everyone looked poor in Belgium.
"We used to talk a lot about the war at school. We knew the Germans
were going to be beaten. Here in England everyone is full of courage. Well,
it is the same thing in Belgium. Everybody tells funny stories about the
Germans. I read some myself in the secret newspaper. At school we used
to put some in the secret newspaper of our class, which was called Le
Boche and all written by hand. There was only one copy. Of course, it
wasn't a serious newspaper: we used to put in it all the jokes we knew.
This was one of them I remember:
"Question: How do you pronounce 'Heil Hitler' in Belgium?
"Answer: We pronounce it, in Brussels cockney: 'Alleie, Alleie, Hitler!'
(Clear out, Hitler!)"
Peter was not afraid of guns. "In Brussels," he explained, "when we
heard the airplanes of the R.A.F. and the German guns, we used to come
out on the balcony to make the Boches wild. It was fine to see the tracer
bullets that never hit an Allied airplane. The R.A.F. is grand."
And Peter went on talking about his school, his teachers, and "Mademoi-
selle" (who looked after the fire). She was "grand," too, because she was
not afraid of the "Boches" and continued to teach the real History of
Belgium.

A PHYSICAL FITNESS PROGRAM FOR THE SCHOOLS
FROM THE STANDPOINT OF MANPOWER
COLONEL LEONARD G. ROWNTREE, CHIEF, MEDICAL DIVISION, NATIONAL
HEADQUARTERS, SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM, WASHINGTON, D. C.
Man is entitled to good health. It is his right. What do you suppose
would have been the effect on the welfare of this nation had the signers
of the Declaration of Independence included one additional word "health"
in that document-"the inalienable rights of man are life, liberty, and the
pursuit of (health and) happiness?" As a representative of the medical pro-
fession, Benjamin Rush should have included it; Franklin, I think, as a
philosopher, would have supported it; and Washington, as the Father of
our Country, would have welcomed it. While it is now more than a century
and a half too late for inclusion in the Declaration of Independence, it is
never too late to recognize health as one of the inalienable rights of man.

THE CONVENTION NEVER HELD 97

War, because of its imperative demands for vigorous manhood, forces
on us the careful selection of young men who are "fit to fight," but selective
service statistics have revealed an unsuspected national weakness, a 40 to
50 percent rate of rejection due to lack of health and physical fitness. Since
the need for manpower is present and imperative, our national leaders are
now frantically seeking some ready panacea for physical fitness, some quick,
rapid cure for the numerous defects unwittingly engendered thru neglect.
But health, like farming and education, needs careful cultivation. Weeds
of disease have choked, to some extent, the normal growth and development
of some of the youth of our nation. Our crucial problem is to correct imme-
diately that which is subject to remedy, but above all we must prevent in
the future a repetition of the situation which faces us today. This nation
should never again be subjected to the humiliation of a 40 to 50 percent
rejection of manpower because of lack of health and physical fitness.
The cure for this condition lies largely with the medical and teaching
professions, which should unite in a joint campaign of instruction for the
education of youth and the enlightenment and support of both the teachers
and the parents. The educational system hereafter must provide for adequate
instruction in matters of personal, physical, and mental hygiene; for cor-
rection of developing defects; and for the actual physical training requisite
to physical fitness. This obviously demands the cooperation of medicine,
which has already attempted to meet the situation thru the creation of a
special Committee on Student Health at national headquarters of the
American Medical Association. The services of this medical committee are
now available to the teaching profession.
Your profession, under the auspices of the U. S. Office of Education, is
meeting the situation squarely and effectively thru the creation of Victory
Programs. The Victory Program for Physical Fitness, like that of the
Division of Physical Fitness of the New York State War Council, is de-
signed specifically to meet existing conditions. At present two things are
essential: first, the correction of defects easy of remedy which threaten life
and health ; and second, the building of stamina, strength, endurance, and
agilities in all who can qualify for such training. Qualifications should be
determined by medical examination.
From the standpoint of manpower, students might be placed in three
groups: (a) eighteen years of age and over, (b) sixteen to eighteen years
of age, and (c) under sixteen years of age.
It is imperative that immediate attention be given to the first and second
groups. The first represents the immediate source of manpower; the sec-
ond, a potential source during the next two years. First and foremost, every
student of these two groups should be examined by a competent physician,
using the physical standards of the Army known as War Department
Mobilization Regulation 1-9 (as amended January 20, 1943). Prehabilita-
tion should be effected where and when possible.
The program of physical fitness should have as its objective combat
efficiency, the development of men willing to do or die but equipped to

do rather than to die. It should include mass calisthenics, local competi-
tive sports, and simple exercise such as walking, running, jumping, bicycling,
swimming, diving. A more rugged program might include hockey, foot-
ball, chinning, pushups, setups, dashes, dodging runs. The commando
type of training combines many virtues. The best guide to the type of train-
ing needs is found in the actual experience of the Army and Navy.
The group under sixteen is in a very plastic state and tremendous results
. may be anticipated from the development of proper methods of training.
Colonel Theodore P. Bank, chief of the Athletic and Recreation
Branch of the Special Service Division of the War Department, stated:
"Many young men are entering the Army today totally unprepared for
military life. It takes weeks to bring them into the physical condition neces-
sary to proper military training. This means weeks of wasted time and
effort which could be avoided if every young man now in high school en-
gaged in proper physical activities."
In any program of physical fitness, sight should not be lost of the need
for mental fitness and above all for the "will to win." The needs in this field
are as great as in that of physical fitness. The proper approach to this
problem should yield results of infinite value.
Today the physical fitness program should condition our youth for
war; tomorrow, as the national health program, it should condition our
youth with the mental and physical vigor essential for world leadership
and for the maintenance of lasting universal peace.

THE PRINCIPAL AS DIRECTOR OF HEALTH EDUCATION

WORTH MC CLURE, SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS, SEATTLE, WASH.

I know a school of five hundred pupils in which a health council coordi-
nates the instructional program with other phases of the school life in the
interests of the healthful living of boys, girls, and teachers. Established by
the principal and the teachers, it now includes the custodian-engineer, the
school nurse, and the matron of the school cafeteria. Here are some of the
questions the health council has considered:
Lighting. Seattle is in a coastal dimout area. Dimouts and advance of clocks one
hour on "war time" made special study of lighting necessary.
Ilrating. Many war immigrant children come from hotter, drier cliilates. Is there
a tendency to wear too much or too heavy clothing?
Ventilation. Fuel shortage may curtail ventilation to the detriment of adequate
circulation.
Cleanliness. Classrooms, halls, basements, toilets, grounds.
Noon intermission. Should part of the primary intermission be taken for a rest
period? How much? Which part?
Cafeteria. Is it adequate? Are children selecting balanced lunches? Atmosphere?
Special displays?
Nurse. How can the nurse he of greater help to us in the entire school program?
How much maladjustment is due to health conditions?

Full Text

PAGE 1

OFFICIAL REPORT OF THE CONVENTION NEVER HELD This material comes to you through your subscription to the EDUC'ATlON/i^L RESEARCH SERVICE laOl 16th StÂ»**<4t Washfngion. D.C. *MM*M^MÂ«Â»MM% American Association of School TTSnTiiristrators A DEPARTMENT OF THE NATIONAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION OF THE UNITED STATES \10. la jii'C -A "" Â— %L,..A \ \ \ \ \{ ^Y OF SCHOOL ADMINI3TRAT1QM f^-^ COLLEGE OF EDUCATION . \ J y UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 01. k % SCHEDULED AT ST LOUIS 1943

PAGE 3

cr\) AJyIERICAN ASSOCIATION OF School Administrators A DEPARTMENT OF THE NATIONAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION OF THE UNITED STATES OFFICIAL REPORT OF THE i '(t^(r,CU CONVENTION NEVER HELD F1X3RIDA CURRICULUM LABORATOm Jif^ EDUCATION . U. OP FLA. AND Â„l I^ Â°^^Â°^ PUBLIC INSTRUCTION fc J& XSM6B SCHpOl, : GAlNpv ii c pu^ Seventy-third annual convention of the American Association of School Administrators, a Department of the National Education Association of the United States, scheduled at St. Louis, Missouri, February 26-March 2, 1943, canceled at the request of the Office of Defense Transportation. 1201 SIXTEENTH STREET, NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON, D. C. March 1943 PRICE $1 PER COPY PAGE 4 EDQCATIOH LIBBABT CONVENTION THEME The Role of the Nations Schools in Winning the War and Earning the Peace OUR POLICY The American Association of School Administrators endorses no individual or group of individuals or any sentiment expressed hy any speaker or other participant in its programs, except by resolution or by motion approved by a vote of its members. PAGE 5 FOREWORD "poR THE FIRST TIME in more than sixty \'eais the convention of the ^ American Association of School Administrators failed to convene. Even tho its program was dedicated to "the schools' role in winning the war," it became a war casualty. Transportation problems and rationing programs were more than even a convention so dedicated could withstand. The St. Louis program had been built around the theme, "The Role of the Nation's Schools in Winning the War and Earning the Peace." It was designed to be a working convention in which superintendents of schools and their assistants might become better informed on the many ways in which schools can cooperate in the total all-out war effort. Naturally we were keenly disappointed at the loss of the opportunity to meet for deliberation and counsel, to hear directly from our national leaders, and to participate in the discussions of the major problems of the nation at war. It was felt that the schools have important parts to play in the huge war program, and that a convention designed to throw light on the questions involved would result in greatly increased effectiveness on the part of the schools of America. In order that the program planned for the seventy-third annual convention be not a total loss, we have brought to the membership of the Association two summaries of what might have been heard at the convention. A major portion of the convention addresses are presented in this Official Report; others were heard in the Convention of the Air, a series of radio programs which were broadcast over the four major networks. We hope that thru these two media you may find much of value in making more effective the contributions your schools are making to hasten the day of victory and peace. We are sincerely grateful to those who have sent us transcripts of their intended convention addresses and to the broadcasting companies and the participants whose efforts made possible the Convention of the Air. I should like to point out to you at this time that the convention is only one of the activities of our Association. The multitude of other activities must go on for the good of the schools. Research, yearbooks, liaison with governmental agencies, and many other services to the membership and to the schools must continue at even greater pace than before. If the demands for services are to be fully met, the unanimous support of the membership is necessary during these trying times. I am confident that America's school administrators will maintain their professional Association so that it may be ready with renewed vigor whenever the next convention of the Association may be held. Here's hoping it will be in 1944 with President Worth McClure of Seattle, Washington, presiding. Ma>I express to all of you my personal appreciation for the honor of serving the American Association of School Administrators as its president during 1942-43. HOMER W. ANDERSON Presiilcnt 93 (^^ PAGE 6 CONVENTION 1943 FREDERICK JAMES MOFFITT Oh, the utters that might have been uttered, the wisdom that might have been spread, the speeches that never were spoken, the erudite papers unread, the problems that might have been settled, the colleagues who might have been seen. These things are all part of the powwow, the convention that didn't convene. But we'll work a bit harder and try to dig in; We will meet and defeat all our troubles, and grin. We are ready to do all we can do to win O.K., Uncle Samuel, O.K. We wanted the upsurge of spirit which comes when the clan gathers round. We hoped for the voices of prophets amidst all the fury and sound and we needed to know that our problems were part of the national scene. For this we would meet and would survey the convention that didn't convene. Trainloads of soldiers roll on to their goal, Freightloads of armaments, guns, tanks and coal. Give them the trains and the track; let 'em roll Speed the day, Uncle Sam, speed the day. There's a fight to be fought and we'll fight it, we have been in tough battles of yore. There's a war to be won and we'll win it as we've won other battles before. But we pause for a moment in tribute surveying with sorrowful mien the speakers with speeches unspoken, the convention that didn't convene. Reproduced by permission of the Nation's Schools. THE SUMMARY That Was Never Written FRANK W. HUBBARD, DIRECTOR OF RESEARCH, NATIONAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION ; CHAIRMAN, CONVENTION SUMMARIZATION COMMITTEE "St. Louis surprised even the oldest native by the bright, clear days that prevailed during convention week." With these words the convention summary might have opened Â— surprising not only the oldest inhabitants hut possibly the envious members of the Association who were unable to attend. But since the convention was never held it really doesn't matter what the weather was like Â— except possibly to the residents of St. Louis. We started to find out for this page just what kind of weather St. Louis had during the week when the convention didn't meet but finally decided that such an inquiry might be interpreted as interfering with the war effort. Anyway we have gotten the impression from Mark Twain that people talk about the weather only when they have nothing else to talk about. Our task here is to tell about the convention that never met. 14] PAGE 7 The Summary That Was Never Written For weeks prior to the convention, plans had been made to prepare a better summary than ever before. A number of superintendents had been asked for suggestions. Tentative selection had been made of the three dozen members who would forego their personal interests in order to cover the convention program. It was anticipated that some of these Avould scribble utt their reports whh the ease of old-time reporters; some would sit in a corner of the Summary Committee Office chewing their pencils and muttering as tlu-y slowly fitted the nebulous words into place. Hut your sympathy can be saved for another year, for this year the Committee that was never appointed to report the convention that was ne\ er held destroyed no pencils and wasted no paper. Unlike last year, the convention was not well attended. Hundreds did not crowd around the Registration Desk on the first day to get programs that were never printed, to pay delinquent dues that have since been mailed, to greet old friends who never arrived, and to ask questions that were not asked and will not have to be answered. After turning from the Registration Desk that was never built, each member of the Association did not take time for a good look at the exhibit that failed to materialize. Exhibitors had made careful plans ; even the government started out seriously to show school administrators how the schools could contribute more effectively to the winning of the war. But the superintendents who never arrived did not see the exhibit that was never exhibited and for that reason they will have to depend upon printed and mimeographed materials in order to learn of the government's plans. Fortunately reading is a school subject, but unlike the situation with personable exhibitors the printed page does not answer the unanswered questions. This was one convention where those who did not listen to the speeches that were never given did not complain about the hardness of the seats. Nor was any convention speaker disturbed by the perennial occupant of a front-row seat who had neglected to finish his newspaper at breakfast. None of the speakers had trouble staying on their subjects or keeping within their time allotments. Discussion groups enjoyed the lowest blood pressure that they had endured for many years. The members of the Resolutions Committee felt as most men would feel if the calendar reform movement should lead to the abolition of January 1. Unfortunately for man} of the speakers, they did not escape preparing the speeches that were never given. The results of their efforts are printed in the present Official Report and their invisible audiences silently applaud their contributions. Unlike most conventions, in 1943 the retiring president did not orally thank all those who had helped make his administration successful. The new president did not tell what impro\ements he hoped to make. No convention visitor had to rush around frantically at the last moment getting the family gifts that could not be purchased during the usually busy week. Nor, upon his return, did any superintendent have to give his board of education an explanation as to how he spent his time during the convention that was never held. PAGE 8 CONTENTS FOREWORD CONVENTION 1943 THE SUMMARY THAT WAS NEVER WRITTEN Schools and Manpower Â— Today and Tomorrow If Ever There Was a Cause What the War Means to American Youth Food Â— Our Weapon Education, the Way to Freedom The School's Contribution to the War Effort The Myth of the Militia Air-Conditioning Education The Campus and the Air Age Coordinating Wartime Activities in the Schools Occupational Adjustment and the War ....'.... In-Service Education The Chips Are Down The Demands of the War upon the Financial Resources of the School District Educational Finance in Wartime: The View on the Higher Level Educational Finance in Wartime: Certain Fundamental Propositions Economic Use of Supplies and Equipment Priority Dilemma Problems of Pupil Transportation War Emergency Bus Uses Teaching the Elementary Student the American Way . . . A Prayer Education for Morale Norway Fights on Â— Morale in Action Personnel Policies in Wartime War Comes Home to the Consumer Schools Must Help Consumer Education Education and Propaganda From War to Peace in the World at Large The Effect of Malnutrition on Education in Belgium .... Impressions of a Schoolboy in Belgium .... Â— Reprinted A Physical Fitness Program for the Schools from the Standpoint of Manpower The Principal as Director of Health Education Health in the Habit-Forming Years Secondary-Health Education in Wartime How To Improve High-School Health Education Civilian Defense Â— Its Scope and Importance in the Schools . Civilian Defense in a Small City Air-Raid Protection for the Children in a Large City . Â• . Teaching Values of War Savings and Conservation .... The Schools at War Program To What Extent Shall Junior Red Cross Be a Part of the School Program? -Anderson -Moffitt . -Hubbard -Morgan -Stoddard -Phillips -Englc -Sexson . -Carr . . -Rosengren -Engelhardt -Wilson . -Lake . . -Lee . . -Hunt -Odegard -Courier . -Simpson Page 3 4 4 9 13 14 15 17 22 23 36 44 45 49 53 58 61 66 Â— Simpson Â—Holy Â— Parmenter Â— Bryan Â— Poiver Â— Goodykoon Â— Byers Â— Morrison Â— Skard Â—Nut tall . Â— Troelstrup Â— Cocking Â— Stoddard Â—Haile . Â— Cammaerts from Belgium Â— Roivntree Â— McClure Â— Bauer Â—fVilson . Â— Grout Â— Heaton . Â— Billingsley Â—IVad'e . Â— Courier . Â—Patton . Â—Hill . . tz 72 74 76 79 80 81 82 83 83 88 89 90 90 91 93 95 96 98 99 100 102 103 10+ 104 106 107 109 [6] PAGE 9 -Hunt Buttrrzvort/i Giz'ens . . liigrloiv Wmsliip What Is the Best Setup in the Schools for the Junior Red Cross Program? How Can Schools Proceed Best To Carry on the Junior Red Cross Program? . . . -Â» Â— Sutherland Swiss Aid to Foreign Children Â— Bruggmann Caring for the Children of Working Mothers Â— Klrtzrr . Child-Care Problems and Services to Children of Working Mothers Â— Lenrool . The Unsupervised Child Â— A Crtmmunity Responsibility . . . Â— Clark Some Provisions for Children of Working Mothers .... Â— Poivrr Kxtended School Services for Children of Working Mothers Â— Da-vis The Contribution of the High-School Library to the War Effort Â— Coulbourn A Study of School Libraries in Wartime Â— Butler Discussion: School Libraries in Wartime Â— Jo/nison School Libraries Meet New Demands Â— Batchelder Wartime Acceleration in Education Â— Cloud Acceleration in the High School Â— Green .Acceleration on the Junior College Level Â— Harheson Critical Problems of Rural Education in the Present Emergency Â— Morgan . Should There Be a Reorganization of Schools in the Rural Areas? Federal .'\id To Save the Schools Educating Teachers for What? Education for Inter-American Understanding Canadian Schools in Wartime . . . Canadian JVartime Information Board Message from the Teachers of Honduras Every Day Is "M-Day" for Us Â—Spratt . . The American Education Award The School for Special Service Â— Judd . . . The School of Military Government Education for Men and Women in Military Service .... Â— Spaulding . Guidance in the Army Â— Holdridge Wartime Curriculum Guidance Â— Broivn . . Education and the War Effort in Britain . . . British Information Services Postwar Training and Adjustment Â— Kirk . . The Social Studies Mobilize for Victory Â— Wilson . . Social Studies Teaching in Wartime Â— Hunt . . Newspapers Honor Our Past Presidents THE CONVENTION OF THE AIR The Exhibit Â—Allan . . Directory of Exhibitors OFFICIAL RECORDS In Memoriam Report of the Board of Tellers Report of the Auditing Committee Correspondence with the Office of Defense Transportation The Constitution and Bylaws Calendar of Meetings Officers, 1942-43 Committees and Commissions Page 110 110 112 113 114 lis 116 117 118 120 121 121 123 123 124 126 127 128 135 139 141 145 146 147 148 151 152 155 156 159 162 162 164 166 169 187 188 202 203 204 205 212 216 219 219 Index 222 17 PAGE 10 Conrtmy Murphy Hi Times, Mvrphu High tictioul, Mobile, Alabanni PAGE 11 The Convention Nsvcr Held SCHOOLS AND MANPOWERÂ— TODAY AND TOMORROW DE WITT S. MORGAN, SUPERINTENDENT OF SCfiOOLS, INDIANAPOLIS, IND. ; CHAIRMAN, 1043 'YEARBOOK COMMISSION The duty has been assigned to me, and I acknowledge it as a privilege, of presenting to the American Association of School Administrators the Yearbook of 1943. The title is Schools and Manpoiuer Â— Today and To?norrow. Of course the title is a timely one. In fact it is so timely that it may appear to you as tho it were picked out for the express purpose of fitting into the present emergency. The fact is, However, that all developments within the Yearbook Commission, from the very beginning, have borne upon the significant issues oi >outhpower as it develops into manpower. When the term "manpower" came into common parlance, of course it was appropriate to use it as the title of the volume which the Yearbook Commission has worked upon over a period of some thirty months. The early plans for the volume grew out of stark facts which superintendents of schools were facing when they saw hundreds of youth leaving the doors of the schools Â— high-school and college graduates as well Â— only to walk the streets in a futile search for a job. The problem of the schools as it was then related to youthpower was of a considerably different nature than the problem which confronts us now. But as I shall try to point out to you later on, the essentials in the problem involve the same issues in 1943 as were involved in the year 1940, when the book was first begun. In its original form the issue which was first presented to the Yearbook Commission was this: How can schools do a better job to prepare youth for occupational life? Bluntly Â— to get a job, to hold a job, and to rise in a job. When the question comes to one in that way many subordinate issues arise. For example, can schools organize their forces so that they can more definitely and more effectively prepare each youth according to his abilities? How can schools find out individual abilities? How can schools better train the range of abilities discovered for the great variety of occupations? How can schools better prepare youth for understanding the human relationships which they will meet in their occupational life? What kind of reconciliation can be brought about between vocational and general education? \ou will bear in mind that when the Yearbook Commission began its work we were in days of peace. We then faced a world condition in which there was a shortage of jobs, a plentiful supply of manpower. But with the threat of war and then with Pearl Harbor, there developed an entirely different situation. Almost overnight more tasks arose to be performed than there could be found manpower to do them. In the light of the world situation, when the Yearbook Commission began its work, it first thought in terms of a book with the title, "Education for Occupational Adjustment." [9] PAGE 12 10 American Association of School Administrators The war, however, soon brought the problem to a sharper focus, as you can see, and as the months went on it developed that the Commission began to think of the fundamental way in which schools faced the problem of manpower, not merely today but for the days to come. It was my privilege to preside at the meetings of the Yearbook Commission. The names of the members of the Commission are listed in the yearbook and I shall not repeat them now. I have this obligation, however Â— I must make to each member of the Commission a personal acknowledgment of my thanks for their many hours of hard work, their broad-minded consideration of all the issues, their tolerance in discussion, and their effective efforts in resolving the variety of issues which came before us. Of course, it could not be that all at all times could see eye to eye on the variety of problems involved. All members of the American Association of School Administrators understand that a yearbook is always necessarily the result of the long process of resolving various points of view into a statement to which all the members of a commission can subscribe. Your Commission on the Yearbook for 1943 has achieved that end. I can report to you that all members of this Commission stand shoulder to shoulder in support of the various theses as stated specifically in the volume at the opening of each chapter and in the statement of the "Final Convictions," with which the text of the Commission's report closes. War forces a nation to do elemental thinking. We see more clearly than ever today that there are only two things with which a war can be fought and won Â— materials and men. On the one hand, America has her iron, coal, copper, and great forests. These America has in great abundance. But as significant as is the fact that we have much iron, coal, copper, and forests is the fact that we have good iron, good coal, good copper, and good trees. On the other hand, this nation has a population of more than 130,000,000 people. Approximately 30,000,000 of these are between the ages of eighteen and thirty. It is a cruel fact that upon these youth who are under thirty years of age we must now rely in such large measure for safety and security. We come very soon to the realization that just as it is significant that we possess resources of good quality, it is of equal significance that these youth under thirty are people of good quality, that they are strong physically, able mentally, able to develop manual skill, and possessed of such courage and conviction that it takes them bravely into any conflict, no matter how bitter it may be. One who realizes the essentials of the present situation, and first of all the quality of the youth upon whom America now depends, comes to a new appreciation of the part which schools have had in building this quality upon which we now rely for our preservation. The war is causing us to appreciate anew the fact that this generation of youth under thirty, upon whom we rely so much for our safety, is the best generation of people under thirty years of age which any civilization ever produced. They are bigger and stronger physically, they think faster, they learn more rapidly, they can cut metal to a finer tolerance, they can swim farther, dive deeper, work longer than any generation of youth which ever preceded them. It is not any PAGE 13 The Convention Never Held 11 accident that the United States of America was able in a few months to go into a program of production which could stagger the world. It was not by chance that we could produce an Air Corps, a Navy, an Army, and a Marine Corps which, in a few months, were able to meet every test that military conflict might require. The fact Is that thru these years the schools of America have quietly, but effectively, been building into children and youth such quality that within a few months' time the potential youthpower could be turned into production and into military strength which makes every American citizen very proud. Before our very eyes there has transpired a great social phenomenon. Under the impetus of tragic war the >outhpower and the manpower of this nation have been thrown into gear in such a way that we not only produce the thousands of planes, hundreds and hundreds of ships, and the clothing and equipment for a great military personnel, but at the same time produce all the items of consumption for an entire population. Who is there among us, in the face of all this, who does not realize now that because of our social disorganization in the years gone by, somehow we failed to develop and to utilize our potential manpower for constructive ends? The implications of the future in all this the Commission has expressed in its Foreword : When the war will have ended we shall need to think clearly and act decisively. We hope and believe that we shall still have vast resources of coal, iron, copper, and soil; that we shall still have machines in our factories; and that we shall have a population with skills and knowledges developed to make our machines better and make them operate more effectively. In short, we trust that then, despite the ravages of war, \ve shall have the essentials which can make and keep us a prosperous people in material things. If we can be wise enough to develop and to use our people and materials hi the ri(/lit ivay and the right place in order to win a war against C/ermany and Japan, we should also be wise enough to keep on developing and using people and materials in the right way and the right place to win a war against poverty and despair. .Ml this, of course, depends upon our vision and our skill. May neither be lacking in the critical days which are to come. To put it all in brief form, the fundamental thesis of this volume is that it is the schools which in very large measure build the foundations upon which the manpower of the nation has been developed and can be developed for even more demanding days ahead. When the military struggle is over, the struggle of a tired world against poverty will be greater than ever before. The fight for maintenance of civilization, for production of food and clothing and shelter for a billion people on this earth, will call for manpower just as loudl\' as does the present fight against Axis ideology. The struggle now and for the future has its foundations in building a population which is competent in all the broad meanings of that term. We must know that increasing competence means many things. It means a rising level of physical endurance, a rising level of skill of hand, a rising level of understanding which will constantly improve human relations, and above all, it means a rising level of ideals and interests in the high instead of the low. If the level of competence of the 1.^0,000,000 people of America can be lifted, the standards of living in the civilization of America can rise. And with this rise in level of com- PAGE 14 12 American Association of School Administrators petence of our own people there can be achieved a rise in the level of competence of the billion people who inhabit this globe, and the standards of living and standards of civilization worldwide may rise. This yearbook takes the position that the schools Â— a major agency of education, the agency upon which we rel\ for building the foundations for manpower Â— are at the heart of the problem of making the world a better place for men to live. The Commission has tried to go beyond merely expressing this broad conviction. It has tried, as space would permit, to deal somewhat specifically with the major elements which must go into this broad, and broadening, program of education. Every inference in this book is that the processes of education must be individualized to the degree to which such is administratively possible. The Commission takes the position that in every community the first responsibility of the school is to help each individual to discover his own potentialities thru guidance, testing, exploration, and work experience. These basic functions schools have just begun to exercise. In certain of its chapters the yearbook tries to set forth certain procedures which promote these elemental processes. But abilities once discovered must be given opportunity for development. Again, the yearbook recognizes that in this the school has not achieved its goal. We have but begun with our program of development of physical power. In the years past we have not fully given opportunity for the development of hand-skill. Altho we have the long tradition in "liberal education," we realize how far short we have fallen in a program of education which really "broadens the minds" of our people. This war has revealed again how much there is to do in the development of faith and conviction concerning things which must be maintained which are at the very heart of the civilization we hope to preserve. But again, if a school fully performs these functions of discovery and development of ability, the yearbook recognizes a further concern. It will not do in the days to come merely to find ability and develop it. Society must take responsibility for maintaining opportunity for youth to work at things for which they are prepared. It will not do to develop manpower and have it walk the streets looking for a place to work. All this calls for increasing the effectiveness of the technics of schools to cooperate with industry and the various community agencies which must use manpower. It comes to us all anew that in each of these fields relating to potential power, discovery, development, and placement, schools have but begun to realize their potentialities and their significant place. One thing of especial significance I would report to you^ Â— that as this Commission has worked on this yearbook thru the past months, it has come to an increasing realization that it deals with functions of the schools which endure thru peace and war alike. The functions indeed are important in strenuous days of war, but all these functions will loom as even more important in the critical days which are ahead. It is with such a conviction that this Commission presents this yearbook to the Association which it has tried to serve. PAGE 15 Thh Convention Never Held 13 IF EVER THERE WAS A CAUSE ALEXANDER J. STODDARD. SUI'ERINTLNDENT OF SCHOOLS, PHILADELPHIA, PA.; CHAIRMAN, EDUCATIONAL POLICIES COMMISSION Yesterday our schools conducted :i registration for a rationin}^ program; today they finished buying a bomber ; tomorrow the third scrap metal campaign begins. Yesterday our schools helped 130,000,000 people find themselves and their destinies in a countrx at peace; today these schools are helping to forge a might\ people and their vast resources into the greatest fighting force the \\orld has ever known ; tomorrow these schools may help the people to see thru their sweat and blood and tears to the dawning of a better day. The schools of America may play a noble part in the coming of this day if they can be maintained strong and free, both during and after the war, and can retain the power to adapt themselves to this new day. The institutions which men build tend to become overburdened with tradition, tend to protect the vested interests of those who serve within the institutions themselves instead of the interests of the people whom the institutions were designed to serve. The schools have demonstrated a remarkable degree of flexibility in meeting the war situation and must surely respond to the challenge that will come after the war. But we cannot wait until the war is over to make plans for the part that the schools will play in the postwar world. It is not too early now to begin the establishment of a program of action that will rally in a concentrated manner the educational forces of the country. Financial resources must be placed back of our great professional organizations that will make them far more articulate than they have ever been. The million workers in our schools can provide these resources without undue sacrifice. Programs of action are needed that will make the voice of education more effective. There must be a greater professional unity than is usual within our profession. There is a way to make the voice of education count and we must find that way and we must find it now before it is too late. The program and procedures of the schools should be subjected ruthlessly to most critical appraisal to eliminate objectives and practices that have outlived their da>'. There must be room in the program and in the budget for new services that are bound to be required. Two of these have alread\ become so evident that adequate provision should be made for them at once. We must be prepared to offer a program of service to the millions of youth who dropped out of school before and who will do so again if we do not act and act boldly, whatever may be the cost. We must be ready to ofTer an expanded program of adult education thru which a free people can constantly be an informed people and thru which public opinion can be formed as the re>ult of the unrestricted give and take of free discussion concerning any and all problems of American life. There are man\" who are already advocating that the peace to come after this war shall be built upon and maintained by force. Some force ma\' be necessary. But those \\ ho knou" the lessons of histor\' best are coming to PAGE 16 14 American Association of School Administrators believe more and more that the last hope for an abiding peace in the world rests with education, universal education, free education. Can the schools of America in the midst of this war formulate a plan of action under which free schools may possibly become the experience of all the peoples of all the nations, born and to be born, in the world? Perhaps never before and probably never again will the schools and colleges of America, the leaders of education, the million teachers, face the opportunity and the responsibility that we face in this day. Horace Mann speaks down to us from another daj^: If ever there was a cause, if ever there can be a cause, worthy to be upheld by all of toil or sacrifice that the human hand or heart can endure, it is the cause of Education. WHAT THE WAR MEANS TO AMERICAN YOUTH MITZI PHILLIPS, STUDENT, WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY, ST. LOUIS, MO. Until today, American 3'outh of my generation had viewed the war in an objective sense. To us, it meant primarily matters of impersonal concern Â— causes, efifects, mass murder, economic and political disruption. Educators, many of whom had lived and fought in the First World War, gave us an accurate picture of its effects and mistakes. From them, even in early childhood, we had ingrained in us the theory that all wars were instruments of destruction. Ours was a peace-loving, peace-living, peace-pursuing world. We were educated to believe wholeheartedly in the supreme equitableness of that peace. Today's war thus finds us in a querying mood. Painfully we are learning to see another phase of war, a phase lending growth to our already intensified mental rejection of a world constantly involved in it. Right now, we have lost our objective views. To us, this war has become a personal affair Â— our families are being disrupted, our plans delayed, our liberties restrained. We are becoming acquainted with the caustic hurt of war. As a result we find ourselves becoming the unwilling fosterers of the petty prejudices and hates so frequently engendered in the waging of war and unconsciously evidenced in the forming of peace. However, in one respect our educators have not failed us. In spite of the personal effects of the war on our generation, we are determined not to entirely lose sight of our pre-war objective views. Rather, our contact with war has but increased our curiosity as to war's root causes Â— as to man's failure to live with man. We find ourselves determined not to allow any personal hates to influence us in forming a just and equitable peace. We are resolved to retain our objective views Â— to put them to efficient use at the close of the war. To American youth, this war, fundamentally, means one principal thing. It means an opportunity to combine our education and experience in forming a peace at another peace table Â— this time with a clear recollection and under- PAGE 17 The Convention Never Held 15 standing of the mistakes at the last. It means another opportunity to help eradicate discontent, the ultimate cause of war Â— the rij^ht in so doing which we expect our elders to partially concede to us. In warning, may I say that the greatest mistake that you, our elders, could make would be to say to American youth at the close of hostilities: "Thank you. You may go back to your peaceful pursuits. The war has been ^von Â— our goal has been reached. We don't need you any longer." If our elders do not try and do not give us a part in the trying to scientifically and philosophically uncover and avoid the basic cause of war, we shall feel bitterly resentful at having been made the victims of an international shell game. American youth is fighting a war. American youth is preparing for peace. We are united in purpose and ideals. This time, we hope to succeed! FOODÂ— OUR WEAPON KENNETH ENGLE, .ABILENE, KANS. ; 1942 WINNER OF FUTURE FARMERS OF AMERICA PUBLIC SPEAKING CONTEST "Food will win the war and write the peace," states Secretary of Agriculture Claude R. Wickard. True Â— and the lack of food will lose the war. England, our co-helper in this fight against the Axis, even in normal times, imports two-thirds of her food supply. Today the English people are receiving what the cold-blooded scientist calls an "adequate meal." What he means is a "minimum requirement." In other words, the English man or woman rarely gets up from the table with his hunger satisfied. Thousands of people in central Europe are starving to death under the ruthless rationing of the Nazi war machine. In the Far East, in Japan and China, where even in normal times starvation is not an uncommon thing, conditions are unimaginable. Food has always been important in wartime. But the United States government had not realized the necessary part played by the farmer in producing this food until the last two wars. In the Revolutionary War and the War of 1812 we thought, almost to the exclusion pi all else, of having trained men on the fighting line. In these wars, the importance of the part of the "man behind the man behind the gun" was not realized. In the Civil War the United States recognized that the man on the equipment production line was important. During the first two years of the war the Confederate Army won almost every battle because it was ready. However, the factories in the North finally out-produced the factories in the Confederate states. In the First World War we discovered the essential "man behind the man behind the gun," the farmer. In the months that we have been in this war, the War of Survival, the American farmer has quickly accepted the challenge of necessity and is producing more eggs, pork, and dairy products than ever before. The United States must not only feed her own forces wherever stationed, but also take care of our allies in every corner of the globe. Cargo ships are taking life-sustaining meats and fats to our allies, the English. We are send- PAGE 18 16 American Association of School Administrators ing food to the Russian, Dutch, Chinese, and Australian forces. It is indeed an enormous task that our farmers have undertaken. As we look at that enormous task, we may wonder whether we can solve the problem. The Future Farmers of America, whom I represent, are just at the age when the}' are not quite old enough for the Army but are essential to their farmer fathers. During these years before we go into the Army, it is our part to help produce the food that is necessary. If we go into other work and try to make high wages, soon we will be without farm help. Then inadequate labor will have to do the work ineffectively. Since we are the most vitally interested and best trained, it is only logical that we should be the ones for this work. Let's glance over the Englishman's menu for a moment and see how much less he gets than we. Also let's see if more food would help him produce more war materials. A person in England gets one egg a week, no more no matter who he is. King George VI gets one egg a week. The rations in England allow two ounces of butter a week per person. The average American eats three times that much. As for meats, the Englishman gets as much each week as he can buy for one shilling and tuppence or about twenty-five cents in our money. If he has four in his family he can have a roast on Sunday and scraps on Monday, and that is all the meat for the week. Call that an adequate ration or what you will, but if the Englishman had more food he could do much more work and do it better. In other words, conservatively speaking, production could be increased 15 to 20 percent. This means that every six hundred English Spitfires might just as well be seven hundred, and that extra food would "keep 'em flying" in greater numbers. This is an example of how food will win the war. As Future Farmers of America we not only see the problems of people in other countries but also in our own homes and on our own farms. With the shortage of tires the farmer is going to have to be more and more selfsufficient. This is going to give the Future Farmers' mothers more work to do. Bread, butter, and cheese Â— things we have been buying at the store Â— can all be made at home, thus saving the tires which are necessary for taking the grain to market. This means more work, but the man in the factory is working extra hours too. In fact, everj'one in the nation is going to have to work longer hours and work harder. The farmer will be doing more butchering and curing of meat. These are tasks that the Future Farmer should be learning to do. Expensive luxuries in the food field will have to be discarded. In order to win we must deny ourselves. Victory is worth the sacrifice. More fruits should be grown on our farms. If we are to take care of the future it would be a good idea for Future Farmers to plant fruit trees. Larger victory gardens will help produce the food for our families. Purebred milk cows that will eat the same feed and yet give more milk than a grade herd will prove their merits. Purebred beef cattle that put on more pounds than grade cattle for the same amount of feed will also help in the food for victory campaign. PAGE 19 The Convention Never Held 17 The farmer is the very hub of the wheel of war, not only because of what he does but because of the patriotic, tireless, self-sacrificing spirit with which he performs every daily task. I know of no finer statement of the farmer's point of view than that made in the 1942 Kansas Future Farmers of America Public Speaking Contest by my friend and competitor, Albert VanWalleghan, who has kindly permitted me to quote him. He said : The all night vigils at farrowing time will be our sentry duty; the tractors we guide along contour rows will be our tanks; the seeds we plant will be our inland ocean mines; farm machinery we repair will convert our farm shops into our own ground crew work; agricultural information we use will be our own intelligence work; our neighbors will be our allies in a common cause. We will regard every dead pig, every missing hill of corn, every smutted wheat head, every scrub animal, every cull hen, and every bit of wasted material and effort as being of aid and comfort to our enemies. When we as Future Farmers look over the work before us, we see that it is not going to be easy. True, we are going to have good prices for our products, but we are going to have many bottlenecks in this fight to final victory. We are going to have trouble getting tires, we are going to have difficulty getting machinery or even repairs for the machinery we now have. The farmer is going to be handicapped by not having enough help to harvest his crops. He will not be stopped, but rather will be spurred to action by these difficulties. He will produce more of the vital foodstuffs than ever before. The Future Farmer is facing forward. He is vitalizing the Future Farmer Creed : "I believe in the future of farming ... in the promise of better days thru better ways. ... I believe that rural America can and will hold true to the best traditions in our national life." It can be done. It must be done. It will be done. Future Farmers will do it. 'Tood will win the war and write the peace." EDUCATION, THE WAY TO FREEDO:\I JOHN A. SEXSON, SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS, PASADENA, CALIF. Victory Â— full, final, decisive Â— on the land, in the air, on the sea. over .all the world ! This is the first and irreducible objective of the United Nations. America, Britain, Russia, China, and all the peoples of the world who seek no aggrandizement, who respect the rights of all. have joined forces to fight until the\have won a military victory over the Axis and over all those who, in the words of Woodrow Wilson, have visited upon the world "this intolerable thing Â— without conscience or honor or capacity for covenanted peace." But a military victory is only a way station beside the long road mankind must travel to freedom, and it is along this long, long road to freedom for all peoples that the United Nations are trudging today Â— burdened, war weary, and sorely pressed by cruel and implacable forces who have no love for freedom, no tolerance for justice, no heart for mercy, and no mind for goodwill. In such a struggle there can be no compromise either with the enemy or PAGE 20 18 American Association of School Administrators with our own resolution. We must press on be_vond the military victory to that more difficult and more significant victory over the forces of selfishness, greed, and lust for power that blocked our road just beyond the military victory of the First World War and sabotaged the efforts of those who, at home and abroad, sought to set up a world order based on justice and fair plaj^ We turned from the road that led toward magnanimity and goodwill and followed the paths that turned back to cynicism, hatred, brutality, selfishness, and to war. Space does not permit an inventory of the broken promises, the repudiated agreements, the double dealings, and the betrayals of the years that followed World War I. They are a matter of common knowledge. They are recorded in the history of our own nation and of most of the nations of the world. The League of Nations, that symbol of cooperation and mutual support between nations, dissolved in the corroding atmosphere of suspicion, selfishness, self-interest, and brutal disregard for the rights of mankind. Today we are engaged in another and more devastating war. We called the last war, because it surpassed in size and destructiveness anything mankind had heretofore known, a "World War." But this war in which we are now engaged so far surpasses our so-called "World War" that we, in a search for super-superlatives have termed it a "Global War," realizing more and more as the struggle grows that we now stand in the path of an avalanche of forces of such stupendous magnitude that the finite mind of man is totally incapable of comprehending or forecasting the outcomes of the catastrophe. At best, we must be sustained by the hope that the long road that mankind has traveled from creation down thru the ages to the present leads past the woes, agonies, defeats, and disappointments of the present to victory, peace, social justice, human welfare, and freedom. The taste of these blessings enjoyed by men who have attained a measure of self-government, who have partially perfected the machinery of cooperation, who have to some degree set up and practiced the democratic way of life is the basis for the hopes in the hearts of the United Nations that men may regain the highroad to freedom and in time attain a world wherein there is a measure of happiness for all mankind. Such men realize that war is not an end in itself ; that a victory that merely ends a war and does not remove the causes of war is no victory; and that a war is not won until a lasting peace has been established. What, then, are the essentials of a lasting peace? What are the processes that produce the conditions of lasting peace? These questions are uppermost in men's minds today. Proposals calculated to produce these highly desirable outcomes are appearing daily. The list of definite formulas prescribed by various and sundry statesmen, sociologists, economists, religionists, and others has already grown to nearly one hundred fully formulated proposals. They range from a benevolent despotism at the hands of the victors to intricate world federations of independent nations. They deal with problems of economics, politics, race, nationalism, religion, military might, balance of power, and international ethics. Despite these, however, men everj'where PAGE 21 The CoNVENTtoN Never Held 19 go on fighting, struggling, laboring, hating, scheming, bargaining, buying, selling, living, and cl\ing unmiiulful of the basic considerations that might perchance produce the ends desired. This is true among the peoples of the United Nations; it is more marked among the peoples in the conquered countries; it is desperately true among the peoples of the Axis nations. "Where there is no vision, the people perish." Unless there arises somehow, sometime, somewhere a will for freedom and an intelligent attack upon the problems of freedom, we shall win victories that end one war only to produce other and more devastating wars. We doom mankind to a death by crucifixion upon a cross of ignorance, selfishness, and human ineptitude. Education alone supports the hope that man may finally win the age-old struggle over these forces and in time attain an armistice with the powers that cause wars, not merely win victories by means of them. Our President and the Prime Minister of England have announced the Four Freedoms. Are these freedoms in themselves more workable and more practicable than the pronouncements of statesmen and scholars of other days? Does "everywhere in the world" mean a voluntary acceptance by all peoples of these pronouncements, or does it mean their benevolent imposition by means of force? Are tolerance, liberality, and humane consideration for others to be spread at the will of the victors in this or any other war? Do such qualities inhere in any particular form of organization, constitution, scheme, plan, blueprint, or proposal? Do Americans or any other people owe their peace, prosperity, law, justice, and equity to the form of their organization or to their constitution ? If so, why did the League of Nations fail so miserably? Sir Norman Angel ably raises these issues and ably disposes of them. He says, "The fundamental convictions necessary for any form of international cooperation had not been established." He further observes that until such convictions are established, assurances about freedom of speech, security of possessions, and other like pronouncements are at best a bad joke. Convictions are not the outgrowth of victories or peace treaties. They grow out of learning, and learning grows out of experience and understanding. These are the things that are peculiarly the purposes and the objectives of education. By education we do not mean merely the individual mastery of tools of learning or the use of such tools to acquire an academic familiarity with the accumulated cultures of all humanity. Such concepts of education are partial and narrow. Their worst fault is that they ignore the humanities, those learnings that are found in the everyday life of men as they associate together under the guidance of humane institutions, political and economic, social and spiritual. They place the school above the family, the schoolmaster above the neighbor, institutionalized and formal education before human association. The pages of history do not give the scholar much faith in the efficacy of military victories and peace treaties. They do not make a strong case for nationalism, for organizations, constitutions, or federations as substantial contributors to permanent peace or to a program of social justice and human PAGE 22 20 American Association of School Administrators welfare for all mankind. What hope we have rests rather on those lasting convictions that have lodged in the hearts of those men and women, those peoples who have experienced under many and varied organizations of society a way of life in which the conditions of freedom have been made a reality. These conditions of freedom have been stated over and over again down thru the ages Â— by the New Testament in "Do unto others even as ye would that others should do unto you"; by the English in the Bill of Rights; by the Colonists in the Declaration of Independence ; by our nation in its constitutional provision for life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; by Abraham Lincoln in his stand for government "of the people, by the people, and for the people"; by President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill in the Four Freedoms. In each instance these pronouncements gain their significance from the fact that they rest upon lessons well learned, upon convictions deeply laid in the hearts of mankind by long years of practical living and experiencing the principles enunciated. Men support these propositions because they have gained an understanding of their significance ; because they have learned their value; because they have defended them with their life blood. The United Nations owe the zeal and the dedication of their peoples to the cause for which they are fighting this war, to the opportunities those same peoples have had to learn the values of freedom in their daily lives under the organizations and institutions of constituted government. Free enterprise ; free speech; equal opportunity; security of life, property, and person; freedom to worship ; and the right to learn, to improve, and to direct the forces of society are the byproducts of a way of life that recognizes individual worth, generates and utilizes human intelligence, and makes available for all members of the society the rights and benefits of that society. The military victory and the treaties of peace can contribute but little to world progress toward freedom unless they are forerunners of a regime wherein increasing numbers of the peoples of the world shall have an opportunity to learn the benefits of freedom, the blessings of peace, the advantages of justice, and the satisfactions of security by having an opportunity to live under an order that makes these blessings attainable for all. 'J'his is education! This is building the convictions and developing the attitudes that will support a program of social justice and human welfare for all mankind. From the mist-shrouded Aleutian Islands down across the Americas to storm-swept Cape Horn, Walter B. Pitkin points to some 200,000,000 men, women, and children Â— white, black, red, brown, and yellow Â— who are working away at their common tasks under a widespread and comfortable freedom and in so .doing are fast becoming a solidified society. They are mutually discovering their common interests; their common standards of behavior ; their common methods of work, play, and human intercourse; and their common danger. Here is an educational program worthy of the name. The continents constitute the schoolrooms; the life of the people, the curriculum; the needs of the people, the schoolmaster; and the happiness of the people, the achiexement test. PAGE 23 The Convention Never Held 21 Natural resources sufficient to provide for adequate standards of living are essential as are also a temperate climate with healthful variations; a dynamic population with adequate scientific, professional, and technical leadership ; and most of all a way of life which challenges every individual memher to live abundantly, enjoying and employing his fullest potentialities for using and producing all that his environment permits. If military victory permits the extension of these conditions of life to increasing millions of the peoples of the world, we shall he on the way to lasting peace and to the winning of the war. The important consideration is that opportunity be given to increasing numbers to learn the benefits of freedom by experiencing them. Planning is necessary. Leadership in reconstruction and rehabilitation is essential. To release such forces and to employ them will require an enlightened and active public opinion. Millions must be made alive and awake to the difficulties that lie ahead, to the threat of totalitarian alternatives, and to the steps necessary for progress. A few voices in high places, effective study and research by scholars, even good planning by isolated individuals and organizations will not produce the desired outcomes. We must hear millions of voices. ^Millions must study the problems of peace; millions must participate and cooperate in the planning necessary to deal with our problems, foreign and domestic. We are failing so far to make much progress along these lines. Billions of dollars are being spent to win the victory; a few dimes to wnn the peace. Education for the long-time campaign to rebuild the faith and the hopes of mankind in the worth of men and women is being pushed aside for quick training to win the war. Intensive study of the issues and aims of the war is confined to academic discussions in classrooms on the one hand or to the propagandists who command the use of the press, the radio, and the larger controls of public opinion on the other. Our great system of public education, including as it does our great common and secondary schools and our colleges and universities, is only partially and loosely mobilized for the performance of its greatest contribution to our success, namely, the task of developing a sustaining public opinion in support of the program our nation and all nations must initiate if we are to establish the conditions under which there can conceivably be a lasting peace. Teachers alone, working in isolation, cannot succeed in devising or making effective an educational program adequate to meet the needs of children or adults. The teaching profession, if it could be united and if adequate agencies of planning and policy-making such as a policies commission or a planning committee were to be set up and adeiiuately financed, could begin the formulation of an educational program and an educational policy of real significance. Such organization must at once cross national boundaries, cross the oceans, step over social prejudices and around religious barriers, even behind the enemy lines, and operate, as the war operates, on a global basis. Allied with this agency must be the civilian and governmental agencies of research and action, all united in the task of formulating an educational PAGE 24 22 American Association of School Administrators program for all people that will bring education Â— the learning of the essentials of the new order Â— within the experience of all men everywhere. Once we have gained the attention of mankind, once we have opened the doors that now bar men from understanding each other's aspirations and purposes, we shall have taken the first step that leads to lasting peace. The voices of millions of teachers speaking daily to many millions of children and youth, to their parents, and to all citizens are potentially stronger than the voice of a tyrant lashing out over a state-controlled radio or speaking down from a ukase displayed in the public square. Education is the way to freedom, but freedom is the destination at the end of the road that leads on beyond military victories and negotiated peace treaties. It is not a short or an easy road. It is not in some areas a road at all. It is a maze of divergent paths, some leading forward to peace and progress; some back toward hatred and war. Education must plot our course. Education must be the navigator, not the pilot. It must read the stars, plot the drift, note the landmarks, and chart the course. Education precedes statesmanship, scientific research, professional service, invention, discovery, leadership, and production. "As a man thinketh ... so is he." As the nations of the world think, know, understand the issues of peace and freedom, so will they live with each other, not by victories and peace treaties, but by understanding and cooperation. THE SCHOOL'S CONTRIBUTION TO THE WAR EFFORT WILLIAM G. CARR, SECRETARY, EDUCATIONAL POLICIES COMMISSION; associate secretary, NATIONAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION The announcement from Casablanca that Great Britain and the United States are not seeking indiscriminate revenge upon the mass of the Axis peoples is of special significance to our war-centered schools. The greatest hazard of war for the schools is not that school buildings and equipment may be lacking, nor even that there is a shortage of teachers. The supreme peril is to the ethical concepts and values to which American schools should be irrevocably committed. The final degradation of education, as particularly revealed in Germany today, comes with the substitution of malice, revenge, hatred, and conceit, for mercy, tolerance, goodwill, and self-respect. V^iolent and confused rancors, sweeping indictments of entire races and nations are the characteristic weapons of dictators. They are out of place in the education of young people who are to inherit the great tasks of peace and reconstruction. The soldier in battle may need to be motivated by hatred and revenge. If so, let the Army conduct that kind of training for those who will use it. Meanwhile, the schools should take full advantage of the war to develop in the young such good qualities as valor, thrift, industry, and devotion to the common welfare; encourage and exemplify high ethical standards; and teach a strong and positive love of freedom and fair play. Young people so educated will contribute most to an early victory and to the achievement of the free and peaceful world for which the war is being fought. PAGE 25 The Convention Never Held 23 THE MYTH OF THE MHJTIA MAJOR ROSWELL p. ROSENGREN, CHIEF, OFFICE OF TECHNICAL INFORMATION, CORPS OF ENGINEERS, WAR DEPARTMENT, WASHINGTON, D. C. H the hand that rocks the cradle rules the world, school systems are the sculptors of its thought. Nowhere is this axiom so true as in the field of education in the United States, and I am sure you will ajrree that the schools of the states you represent are the epitome of the American educational system. It should he understood at the outset that the field of politics is entirely outside the province of an army officer. Both internally and in international relations, the political position of the United States is determined, under the Constitution, hy the President and the Congress. Both the President and the Congress are directly influenced in their acts hy the will of the people whose free vote elects them to office. The greatest influence on the opinions of those people is the educational s\stem which you represent. Once presidential and congressional determination decrees the existence of an emergency or a state of war, it then hecomes the task of the officers of the armed forces to train, equip, and lead those forces in support of that estahlished policy. It must he ever so clearly understood, therefore, that these remarks are addressed purely to that task, and that the historical references are a recital of the recurrent prohlems of military leaders, resulting from the chain of circumstances just outlined. For over 166 years, since the signing of the Declaration of Independence, the majority of the people of this republic have labored under the delusion that a patriotic militia is a full measure of protection against the aggressive attack of any hostile nation or group of nations. This country inherited that delusion from its early Saxon ancestors, bolstered it with misconceptions of the significance of Braddock's defeat and the Battle of Bunker Hill, and our subsequent teaching of so-called history has preserved it for posterity. Unfortunately, objective tho we have been in our teaching of the arts and particularly of the sciences, we have been neither objective nor accurate in the teaching of history and the science of war. Glossing over our military mistakes, deifying mediocrities, the authors of some of our history books have produced tomes which reflect a continued blind adherence to the "Myth of the Militia." It is time we matured sufficiently to accept the truth. Now we are engaged in a global war, the extent and implications of which are incalculable. In the face of cold steel and under the reign of terror from the skies, we have learned again, in the hard school of experience, that only trained, disciplined, and well-led armies, backed by the production lines of mass industry, can defeat the skilled aggressors who oppose us. Thus, on December 7. 1^41, we of the United States were blasted out of our lethargy, and the least interested of us became concerned with the deficiencies of the "Mvth of the Militia." To illustrate the early influence of this "Myth of the Militia" we have only to turn to Braddock's defeat. Braddock, in 1755, en route to take Fort Duquesne (where Pittsburgh now stands) from the French. w\as attacked by an inferior force of about 300. He continued to march his 2000 troops in PAGE 26 24 American Association of School Administrators solid mass against a hidden enemy firing individually from behind trees and other cover. The Colonials, under Washington, who were in Braddock's command, were amazed to see the defeat of regular army troops by the French, Canadian, and Indian partisans. They brought back to the colonies the dangerous conclusion based on half truth that militia and partisans could defeat the regulars and went the whole way in condemning regular soldiers and regular tactics. This generalization, reached from one example of erroneous tactics, was to cost those Colonials a long and expensive war as the result of an unsound military policy. This unsound military policy has been further preserved by the teaching in our schools that the embattled farmers of Bunker Hill were victorious over the best regulars of the then greatest nation of the world until powder and ball were exhausted. Had ammunition lasted, we are told, our soldiers would have trmmphed. It makes an inspiring story, but unfortunately it is not true. Let us examine the facts. At Bunker Hill the Minute Men were led by three of the ablest commanders of the timeÂ— Prescott, Rufus Putnam, and StarkÂ— well-seasoned veterans of the French and Indian War. They knew green troops stood no chance against the regulars on even terms, so Engineer Putnam entrenched Breed's Hill and wisely disposed the colonial forces behind its breastworks. From this position, under skilled leadership, the fire of the militia, held to the last minute ot each successive enemy charge, took withering toll. Fifty percent more casualties were inflicted than in any other battle of the war. When the exhaustion of munitions forced the retreat from Breed's Hill, however, the American casualties in the open f^eld were proportionately even greater. Thus, in the war that ultimately won our independence, defeat followed defeat until the formation and training of our first regular army Â— the Continentals Â— who ended the struggle with victory at Yorktown. Despite this lesson, we blissfully continued our policy of the "M^'th of the Militia" thru the disastrous War of 1812, in which the predominant employment of militia cost us the hard-won Northwest Territory, turned victory into a defeat at Queenstown, Ontario, and opened the door to the occupation of our capitol at Washington by the enemy. Short-term enlistments nearly 'spelled disaster for General Scott's welltrained army, when, immediately following his total defeat of the Mexican army, seven of his eleven volunteer regiments went home at the expiration of their one-year enlistments and left him with sadly depleted ranks in a hostile country. A sixty-year-old statute prohibited President Lincoln from calling soldiers into service for more than ninety days at the beginning of the Civil War. As a result, there was the disaster oiF the first Battle of Bull Run. The value of trained soldiers, however, was illustrated in that same battle by the fact that one battalion of regulars stood its ground, covered the retreat in perfect order, and prevented the 35,000 Confederates from massacring the Union ^rmy. The "Myth of the Militia" raised its ugly head in the lack of trained PAGE 27 The Convention Never Held 25 men recruited for and employed in our war with Spain. Disease accounted for more deaths by far than did the Spaniards. In World War I there were instances where soldiers were inducted into the service, given a smattering of the infantry drill regulations, sent overseas with virtually no training, marched into the front lines without even ha\iiig previously fired their riHes, wounded, and iinalided hack home Â— all within sixty days of the date of their induction. Kven after these repeated demonstrations, we still would not believe and we still refused to teach the truth that wars are won by trained soldiers led by skilled, experienced officers and not by amateurs. Let me not be misunderstood Â— we have always had a justified pride in the patriotism and the bravery of American soldiers from the very beginning; but we must not forget that the bravery of total ignorance and the patriotism of unpreparedness are paid for in the needless slaughter of thousands of young men whom training would have saved. It was true when George Washington informed the Continental Congress, "What we need is a good army, not a large army." Today, we need both. Nowhere is our failure to learn the lessons of the past more apparent than in the state of our armed forces in July 1940. The misinformation possessed by the people of the United States and the subsequent influence of those people upon Congress were the prime causes of the results. Those results were indelibly impressed upon me by Mr. Stimson at the press conference of that able Secretar\of War on December 31 of last year. He stated: In July 1940, our regular army consisted of only 265,000 men, including an air force of 50,000 with only 2175 pilots. We had a National Guard somewhat smaller than the regular army and consisting, almost altogether, of small units in the different states. Only a very few states had units as large as a division Â— most of them were companies. Neither the regular army nor the National Guard were organized in tactical units of the sizes being used in modern warfare. They were just beginning to do that in the regular army, and we did not even have the power to order out the National Guard in a manner to give them full training. None of our forces were trained in the methods of modern warfare, but merely in the old-fashioned elementary steps of twenty-five years ago. We were only beginning to experiment in the first steps of tank warfare, and only a very few of our officers had had experience in any war. In other words, the government was in the position a football coach would be in, at the beginning of the season, if he found he only had a mass of men, the bulk of whom had not played football, and those who had played, had only played soccer. We had no equipment in bulk, except that left over from the last war, and those stores which were left from the last war were types of weapons which were being rapidly left behind in the progress of the new war. We had almost no weapons in existence which we would use today, either In the shape of planes, tanks, or artillery, and comparatively few in the shape of small arms Â— only the Springfield and some machine guns. That was not the fault of our regular officers or general staff. They had faithfully laid plans for modern organization of our forces, including acquisition of planes and other weapons, but until the fall of France neither Congress nor the people of the United States were at all willing to incur the expense of such preparation. I can give >ou one very sharp example which fell to my notice almost as soon as I got here. Probably the most fundamental weapon of modern warfare is powder PAGE 28 26 American Association of School Administrators and when I came here, in Julj' 1940, we did not have enough powder in the whole United States to last the men we now have overseas for anything like a day's warfare and, what was worse, we did not have anj' powder plants to make it. They had all been destroyed after the last Avar. . . . And all this after the fall of France, when Britain stood alone against the Nazi hordes! A generation ago, a prominent statesman, imbued with the "Myth of the Militia," said, "I can stamp my feet, and one million men will spring to arms overnight." There are still some who persist in this delusion. One million men might desire to spring to arms, but who would tell them where to go? Who would build them shelter? Who would examine them physically, reject some, and isolate those with communicable diseases to prevent horrible epidemics among the rest? Where would they get army uniforms? An enemy shoots or hangs prisoners captured in civilian clothes. They might fry to spring to arms, but the arms would not be there for them to spring to. If each brought a rifle, whence would come the thousand kinds of necessary ammunition? Who would divide them into units and provide each unit with a trained cook and a kitchen ? How would they be paid ? How would they receive medical care and medicine? How would they be trained for war? When one analyzes the magnitude of these necessities in the familiar terms of housing, food, clothing, illness, and pay checks alone, then multiplies the problem by millions of men, one gleans a small idea of the basic necessities of war and one perceives the inadequacy of a militia. Teachers and students of history alike avoid such cold and revealing statistical analyses as the masterpiece. The Military Policy of the United States, written by Major General Emery Upton of Civil War fame. So the weaknesses in our military policy, as pointed out by Upton, have continued to take "Gold Star" toll in all our wars. It is only human to glory in our own history, which makes it difficult to learn objectively from our own mistakes. In order to draw unbiased conclusions, therefore, let us examine the historical mistakes of others.' Let us hastily scan the record which demonstrates the truth that small, good armies have always defeated big, bad armies. At the Battle of Leuctra, nearly four hundred years before Christ, 6000 well-trained Thebans under Epaminondas decisively defeated 10,000 Spartans. Tactically, he massed his best and most troops on his left wing, a column fifty deep, plus cavalry, with which he crushed one wing of the enemy where their leader stood. This basic movement was made famous at the Battle of Leuthan by Frederick the Great in a tactical modification which was called his "oblique attack," a strategy most popular with the Germans ever since. By its employment he defeated 80,000 Austrians with but 30,000 men. Alexander the Great, by both superior training and leadership, ended the Persian threat of his day. In the decisive Battle of Arbela, he crushed the oriental, polyglot might of Persia, defeating 1,000,000 infantrymen and 40,000 horsemen with but 40,000 infantry and 7000 cavalry. The losses PAGE 29 The Convention Never Held 27 constitute an eloquent argument for trained soldiery. The Persians lost 300,000 while Alexander suffered casualties of only 100 men and 1000 horses. \^^ u u It is interesting to note that Alexander thus went on to establish the Macedonian Empire and the civilization of the great Hellenistic Age centered at Alexandria, which reached significant heights in scientihc and literary activity as well as commerce and prosperity. Sim'ilarlv, the hundred years of the Golden Age of Pericles, which contributed so much of the art, architecture, philosophy, oratory, sculpture, and drama of our own civilization, stemmed from the victory of 10,000 Athenians under Miltiades over 20,000 invading Persians at the Battle of Marathon. The tactics employed were essentially the great military plan made famous bv Hannibal at Cannae, the same double envelopment the Germans used in 1914. and a chief modern tactical plan. This victory could not have been accomplished but for a united people who enjoyed the advantages of militarv trainingÂ— a people willing to fight to preserve their way of life. Tulius Caesar laid the foundations of the Roman Empire, which ruled the most protracted period of peaceful civilization and commerce in the history of the world. It was the forerunner of all the modern European nations from which we largely stem. The arms of Rome were borne by her own citizens, and so well trained and disciplined were her armies that the Roman legions preserved the Empire for centuries, even after the whole army became barbarian. And to date, more millions have been slain by the double-edged, thrusting Roman sword than by any other weapon. It was only when the Roman citizens themselves deserted the military and civil pursuits and degenerated and disintegrated from soft, luxurious living, that the barbarians took over their territorv and made slaves of the effeminate people. At the Battle of Crecv, 19,000 well-trained and well-led English longbowmen won a decisive victory over 60,000 armed but poorly organized French knights, took a toll of 30,000 French, spelling the end of the Age of Chivalrv, and losing but 50 English. Napoleon's campaign after his retreat from Moscow is a tribute to his own leadership and the training of his armies. After forcing a six weeks truce bv means of a newlv raised army, he marched 80.000 men ninety miles to Dresden in thirtv davs where he acquired some 16.000 additional fighting men With these, he struck the 200,000 Russian, Prussian, and Austrian allies and, employing a forerunner of the modern pincers tactics, completely routed the enemy, capturing 23,000 prisoners, and inflicting a total loss of 38 000 while his own casualties amounted to but 10.000. Man is inherentlv a fighting animal. Even in our own peaceful country, we have engaged in shooting warfare in one out of every four years since the signing of the Declaration of Independence. The basic instinct of selfpreservation, in a world which has neyer filled his wants, has led man to fight for his food, his cave, and the pelts of beasts to keep him warm. 1 he complexities and developments of civilization have only extended his insatiable desires until the luxury of today becomes tomorrow s necessity, for which he has alwavs been willing toÂ— and always 7t'///Â— fight! PAGE 30 28 American Association of School Administrators As the family expanded into the tribe and the tribes grouped together into city states, the boundaries of the land each occupied expanded to the boundaries of similar communities. Further expansion always came at the expense of others. As a result of such conflicts of interest, the stronger overcame the weaker, without respect to "the right" as we view it, enslaved its inhabitants, and annexed its territory. Without modification, in essence, we have seen the unveiling of the same drama among the nations of the world today. Eternal vigilance is indeed the price of liberty. History shows repeatedly that where peoples fail in this vigilance, strong nations conquer weaker nations by force of arms. Might has frequently conquered r-'ight. To those who pretend to deny it, let them review the conquests of the Huns, the Tartars, the Moslems, the Turks, Genghis Khan's Mongolians, Prussia, Napoleon's France, Nazi Germany, and Japan. Let them also review the great civilizations which have thus fallen : Egypt, Greece, Macedonia, Rome, China, Holland, France, and Spain. But let us bring the story down to date. When England refused to "have its neck wrung like a chicken" and won the Battle of Britain in the air; when Soviet stoicism stopped the Nazi sweep ; when the United States won the defensive battles of the Coral Sea, Midway, and the Solomons ; and when the Allies secured the African foothold, the issue in the world's most titanic struggle of all time was completely joined. Mighty powers are now engaged on many fronts in a battle to the death. The Titans are Germany and Japan on the one side, and Russia, Britain, China, and the United States on the other. While Germany and Japan were arming at a furious rate, many of us still believed in the "Myth of the Militia." We refused to prepare for Avar. We tacitly permitted the occupation of Austria and the dismemberment of Czechoslovakia. Thus at Munich, Germany accomplished the removal of a powerful, well-equipped army of Czech patriots and secured the possession of the great Skoda Munitions Works. Then came Poland and the winter of "phoney war" during which the Nazis sharpened the "blitz" against the deadened senses of the democracies. In the spring of 1940, down went Denmark and Norway. Dairy products, paper-making material, and fish were cut off from Britain; but worse Â— much Norwegian shipping to carry vital supplies was gone, and Sweden's high-grade iron ore was isolated. The Maginot Line was pierced, the great French army was defeated, and France fell in a matter of days. The demise of Holland and Belgium had preceded that of France. Then came Dunkerque. With France went 19 percent of the world's iron supply and her munitions industries. In that black week in June 1940 Britain stood virtually alone against the Nazi onslaught from the air. With the fall of France the United States began to question the "Myth of the Militia" sufficiently to enact its first peacetime Conscription Act in history. Meanwhile, the war in the Balkans put Germany in control of so large PAGE 31 The Convention Never Held 29 a base of operations in the Mediterranean as to virtually close that direct line of communications to the Far East and threaten the destruction of Britain's strongholds in Northern Africa, including Suez. Despite the pact with the Soviets, it next became obvious that Germany's long-delayed war with Russia was at hand, and on June 22, 1941, the latest of Hitler's assurances was ground into the mud by tanks and troops heading cast. It took less than two months for Hitler to possess the rich Ukraine which produces nearly one-fifth of the world's wheat. Even that fall, the persistence in the tradition of the "Myth of the IVIilitia" almost saw our newly trained Army sent home at the end of one year's training. Suddenly the blow fell, and the reality of lightning war flashed from across both oceans. The truth, which misguided peacemongers had prevented us from fully seeing, the equally misguided sons of Nippon taught us in the dawn of a peaceful Hawaiian Sunday morning. We were all in the fight together within the next few days. But we were to pay for delay and the "Myth of the Militia." The least military observer, after seeing the newsreels of the broken, twisted, smoking ruins of ships and planes at Pearl Harbor and after reading our casualty lists, must have realized the licking that we took on December 7. The thing that couldn't happen, had happened! Time galloped on. On December 8, Thailand and Malaya were invaded, the Philippines on December 10. Guam, which we wouldn't fortify, fell December 12. Wake was captured Christmas Eve, and next day the forty-million-dollar fortress of Hong Kong was Japan's Christmas present after only ten days' fighting. Manila fell January 2 and despite MacArthur's stand on Bataan, the Philippines were doomed. In swift succession, by former standards, Japan accomplished a six-and-a-half-year conquest in six and a half weeks! Count the milestones Â— Thailand, Malaya, Borneo, Singapore, Sumatra, Java, Bataan, Corregidor, and Burma! Let us pause to count our losses. With the Philippines went hemp and sugar and natural resources and we were pushed 5500 miles farther away from Japan. Positions in Thailand exposed Burma and enabled Japan to cut the Burma Road. Malaya and the Dutch East Indies, previously securing all the world's rubber supply to the United Nations, in falling, left us with but 2 percent, equally divided between Africa and South America. Still we complain of tire and gasoline rationing! And it takes 150,000 pounds of rubber for a 25,000 ton warship, 1750 pounds for a medium tank, and 1246 pounds for a flying fortress ! Your paper gum wrappers and cigarette packages mutely testify to the loss of more than 64 percent of the world's supply of tin which Japan got in the East Indies and the Mala\a states. Ninety percent of the world's quiiune was cut off Â— and Corregidor fell as much for want of quinine to fight malaria as for any other reason. Within a radius of 3000 miles Japan now has that 61,000,000 barrel annual production of oil once so vital to the planes and tanks and ships of the United Nations. All that is left us in the Far East is a dribble in Mongolia. And how does that ^ital oil get there now? From New York to Perth is PAGE 32 30 American Association of School Administrators sixty-five long days by tanker; from San Francisco to Sydney, more than a month. This oil must run the gantlet of German submarines, even if the Mediterranean is opened, and the navy and airplanes of Japan stand between us and our South Pacific bases. The loss of Singapore moved Britain 3000 miles farther away in striking distance from Japan. The Japanese activity in the Aleutian Islands indicates that they are there to set up more than a weather station ! There are some compensating facts. The manpower potential (18-35) of the Axis is 85,000,000, while the United Nations can muster, on the same basis, 187,000,000. Despite the magic of the speed of wings which blitzkrieg has imparted to the bulk and weight and power of the engines of war, men are still the most important element of all. But the Axis had the jump in preparation. We know that the free men who love the cause of liberty will triumph in the end. But what a price the "Myth of the Militia" has cost and will cost 'ere victory is achieved. In June of last year, while United States planes bombed Wake Island, Rommel was capturing Matruh and Fuka in Egypt. In July the Germans took Sevastopol in the Crimea and Rostov in Russia, pushing toward Stalingrad. They reached El Alamein, only two hundred miles from the Suez Canal. The Japs completed the capture of the Nanchang-Hangchow Railway in China, occupied Agattu in the Aleutians, and landed at Buna in New Guinea. Meanwhile, a huge United States naval base was completed in northern Ireland. The following month the Japs took Kokoda in New Guinea, occupied strategic islands north of Darwin, Australia, and threatened Port Moresby by landing at Milne Bay. The Germans nearly ringed Stalingrad with steel and pushed deeper into the Caucasus. The United States fought two battles of the Solomons, electrocuted six Nazi saboteurs in Washington, landed on Guadalcanal, participated slightly in the Dieppe raid, and helped welcome our newest ally, Brazil, which declared war on Germany and Italy. In September began the siege of Stalingrad. While the British took the capital of Madagascar, United States troops occupied the Galapagos Islands defending Panama, and Wendell Willkie visited the fighting capitals of the United Nations. October saw some hope, with the Allies pushing the Japs hack from Port Moresby, and the Japanese withdrawal from Attu and Agattu, as well as witnessing the move of United States troops out to the Andreanof Islands in the Aleutians. The Australians captured Templeton's Crossing in the Owen Stanley Mountains of New Guinea. The British Eighth Army started its powerful westward push from El Alamein, and the U. S. Army Engineers completed the "impossible" engineering task which opened the AlaskanCanadian Military Highway to traffic. In November, while the Germans made their farthest advance into the Caucasus by capturing Alagir and threatening the Georgia Military Highway, the British Eighth Army recaptured Matruh. Under the leadership of United States Lieutenant General Eisenhower and British Admiral Cunningham, the Allies invaded northwest Africa, subdued Algeria and Mo- PAGE 33 The Convention Never Held 31 rocco, and pushed into Tunisia. Almost simultaneously the Germans moved into Occupied France and tof)k Bizcrte and Gabes in Tunisia. The Italians occupied Corsica. Westward moved the Eighth Army of the British under the protection of the RAF and the American Air Force, decimating Rommel's Africa Corps. The Russians crossed the Don in force, and the siege of Stalingrad was lifted by fierce Soviet thrusts into strategic positions all along the line. The Germans seized Toulon (characteristically breaking another Hitler promise) and, in response, the most heroic mass act of the war saw the suicide of the French fleet, physically, and the spiritual regeneration of France before the eyes of the world. Meanwhile, the RAF pounded Italy, the Aussies captured Gona in New Guinea, and Admiral Callaghan drove the San Francisco and its 8-inch guns between the battle lines and the 14-inch guns of Nipponese battleships to defeat the "Rising Sons of Japan" at the cost of his own life. With the turn of these events, which Winston Churchill has characterized as "The End of the Beginning," many people had their hopes raised for a quick victory and an early peace. Be not deceived. Already, despite a skilfully planned and executed North African campaign, the stiffening Axis resistance at Bizerte and Tunis is warning of the long and bloody time which will elapse before we occupy Berlin. The entrenched Japanese positions in the Far East, viciously defended, indicate the difficult road to Tokyo. In December the Aussies took Gona. The Japs reopened assaults on the Burma Road. Rommel's army was in complete retreat into Libya. The British drove into Burma toward Akyab. The Russians increased largescale operations threatening Rostov and the German Caucasus positions. Darlan was assassinated and replaced by Giraud. With years of preparation behind them and with no real resistance to stem the tide of blitzkrieg political and military conquest, it has taken the Nazis over six years to possess most of Europe. It began with the occupation of the Rhineland in 1936, but the real push began March 12, 1938, with the Austrian Anschluss. Japan moved into Manchuria in 1931 and has been on the move ever since. A glance at one map will indicate that after more than a year of training and an additional year of war, we have only begun to close with the enemy with large forces in the European Theater. In the Pacific the possession of Guadalcanal represents but the first steppingstone back toward Tokyo. There are some twenty-seven more major ones. It took the Japs three months and ten days to fully consolidate these points. It took us longer to establish ourselves in a thirty-five-mile strip surrounding Henderson Field on Guadalcanal. This is an indicator of the difficulty of the task ahead. Thus we see that the first full year of war has been one of making "regulars" out of the total armed forces of the United States, of gearing the mass production of her peacetime industries to all-out war Â— not only to equip those forces but to become the "arsenal of democracy" for the United Nations. How far have we succeeded? 1 respectfull\ refer you to the aforemen- PAGE 34 32 American Association of School Administrators tioned press conference of the Secretary of War and to the January 7 address to the Congress by the President of the United States Â— my Commander-inChief. As Mr. Stimson said: Today we have an army of over five million men . . . including literally thousands of pilots. . . . We are rapidly training the officers of these forces who are chosen by the most democratic method and educated by the most thoro system of officer schools we have had in our history. . . . This army of ours is being rapidly equipped with the best planes that are in the air today, with the best tanks on the ground today, with the best self-propelled artillery in action today, and with the best rifles, according to almost unanimous testimony, that are being used in any part of the world today. . . . The average American soldier today weighs eight pounds more than his fellow of 1918. The average soldier of today is also a sober man. Fifty percent confine themselves to soft drinks entirely; only forty percent drink beer and less than ten percent drink distilled liquors. He is moral. A much larger percentage of our soldiers go to church than the percentage of citizens outside of the Army go to their churches. He is healthy. The general disease rate is lower than in any previous war. . . . Upon this pedestal of sound physique we are trying to place the indispensable moral qualities. We are combining education with the training and are furnishing them with every element which tends to produce what the old Romans called "Mens sana in corpore sano" Â— that is, "A sound mind in a sound body." As Mr. Roosevelt said: Yes, we believe the Nazis and the Fascists have asked for it Â— and they are going to get it. Prior to Pearl Harbor I ran across an advertisement which seemed to sum up the position of a defeated France. Today I think it of even greater value as a reminder of what might happen to our own people. It is called "Wonder What a Frenchman Thinks About": Two years ago a Frenchman was as free as you are. Today what does he think Â— as he humbly steps into the gutter to let his conquerors swagger past Â— as he works fifty-three hours a week for thirty hours' pay Â— as he sees all trade unions outlawed and all the "rights" for which he sacrificed his country trampled by his foreign masters Â— as he sees his wife go hungry and his children face a lifetime of serfdom. What does that Frenchman Â— soldier, workman, politician or business man Â— think today? Probably it's something like this Â— "I wish I had been less greedy for myself and more anxious for my country; I wish I had realized you can't beat off a determined invader by a quarreling, disunited people at home; I wish I had iieen willing to give in on some of my rights to other Frenchmen instead of giving up all of them to a foreigner; I wish I had realized other Frenchmen had rights, too; I wish I had known that patriotism is ivork, not talk, givitig, not getting." And if that Frenchman could read our newspapers today, showing pressure groups each demanding things be done for them instead of for our country, wouldn't he say to American business men, politicians, soldiers and workmen Â— "H you knew the horrible penalty your action is bound to bring, M)u'd bury your ilitfereines now before they bury you; you'd work for your country as you never worked hetDrf, and wait for your private ambitions until your country is safe. Look ai me. ... 1 worked too little and too late." If you would know how long and tough a war we face, read General McNair's Armistice Day speech of last year. If >ou A\ould know the kind of PAGE 35 The Convention Never Held 33 iiKMi wc li^ht, read "Stuka Horror Over Greece" in the December issue of Reader's Dit/est. 1 know Leij^h White, the victim of that story, well and can tcstif\' from firsthand information that the Digest story is but a suggestion. If \()u would properlv' appraise the Jap, consider the way he permits wounded Anu-ricans to cra\vl back to their lines cr\ inji for help for the sole purpose of ainlnishinji and killinjj; doctors and stretcher bearers as well. I'his is the toughest war we have fought in our history Â— against the roughest combination of enemies we have thus far faced. It is a war that we still can lose ; it can end with no winners, only a few survivors, or Â— if we exert the full power of the free men we have always been behind the will to win Â— those free men shall triumph. The significance of this all-out war is that it includes many battlefields without guns or tanks or planes. The battles that are fought are against the "divide and conquer" technic of the Nazis, by which the clever Axis propagandists have sought to destroy our nation, by setting class against class and group against group, in a softening process calculated to weaken us to the point where conquest will be simple. And what is this America we now battle to defend ? It is not a land of racial strain. Dozens of languages and dialects are heard within its borders. It has no state church. No ruling class dictates its mode of life nor stratifies its people into classes. America is a state of mind to which the freedom-loving people of all the world can come and bring their proud but stifled cultures from lands of oppression. Here the best seeds of those cultures have been planted deep in a friendly, fertile soil, and that soil has brought them to fruition in the fresh air of freedom and the light of liberty's sun Â— each the greater for the existence of all the others and all combined in the greatest democracy of history. How do I know? I am the grandson of four immigrants to this land, two of whom lived long enough to teach me the plight of "little people" abroad and to impress indelibly upon my mind that this land is worth the sacrificing of one's life. H our way fails to survive, it will make no difference whom we elect to Congress, for under Axis domination, Congress would respond with only a Reichstag "J a." In that event, it matters not how many eloquent orators preach from however many pulpits Â— for the text would be the same, or the orators would spend their lives in a concentration camp. Laws and courts to enforce them would be gone. Nor would it matter how much is appropriated for schools and teachers; for only one ideological lesson would then be taught. If our way fails to survive, then not in history shall we have been dashed into so deep an abyss of "Dark Ages," beyond the veil of which we dare not contemplate. There is another battle that xou will have to fight, and that is the blitz peace of the Nazis Â— as well prepared as was the blitz war. Despite the fact that the Roosevelt-Churchill Casablanca Conference doubtless anticipated "Â•ome future Hitler peace offer, the time will come when he will enlist the aid of the peacemcjiigers with a cry for armistice to stop the killing. That is the time when you will ha\e to steel your hearts against alluring words, lest PAGE 36 :*r ^^ s: to -itf <2 m 'm {f^] J %M '^a ^^^/^. m-Â€im^m^ %4\ Â•;.-/v.--!v Â« ^ -2j PAGE 37 The Convention Never Held 35 tliis war cmuI in armistice, tuo, producing no \ictorv and no peace. Worst of all, if you fail to fij^ht that blitz the very children now in your schools will have "to do it all oxer a!j;ain" twenty years hence. While some have mourned the fact that World War I produced no lasting benefits, that war tlid give us a challenge. It is the finest thing that war produced. Twenty-odd \ears ago, a doctor donned his Canadian uniform at Guclph, Ontario, sailed across the Atlantic, wrote a poem, and then marched out upon the Flanders fields of which he wrote, to die. These are the words of Lieutenant Colonel John McCrea Â— this is the challenge of the ages: In Flanders fields tlie poppies blow Between the crosses, row on row. That mark our place; and in the sky The larks, still hra\'ely singing, fly Scarce heard aniid the guns below. We are the Dead. Short days ago We lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow, Lo\ed and were loved, and now we lie In Flanders rields. Take up our quarrel with the foe: To you from failing hands we throw The torch; be yours to hold it high. If ye break faith with us who die We shall not sleep, tho poppies grow In Flanders fields. And from the diminuendo of that challenge there has arisen in this new war, in crescendo, the answer Â— typified by Pilot Officer John Gillespie Magee, Jr., of the Royal Canadian Air Force. Born in Shanghai of American missionary parents, educated in Britain's famed Rugby School, he left the campus of Yale University, where he had earned a scholarship, and enlisted in the RCAF in September 1940. He served overseas with a Spitfire squadron until his death on active service December 11, 1941. Like McCrea in World War I, he left a heritage of poetry Â— a sonnet scribbled on the back of a letter to his mother in Washington. This is the answer to McCrea's challenge. It is called High Flight. These are the words: Oh I have slipped the surly bonds of earth .\nd danced the skies on laughter-silvered wings; Sunward I've climbed, and joined the tumbling mirth Of sun-split clouds Â— and done a hundred things ^'()u ha\e nj)i dreamed of Â— Wheeled and soared and swung Here in the sun-lit silence. Hov'ring there I've chased the shouting wind along, atid Hung My eager craft thru the footless halls of air. Up, up the long delirious, burning blue I've topped the wind-swept heights with easy grace Where never lark, or even eagle flew Â— And. while with silent lifting mind I've trod The high untrespassed sanctity of space, Put out mv hand and touched the face of God. PAGE 38 36 American Association of School Administrators AIR-CONDITIONING EDUCATION X. L. ENGELHARDT, ASSOCIATE SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS, NEW YORK, N. Y. In 323 B. C. Alexander the Great died. It probably took many a long year before the school curriculum of that period covered his exploits and their political and economic significance. After years of conquest Genghis Khan bequeathed an enormous empire to his successors on his death in 1227. The impact of this consolidation of strength and wealth, no doubt, had only slight influence on the curriculum of world youth over many a decade. In 1492 Columbus discovered America. The event stimulated much activity in exploration and aroused discussion in the halls of the European learned, but it is safe to state that hundreds of schoolmasters lived their full lives after the event and failed even to mention the discovery to the youth they instructed.. In the past, the great event occurred and became a historical fact but its incorporation into the curriculum of the school was, in the very nature of things, a slow and irregular process. The conditioning of education is a continuing activity which cannot be cut ofF or halted thru any means that man can devise. There may be delay or postponement, but truth in the last analysis will prevail. By conditioning is meant the infiltration or penetration into education of the pertinent ideas covering an area of man's interests. The ideas of democracy growing out of a long series of events culminating in the American and French revolutions have ever since conditioned the curriculum. The blood spilled at Antietam and Vicksburg, Gettysburg and Chancellorsville has tinged the curriculum of civilized nations over the eighty years that have since elapsed. Air-conditioning education is a term first widely used after December 7, 1941. It was coined by Robert Hinckley, Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Air, with the hope that American educators would realize the need for speed in incorporating concepts about aeronautics into the presentday curriculum. ]\Ir. Hinckley felt, and there has been wide concurrence with his judgment, that the rapidly growing importance of aeronautics in the life of the nation necessitated speeding up the usually slow processes of curriculum infiltration. It was essential that teaching concerning the airplane and its pilots be taken out of the "wonder story" period and that the full import of aviation for human living be explored and explained. For centuries man has used land and water for his advancement and profit. There was a time when ships were small and few and man had to learn much about moving thru or over a body of water. In the main, however, adjustments to travel on land and water were made with relative ease. Land travel gained greatly thru the invention of the wheel and its progressive development to rubber-tired locomotion. During a long period of history the lands and seas satisfied man's wants, altho a few ambitious, fearless souls were always experimenting with new ways and machines for traveling thru the air. The great masses of men were content to use the air for breathing alone. Even up to recent years such a phrase as "I would just as soon fly," implying impossibility of achievement, was commonly used. PAGE 39 The Convention Never Held 37 A telegram sent December 17, 1903, by two young men from Kitty Hawk to their father in Dayton, Ohio, assured the beginning of a new era in man's conquest of his environment. The telegram read: "Success four flights Thursday morning all against twenty-one mile wind started from level with engine power alone average speed through air thirty-one miles longest 59 seconds inform press home Christmas. Orville Wright." Telegrams usually carry important news but none has ever transmitted a message with broader implications for mankind. Man, who could walk on the land and float on the water, could now travel at will thru the air. Alexander the Great, Genghis Khan, Columbus, George Washington, Napoleon, and U. S. Grant Â— these and all others in centuries past, had to be content with plans and policies relating only to land and water. They could not move thru the air. Their men and machines had to contend with all the geographic barriers. Their couriers used horses and not the ships of the air. What differences would have taken place in world history if man had learned to fly a thousand years earlier! It is difficult to find an event or occurrence in world history comparable in meaning or as far-reaching in its significance as the invention and perfection of the airplane. Almost forty years have passed since the modest brothers sent their telegram. The progress of those forty years is truly stupendous, but it may merely represent the beginnings of man's achievements in the conquest of the air. Man's destiny is now associated with three dimensions. He has moved from a land and water being to a creature of land, water, and air. Of the three, perhaps the air has the greatest implications. From the standpoint of controls and mastery, this is undoubtedly true. At what other time in history has any transition in human ecology, similar to this one, taken place? When Hannibal's elephants crossed the Alps? When Magellan's men sailed around the world? When Fulton's Clermont made its noisy way up the Hudson ? When man bridged his rivers, tunneled thru mountains or under waters, or invented the Monitor? The forty years since the Kitty Hawk success have reduced the size of the world but multiplied its problems. They have witnessed man's full surrender to science. Thev have forced into the discard much of man's planning and thinking about nations and cities. The individual has new importance and new values. No other event or period in history can compare in regard to the change of man's perspective with these first forty years of successful advancement in aeronautics. Man can now move thru the air at incredible speeds. Not only can he carry himself, but his raw materials, his finished products, and all the material needs of war and peace. The speed of change in all other facets of man's living will be greatly influenced by the speed with which man himself moves. If the school curriculum is to serve the generations of the threedimensional world, speedy changes must occur therein. This means airconditioning education. Such air conditioning does not represent a choice of the educator. It is his obligation and essential duty. The school man or woman cannot resist the inclusion of aeronautic materials in the curriculum any more than he could oppose teaching about land or water. Imagine a "land and air" curriculum or PAGE 40 38 American Association of School Administrators an "air and water" one! They are today just as ahsurd as a "water and land" curriculum. The Wrights and the Langleys, the Lindberghs and the Rickenbackers, the Mitchells and the Colin Kellys have laid a heap of problems at the educators' feet. The three-dimensional world, with a curriculum to match, represents the new sphere of educational activity. The new curriculum must be equally land, water, and air conditioning. In anticipation of this change, Rudyard Kipling once said, "We are at the opening verse of the opening page of the chapter of endless possibilities." In the fifteen months since the Japanese, ill-advisedly, wrecked our sea and air ships in Pearl Harbor, the American schools have been increasingly stressing air navigation and its import to civilization. Two aspects of the program have been carried on, but their differences have not been too clear to many persons. The two phases of this program are "preflight aeronautics" and "air-conditioning education." "Preflight aeronautics" usually is a course or consists of a series of courses designed primarily to give juniors or seniors in high schools, or the sixteenand seventeen-year-olds of this country, insight into and familiarity with many areas of aeronautics. This includes, among other things, aerodynamics, meteorology, air navigation, airplane engines, and principles of airplane structures. The course is designed primarily for youth who are selected or expect to be drawn at an early moment into the air service of the nation. The objectives include air orientation, familiarization with the terminology and material of aeronautics, and removal of unnecessary handicaps for youth who will man America's ships of the air. The groundwork developed at school will stand the air recruit in good service as he enters and carries on thru his military training. The course is not intended as a substitute for high-school science or mathematics courses, but may be taken simultaneously with or subsequent to such courses. To teach the youth to do better the things he will do in the service and to give him the feeling of confidence concerning the air that the tank youth have concerning the ground are some of the aims. Any contribution that the schools can make to assure the safe return from air combat of youth, who are the natural selections for flight service, is one of the main contributions the schools should strive to make thru the preflight course or courses. Air-conditioning education or the educational curriculum constitutes another major problem for the schools. Perhaps it is of even greater importance than the preflight aeronautics course. By air conditioning is meant bringing all curriculum material in tune with the problems of the three-dimensional world. Air conditioning does not select a few students for a special course but afifects every pupil in every subject in every classroom in the country. Most subjectmatter prior to December 1^41 emphasized the problems and conditions associated with land and water. Air conditioning suggests the threefold emphasis on land, water, and air, whether it is in third-grade arithmetic or high-school senior English. The aim is to give full and frequent opportunity to every child to learn the facts about the world in which he lives. The teacher, as well as the child, needs the orientation, altho today it is strangely enough true that many a child may be better oriented to the world of the air age than the teacher who is expected to guide him. PAGE 41 The Convention Never Held 39 'Ihousaiuls of our tcacluTs ;iiui administrators as well have never had the experience of flyinsz. especially on a reasonabl\ long trip. Fear still controls. They do not realize that the teachers must, as far as possible, know thru firsthand contact the world concerning which they teach. In the early railroad days, many persons were afraid to travel by that method. A few persons still stick to the horse and bug}j;\ and will not travel by motor car, and there will always be a few who will stick to the earth after all others have experienced travel thru the jjreat ocean of air which surrounds us. Air passengers see the rain circle in all its harmonious unity. The earthbound see only the rainbow, or things by halves. Perhaps this illustration will persuade more of the educators to join the ever-increasing ranks of the air-borne. Air-conditioning the curriculum is not just a passing fad. It represents a permanent need. The 1903 telegram of the Wrights ushered in a period of American supremacy in aviation, but b\ 1939 the Germans had developed air invincibility which made them the world's leaders of aeronautics. Much of this was accomplished thru air-conditioning German youth. Germany and Italy began their educational programs in aeronautics as much as ten years ago. The German Minister of Education, in his decrees of 1934 to 1939, commanded that aeronautics instruction be given in all schools and be related to all phases of subjectmatter. These documents are interesting reading because they show how the Nazi state controls the curriculum of its schools. The Sichel memorandum,^ which gives a synopsis of these decrees, will be of interest to every American teacher. These decrees apparently contributed much to the success of German aviation. Their promulgation not only made German youth air-minded but aroused an enthusiasm the results of which are perhaps best illustrated by the epochmaking success of the Nazi aerial attack with both planes and gliders upon the island of Crete. Japan also started long ago on its educational program of aeronautics. The approximately two hundred volumes on aviation in Japanese now in the library of the Institute of Aeronautical Sciences, Radio City, New York City, are evidence of what that nation was teaching about aeronautics without our being much aware of what was going on. Aeronautics education in the schools of America was quite sporadic during this period of its development among the enemy nations. Colleges and universities, outside of the civilian pilot-training programs, were giving scant attention to the problem. A few high schools in our large cities were making splendid contributions, but the American teachers as well as the American people, even as late as the beginning of this World War, were inclined to look upon aviation as a sport or as an infant enterprise. Our nation, which had pioneered most successfully in this field, began to lag behind in recognizing the importance of the airplane in all phases of human developments. America owes a great debt to the aviation leaders who, thru their development of the industry and their promotion of experiments in the first four decades of this century, perservered in the advancement of aeronautics in spite of public lethargy and even, at times, public scorn and ridicule. ' Copies may be secured from the Civil Aeronautics Administration, Department of Commerce, Washington, I). C. PAGE 42 40 American Association of School Administrators During this period of apathy on the part of the American schools, the youth of America, with characteristic alertness for pioneering, applied themselves to making airplanes, to having airplane contests, to learning how airplanes fly, and to acquiring a comprehensive knowledge of world aviation. The self-learning pursued by youth and stimulated by aviation periodicals, newspapers, and aeronautical science bodies of various kinds, has been found of great value in our national struggle. The question today is, "How can the United States continue to maintain its aviation status among nations without resorting to government decrees on air conditioning ?" Let's bear in mind that skill in air conditioning does not reside in a few curriculum experts, but may be the acquisition of many and perhaps all teachers. Its foundation is knowledge about areas of learning into which all too few teachers have delved. Too much past teaching has been confined to textbooks of narrow restrictions. The teacher can be assured the textbook of yesterday is obsolete unless written by a far-sighted author. If its subjectmatter is not related to the air age, it should be speedily supplanted with a modern text. Such texts are being issued daily and are to be found in the lists of most reputable publishing houses. If the school curriculum material is not attuned to the air age, teachers' committees should begin at once to modernize the material. The U. S. Office of Education and the Civil Aeronautics Administration of Washington, D. C, are prepared to provide materials or directions for most of the pertinent questions that can be raised. The Bibliography of Aviation Education Materials, published by the Macmillan Company, New York City, Avill lead teachers directly to the answers to many questions. Commercial aviation magazines provide some fascinating literature for presentday youth. They find here much of interest to associate with their sciences, their mathematics, their social studies, or their industrial or fine arts. In fact teachers, looking for topics of interest for almost any branch of the curriculum, will find more than they may wish to use in this periodical literature. The importance of aeronautics in our industrial world is well illustrated by a 400-page monthly magazine dealing with the area. What other activity can support a 400-page monthly, in addition to scores of other magazines? A publication on aviation, designed for school use, has already found its market and is merely a forerunner of similar educational aids to come. The teacher will find it advantageous to a class to comb the newspapers for a week or two for aviation topics related to the pupils' interests. Let us see what they would have found during the past ten days. These, among many others, include: "Clipper Pilot Flies Atlantic for 100th Time." " 'Light-Up' Map Keeps Pilots on Course in Dark," "Each Airplane, Like a Mule, Has a Temperament of Its Own," "Rickenbacker Says Air Power May Win in '44," "Flyers Use Spherical Slate To Find Position," "MacArthur Says Air Technic Ends Island-to-Island Strategy," "President Roosevelt Flies to Africa," "New York Closer to Moscow by Plane than to Our Neighbor, Buenos Aires," "Now Guadalcanal Is a Springboard." What a wealth of topics for learning in any area! Among them, "Our PAGE 43 The Convention Never Held 41 President Flies." Precedent is broken, but he does not fly from Washington to LaGuardia Field, but from Washington to South America and over the Atlantic to Casablanca. When a president makes such a trip, the need for air conditioning cannot be denied. During the war, much of the advertising by aviation companies in popular magazines has been of an institutional character rather than for specific purposes. Schools may glean from these advertisements, which include some of the most fascinating ever written, what the future holds in store. They are not fantastic dreams but represent imminent possibilities about future airplane sizes, cargo tonnages, speed of travel, annihilation of distance, conquest of geographic barriers, overcoming disease and famine, advancement of communication, experimentation with new construction materials, and settlement of hitherto inaccessible areas. Peacetime employment of thousands of young men and women, whose war associations with the airplane have opened up new world vistas, may be expected to help make realities of what the advertisements picture so vividly. As future schoolboard members, these youth will give further impetus and support to the air-conditioned program. This present era represents an alluring period in which to be engaged in curriculum development. In reality, recognizing the air as one of the trio of air-land-water places three curriculum possibilities where two existed before. Every teacher can participate and, of course, thousands have already led the way. In the primary grades, birds and seeds and plants may be used to focus the child's attention on problems of the air. In the intermediate grades, a vast source of enrichment materials will be found in aviation. Airport visitation, globe construction, and airplane models furnish common interests for discussion or action. The "great circle" measurement of global distances, the centrality of Alaska in world areas, and cargo transportation from South America are points around which worthwhile learning may develop. In the junior high school, the biography of air heroes will be a most interesting field. Great events in the history of aviation will provide a fertile field for library assignments and special reports, and early attempts at flying written into poem and story will make a most interesting part of literature. There are many problems growing out of aviation which involve the principles of mathematics customarily taught in the junior high-school years. Emphasis should be placed upon understanding, skill, and accuracy in computations. Drawing examples from aeronautics will add to motivation. Problems involving distances, lengths, fractions, averages, and percentages, and finding unit costs of travel, operation, and maintenance can readily be constructed from facts of aviation. Vital also are problems dealing with areas and volumes. Graphs and the use of the metric system are important. As two superintendents of schools, describing junior high-school possibilities, wrote recently in a joint paper: Aviation will do much to remove the last vestige of national isolationism. The social studies in the junior high school must take this fact into strict account. Inter* Ernest R. Britfon, superintendent of schools. Effincham. 111., and Ray C. Hawley, superintendent of schools, Marseilles, 111. A Guide lor Enriching the School Curriculum with Aviation Education. PAGE 44 42 American Association of School Administrators national relations will depend upon an acquaintanre of peoples and exchange oi goods based upon daily contacts between all nations by air commerce. Emphasis should be placed upon the natural, social, economic, and political influences whichaffect the several nations in common. In addition it will be necessary for youth to learn of the differing life habits, ideals, work, production, and governments of the peoples in all nations in order to bring about a basis for international understanding. The airplane will aid our "good neighbor" policy. Junior high school young people should be led to see the effect of the airplane upon the balance of military power among nations. The influence of air travel and commerce upon community life will be one of the great factors in post-war community planning. It should, by all means, find a place in the junior high school social studies program. The airplane has changed our ocean basin concept of geography to one which is pole centered. This in turn affects our ideas of distance, location, environmental influences, effects of weather, and hemispheric concepts. The idea of living in the air instead of on the earth puts a new emphasis upon science teaching in the junior high school. In the earlier grades the primary function of science was to enable the child to make agreeable adjustments to his environment. In the junior high school he explores the possibilities of making his environment serve him. Thus the air becomes a medium of travel as well as something to "breathe deeply" for health's sake. The student becomes interested in its structure and behavior and finds that birds and seeds foreshadowed man in making use of air for flight. He is interested in appliances and means by which air can be made to conform to his purposes. Elementary experiments in energy, matter and motion, mechanics, weather, carburetion, and even simple applications of theories of flight become appropriate in the junior high schools science classes. In the field of life sciences, including health, the effects of flight upon the human body should be taught in an elementary degree, including effects of changes of speed, temperature, air pressure, and oxygen. The effect of the airplane upon disease control is important. The junior high school age is the "club age." Enterprising teachers will take advantage of this characteristic of youth to form kite clubs, airplane model clubs, nature clubs, etc. The Boy Scouts of America is doing much to promote airmindedness and a new branch of Air Scouting is being organized. Art clubs and classes may feature posters embodying air-age motifs. The industrial arts classes should study materials of airplane structure and carry it over into model building. Every enterprising high-school teacher will enrich his subjectmatter with the wealth of material from aeronautics. Take English as an example. A new esthetics seems to pervade the literature of aviation. Saint-Exempury's words carried appreciations far beyond earthly levels, and John Magee's High Flight is a literary gem that only a youthful aviator could produce. Kipling's prophecy written under the title JTith the Night Mail ' might be alluring to every high-school youth. Here is an excerpt picked more or less at random : We held a good lift to clear the coastwise and Continental shipping; and we had need of it. Though our route is in no sense a populated one, there is a steady trickle of traffic this way along. We met Hudson Bay furriers out of the Great Preserve, hurrying to make their departure from Bonavista with sable and black fox for the insatiable markets. We overcrossed Keewatin liners, small and cramped; but their captains, who see no land between Trepassy and Blanco, know what gold they bring back from West Africa. Trans-Asiatic Directs we met, soberly ringing the world round the Fiftieth Meridian at an honest seventy knots; and white' Kipling, Rii(li,-ar(l. Actions and Reactions. New York: Douhleday, Page and Co., 1909. p. lSO-51. PAGE 45 The Convention Never Held 43 painted Ackroycl & Hunt finiters ntit of the south fled beneath us, their ventilated hulls whistling like Chinese kites. Their market is in the North among the northern sanatoria where you can smell their grape-fruit and bananas across the cold snows. Argentine beef boats we sighted, too, of enormous capacity and unlovely outline. They too feed the northern health stations in icebound ports. Yellow-bellied ore-flats and Ungava petrol-tanks punted down leisurely out of the north, like strings of unfrightened wild duck. It does not pay to "fly" minerals and oil a mile farther than is necessary; these heavy freighters fly down to Halifax direct, and scent the air as they go. They are the biggest tramps aloft except the .Athabasca grain-tulis. Kut these last, now that the wheat is moved, are busy, over the world's shoulder, timber-lifting in Siberia. We held to the St. Lawrence (it is astonishing how the old water-ways still pull us children of the air). In 1909 Kipling envisaged these possibilities for the year 2000 A. D., or fifty-seven years hence. The boys and girls in our schools will make thein realities long before those years have elapsed. The teaching in American classrooms must expedite the process. High-school classes will help in setting up their own air-age curriculum. Any class in English might produce its own anthology on aviation; a class in the social studies, its series of problems; or a class in drawing, the art illustrations that are multiplied by aviation ; and, in similar manner, thru all other subjectmatter fields. Beginning immediately, high-school students should be assisted in studying the future problems associated with the "mistress of the air." Should the air be free? What comiriercial, political, and military problems arise? Let the students pit "globaloney' against "globaltruism." Encourage them to ground themselves thoroly in the understanding of America's function in spreading the Four Freedoms to all the earth and the part airpower and air supremacy will play. The fact is our school curriculum has been so greatly enriched by aeronautic developments that every teacher can find countless ways to make adjustments. The new age in which the problems of air-water-and-land have been inextricably merged is with us to stay. It is not asked that you condition the curriculum less with problems of land and sea but that you air-condition more. In the process, child and teacher may not see eye to eye. This is best illustrated by the drawing sent me last spring by an alert art teacher from Illinois. She pictured a kindergarten with its groups of pupils. Apart from the other children two boys near the fireplace were discussing a model airplane which one of them was holding in his hands. Said Billy, "You know, Bobbie, we must determine the center of gravity of this plane todav." "Yes," said Bobby, "we better do it, tho, in the recess period, because the old lady wants us to string beads this hour." The art teacher had a real sense of values as well as humor. Air-conditioning the curriculum means for you and your teachers a revaluation of curriculuiri content and the selection of materials made vital by man's conquest of the air. PAGE 46 44 American Association of School Administrators THE CAMPUS AND THE AIR AGE gill ROBB WILSON, DIRECTOR, DEPARTMENT OF AVIATION, STATE OF NEW JERSEY, TRENTON; PRESIDENT, NATIONAL AERONAUTICS ASSOCIATION The development of the airplane ranks with the invention of the wheel, the steam engine, and the use of electric energy. Coming at a time when transportation is so vital to social progress, the airplane will have a historic impact on civilization. The use of aircraft in war is a tragic interlude in the humanizing possibilities of flight. However, the decisive importance of aviation in battle and military logistics gives the layman an idea of what may be expected of flight when applied to peacetime pursuits. The swiftness with which we now tie together the continents and far islands of the seas hints of an indivisible destiny for humankind. "Am I my brother's keeper?" is no longer a moral interrogation but an economic affirmation. For the first time in history we have the tools with which to create a practical human brotherhood. Thru the medium of the air no place on earth is far from any other place. The abolition of geographic isolation presages the abolition of social isolation. Human misery will not be tolerated in its historic forms when laid intimately on the conscience of the civilized peoples. Only behind the mystery of distance and the veil of time can degradation survive. This mystery and veil the aircraft will tear away with insistent coverage of every area of the globe. To meet the opportunities and demands of a world so affected, we must set in motion the imagination of the American campus. Vocations and avocations, professions, and careers of coming generations will mold with the currents of events. The free nations have very nearly lost their existence because of failure to evaluate the agency of aviation. It will be possible to lose more than a war unless preparation is now made to inherit the social, political, and economic frontiers of the imminent decades. Hitherto inaccessible areas will become habitable. Buried wealth will be made available. Vast areas of the backward continents will soon be seen to have by-passed the railroad age. Men will become more and more citizens of the world. No person will be considered educated who is not at least bilingual. There will be such a creeping and crawling of humanity about the globe as was never before possible. Knowledge of man for man will be more than the satisfaction of an intellectual curiosity. Because of the certain mingling of the races, tomorrow many of our preconceived ideas will be changed. The philosophy of government, the objectives of religion, the manners and customs of the masses will shift and change. There will be dangers as well as advantages. Disease will no longer be localized. A proper conception of culture will have to prove itself against an improper conception. The weak must be protected against the aggressor who can now strike more swiftly and effectively than ever. Human character will weigh largely in the balance of tomorrow. PAGE 47 The Convention Never Held 45 1 (Ju nut plead for the study of a\ iatioii in the schools because I want to train pilots or mechanics or traffic men. I do plead for the utmost consideration of this subject because thru it we can reverse the unsocial conditions which have bred wars and miseries, I would brin^ aviation to the campus because aviation is a new tool of great potential. To hew the future of our nation we must have this tool. I would not replace the culture of the campus with mere vocational pursuit but rather would provide culture with a vehicle of expression. Human brotherhood can be developed by the medium of flight just as easily as destruction can be wrought. I am not so eager to teach men how to fly as to teach them wliy to fly. Preflight courses are not "pre" to militar>' induction but "pre" to the high art of living intelligently in a modern age. COORDINATING WARTIIVIE ACTIVITIES IN THE SCHOOLS CH.4RLES H. LAKE, SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS, CLEVELAND, OHIO This is particularly a time for competent and eftective leadership in education. Every person engaged in the work of education is asking himself the question, What can I do to help most in the solutions of the great problems before us? These problems are the winning of the war and preparation for the reorganization of the world to insure just and lasting peace. In the United States education has developed rather rapidly if we are to consider some of its aspects. On the other hand, it seems to have develiiped rather slowly when we consider the fact that it is the one plan which thru the years consistently has been proposed for the amelioration of our social ills and the development of a world in which the affairs of men and of nations may be directed by reason, rather than by blind force instigated thru fear, suspicion, and avarice. Our social ideals have looked all right on paper and in tracts, which have so often found the wastebasket, but from a practical standpoint they have often been a bit hazy and by no means as definite as have been our formulas for the mastery of the economic factors involved in the development and the acquisition of wealth. The desire for power and the acquisition of wealth are individualistic. They are largely dominated by the ambitions of the individual, while society as a whole develops much more slowly because in what we have chosen to call "normal times" so few people can spare the time from their individual pursuits or have the inclination to think of the problems of society as a unit. We never have approved, except in times of great stress, the thesis that the welfare of society depends upon taking thought and working for satisfactory solutions to social problems. We have had numerous remedies from time to time proposed for the amelioration of our social ills. We have made progress but the progress has been slow. The discussion of the plans proposed has been a sort of parlor and academic exercise soon forgotten in our dreams of economic progress for tomorrow. We have not been willing even to PAGE 48 46 American Association of School Administrators liberate the intelligence of the students in our classrooms for a discussion of the real problems of civilization. The kind of world we talk about and idealize can be reached only thru education. We have the best system of universal education in the world. Still the results at times have been disappointing. Many of the claims we have made for education have not been substantiated. Many of our hopes have not been realized. Education reaches, or can be made to reach, all the people of the world. It can, in time, eliminate the domination of the tribal gods. It should eliminate fear thru the development of confidence in the ability of the human race to direct its affairs thru reason for the security and welfare of all its people. "What you wish to see appear in the life of a nation must first be introduced into the schools," said Von Humboldt, and there probably has been no more pertinent thought expressed with reference to education. It also brings to our attention the thought that those things which are taught in the schools will inevitably appear in the life of a nation and, to a very large extent, will determine the direction in which that nation will move. This statement applies to weaknesses as well as to strengths in our educational plan. What we fail to teach or what we teach ineffectively may leave us too weak to carry on a system of constructive selfperpetuation. Why is it that so many civilizations have developed on the face of the earth, flourished for a time, and then have gone into decay? Why is it that many civilizations have perished from the earth leaving but a vestige of authentic material to attest to their existence? Why is it that many civilizations are recorded in our chronicles only thru the stories of the debacles which just preceded their removal from active participation as factors in the world's history? What has happened to those people? Must such a history of civilization continue? Must ours be no exception to the common fate of nations? What are the factors that have enabled some nations to maintain their integrity for centuries while others have declined after a few generations of leadership and prominence ? The history of these cases leads us to ponder and take stock of our intellectual and physical equipment to see whether there may be certain fundamentals which have been neglected, whether there are certain elements which we have failed to appreciate and which we can put into our system of training and education to insure for us and for mankind a fate slightly better than the fates of those who have preceded us. It is always a disagreeable experience to find that one is beginning to doubt. We are quite prone to revel in the belief that we are strong in our opinions and thoroly fortified in unassailable positions based on logical deductions. To be in doubt is to be quite uncomfortable and ill at ease. As soon as we begin to doubt or question the things we do, we become so involved in our destructive philosophy that we are likely to give up in despair and say, "Why worry?" Yet the great advances in human betterment have come because someone raised a question and dared to work and hope for an answer. PAGE 49 The Convkntion Never Held 47 Thin<2;s are not dull toda\ in the field of education. There is much to be done in each day. As in other activities, however, it is most essential that we keep our objectives definitely before us, or when we win the war we shall find that we ha\-e lost much that we are fi^htinfj; for. The great business of this country now is to win the war and build a foundation for tlu' lastin;^ peace that should follow' it, and our schools have much to do in the pro}i;ram. Coordinating; wartime activities in the schools means coord inatinjx all the work of our schools to promote most efiectively the war eiiort, to develop in our pupils an intelligent understandinji of the issues and conditions confronting^ us, to de\elop confidence in our pupils that we can meet the tests which the war imposes upon us and meet them successfully, to ^ive pupils practice and traininji for mental and physical fitness and balance so essential in tryinjj times, to orjianize pupils for essential civilian services and lead them in their cooperative efforts, to educate and train pupils to do what is to be done now and what they will be called upon to do in the years that follow. This war is a worldwide revolt against some of the elements of the civilization which we have been developing for years. This revolt would not have been possible if our civilization had been as strong as we have taught in our classrooms that it was. This war is not the disintegration but the result of the disintegration of a civilization which has been growling progressively w'orse while we have been teaching that it was becoming better with every year. Education, in terms of specific accomplishments, has improved much over the last century, but it will have to improve much more in the years that follow this war if the disintegration of civilization which preceded the w^ar is not to continue after it. The disciplines which civilization imposes upon us must be renewed, revaluated, and greatly strengthened if the ideals of peace which we have taught in our schools are to be even partially attained. We have taught the promises of civilization without teaching the means to make the promises come true. It is not too late to begin a basic teaching of the elements of civilization which will assure its continuity, but tomorrow will be too late. What is our job in such a situation? The disciplines of wartime education must be built upon and strengthened for each year that follows. Education can be much improved thru what w'e are learning from the present demands of wartime activities. In the past \ears we have had many social problems that we did not solve satisfactorily'. There was enormous waste of materials, of manpower Â— spiritual, intellectual, and physical. Our lo\e of luxury and the ease with which lu\ur\ was attained deadened our best thinking on the purposes and futures of the human race. Like the barons of old, we thought we could build a fence around a portion of the world and segregate its use to our immediate and selfish purposes. The world belongs to those who will use it most advantageoush'. The war, of course, did not start with any specific event. It started in the man\points of weakness in the social structures of the world, many of them in our own countrv. \Ve are fighting now for another opportunity to sohe our PAGE 50 48 American Association of School Administrators problems which have become worldwide in scope. What will we do with these problems when we have won the physical battles of the war? Education in any country always will be a part of what is going on in that country. It will be affected by what is going on in the world, whether the world is at peace or at war. But education, if its purpose be attained, must also affect what is going on in its country and in its world. In this country it has been quite apparent that social conditions Â— local, national, and international Â— affect our schools. To what extent is the converse of the statement true ? How and to what extent do our schools affect social and governmental conditions? I have no fear that our schools will not meet successfully and creditably the problems imposed by the immediate stress of the war, but I respectfully suggest that it will take far greater leadership and courage among educators to meet the conditions which follow the war and to help solve the problems which the war has taught us must be solved if life on the earth is to continue even as a possibility. For the present, our educational program must be geared to the war effort but in so doing we can learn much that will be of value to the program which must follow. Just what are the things that the schools can and should do in this critical emergency to improve the quality and quantity of the war effort? There have been many suggestions and there will be many more from many sources as to what schools should do. The school system of the United States is an almost perfect line organization. In a few hours we can plan for almost any service that needs to be given. We can organize for rationing, collection of essential materials, civilian defense, selling of war bonds and stamps, salvaging of waste, dissemination of essential information, furnishing a wide range of community services, preinduction training, and the use and conservation of manpower. How shall we work to keep a proper balance in education, anticipate real needs, and adjust our procedures to produce the best responses to the varying pressures that are being brought to bear and will be brought to bear upon us? We must evaluate critically and relatively the tasks before us and have the ability and the courage to do what our thoughtful conclusions dictate should be done. Our schools must in reality be the great source of strength we have claimed for them. The most difficult readjustment in life to make is readjustment in thinking. The older we are, the more difficult it is but the time element for such readjustment varies much with individuals. From where do we start to revalue our postulates, our premises? Many of our old ones may be correct but pigeonholed because of the pressures of the moment. It is time to restudy them. Coordinating war activities in our schools means that our work must be so conducted that things of most importance will come first. In the conduct of this war, many special and emergency services will need to be performed in our schools by pupils and teachers. Such work must not be minimized, but in the performance of the regular teaching work there is for every teacher an opportunity to make a far greater contri- PAGE 51 The Convention Never Held 49 bution toward victory and peace than in any other way. Our pupils must have something genuine to believe in. They must understand and be trained to face each day with confidence and assurance in the future. They must be trained for competence. The biggest problem in the coordination of war activities in our schools is not that of doing all the things that are brought to our doors to do but that of determining ,what things are of most value and should be done first. Never before has the destiny of the human race been so much in doubt. Never before has there been so much to work for. The freedoms we have e.xtolled must be earned each day. We shall get no more than we earn and unless we work hard enough and intelligently enough, the progress we have made will be but a few pages in history. OCCUPATIONAL ADJUSTMENT AND THE WAR EDWIN A. LEE, DEAN, SCHOOL OF EDUCATION, UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA AT LOS ANGELES One of the circumstances for which superintendents have been giving thanks since December 7 and before has been the existence of a fairly well-organized program of vocational education in most of the states of the nation. Today there is no administrator who does not spend a major share of his time and effort in gearing his school system to the war effort, a large part of which is in terms of preparing boys and girls and men and women for active participation as workers, either in plants or on farms or in the armed forces. War manpower needs take precedence over all other needs. The manpower needs and the schools' responsibility for meeting them is the theme of the 1943 Yearbook of the American Association of School Administrators. E\ery administrator who is seriously interested should, by the time this Official Report of the Convention Never Held reaches him, have read the yearbook. What is here written assumes the background which is therein presented. The occupation in which a large majority of American male youth will most certainly be engaged in the years immediately ahead is some form of armed service. Every able-bodied boy of eighteen years of age will be inducted into the armed forces within a few months after reaching his eighteenth birthday. Public-school educators dare not any longer, if indeed any still do, teach and administer classes and schools as if this overwhelming fact were not true. Let us examine this occupation of soldiering. The most significant characteristic of the occupation is fighting Â— a man must kill or be killed. Two elements enter into the ability to fight. One is physical fitness, the other is intellectual literacy. A school system that attempts to give the preliminary preparation to youth for the job of soldiering inevitably must lay great stress upon physical education, not alone in the months immediately preceding induction, but in all his schooling prior to induction. PAGE 52 50 American Association of School Administrators Similarly it is an occupational requirement that youth shall be equipped not only to read and write at a standard roughly approximating a fifthgrade education but that they shall be taught to do it with the maximum intelligence and understanding which each can achieve. This means that some of the occupational adjustment will reach back as far as the upper grades of the elementary schools and will become increasingly objective as the youth approaches his final years of schooling. A second significant characteristic of service in the armed forces is that fighting is not the sole occupation. A modern army is made up of many workers. General Somervell estimates that of every hundred inducted men, sixty-three will engage in occupations or jobs which have their counterpart in civilian life. There are cooks, chauffeurs, photographers, barbers, stenographers, plumbers, radio-technicians, map-makers, policemen, airplane mechanics, meteorologists, carpenters, electricians, and scores of other vocations, all of which are essential to the smooth and effective functioning of a unit, whether it be on land or sea or in the air. Administrators should be at the job of ascertaining the nature and size of such demands, and to the extent that shops and other facilities can be utilized the schools should be preparing youth for such service. It is, of course, true that out of many thousand male youth reaching eighteen at a given time a certain number will be placed in the 4-F category. For most of these there is a double problem Â— one the purely occupational and the other the emotional problem. If the disability be functional in terms of sight or hearing or heart or any one of a number of possibilities, there is the problem of finding some job in the war efFort which can be handled despite the disability and of providing training for effective achievement at that job. jMuch is already being done in a number of communities, and imagination and daring will uncover many more. The same is true for those who are crippled or malnourished or otherwise handicapped by accident or disease. No one, literally, who wants to share in the war effort thru the work of his hands or his mind need be denied the opportunity. A poignant demand grows out of what has just been said in terms of the injured soldiers and sailors who even at this writing are being returned to our shores in increasing numbers. That the problem will become tragically larger in scope and numbers involved is inescapable. Every community will have its maimed sons who somehow or other must be reabsorbed into its work life. Largely we shall be told what to do and how to do it by agencies of the state and federal governments. Let every administrator be alert, to the possibilities latent in his own city and whatever there be to do let it be done with a will. No matter how well the situation may be met, the debt owed to those youth who gave all but life itself will never be paid. Thus far the discussion has centered on occupational adjustment of the potential soldier or sailor. Back of the men in the services there are scores of civilian workers Â— one dependable estimate says sixteen civilians for every man in uniform. These workers grow and harvest and process the PAGE 53 ThiConvention Never Held 51 food that feeds our forces and those of our allies. They make the planes, ships, fjuns, tanks, and ammunition^ which modern war requires. They keep the trains and buses rolling; they serve in the banks, restaurants, and stores. They are the people at home who support and supply those who are scattered round the earth. The important thin^ to note is that they support and supply mainly thru the work they do. If they work well and eflficiently, the flow of goods and ecjuipment is smooth and effective. If they are inept or lazy, just to that extent is the flow broken and ineficctivc. Therefore, nothinj^ is quite so important as that all workers shall be as well educated for the jobs at which they will be employed as wisdom and ingenuity can devise. The record of public schools in this matter is extraordinary, as every administrator knows. Nevertheless, "the one outstanding fact of the manpower situation today is that after two and one-half years of federally financed and locally executed training programs, there is today an acute shortage of potential workers in training." The chairman of the AVar Manpower Commission says that 320,000 to 500,000 persons should be in training now, while enrolment is only 160,000.' The schools, just as every other institution in American life, must exceed even that which the best have done. There is no alternative! Certain implications grow out of all that has preceded this paragraph. To a degree unimagined even a few months ago, the programs described appl\ to women as well as men. Women are enlisting in recognized go\ernmental organizations. There is reasonable possibility that women will be subject to a selective service program to all intents and purposes the same as that now existing for men. Their duties may conceivably include everything now done by men except actual combat. They are ferrying planes, they are serving as aides and chauffeurs to army and navy officers; in countless ways they are freeing men for frontline duties. Even more striking are the facts concerning industry. In airplane factories, in ordnance plants, in shipyards, where\er war work is going on women are quietly and efifectively changing the complexion of the working force. In some plants they already exceed male employees on the payroll. This is one of the most interesting sociological changes now taking place in this country. From the viewpoint of occupational adjustment neither of the above developments imposes difficulties because of the infiltration of women workers. W^hat we already know about teaching occupations needs to be modified but little, if at all, because women are being taught instead of men. The second implication concerns adult education. It seems clear that much of the work not strictl\military in its nature will be done increasingly bv mature and older men and women. \ oung men in large measure will be actively engaged in war, and young in the draft age includes the middle thirties. As the war progresses it may he expected that deferred ' W'arlimc \'oralional Training. Conference Comniillre nf the .American Association of School .Administrators and the Committee on Education of the Chainhcr of Commerce of the Inited States. Washington. I). ('. Vauf v Sec also: All-out Drjcnst Job Training. Occupational education lour for school superintendents. 1941. PAGE 54 52 Americak AssociATiOK OK School Administrators classifications will shrink in all categories. The inescapable conclusion is a greatly increased program of adult vocational education, including men and women in the forties, fifties, and if the war lasts long enough, the sixties. That an extension downward at the other end into the fifteen-, sixteen-, and seventeen-year-old brackets will occur is unlikely and should not be resorted to until the full adult man and woman power has been harnessed to the war effort. It should be emphasized that all that we now know from experience and reflection concerning occupational adjustment needs to be focused upon the immediate problems. It is clear that such accomplishment as has been suggested in this paper must rest on a program of vocational guidance which has been wisely conceived, skilfully taught and administered, and carefully and fearlessly evaluated. It is equally clear that the actual teaching of occupations, which have been chosen thru adequate vocational guidance, requires capable and welltrained instructors who not only know their crafts but also know how to teach efifectively, and that such teachers must have facilities and equipment reasonably adequate to the tasks they face. At this writing the problem of placement and induction does not loom so large as in other times, due to the almost insatiable demands of employers. Nevertheless, administrators must never lose sight of the necessity of considering occupational adjustment as incomplete until placement satisfactory both to employer and employee has occurred. There may be superintendents who, longing for the quiet, cloistered days of an almost forgotten era, envision drastic reductions in such programs when peace shall come once more. To such it must be said that never again will the public schools consider the vocational objective to he unworthy of recognition and support in a complete program of education. We have learned thru bitter experience just short of major defeat how dependent a nation is upon trained minds and hands. Our miracles of production are in part the result of clearly conceived and brilliantly executed programs of vocational education. Our schools have proven themselves to be bulwarks of democracy without which we could not have built planes or tanks or ships. Our schools will feed our workers and our soldiers thru those who are trained in agricultural skills and knowledge. At a thousand critical points they contribute to a vocational effectiveness absolutely essential to the winning of the war. Let no one then underestimate the scope and the significance of the educational revolution which is taking place before our eyes. Careful planning and thinking are now being devoted to the development of wise and comprehensive programs of occupational adjustment for youth and adults. Inefficient practices are being eliminated, new and better methods and curriculums are constantly being devised. It is unthinkable that we shall not build upon M^hat we are learning to the end that never again shall any person be unprepared to carry his economic weight. In truth, that which was rejected has now become the cornerstone. PAGE 55 The Convention Never Held 53 IN-SERVICE EDUCATION: HOW TO HELP TEACHERS IN SERVICE TO MEET V\^AR AND POSTWAR EDUCATIONAL NEEDS llEROLD C. HUNT, SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS, KANSAS CITY, MO. Just as the impact of the war is being felt in every walk and corner of American life so is its seriousness reflected in every area of education toda>-. "Education as usual" was an idea discarded as readily as "business as usual" in the days immediately following Pearl Harbor. Even before the actual declaration of war, curriculum changes had been introduced, particularly into the secondary schools of the nation, to provide for additional emphasis on vocational education which had assumed greater prominence with the initiation of Lend-Lease. With the advent of genuine hostilities, however, the necessity for adaptations in all fields early became apparent, and in use in schoolrooms thruout the country today are to be noted curriculums definitely based on wartime needs or in process of being fitted to those needs. While the adaptations are not felt so keenly on the elementary level, certain emphases have everywhere become evident. These are exemplified in programs which stress the promotion of health, the provision of opportunities for community service, new interest in geography, and additional attention to the ideals of freedom and equality for which we are fighting. These areas are stressed, but at the same time attention is directed most forcefully to the laying of foundational skills and habits and to the maintenance of a feeling of security, calmness, and well-being. On the secondaryschool level the big changes have come thru introduction of new courses and complete revision of old ones. Preinduction courses in radio, machines, automotive mechanics; additional courses in mathematics and science; new emphasis on physical fitness, on conservation, and on experiences leading to occupational competence now characterize the high-school program. In keeping up with these new and varied wartime demands the school administrator faces, further, an additional problem, for he is at once confronted with the limitations of his stafY to assist in the making, inaugurating, and carrying out of the required changes. Teachers of the pre-war era, to do an effective wartime job in education, must be sensitized to wartime needs and their teaching adapted to wartime demands. Conversion of many teachers must be directed from fields of declining interest during this emergency period to fields in which the felt pressure of critical days is resulting in increased enrolments and, consequently, the need for additional teaching personnel. Likewise the school administrator is faced with the steadily mounting problem of teacher turnover. Lucrative offers of work in war industries are proving too tcinpting to be rejected in many instances, and war plants now number many erstwhile teachers among their employees. An additional number from every school system are to be found in active service with the armed forces. Teaching staffs are indeed less stable than at any time within the memory of today's school administrators. An appalling PAGE 56 54 American Association of School Administrators number of vacancies have occurred, many of which it has not been possible to fill. At the same time many vi^ho have been elected to teaching posts are individuals recalled to service after long absences. Reeducation of these teachers is vitally important to assure some measure of success for the schools' wartime program. Not to be overlooked, too, is the changing emotional character of the continuing staff. The trials of war leave their mark upon many and teachers are no farther removed from casualty lists than are other citizens. Clearly a program of in-service education, and a strong one, is imperative Â— more imperative perhaps than ever before Â— to overcome the limitations and the obstacles. New points of view must be instilled, old patterns made more meaningful ; new capabilities must be found and put into action, old calmness and assurance strengthened; new vitality must be imparted, old courage and determination brought to the fore. In-service education reaches prime importance in the administrative program today in order to maintain a well-qualified, capable, and professional staff. But how is this to be accomplished? First, let us define our term. In-service education today is justly interpreted broadly to include all technics, devices, and activities of school life and daily community living which will stimulate thinking of teachers and create an awareness among them to the crucial issues with which they are confronted Â— those technics and devices which will assure determination among teachers to take positive action in solving the problems that they meet daily. Those who have effected democratic, administrative organizations believe, and logically, that following the democratic pattern, in peace or in war, is the most effective way to meet in-service training needs. Participation m the administration continues to be a certain means of assuring the acquaintance of the personnel with the changing program and the changing requirements of the times. Participation of itself means awareness and only thru individual awareness to current conditions, needs, and demands can classroom programs be made successful in meeting these situations. Following democratic practices is indeed the most effective in-service training technic that school administrators can put and continue in operation. Cooperative planning for determining curriculum and administrative adaptations, their introduction and evaluation, will assure maximum effectiveness in meeting needs. The participation of many minds brings about the inclusion of all aspects of a problem, and the different points of view represented assure adequate coverage. Likewise does cooperative endeavor provide its own essential interpretation so that those concerned with the program are at once capable of putting it into operation because of a knowledge of its purpose and objectives. Determination of necessary adaptations thru the participation of those whose responsibility it will be to follow out the recommendations assures the essential nature and the effectiveness of the proposals, both in their initiation and in their follow-thru. The committee technic for curriculum revision likewise serves not only to bring about the necessary course-of-study changes but provides as well effective educational experience for the participating teachers. Determina- PAGE 57 The Convention Never Held 55 tion of adaptations ot other educational procedures thru ^^oup conferences also affords professional stimulation and keener awareness on the part of the ^roup membership. Advisory boards on {^rade and subjectmatter levels serve the dual purpose of determininji policy for the activity of the group and challenging^ the thinking of both the board itself and those to whom the board's recommendations are presented. A council of teachers conversant with the actual problems' confronting their associates in similar situations may well stimulate the thinking of an entire group, in working out solutions to the problems, to a far greater extent than do recommendations imported from sources differing in some measure from those in which these particular teachers are working. In these critical days, which are beset with diflficulties of transportation and heavier than usual schedules, economy of time is of prime importance. Even so the professional advantages to be gained from stimulating faculty meetings outweigh the restrictions imposed by the war. School systems which have been in the habit of conducting for their staffs at regular intervals professional meetings, institutes, lectures, and the like, in centrally located places, should consider overcoming the difficulties of transportation and crowded schedules thru wider use of the radio. By means of the technic of "Faculty Meetings of the Air" school staffs, assembled in the individual buildings of a school system or of an entire area when such can be arranged, listen in to specially prepared broadcasts by members of the administrative and teaching staffs, guest speakers, pupils, parents, or any combination thru which important presentations may be made to the entire staff. Following the broadcast, which may well run for a half-hour period, the individual faculties continue the discussion in its relation to their own interests and needs. This technic is perhaps even more thought-provoking than the general faculty meeting at which the meeting is adjourned following the conclusion of the platform presentation. Gathered in their respective schools, groups of teachers are more willing to discuss the issues raised in a radio program in the light of the implications for that particular building unit. In informal manner are minds stimulated to develop plans and evolve solutions. Teachers feel more freedom and are more ready to express themselves in the friendly atmosphere of familiar environment, and such expression is a stimulant to further thinking, leading to individual development as well as effective group action. Technics that present new challenges to teachers are also effective in-service educational experiences. In this category may be listed the simple change of scene provided by assignment to a different building. In many school systems, particularly those in cities paying the more attractive salaries, local tenure and building tenure are synonymous Â— or practically so. Even the superior, ultraprogressive teacher is apt to permit a letdown of exertion creep into classroom performance after a number of years at the same post. Having run thru a wide variety of individual differences, new pupils may with little difficulty be likened to former ones and the necessity for providing ever new and fresh experiences may seem to become less PAGE 58 56 American Association of School Administrators and less urgent. A new building, a different group of associates, a parent body representing a strange variety of interests, to say nothing of unfamiliar faces and unanticipated mannerisms, will generally provide a challenge that will result in improved teaching and, actually, professional advancement. This technic. simple in operation, is welcomed, once it has been tried, by teachers and administrators alike. The occasional unsatisfactory new assignment may be adjusted by reassignment or return to former position. Even when this latter alternative must be adopted, however, stimulation and challenge are usually imparted to the teacher by the very fact of the consideration and the necessity for the change. Sponsorship by a school system of lectures, series of lectures, forums, panel discussions, and other such meetings, serves likewise to stimulate the thinking of the staff. Topics for these lectures and discussions may be educational, inspirational, or of other current interest. The mere fact of their presentation and of teacher attendance at them is thought-provoking. Supervision has long been carried on as a means of in-service education of teachers. Visits of supervisors to classrooms generally serve to spur effort and create better teaching situations. Supervisory practice which is, however, largely in the nature of a rating of a teacher or of classroom performance is not nearly so effective in bringing about continued improvement as is that supervision which may best be described as a "working together" or a "joint planning experience" between teacher and supervisor. The supervisor who observes a classroom teacher to note needs and then takes up with the teacher the next steps and the ultimate satisfaction of those needs Â— that supervisor is providing actual in-service training for the teachers observed. Likewise can a supervisor place at the disposal of the teacher a wealth of material and information concerning the sources of helpful literature or other implementation on any particular subject on which a class is working or plans to work. Supervisors thru their various contacts are familiar with a wide variety of useful and helpful materials Â— reference, enrichment, supplementary, or just plain "additional" Â— most of which will be extremely valuable to the teacher in carrying out classroom plans and experiences. From this knowledge and familiarity it is possible for the supervisor to place in the hands of teachers selected, annotated bibliographies from which may be chosen the most effective teaching aids. Under the direction of supervisors, further, with the cooperation and assistance of members of the school staff, professional libraries can be built, making immediately and readily available to the entire personnel outstanding professional books and other worthwhile literature. In a similar way curriculum libraries and laboratories may be assembled, in which interested teachers may utilize course-of-study materials from a variety of school systems, many of which will offer valuable suggestions for adapting curriculums in use or building new ones. Professional publications prepared under the direction of the administrative and supervisory staff, with cooperation and participation of teachers, may be designed to meet particular needs that have been recognized or as a means of imparting new PAGE 59 The Convention Never Held 57 or unusual professional information. Availability of all these materials thru distribution to the entire staff, or circulation in the case of single copies or a limited supply, is a most effective supervisory technic. A still further means of strengthening in teachers the ability to meet successfully any situations arising in their classrooms as a result of critical times is thru encouragement of participation in community life. To the extent that such participation serves to stabilize teachers and impart a feeling of satisfaction in their share in the war effort may it be considered a form of in-service training and as such may it be advocated by school administrators. Community contacts assist teachers to recognize community needs and this recognition enables adaptations in teaching procedures to assure the meeting of these situations. The community contacts of the teacher thus lead to genuine community service rendered by the teacher because of awareness to critical needs. These experiences contribute immeasurably to the growth of the teacher professionally as well as personally. No accounting of in-service training technics would be complete without the inclusion of regular courses in education and in related fields offered by colleges, universities, and teacher-training institutions thruout the country. In localities near these universities, and in extramural centers established by them, teachers may be encouraged to take one or two courses during the school year itself, concurrent with their teaching activity. Participation in university classes always serves to bring new ideas and stimulation into the teacher's classroom performance by the very facts of the formation of new contacts and the direction of attention to new or forgotten sources of information or ideas. In more remote areas these university courses must of necessity be postponed to the summer season. The more intensive type of study during vacation periods should likewise be encouraged for teachers, both in the form of regular summer courses and in the newer "educational workshops" now being sponsored by many school systems. The workshop idea provides opportunities to apply modern educational theories and practices to actual situations with which a teacher has been or will be confronted, leading to the determination of the most adequate handling. Sponsored by a board of education and the administration of a school system in order to secure the desired leadership, the educational workshop is characterized by cooperative planning on the part of a selected university staff and a representation of the school personnel, both in its initiation and continuously thruout its duration. The workshop is concerned with local problems and areas of special local interest. Participation in it results in the satisfactory solution of these problems thru the experiences of the teachers in the handling of the situations and the working out of the most effective course of action. It may thus be seen that a workshop is a practical means of educating teachers concerning the aims and objectives of a school program thru their participation in the development of procedures for the solution of actual problems. Always aimed at "rejuvenation of thinking" thru the guidance of skilful PAGE 60 58 American Association of School Administrators leadership, courses which teachers take in order to meet the in-service training requirements of their school system or just for their own professional interest and advancement unfailingly gear thinking to the implications of the times. In critical days the value of such in-service education cannot be minimized in its production of alert, professional teachers capable of adapting classroom procedures to each new demand or requirement as it becomes even remotely apparent. Thus it appears that various devices and technics may be employed as in-service training measures. Those which are most successful, however, in keeping an educational staff in line with current developments are the ones which, thru actual participation, create an unmistakable awareness to conditions as they exist, and as they are in process of constant change; an awareness to situations which must be immediately met, and to situations which will soon have to be met. Such an awareness implanted upon the basic foundational equipment of the teacher will result in the taking of positive action toward meeting the needs that are thus recognized. Any program of in-service education which is successful, therefore, in creating in teachers an awareness to constantly changing conditions and an ability to meet the demands of these changes thru everyday classroom procedure will be effective in meeting not only wartime but postwar educational needs. Such a program is constantly tuned and timed in recognition of current activities, events, and needs, and thru the participatory awareness thus achieved, with its stimulation to positive action, will it guarantee a ready and continuous meeting of all situations. THE CHIPS ARE DOWN PETER H. ODEGARD, ASSISTANT TO THE SECRETARY, U. S. TREASURY DEPARTMENT, WASHINGTON, D. C. One of the questions raised by the war is whether or not American education has given us the economic intelligence to reduce our living standard voluntarily. To cope with total war and its aftermath, this has to be done rigorously enough to let the steam out of war production's pressure on prices. We have never done it before. Sugar cost$20 a pound at one time during the Revolutionary War. And Washington Â— George not D. C. Â— filled many a page with his complaints on the inflationary practices of the merchants with whom his quartermasters had to deal. Gone JVith the JVi?id describes what happened to prices in the South during the Civil War, while rising prices added 500,000,000 to the government's outlay in the North. The price history "of World War I is familiar. "In the past," said the President in his budget message to the Congress, "wars have usually been paid for mainly by means of inflation, thereby shifting the greatest burden to the weakest shoulders and inviting postwar collapse. We seek to avoid both. Of necessity, the program must be harsh." In the ivory tower of economic theory, production and consumption must achieve approximate balance if the body economic is to function PAGE 61 The Convention Never Held 59 ill the classical iiianncr. IMoncv and the equivalent thereof are the nieiliiims of exchanp;e that make this possible. War increases production and the circulation of money, Init the two of them do not balance just because the money goes round and round. Too high a percentage of production is consumed on the battlefield without any reference to money whatsoever. Dollars in search of commodities naturally bid prices up. The war savings program was designed to divert this "excess" money and so to maintain the balance between production and consumption. Secondly, it is expected to create a reservoir of savings that will flow back into postwar circulation in support of private production. The spectacular ease with which the Treasury has raised billions of dollars from the big holders of savings obscures the fact that such savings are virtually absorbed now. That does not mean the ability to borrow has been affected, but it does mean government borrowings must come out of current income if excessive creation of credit Â— purchasing power Â— is to be avoided. This need for savings out of current income points up one of the premises of the war savings program. Unlike the Liberty Loans of World War I, when the highest total amount was the sole goal, our present war savings program is also designed to achieve maximum participation in savings. Maximum volume of savings is important too, but this time it is only one of the goals. Not only must the money to pay for this most costly war be raised, but to an unprecedented extent it inust come from current income, so as to take purchasing power out of the inarket and to create a genuine mass purchasing power in the future. Science and industry are preparing a bonus for those who follow this policy in the form of new and cheaper products. School administrators have a double stake in the success of the war savings prograin. Should its objectives not be reached, the problems of school support would be multiplied. The incidence of children and taxpaying ability is frequently inverse, and financing the schools so that the purposes of democracy are achieved depends on taxpaying ability. Retirement plans of many teachers would he upset by drastic changes in the value of the savings set aside for the purpose. Avoiding postwar problems in school administration is, of course, only the frosting on the cake. The basic fact for educators is that war indicts education. Eradicating the effect of Fascist education for death will be a postwar problem of the first magnitude. It concerns American educators as well as German and the improvement of education here and now is an essential preliminary to worldwide postwar advance. Educational outcomes are customarily marked for future testing, but in time of great national undertakings, it is not satisfying to be insulated from the present. Sharing and leading vigorously in the war savings program, as a citizen as well as an educator, is a bridge between your professional obligations and the need for all of us to help now. Buying war bonds, doing without, are direct acts of war. To bring about widespread sharing in war savings, we have relied in part upon the creation of a fashion for saving by general propaganda and PAGE 62 60 American Association of School Administrators in part on specific group approaches. Specific clinchers of general appeals have been made with most success thru the payroll savings plan. Nearly 30,000,000 people are saving out of current income thru payroll allotments. War costs have reached the point, however, that makes still further cuts in current income imperative. Equally specific methods and equally extensive coverage will have to be achieved. General propaganda to maintain savings as a war habit is not alone enough to hold savings at the level necessary to accomplish the objectives we have in view. This moves the main problem of war savings into the field of education. To define the educational phase of the problem is not simple. The question, "To spend or not to spend?" is not answered on a stage. The answer is personal and subject to change. With those above the subsistence level, the definition of "necessary spending" is highly flexible. Furthermore, it is quite likely to reflect the peacetime social customs and personal habits of the spenders. It seems to follow that since what you spend and what you save are based on subjective decisions, thrift education by itself is a negative idea. It needs to be linked with spending education, and in a total war economy spending above the necessity level is antisocial behavior. Since saving by those with a margin for saving is based on subjective factors, it seems reasonable to say that there are more savers who can save more than there are nonsavers who can save. British studies indicate that this is so, and it can be confirmed by rule-of-thumb observation among one's friends. Savings such as the offensive war demands Â— that is, something more than skimming the lO percent cream from enlarged incomes Â— becomes therefore a problem in leadership, a type of leadership in M^hich schools are most able. As a basis for exerting this leadership, I would like to propose to the American Association of School Administrators that it create criteria for necessity spending as part of the traditional thrift education program of American schools. In each of your communities conspicuous, active leadership for war savings can come from the schools. National patriotic appeals to war savings will continue as a backdrop for such a program, but no better instrument exists for telling the personal side of the story than the schools. Even tho the personal, habitual choice of all of us should be what the British label austerity, it is not a hard choice to make, once the will to do so is habitual. All that the government is asking is that we take a lien on the future instead of scrambling now for the comforts of the past. You can say with some justice that the kind of educational program I am talking about lies in the adult educator's field. This is true, but only partially so. First, the youngsters themselves can help adults be intelligent about savings. They can be the carriers of information on intelligent wartime buying as well as the fervent interpreters of nonspending. Few families can resist the insistence of the youngster who wants to make sure that his school is flying the Schools at War flag for 90 percent participation in the war savings program. School youth who earn money offer a specially fertile field for saving- PAGE 63 The Convention Never Held 61 spending education. In some places 50, 60, 70, even 80 percent of the high-school group are working and making more money at an earlier age than ever before. Where they have their basic necessities provided by their families, their income is almost entirely free and eligible for savings. In any case, a much larger percentage of savings can be expected from these earners than from adults. And the spending of new earners is one of our most serious problems since it does represent new demand, usually for nonessentials. Why not a positive thrift-spending program to get these youth to spend in the form of savings for particular war uses and for particular future desires? The chips are down. Will school administrators come thru with aces? THE DEMANDS OF THE WAR UPON THE FINANCIAL RESOURCES OF THE SCHOOL DISTRICT CLAUDE v. COURTER, SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS, CINCINNATI, OHIO It is axiomatic in American philosophy in the present crisis that all the nation's resources, financial and material, cultural and spiritual, have one standard of value. They are of value in terms of their importance in the successful prosecution of the war and in preparing for the peace. They are fully expendable, therefore, for the one purpose Â— the achievement of complete victory, which is the double victory of winning the war and winning the peace ; for unless the democratic way of life based upon freedom in its noblest sense and guide4 by the precepts of Christianity is preserved to the world, none of the nation's resources has further significance for our civilization. With all other agencies in our national life, public education is privileged to spend its resources to this end. Tax-supported public education in our country is the processing of financial resources into material and cultural resources. In the total process, money raised from taxes creates buildings, grounds, equipment, and supplies, and trains and pays teachers. Teachers use buildings, grounds, equipment, and supplies to create the cultural and spiritual resources of our civilization in training young Americans to inherit, maintain, and improve our culture. In this cycle, financial resources have significance only in terms of their adequacy and the intelligence and eflficiency with which they are transformed into the resources of mind. bod\ . and spirit of the American citizen. They are fully expended when the processes of training and releasing a citizen into our society to inherit its privileges and carry on its purposes have been completed as well as may be. The demands of the war upon the financial resources of a school district are in reality demands upon this entire process. By this analysis there are two groups of demands made by the war upon the financial resources of a school district. They are (I) demands which consume the financial resources of a school district for purposes other than the education and training of future citizens, and (2) demands upon the financial resources that are available for the educational process PAGE 64 62 American Association of School Administrators Itself. In the first group of demands may be listed (a) the demands of the war upon the tax source, (b) the demands upon operating revenues, and (c) the demands upon invested capital. In the second group are (a) demands upon the curriculum, and (b) demands upon the time and energy of the teaching stafif. We shall examine each of these demands. The primary financial resource of a school district is its source of taxes. This tax source is a composite of the taxable wealth of the school district, of the state, and of the nation, the will of state and national legislatures, and the will of the people of the school district. Taxable wealth in itself is a passive, inert financial resource, possessing only potential value. It becomes active and dynamic when taxes are levied against it by legislatures or by the will of the local electorate. This wealth transformed by the will of the people into tax income or supporting a structure of public debt, finances the discharge of the functions of local, state, and national government, and the activities of public education. The tax source, then, made an active financial resource of -the school district by the will of legislatures or by the popular will, is called upon now to support the increased cost of government and the astronomical costs of the war. This wealth must also supply the greatly increased needs of nontax-supported, quasi-public charitable and social agencies, and maintain a reasonably decent standard of living. The owners of the tax source Â— the taxpayers Â— after the demands of the federal government have been met, are now called upon to determine the amount of their income they will share with local and state government, social agencies, and public education, and the amount they will retain for the considerably inflated costs of satisfying personal and family needs. The demands of the war upon the tax source of school revenue are in reality, therefore, demands upon the intelligence, patriotism, unselfishness, and vision of the American taxpaying citizen. They are demands upon the statesmanship of legislatures and the will of the local electorate to continue the normal yield of the tax source for the operation of schools, in order that one of the nation's most important instrumentalities supporting the war may not be weakened, and in order that this virile agency may continue to train future citizens to meet the serious problems of the postwar world. The demands of the war upon the operating revenues of the school district for purposes other than the education and training of pupils of the district arc many and varied. There arc first, the demands which require the use of teachers for activities other than teaching, and which remove from the educational processes that portion of the school district's resources that represents teachers' salaries spent for nonteaching activities. A particular example of this use of teachers is the necessary phicing in schools of the rationing programs. There have been four such programs so far Â— the rationing of sugar, fuel oil, gasoline, and processed foods. In most places, the sheer magnitude of these programs has necessitated the closing of schools for a portion of the rationing period. It is probably conservative to estimate that two or three hundred million dollars' worth of teaching time has been used thruout the nation in these activities. PAGE 65 TiiH Convention Never Held 63 Examples of other dcinaiuls upon opcratinu revenues are costs of jireatly increased use of schoolbuildings for civilian defense and the traininj^ of civilian volunteers; costs for overtime of building-operation employees; the reflection of increased living; costs in salaries; costs of training teachers for replacements; and increased costs of fuel, supplies, and transportation. In the total, these expenditures represent heavy demands upon school revenues that are normally available for the educational program. The demands of the war upon the capital investments of the school district are also severe. Capital investment usually represented in buildings, grounds, and equipment has accumulated thru several generations. This investment is maintained by repair and replacement of buildings and eciuipment. Most cities' expenditures for this purpose have been seriously curtailed because neither workmen nor materials are available. In some cases, considerable available equipment has been sold to the federal government. Such income and expenditures normally made for repair and replacement are in many cases being used to finance the special expenditures which have previously been referred to. I'his process is, in the final analysis, a spending of capital. It represents the using up of an important financial resource which may be extremely difficult to replace. Not usually so regarded, there is nevertheless another capital investment in public education within the school district that, as a result of the war, is being spent for purposes other than that for which it was made. It is the investment that has been made in the education and training of the teachers who are inducted into the armed services, who join the auxiliary branches of the services, or who are working on the production front. Every trained teacher who conies into a school district represents capital invested in public education, irrespective of where the training was done or who paid for it. The total invested in the training of an active teacher is, in a very real sense, capital working for the school district. There are at the present time at least 100,000 trained teachers who have left teaching for military service or for work in war industries. In many cases their places have not been filled. In other cases their places have been taken by teachers less well trained. This process constitutes a withdrawal from school systems of se\'eral hundred million dollars of capital invested in public education. It is a justifiable withdrawal of capital from the school district to the extent that the services of these teachers in the war qffort are more important outside the classroom than tbe\ are inside the classroom preparing youth for the armed services, for war production, and for future citizenship. Up to this point, this discussion has concerned itself with the demands the war has made upon the financial resources of the school district for purposes other than the education and training of children and youth. The war has likewise made extensive demands upon financial resources that are expended for the operation of the education program itself. Few school districts are continuing education as usual. They are spending their resources to the end that their educational program may make the largest possible contribution to the support of the war. This has demanded a reshaping PAGE 66 64 American Association of School Administrators of the curriculum and large expenditure of time and effort of the educational staff in the supervision and direction of the wartime activities of some 30,000,000 American boys and girls. The demands of the war upon the curriculum are threefold. The war has demanded (a) the formulation of new courses and new materials, (b) the reshaping of established courses, and (c) the redirection of the counseling and guidance program. The demand for the reshaping of the curriculum by teachers is a demand that financial resources paid out in teachers' salaries shall make vital contribution to the successful prosecution of the war. To do this most effectively it is necessary to instal a considerable array of fairly specific preinduction courses in high schools. This means providing educational activity for the very definite purpose of shortening the time required by the armed services in training the technicians which modern warfare requires. There are some who maintain that the entire effort of teachers on the secondary-school level should be directed to the preparation of their students for wartime responsibilities. There are others who believe that while the direct preparation of students to carry on the war is now a major responsibility of secondary schools in particular, the long range program of training citizens and workers for a peacetime economy must also be continued. Whatever the viewpoint, the war demands some very considerable realignment of the objectives and technics of public education. In addition to the new and specialized courses developed in the schools because of the war, it has been necessary, therefore, to survey every subject field and determine the particular contribution that each of the established subject fields can make in the prosecution of the war and in preparation for the period of peace. At the same time these activities have been in progress, it has been found necessary to direct the counseling and guidance of high-school students toward the achievement of the best possible adjustment within these fields of service. Perhaps the best example of what is taking place in the established subject fields is the rapidly developing and expanding program of physical fitness in the field of physical education to equip students with stamina and physical ruggedness demanded in modern warfare. Thus the demands of the war upon the curriculum, particularly of secondary schools, has been a demand for the training of the personnel for the armed services, for production of war materials, and for the most essential of civilian occupations. On the elementary level, the demand has been for the development of activities designed to improve and strengthen health, protect and safeguard children, maintain emotional balance and wholesome attitudes, and improve the understanding and appreciation of the meaning of democracy, the meaning of the war, the privileges and responsibilities of Americans, and the ways in which every child can help his nation. The war has also made many demands upon financial resources paid in teachers' salaries for the supervision and direction of the wartime activities of children and youth, and many adults, outside of the classroom. Schoolteachers have organized and are administering the Junior Army of PAGE 67 The Convention Never Held 65 America created for the purpose of gathering scrap and other vital waste materials. Teachers have been directing and administering with the help of students the Schools at War Program designed to promote the sale of stamps and bonds in schools. Teachers have organized and are administering the High-School Victory Corps as a framework for the organization of student activities and curriculum offerings as direct preparation for the impending participation of students in the war. Teachers have organized outside the classroom and are administering courses in consumer education and the meaning of rationing. Teachers are sponsoring and directing a multitude of service projects for pupils under the banner ot the Junior Red Cross. Teachers have organized and are administering training courses for ci\ilian volunteers needed by the Red Cross, the Civilian Defense Corps, child-care agencies, recreational agencies, and for many other activities. Teachers also have engaged in a multitude of volunteer activities within the communities of which they are a part. All this spending of teacher time and energy is a direct contribution of financial resources of the school district brought about by the demands of war. Such, then, is the nature of the demands of the war upon the financial resources of the school district Â— demands on the one hand that are outside of and beyond the school's traditional functions; and on the other hand, demands that financial resources be spent upon an educational program geared as closely as possible to the wartime needs of the nation. These demands have been entirely legitimate and school districts have been very willing, in fact have felt privileged, to spend their resources for these purposes. The listing of these demands, and the indicating of how they are being met, serves only the purpose of setting forth in some completeness the nature of the contribution that the public schools of the nation are making in the prosecution of the war. The ways in which these demands are being met should be fully known not only by school people but by the people of the school districts as well. Such knowledge can only be accompanied by a sense of confidence and pride in the virility and integrity, of educational institutions in a democracy, when they are maintained and supported by a far-seeing, patriotic, and intelligent citizenship. To the extent our citizens understand the nature and meaning of these contriinitions. and the part they as taxpayers are playing iri the prosecution of the war and in preparing for the peace by supporting and maintaining their schools Â— to that extent will the schools be permitted uninterruptedh' to continue and improve their great service to the nation in the critical days and years which are ahead. PAGE 68 66 American Association of School Administrators EDUCATIONAL FINANCE IN WARTIME: THE VIEW ON THE HIGHER LEVEL ALFRED D. SIMPSON, HARVARD GRADUATE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION, CAMBRIDGE, MASS. Traditionally in America we have been eommunity-centric in our thoughts and actions in relation to the financing of education. Nevertheless, since World War I we have tended rather definitely to widen the scope of our approach to school support. In the financing of education, we may characterize the period between the two great world conflicts as a period in which we have become, tho with creeping progress, more state-centric. As we look back, we may point to the Educational Finance Inquiry as originally instrumental in developing what emphasis upon the state in educational support has characterized the past quarter-century. The needs revealed during the last war prompted this emphasis. Thru World War II we shall, both in education and in its support, become vastly more nation-centric than we have heretofore imagined might be the case in America. The conditions of this day lead us inexorably toward the defining of education as a national function. It seems clear to me that we are in a period when our very future as a nation requires a substantial educational endeavor at the national level. Because of the nature of the programs for the several 1943 meetings at St. Louis, my discussion of educational finance during wartime has been divided into two parts : first, a consideration of some problems derived from what I refer to as the view on the higher level ; and second, a statement of certain fundamental propositions which seem to me to lie at the heart of any program for financing education during war or in the postwar period. The latter I planned to do at the meeting of the National Council of Education. The former is the purpose of this discussion. At this point, I must warn you that what I have to say here may seem not to have much direct bearing upon the financing of education. If so, I am sorry, because what I want to do is to deal with some underlying problems and to indicate some of the clearings of concept and attitude which I believe to be necessary if we are to secure a more adequate, equitable, and adaptable financing. Approach Lies Less in Finance than in Educational Concept With me, it is a generalization from my experience that the basic approach to the problem of educational finance lies less in finance than in education. Here I am reminded of what Dean Donham of the Harvard School of Business Administration once said to me with characteristic emphasis (and a pound on the table). "Young man," said the venerable Dean, "I want you to understand that the important word in 'business administration' is not 'business' but 'administration.' " Similarly, and however much as an operator I may have seemed not to think so, I bear witness that experience and study alike tell me that in "educational finance" the important word is not "finance" but "education." PAGE 69 The Convention Never Held 67 I (Jo not depreciate the scientific study of financing education, nor do I underestimate its importance or its contribution to more adequate financing. The point I emphasize here is that we know more now about how to arrange a system of financing education Â— a facilitating finance Â— than we ever have a chance to put into practice. The trouble lies not in financial technic but in timid souls, in those who are too exclusively "centric" on too low a level, in those who have limited and traditional educational concept, and in those who because they themselves are in fiscally favorable states or local units think too little of youth in units not so well situated. And these conceptual inadequacies are not monopolized by those outside the gates of education. It is time we came to grips with the problems underlying the financing of education. We need to get the view on the higher level. Hope in the Great Crisis But there is hope, too, and the hope lies, as often it does, in the great crisis. It is important that we examine it and find its meaning for education. In times of intense crisis, a people tends inevitably to broaden its view. This, in simple terms, is what is happening now. The crisis forms itself into war Â— into war which, being global, is at its very minimum, national in effort. Admittedly, then, war calls for a view which, in its lowest possible aspect, is national. War is a national function. Whenever a people deals with war, therefore, a people has to broaden its view, to say the least, to one coterminous with the national interest. This simple fact logically carries us much beyond national viewpoint. Of course, it takes us to the far corners ; it broadens our view to international limits. Merely to recognize this makes it clearer that at the least viewpoint crisis becomes national. School Systems Become National Agencies Another thing, among many, is also self-evident regarding the crisis: it totally pervades a people. This needs no elaboration because it must be apparent that no corner of American life fails to be pervaded by the war crisis. By the same token, no phase of American life exists apart from the national concern. Education, for example, which is the phase of American life with which we are here primarily concerned, is in its currently dominating interest both pervaded by the crisis and broadened into national perspective. Schools become, indeed, war service stations and school systems become national agencies of state and local jurisdiction. Nor is this so merely when we consider schools as agencies for "education for work," in the sense of preparation for the work of war. It is so as truly when we consider schools as agencies for "education for citizenship." Likewise, it is so when we expand "schools" into "education" and consider the area of higher education, family life, adult education, or education as a subfunction of e\ery other governmental function. Even our search for the solution to the problem of the future of "general education" finds our thinking pervaded by the facts and meaning of the crisis and broadened into national perspective. PAGE 70 68 American Association of School Administrators But, it will be asked, if we grant that all this is so and proceed accordingly, shall we not be overestimating a merelj' current phenomenon? Shall we not by planning in the light of war be planning erroneously? Are these not abnormal times and are not, therefore, the pervasion of the crisis and the national perspective representative of consideration which we may not wisely allow to weigh heavily in our thinking? I cannot attempt to deal extensively with these questions. If they have any pertinence, there will be plenty of our people and our educators, too, who will embrace them. As T see these counterinquiries, they are of the unadaptive, the parsimonious, the reactionary, the extreme localists, and the fearful. They are the queries of those who would not forward the equalization of educational opportunity, much less give it the fiscal leeway to be richly adaptive to changing conditions and needs. T am not much given to pause by these inquiries. I am persuaded, rather, that the only constructive view is to admit to the councils of our minds the fullest meaning of the crisis and to see with a broadened perspective. I am persuaded that crisis, at its apex, is "the decisive moment ; (the) turning point." Crisis, however, but represents the increasing tempo of change. There is not vast difference between the apex of the crisis and the times before the crisis. Conditions are cumulative. When they have piled up and have not been reduced by coming to grips with them, they produce a state of affairs which becomes so dominant that the condition of crisis becomes patent. Likewise, the conditions commonly recognized as constituting crisis are also crisis conditions subsequently, unless people come to grips with them. We may come to grips with the uppermost problem of crisis but not with other problems which we do not recognize as uppermost. In other words, we now come to grips with war as an uppermost characteristic of the crisis; but even if we dispose successfully of war, this fact does not mean that we have disposed of crisis. By disposing of war Â— the most commonly recognized embodiment of crisis Â— we have not disposed of the conditions giving rise to crisis. In substance, crisis, or war as the embodiment of crisis, brings us ro a new level of complex concern from which we shall not be able to recede, if we recede, we are lost; if we seek merely to hold our own on this level, "without solving the problems truly embedded in the conditions of crisis, we are lost. We must solve these problems, not for the sake of returning to normalcy but in order that we may live and grow as a people among other peoples who live and grow. In coming to grips with these crisis-borne conditions and the problems which must he solved if we are to li\e and grow, we naturally proceed ;dong several roads. One of tlicse roads is lulttcat'toii : and this is the approach with which we in education are most closely concerned by virtue of our trust. To think of education in the frame of crisis is to me a significant part of the view on the higher level. It has seemed to me necessary to consider education from this viewpoint in order to help prevent ourselves from sloughing off our task, to enable oursehes to see the task which confronts ediicntion as one which is as bro;uI as America and her total PAGE 71 The Convention Never Held 69 concern, and above all, in order that we may see our problem not merely as a wartime problem but as a postwar problem as well Â— a problem that will persist as long as the conditions of crisis persist, even long after what we are too prone to regard as the whole of the crisis has been successfully coped with. / have been trying to say, also, that the problems of education and its support can no more be neatly divided between those of war and peace than can the totality of the problems of America herself . that the problems of tear and peace have continuity and are coexistent. Our prublems in education have to be attacked during war; but such an attack is also a postwar attack. So far as education is concerned, or America herself is concerned Â— so far as her destiny depends on popular education Â— the crisis will continue as long as the conditions and the problems of the crisis remain unresolved. Convincing of Need , the I mportant I^rohlem Now If we can convince people widely, convince governmental leaders, convince educators themselves, that there is a need for a more adequate financial support for education, I ha\e confidence that the needed support w ill begin to flow to education. By and large, American people support that which they want to support. The crux of the problem lies, to a great extent, in limited educational concept. Mort refers to this oftentimes as "conceptual design," when he at the same time points out with equal effectiveness the traditional and widespread lag in practice. As Mort has also established thru his research, there is an appreciable going-togetherness between the overcoming of lag and financial support. For the most part there is evidence of high gauge conceptual design and less of operational lag where financial support is high. Unfortunately, the places or areas in which financial support is high are relatively few. Admittedly, this raises a sort of "hen and egg" or "which comes first" question. As a result, we get into a vicious circle. The thing that T urge we must do is to break thru the dilemma. The point of attack, it seems to me, in breaking thru the dilemma lies in increasing our efforts to efifectuate an enough broader dispersal of advanced conceptual design and an enough increased dififusion of practice to more clearly establish in the minds of people the need which education has of more adequate support. In general, it is to this matter of diffusion that we need particularly to address our eflforts. Here I am talking about the ordinary run of school systems, those where there is not a high degree of financial support and those in which both conceptual design and practice are ordinary. The very least we could have, it would seem, is to find the ordinar\school system thinking of something better, thinking of the limitations of their practices, thinking of the unmet needs of American youth which they long to serve. If the educational concepts of the thousands of "run of the mill" school systems in this country could be raised to think about educational service in terms of the conditions, the problems, and the critical needs which are embedded in the crisis Â— if we could iust get PAGE 72 70 American Association of School Administrators them to thinking realistically and even talking about a higher concept of educational need Â— ^we would be on the road to breaking thru our dilemma. I never cease to be impressed by the complete satisfaction with present systems of educational finance and with present levels of school support on the part of great numbers of our educators. Many of them seem to have no notion of any auspices Â— any potential auspices Â— in the support of education beyond the traditional auspices of the local school system and the local property tax. I cannot help but think that what this means is that they think of no further educational service which they would like to render even if they could find support. We must find a way to break thru this situation. Some Underlying Emphases There are certain lines of emphasis and certain approaches to this problem which I cannot go into at any great length here but to which I want to call attention. School systems place too much emphasis on courses and subjects and too little emphasis upon pupils as individuals. Somehow, the center or focus of the ordinary school administrator's thinking and of the ordinary teacher's thinking must be directed away from courses and subjects toward the individual needs of youth. And I do not refer here to mechanistic devices of so-called individual method. We must have more purposing regarding the fundamental services which youth need from school systems. For example, what "general education" Â— a problem now commonly debated Â— needs most is the attaching of life purpose to work in school and college, not unlike, yet differing from, the function of purpose attaching to vocational and professional education. General education cannot expect youth to see purpose when those who practice general education center upon subjects and courses and do not themselves clearly see purpose. Somehow, we must come to center our attention upon education as not merely preparation for something later to be done in life, such as preparation for citizenship, but rather as the actually living and carrying on notu of the civic phases of the life's work. This calls upon us to be continuously alert, to relate the work of the school to the actual life conditions, to the activities of the community, and to the world about the school. It is wrong to think of even a doorway between the school and the community because to so think implies that there is a partition in which such a doorway must be set. For example, we talk glibly about work experience. We talk about citizenship in action ; but we have all together a paucity of actual demonstrations of meaningful and significant participation on the part of youth in the work and civic phases of life as contrasted to what we call preparation for these things. It is not enough that we get these emphases in certain richly supported school communities or areas. We must have these things on the tongues of the ordinary run of school people. PAGE 73 'I'liK Convention Nkver Hei.d 71 Central .'If/cncy Mognifirntinn of the Service Concept One would think that state dcpaitnicnts and central j^overnmental afiencies for education could help in this diffusion and broadening of educational concept about which I am talking. We do have illustrations of this but they are altogether too few and scattered. One of the great and important areas concerning which we are getting more conscious is the area of intergovernmental relations. Why cannot the state departments of education be more influential in this diffusion which we need, in this heightening of educational concept on the part of the ordinary run of school systems? They could if they were not so much bent upon their functioning along the line of "controls," as contrasted to their functioning along the line of "service." I am persuaded that the two great areas of relationships between any central unit and local operating units are the area of controls and the area of service. Always central units tend to magnify controls and to minimize the service function, but for this central units are not by any means exclusively to blame. Whenever legislatures or congresses are appropriating money for the staffing of central units of educational administration, they too frequently stop at staffing the controls and the direct administration requirements. They tend to supply no money or no margin of support for the staffing of the service function in the exercise of intergovernmental relations. One of the shocking illustrations of this during war is the failure of the federal government to provide a great and nationwide guidance service. The crying need is for central units to staff the service function. To do so will pay dividends in the heightening of educational concept and in the diffusion of advanced educational practice and, in turn, these things will bring new concepts home to the public and lay the foundation for a more adequate financial support of education, for the support of that education which is really worth its hire. It may seem to you that these things which I have been emphasizing are somewhat far afield from problems of educational finance, but I tell you that they are at the heart of the financial problem. I am convinced that advance along these lines is indicated by the conditions of the crisis and is essential to a significant moving toward greater state and national support of education. Finally, I am convinced that our reliance for the more adequate, equitable, and adaptable support of education in the future must lie in moving centrally. I see no need of this being disastrous to state and local initiative or in this lessening the importance of state or local school systems. Operationally, education will have to be where youth is Â— in the locality. What we most need in state and local school systems is vigor. We could have more of this needed vigor now if states and localities would but seize it. Nevertheless, for the essential nourishment of vigor, adequate financing is necessary. Ultimately, it will have to come from the central governmental unit. This means that, more and more, we shall be concerned with relationships and the problems of relationship between national, state, and local units. PAGE 74 72 American Association of School Administrators The rock on which relationships as well as central financing so often get hung is the issue over controls. I am convinced that the issue over controls is not an impossible one. Obviously, with centralism we shall tend to have more central control. This is not disastrous or, at least, it need not be. Great promise lies in what has been suggested as to the importance of magnifying the service concept, but I am convinced that beyond this, the resolution of the issue over control lies in a fundamental national purposing zvith respect to education; in the clear determination of national responsibility for education; in the allocation or reallocation of educational functions among the national, state, and local units; and in the development of appropriate structural patternsj particularly on the national and the local level. The problems of finance have never been and cannot now be solved apart from these basic determinants. A National Education Planning Commission Demanded America must be purposing as to the role of education in national and world destiny. Our country must write a national declaration of responsibilities in education, create a complementary national structure, and on these bases, provide the national fiscal power. To be sure, due consideration must be given to refined allocations of responsibilities to state and local units. These need not be by-passed, but certainly interstructural relations must be worked out to provide for a more agency-like relationship. To do these things requires planning Â— planning as never before undertaken. America must be about it. A National Education Planning Commission is called for at once. This planning should be official and a mandate lies on Congress to establish the planning agency. This is the grand strategy both of war and of peace and reconstruction. This is the road to national education Â— the view on the higher level. EDUCATIONAL FINANCE IN WARTIME: CERTAIN FUNDAMENTAL PROPOSITIONS ALFRED D. SIMPSON, HARVARD GRADUATE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION, CAMBRIDGE, MASS. The problems of education and its support in this era can no more be neatly divided between those of war and peace than can the totality of the problems of America herself. The problems of war and peace have continuity and are coexistent. The financing of education during war neither can nor ought to be dealt with as an American problem without reference to the problem in its longer swing. Expenditure for education in America is an investment in American destiny. If it isn't this, it isn't anything. Therefore, our primary thesis has to be that the support of education during wartime should not only be as vigorous as the complete function of education requires but also as vigorous in the fullest sense as is the support of our total public endeavor, nationally and internationally, for war and for peace. PAGE 75 The Convention Never Held 73 The requirements of national vi}2;or dictate a public policy of vastly more substantial support for the function of education during war than has thus far in our history been allocated to this function. This policy stems from the facts not only of the progressive role of education in peace but also of the recognition of schools and colleges as Avartime service stations. Public policy should recognize, at least so far as it recognizes the indispensableness of the educational service, the principle of adequacy in educational support ; that support must be complementary to functional requirements; that this in particular means recognition of both the height and the breadth of educational scope, the conservation and improvement of personnel, and the recognition of cost indexes. America cannot hope to rely for its invigorated and adequate support of education upon anything short of the strength of her total economy. Conversely, reliance upon independent, geographical segments of our economy, as represented by states and local units, is to adopt a public policy of inadequacy and of enervation. Our national concern for the support of education in wartime, as in peace, must encompass, in proportion to the need and to the strength of our total economy, the entire range of educability. The pointed meaning of the war for public policy in education is that now and henceforth the sharp focus of America's concern over the support of education must be turned upon the role to be played by the national government. War is a national function. Facing the fact that this national function of war makes heavy and particular demands upon education, which by strict constitutional interpretation is a state function, public policy should recognize that state educational systems are, at least during wartime, national agencies of state and local jurisdiction. Hence, financing should follow such recognition. The crucial factor in war is manpower. Public policy should recognize that manpower is only potent as it has education, broadly conceived, and that the education of manpower is coterminous with the life of manpower. Because education is now in the service of an America at war, the problem of educational support should be dealt with at once as a national problem and as a critically present problem, but in full recognition of the role of the state and local units. The exigencies of the situation are such as to require immediate, if tentative, action by the best available and immediate, if tentative, means. In the long run it is futile to expect to solve the problem of the support of American education apart from its basic determinants. Financial support is always to be considered a facilitating agency. Beyond immediate, even if tentative, financing America should at once set in motion the processes which will result in the definition of policy with respect to the following basic determinants of national financin':: (a) the national purposes to be served by education in the life-stream of the nation, (b) the national responsibility to be declared for achieving these purposes, and PAGE 76 74 American Association of School Administrators (c) the determination and establishment, nationally, of the structural counterparts of purpose and responsibility. A corollary of this thesis is that only by dealing with these basic determinants can we as a nation effectively deal with the issue over controls. Sound public policy dictates the necessity of beginning the steps now, during the war, and of proceeding to this end by the establishment and servicing of an official national planning commission on education as a national function during the war and in the postwar period. The great principles of educational finance which have emerged out of American experience under a system of state responsibility, and especially the principles of equalization and adaptability, stemming from the fundamental principles of American democracy Â— equality and liberty Â— not only require national financing of education but also should be utilized as criteria in the formulation of a program of direct national participation in the financing of education. ECONOMIC USE OF SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT T. C. HOLY, BUREAU OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH, OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY, COLUMBUS, OHIO In order to have specific information from which to prepare a discussion of this topic for the meeting of the American Association of School Administrators at St. Louis in February of this year, an inquiry was sent to a small group of cities asking information on the three following items : 1. How will your expenditures for supplies and equipment in 1942-43 compare vfith those for 1941-42? If you can give this information separately for supplies and equipment I should like to have you do so. 2. If your current expenditures for supplies and equipment are below those of last year, in what specific ways have these reductions been brought about? 3. In your judgment, have such reductions in expenditures for supplies and equipment had serious effects on your educational program? If so, I should appreciate specific instances where you believe losses have occurred as a result of these reductions. At the time the convention was canceled, replies giving detailed information on these items had been received from Akron, Chicago, Cincinnati, Columbus, and Lakewood. In addition to these, replies giving more general information had been received from Cleveland and Philadelphia. From the information thus obtained, the following tabulation, showing actual expenditures for instructional supplies and equipment for either 1941 or 1941-42 and proposed expenditures for these two items for 1942-43 or for the calendar year 1943, has been made. It will be observed from these figures that little decline in expenditures for instructional supplies is expected during these two years. As pointed out in some of the responses, the increased cost of supplies is a partial factor in the amount remaining essentially the same. On the other hand, in the matter of new equipment and equipment replacement, a sharp drop from approximately443,000 to $264,000 is expected to occur between the two years. The obvious PAGE 77 The Convention Never Held 75 PAGE 78 76 American Association of School Administrators Cleveland: Our difficulty today in obtaining supplies is not one of increased prices but is due to governmental regulations of various kinds, such as priorities, "freezing," and rationing. All schools having special subjects have been obliged to make certain curriculum revisions, especially where materials such as steel, copper, brass, aluminum, chemicals, etc., are involved. Columbus: In my own judgment the educational program has been handicapped. There are new items which we can no longer purchase and this cuts into our program considerably. The current year will see reductions that will handicap our work to a greater extent than we have seen thus far both in the educational field and among the operating employees as well. Lakeivood: We have not had enough reductions as yet to cause any serious effects on our educational program. Industrial arts may have to make changes in their projects as materials get more difficult to secure. Philadelphia: Practically all reductions in supplies and equipment are caused by priorities and the inability to get materials involving metals or rubber. Among such articles are filing equipment, army cots, pencil sharpeners, erasers, and rubber bands. These losses are a part of the total war experience and in my opinion involve no serious effect on the educational program. If it is assumed that the situation as described in these cities is typical of schools in general, then for the current year little change in expenditures for instructional supplies will be made. On the other hand, due to priorities, sharp reductions are being effected in the matter of equipment and equipment replacements. Undoubtedly, further reductions may be e.xpected in these items as long as the war continues. PRIORITY DILEMMA L. E. PARMENTER, EXECUTIVE SECRETARY, NATIONAL SCHOOL SERVICE INSTITUTE, CHICAGO, ILL. Representing, as I do. the commercial end of the educational field, I feel that first of all I want to make it clear that the National School Service Institute (formerly the National School Supplies and Equipment Association) is a real cooperating and contributing member of the educational fraternity. Priorities for schools in the past year have been in such a muddle that no one has known what to do today and certainly no one has known what was coming tomorrow. Many changes have been made but very few effective ones have come about to help the school situation. The fact that schools have not been particularly pinched in securing the needed supplies and equipment is a tribute to the manufacturers and distributors who have been far-sighted in building their stocks and maintaining their manufacturing and distribution up to this time. Now that the schools are beginning to recognize many shortages, it will be necessary for the schoolman to give every cooperation to his suppliers in securing priorities or soon there will be no distributors in business and certainly no manufacturers. In fact, some of them have already fallen by the wayside. To evaluate the situation as we find it, I would like to enumerate a few situations. PAGE 79 TnK Convention Neviir Held 77 All public utterances of government officials proclaim the absolute necessity for the continued efficient operation of schools, jet every written order or letter cominj^ from the fjovernmental agencies refutes this statement by disallowing priorities for the necessary tools of education. In the words of Donald Nelson, "Schools are critical essentials to the welfare of the nation." Yet, neither the War Production Hoard nor any other agenc>' of the government has yet seen fit to arrange an allocation or priority for the necessary supplies and equipment to carry on efficient educational institutions other than those low worthless priorities which are given to all the lowest of nonessentials, thus classifying schools with them. To quote a navy official. "Let's never forget that the production lines of education are as vital to the welfare of the United States as the production lines of industry." It took over a year to retool American industry so that it could produce for the war. By withholding tools from schools, how is the production line of education to be met? Trained teachers are as necessary to efficient education as are trained key-workers in munitions, airplanes, and other war industries, yet the draft is depleting the ranks of these teachers who make efficient education possible. The question is Â— if as all officials say, "schools are essential" Â— is there anyone anywhere who has authority, willingness, and the desire to see that schools can function properly by allowing them the -essentials with which to operate? If schools are not essential to the war program or to the welfare of the government, then let us definitely know that, and we will quit attempting to keep them functioning. The schoolhouses can be turned into factories ; the teachers and administrators can join the armed forces, or, if they are not qualified for that, they can join the great army of war workers. If the schools are essential, then let's make them efficient, keeping the best teachers doing the great job of which they are capable and formulate some practical way by which schools may obtain the necessary tools with which to do the job. Let's do one or the other. Above all, let's not lose valuable time. "The schools must be kept open at any cost." The efifectiveness of a school as a meeting place where the roll can be called and then a few things done and said does not make for an efficient institution of learning. It is like assembling all the workers in a munitions plant who punch the time clocks but have no tools with which to work. The production in each case is about the same. At the request of the government, schools have done a very meritorious job in changing the curriculum to meet presentday emergencies. What about the tools with which to teach these new subjects of the curriculum? True, thru a process of asking for each piece of equipment singly, after long waits, a single item might be obtained if some bureaucrat had a good breakfast that morning. Otherwise, and in most cases, this necessary equipment has not been received by schools. The LTovernment demands a program of physical fitness in the schools, \ct, by Limitation Order A [-126, "plaxgroimd rcpn'pment," which i>; phv<- PAGE 80 78 American Association of School Administrators ical fitness equipment, was placed on the restricted list stopping all manufacturing and assembling of this important apparatus. Upon the closing of schools in Great Britain, juvenile delinquency jumped up over 50 percent. The last reports in the United States for 1942 show that juvenile delinquency has increased 20 percent. Nearly everyone agrees that the answer to this problem is the school. Yet playground equipment and physical fitness materials are still denied. These would be the savers of the youth of the nation. Crime marches on ! Thomas Jefferson once said, "Democracy depends upon the education of its citizens." Modern education is made efficient by excellent teachers with the proper learning and teaching tools, for which there is no effective priority. It was stated that school supply distributors were essential to the efficient continuance of education, yet they were classified in the same category as all other distributors Â— the same priorities being given them as to distributors of beer, chewing gum, cosmetics, and sleeping-eye-shades Â— which shows the realm of essentiality in which schools were included. It has been admitted by everyone who knows that for efficient management of schools it is necessary that the traveling representatives of school supply houses get to these schools for the service, technical assistance, and engineering assistance which is absolutely necessary. Yet these school service representatives are put in the same category as salesmen of pop-drinks, toy balloons, and such other morale-building essentials. The trouble in Washington has been that they haven't had enough complaints. If you want the services of technical representatives and school supply service to be continued, write a letter to your congressman and to the U. S. Office of Education immediately saying that you aren't getting that service because of the lack of gasoline for school supply representatives. So far the manufacturers and distributors of "school tools" have had to carry on the fight for recognition of the essentialness of the schools by attempting to get priorities. Truly, it should be the responsibility of school administrators and the teaching profession to make known school necessities to the War Production Board, to the U. S. Office of Education, and to everyone, so that education may take its rightful place as the lifeblood of American democracy. This democracy of ours which our forefathers won and later defended is now again in jeopardy. Perhaps we are to expect that during the time of war we are to be governed by a bureaucracy. Perhaps we are to expect that bureaucracy to cater only to pressure groups. Anyhow that is where we find ourselves. The government is not a representative government of its citizens but representative of its pressure groups. Yes, that is where we are whether we like it or not. Are we willing to flounder in hopeless obscurity without a joint effort to obtain the rights for the school children of America? Last week I reread Tennyson's The Holy Grail. Those gallant knights of old were crusaders for right and glorj^ Â— they had faith and the will to carry on together for a great cause. Have we faith? Have we the will? PAGE 81 The Convention Never Held 79 Have we humility to cast aside our selfish motives and to combine with all the other forces of education? The National Education Association, American Association of School Administrators, State Teachers Association, National Association of Public School Business Officials, all educators, all parents, all who believe in education should unite and form a group to be heard. Yes, a pressure group if you will Â— inasmuch as a pressure group is the only means to gain arf ear at headquarters. \Vhy should other groups, purely selfish in attitude, push our group, an unselfish one, aside while they ride roughshod over us? Are the schools essential to the war program, to the welfare of our country, to the prospects for an understanding future, a just peace? If so, aren't they worth fighting for? Aren't they worth organizing for? Aren't they worth crusading for? We, the best citizens America has, will spend every last ounce of our energies to win this war. Upon us, the best citizens of America, must depend the winning of the peace. The peace of freedom unalterably depends upon education. Let us here resolve to win the war, win the peace, and preserve posterity by individually and collectively responding to the call of our country Â— our country. Be Minute Men! Be ready! Fight the battle which is ours. Two things we have been fighting for are about to come to pass. Form PD-408 for large school districts and the new Controlled IMaterials Plan regulation No. 5A, which will be given to governmental units including schools, will give the right to purchase repair, maintenance, and operating supplies with the rating of AA-2X. Let me appeal to you to use it on every order you give to a supplier so that the wheels of industry may be kept open to manufacture the tools which you so thoroly need in your educational institutions. Educational institutions are critical necessities to the winning of the war and to our government. Proper recognition will be given to them if they demand it. If they remain silent, the grease will be given to the wheel that is squeaking even tho that wheel is merely turning on a beer truck. Education deserves to get priorities next to the fighting machine. It is up to educatDrs to make that fact known on every, any, and all occasions. PROBLEMS OF PUPIL TRANSPORTATION JOHN E. BRVAX, COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS, BIRMINGHAM, ALA. The war has produced new and serious problems of school transportation. Without transportation the s\stem of education which has been developed thruout the United States during recent years would completely collapse in many areas and particularly in rural communities. School transportation has become essential to an adequate education program for nearly a sixth of all the children who are attending public schools in this country. PAGE 82 80 American Association of School Administrators President Roosevelt, referring to essential civilian needs for rubber in his message to the Senate on August 6, 1942, stated, "It includes also certain necessities for the community, like getting milk to the consumer or children to school." We are at war and cannot expect to continue a "transportation as usual" program any more than a program of "business as usual" can be continued. There are many adjustments in school transportation that can and should be made without needlessly interfering with the basic minimum transportation program. School officials who are responsible for making these adjustments will want to know what policies may reasonably and safely be followed during coming months. They wnll want to avoid as much uncertainty as possible and yet cooperate fully in the war effort. Policies and procedures in connection with this problem have been set out in a splendid handbook, School Transportation in Wartime, prepared for and approved by the National Council of Chief State School Officers, and developed at work-conferences at Yale University and in Washington, D. C, during the early summer of 1942. This handbook is published by the Traffic Engineering and Safety Department, American Automobile Association, Mills Building, Washington, D. C. The price is fifty cents. WAR EMERGENCY BUS USES F. RAY POWER, ASSISTANT STATE SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS, CHARLESTON, W. VA. School buses are being used in a number of communities to provide transportation for war workers. Such use is entirely proper if the service is provided in such a manner that it does not interfere with essential school transportation. Data are not available for the country at large on the extent to which school buses are being used for war emergency purposes, but reports indicate that there is a steady increase in this practice. The following principles applying to war emergency use of school buses were developed at the work-conferences on school transportation in wartime and are set forth in the handbook described above by John E. Bryan : School authorities must recognize that the school bus fleet constitutes a great transportation reserve and that, when not required for essential school transportation to maintain the basic minimum education program, it must be made available for use, if needed, for transporting persons essential to war activities. It should be clearly understood by school officials that, in case of war emergency, such as invasion, military authorities have authority to requisition school buses. School buses should not be used for war worker transport without the approval of school authorities and tjie state agency regulating public transportation. The authorized state agency regulating public transportation should make definite agreements with the chief state school officer regarding arrangements for the transportation of war workers so as to avoid serious interference with the essential school transportation program. School buses were not designed for adult transport and should be operated with care when placed in public service. It is recommended that the responsible federal agency or agencies take appropriate action immediately to prevent the sale or transfer to other services of school buses essential to a basic minimum education program. PAGE 83 The Convention Never Held 81 TEACHING THE ELEMENTARY STUDENT THE AMERICAN WAY BESS GOODYKOONTZ, ASSISTANT COMMISSIONER, U. S. OFFICE OF EDUCATION, WASHINGTON, D. C. "What you would have appear in the life of a nation you must first put into its schools" is a statement which challenges educators. It is a challenge to make the total educational program such a practical and workable demonstration of democratic living that when the children of today become the citizens of tomorrow, they will merely be continuing responsibilities which they have already assumed. If teachers are to take leadership in guiding the education of children in a democracy, they must first of all have a clear-cut conception of what democracy is. Briefly stated, democracy stresses the fundamental worth and importance of the citizen as an individual and as a member of society. Personal integrity, self-discipline, respect for others, and willingness to contribute to the welfare of others characterize the good citizen. If children are to develop in terms of this concept, they must have a wide variety of experiences in practical situations which emphasize meeting and solving problems. No individual is prepared to make wise choices as an adult citizen unless he has had practice from his earliest years. In the immediate present the child is concerned as a member of a family group and of the community with problems relating to food, clothing, shelter, recreation, government, conservation, and contributions to the war effort. Opportunities are many for bringing problems into the classroom or for going out into the community to see them at firsthand. Children will understand, like, and respect the American way of life because they have practiced it in their classrooms and in their school communit}^ As they elect other children to represent them on a student council; as they discuss, plan, and carry out projects for beautifying the classroom or collecting scrap; as they take responsibility for the care of play equipment or for the preparation and serving of the school lunch; and as they come to believe that other peoples of the world are persons who think, feel, and act much as they themselves do, they will live democratically. Teachers can accomplish their part in building the American way by recognizing that children are difiFerent in temperament and background; by giving children opportunities to be of service, to make sacrifices, to join cooperative undertakings; by encouraging precise thinking about personal, community, national, and international problems; and by helping boys and girls to interpret all these experiences in terms that they can understand. The concern of educators for the more than 20,000,000 children in elementary schools must be not only for the immediate present but for the long future ahead. The perpetuation of the American way depends upon a firm foundation for citizenship laid in the elementary schools. The education of children at this level cannot be slighted without permanently disastrous results. PAGE 84 82 American Association of School Administrators A Pray er jean byers Teacher, Public Schools, Oakland, California Oh God, let mc he an American, But not for tlie name alone. Let me feel the height and splendor of her mountain peaks Â— Let me take into myself the steep ascent of ancient crag, the nearness to the sky. Let me look up as her mountains look up. Give me the calm of her quiet hills. And zvhen I go into her cities There let me stand in amaze At the man-made heights of her buildings, The architects' totvering triumphs That breathe high above the streets Â— Proudly, clearly, for theirs, too, is splendor. Let all the heights of this, m.y America, be mine In my heart to make me aspire and hope. Oh God, let me take into myself The breadth of our fertile farm lands. Let me breathe into my soul the stretch of her bearing miles, The redolent orchards and grain fields. The lush green of valley and pasture! Give me the vision of long straight rows Leading far into blue distance! Give me the tolerance born of the seeing Â— The waiting, the seed, and the nearness to soil! Oil God, drive into my veins the pozvcr, The pulsing strength of my Country! The millions of men Â— the machinery Â— The crash and roar of production Â— The surge of the falls and the rivers. Of the mighty dams and constructions, The giant force of electric energy! Let me feel the depth of the rich resources. The oil and tJie rocky minerals. Coal and the vast, deep forests. Let it all come into me, Oh God, That the flotv of my life may be great Â— May he high and broad and deep As the life and need of my Country. Let it all come into me. Oh God, Tliat I may be an American, Not for the name alone But for the hope, the vision, the power That are deep in this, my America. Â— From the musical dramatization "Listen, Mr. Speaker." PAGE 85 The Convention Never Held 83 EDUCATION FOR MORALE J. CAYCE MORRISON, ASSISTANT COMMISSIONER FOR RESEARCH, STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, ALBANY, N. Y. Morale is a war word ; but it also connotes something new in American life. Not only does it name a quality essential to the prosecution of war; it symbolizes a trend in American thought vital to the future of democracy. Education for morale implies more than developing the will to win the war. It is concerned with maintaining a peace based upon the virtues of justice, truth, and goodwill. Underneath the visible currents of the present war runs the continuing struggle of men to be free, to attain the inalienable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. To build a morale that will appeal to all peoples, American educators must contribute to solving the problems of our own people. Education that ignores the social ills of the United States will carry little weight with peoples confronted with solving their own social problems. Similarly, the schools can make their best contribution to the morale of the free peoples of the world only as they achieve success in building morale in their own ranks. To dwell on our failures rather than to stress our advancements would be to defeat the purpose of morale teaching. Democracy is not a static goal to be won but a dynamic process to be pursued. The test is whether the schools see the direction to go. The school's curriculum must help youth to improve the democratic life in the United States, to develop a sympathetic understanding of all peoples who are striving for the freedom of the common man, and to gain understanding of America's new role among the nations of the world. The task of gaining an enduring peace calls for greater effort, greater sacrifices, greater vision than winning the war. To the schools goes the major task of preparing our people to meet the trials and mortal strain of nations, which, as Whitman foresaw, "come at last in prosperous peace, not war." NORWAY FIGHTS ONÂ— MORALE IN ACTION SIGMUND SKARD, FORMERLY TEACHER OF LITERARY HISTORY, UNIVERSITY OF OSLO; AND LIBRARIAN, ROYAL ACADEMY OF TRONDHEIM, NORWAY //// address that was to have been given at the annual banquet of the National Association of Secondary-School Principals at St. Louis on February 27, 1943, by Sigrnund Skard, a prominent Norwegian writer and scholar. Mr. Skard was formerly a teacher of literary history at the University of Oslo and was librarian of the Royal Academy of Trondheim, Norway, at the time Germany invaded Norway. After some time in occupied Norway, he escaped thru the enemy lines on skis over the mountains to Sweden. An adventurous journey thru Russian and Japanese territory culminated in America. This war is making the world smaller than it was before; and it will never be large again. Differences and distances, which seemed iinportant PAGE 86 84 American Association of School Administrators a few months ago, are of little avail now. Nations divided by thousands of miles suddenly are close to each other, fighting shoulder to shoulder for basic principles of life. Russian peasants, Chinese coolies, Yugoslavian snipers, and bombed British children are welded together in one single fighting team, in a community of ideals. In this worldwide democratic front, Norway has come to play a greater part than was expected from a small nation in a corner of Europe. In few nations was democracy so well developed before the war, and hardly anywhere had its principles penetrated so deeply into the people's minds. The reasons for this were many. The country had a homogeneous population of moderate size and a relatively simple economic life ; it had lived in uninterrupted peace for more than a century. By national growth democracy had become general in Norway. It not only worked in the political field but in social and economic life as well, restricting the freedom of the few in order to create equality for the many. Gradually a spirit of collaboration had developed, which softened the contrasts. It made possible in Norway a higher and more even living standard than in most European countries. The whole political and intellectual tradition of the people was instrumental in building up this way of living; and in keeping and developing the heritage, the schools played an all-important part. Democracy had become a matter of personal concern to the Norwegians. They believed in their social system and in its possibilities of further development. The idea of collaboration marked their international attitude. It was a matter of course for Norwegians to believe in fair play among the nations, in peace, and in disarmament. In a world armed to the teeth, they tried to isolate themselves in the hope that their country should remain a refuge to peace, even if the rest of the world should be engulfed by the war. Even now, the nation is not regretful of this attitude. In the long run the intellectual armament built up in the time of peace has proved to be more important to resistance than tanks and guns. When the Germans came to Norway, it was not necessary to begin building morale. It was not necessary to tell the average man and woman that it is better to fight for democracy than to live under anv kind of dictatorship. Thev knew that alreadv from their own life. Hitler Invades Norway To this Norway the Germans came, April 9, 1940. The attack was as sudden as that on Pearl Harbor. The most important ports and the main arsenals were taken during the first night of fighting; not by treason but by the overwhelming might of the onslaught. The situation seemed totally hopeless. In spite of this the government decided that the country should fight. When, after two months of gallant resistance the army had to capitulate, the King, the government, and the staffs left Norway. They continue active resistance from abroad. A new army and air force have been huilr up, and a new navy fights with the Allies on the seven seas. The goxernment tfiok over the biigc morcbnnt marine, one of PAGE 87 The Convention' Ne\er Held 85 the largest and most modern in the world, and it plays a major part in the battle of supplies all over the globe. Hut still more important to the future of the Norwegian nation is the PAGE 88 86 American Association of School Administrators Memorial. Those Norwegian men and women knew pretty well what they were celebrating on the Fourth of July. The Germans have only one answer Â— increased brutality. The documentary reports which were recently brought out by the Norwegian Department of Justice in London give the well-known picture of tortures and bestial cruelty, wiping out of whole communities in reprisal, and wholesale execution of hostages. In the town where the author of this article used to live, a town of 50,000 inhabitants, thirty-four hostages were shot in the month of October last year Â— shot for things they could not possibly have done, because most of them were in prison when they happened. But this method does not work in Norway; it does not work anywhere. The insane brutality just makes the issue clearer, the fight more determined, the will to win still more unbreakable. Education Fights Too All the time the schools have played an important part in this fight. Long before the invasion the Norwegian educators were aware of the morbidness of the educational ideas of naziism. When the Germans occupied the country, the teachers became the vanguard of resistance. So clear and determined was the opposition, that for more than a year the Germans made no serious move against the school system. When the teachers were asked to sign declarations of loyalty to the Nazis, they answered by signing a common statement to the effect that now, as before, they intended to obey all legal orders given by legal authorities. When a "revised edition" of the catechism was published by the Nazis, the book was just ignored. , When the colleges were asked to admit Nazi speakers, they refused "because it would be against the general purpose of the schools Â— to create independent thinking." Teaching in Norway became a course in anti-naziism, frankly underlining the democratic traditions of the country. Even children in elementary schools staged tremendous demonstrations in the streets against the Germans and had to be dispersed by the police. The college youths eagerly engaged in all kinds of underground work. Attempts to win the university students resulted in a total failure. Out of 1200 medical students in Oslo, only twelve agreed to study in Germany, in spite of great advantages offered to them. All over the country the students were unanimously backed by their parents and encouraged to resist. More than ever the nation felt the school was an instrument of its vital interests. The final test has come during the last year when the attitude of the educators has become the main example of the utter futility of the German oppression. In the spring of 1942 the Nazis decided to break the resistance of the schools; they ordered all Norwegian teachers to join the teachers' union of the party, and ordered all children between ten and eighteen years to join the Nazi Youth Movement. Practically all teachers left their jobs in protest. Regular teaching now is continued in the homes of the teachers PAGE 89 The Convention Never Held 87 ami iho parents. In a proud declaration to all students, the teachers announced that regular classes probably would not be resumed "for the duration." They asked them to continue their studies alone, with their own books, thus preparing!; themselves for the important tasks that were awaiting them in the service of their country. In order to intimidate the teachers, the Germans then arrested 1100 of them. Five hundred of the men teachers, many of the older ones, were liickcd out for torture. They were kept for a week in a concentration camp and subjected to strenuous drills and punishments. They were forced to creep on their stomachs thru ice water, snow, and slush, while keeping their hands on their bricks; they were made to transport snow on broom handles or with bare hands, or move a woodpile from one part of the camp to another and back again. Then they were sent northward, a trip of thirty hours in cattle cars, packed so tightly that they were unable to sit down. En route they were transferred to an old, condemned ship which had accommodations for only two hundred. In this ship the teachers, many of them seriously ill, were transported to the far north of Norway, on the Arctic Coast Â— a voyage of two weeks of indescribable suffering Â— in order to build fortifications with the Russian war prisoners. This experience did not break them or make them surrender. Before they left, they stated their position in a joint declaration which was read to all school classes all over Norway Â— a declaration and pledge which states, in simple words, what kind of life the United Nations are fighting for. The teacher's duty is not only to give the children knowledge. He must also teach the children to have faith in, and to earnestly desire that which is true and just. Therefore, he cannot, without betraying his calling, teach anything against his conscience. He who does so sins both against the pupils he is supposed to lead and against himself. This, I promise you, I shall not do. I will not call upon you to do anything which I regard as wrong. Nor will I teach you anything which I regard as not conforming with the truth. I will, as I have done heretofore, let my conscience be my guide, and I am confident that I shall then be in step with the great majority of the people who have entrusted to me the duties of an educator. Norway Continues the Fight It would not be truthful to say that the Norwegians see this determined resistance only with joy. Since 1814 they had lived in peace; they knew what peace does for a nation and what it builds up. It had made them believe deeply and sincerely in the principles of collaboration, of goodwill, and understanding between nations and races and classes and groups of all kinds. It is hard to see this attitude destroyed and to see the nation again forced to think in terms of violence and brutality. But the people of Norway had no choice, just as the Americans had no choice. Out of the thousand questions of everyday life, two questions are left: Have you the force to resist? Have you the force to exist? The Norwegians have proved that they have. They know that if they chose to fight instead of surrender, the>fight on today with their allies all over the globe against war, against the principles of morbidity and destruction, PAGE 90 88 American Association of School Administrators for a life that is worth living, founded on freedom and justice for all. They are determined to fight for those principles which have proved their value in peacetime Norway. One hope is living in the Norwegians, as in all occupied nations, during this long and terrible night Â— that, when the war is over, we are not going to forget this time in making the peace the kind of world which lived in our dreams while we fought. It was stated admirably by an American student, as early as November 1941, writing'in the newspaper of the students of the University of Pennsylvania: "We know that many of us will never come back. And we know that those who do will suffer tremendous privations. But we also know that there will be a country to come back to, futures to look forward to, ambitions to be realized, and freedom to be enjoyed." PERSONNEL POLICIES IN WARTIME L. JOHN NUTTALL, JR., SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS, SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH It seems that certain points of view will orient the administrator in analyzing wartime personnel problems. Nothing must be done to interfere with the war. Patriotism dictates that serviceable people should leave civilian life for military service. The schools are no exception to this. For example, a biology teacher who had worked several summers at mosquito abatement work was called to the South Pacific. On the other hand, the duty to American life involved in keeping schools operating is convincing many capable school workers that it is patriotic to remain in educational work. After the actual war needs are met, then competition among civilian activities has been common. In this contest for manpower, schools rank high in importance. Communities should strive to keep schools effectively manned by reasonable salaries and high social respect. Administrators must keep personnel emploved and efficient by satisfactory personnel practices involving salary distribution, security, type of supervision, promotion in service, and professional growth. As shortages occur it is necessarv to recruit temporarv help, usually from the ranks of former teachers. These are young and old, well trained and with meager training; some are in need of work while some volunteer with quite a spirit of independence. Problems of assignment become immediateh' apparent as efforts are made to assure successful teachinfr bv these recruits. Invariably there will be real needs for in-service training and specialized forms of supervisory activities. Problems of justice and fair play with rep-ular teachers ari^^e if these temporarv people are brought in on a competitive wage basis. Further recruiting of newly trained teachers becomes necessary as the number of students preparing to teach is gradually reduced. As this process of personnel adjustment goes forward it becomes necessary to study the educational program in terms of available workers. Some PAGE 91 The Convention Never Held 89 departments of study must be eliminated. New demands, especially in high schools, requir' adaptations of course contents and methods of teaching to war demands. Lack of skill in school management on the part of many of the recruited instructors forces a new question of pupil control which in turn may force a return to more regimentation of pupils and formality in school programs. Some of the emotional and social purposes of education may not he possible for the makeshift teaching staff. I'he realization of these changes in expected teaching outcomes is necessary for a successful administrator. These times have stressed more than ever before the close relationship between the nonteaching stafif and the instructional staff. Schools can be closed because of a lack of janitorial workers. Detail work can be left undone by a shortage of clerical help. School administrators need now to formulate policies of personnel management which unify in purpose and planning the entire group of people who make up the staff of a school system. WAR COMES HOME TO THE CONSUMER A. W. TROELSTRUP, STEPHEXS COLLEGE, COLUMBIA, MO. Since Pearl Harbor there has been only slight pressure on consumers from the war, but American industry has been literally placed in an economic strait jacket. The impact on civilian consumers will be felt more directly as the conversion of the$3,800,000,000 civilian durable goods industries to war production gets into full swing and when present inventories dry up. Millions of tons of strategic materials must be released for direct war production. The Commerce Department estimates that in 1943 only 35 percent of industrial production will go into consumer goods in contrast to 79 percent in 1941. Those figures should dispel any doubt as to whether we must be ready to accept a lower standard of living or learn how to live as well on less. The war has affected the attitude of civilians toward social change. It is difficult for us to visualize a social change before it actually occurs. But today with rationing in effect we can realize that we are rapidly approaching an economy of scarcity. There have been fears that the violations of rationing and price control regulations Â— the lack of appreciation of the issues at stake Â— would be so general that the machinery of controls would be wrecked. It would not take long to sink $50,000,000,000 into higher prices Â— money going into the thin, blue air of inflation. The accent now is on use. AVe must get full use from the things we have and the money we have to spend. Thus emerges from the past economy based on waste an economy of scarcity based on need. We shall have to live more economically, buy more bonds, and pay more taxes now. We shall have to do without many more essentials and reduce our consumption of many more items. We shall have to PAGE 92 90 American Association of School Administrators cooperate actively with the government's seven-point program to stabilize the cost of living. The government cannot control the cost of living by itself and certainly the consumers cannot handle the problem alone. Clearly what is needed is a practical and effective partnership between consumers and our governmental agencies. To do less is to invite economic chaos and suffering at home, and certain defeat on the fighting front. SCHOOLS MUST HELP CONSUMER EDUCATION WALTER D. cocking, CHIEF, EDUCATIONAL SERVICES BRANCH, DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION, OFFICE OF PRICE ADMINISTRATION, WASHINGTON, D. C. The outstanding lesson for consumers in this war is the vast potential productivity of this nation, a potential that permits us to protect our living standards in the midst of war and to raise the standards of all when the war is won. In 1943 our gross national product will be roughly four times as great as in the worst year of the depression. However, the last report of the Tolan Committee says : "We cannot afford the luxury of self-congratulation on the production record. ... It represents substantial gains . . . but it is the product of America's unorganized might and far short of our productive capacity." Price regulation, rent control, and rationing have contributed mightily to the achievements in production, as far as they have gone. With planned production and distribution, and with a tax program appropriate to the income requirements of the government Â— during the war the greatest single customer for American industry Â— we can open up vast new horizons for the lives of the people of this world. Schools must teach this lesson as ardently as in the past they have taught the three R's and the fundamental moralities of democracy. This is the great story of the twentieth century. It is no exaggeration to say that the maintenance and continuance of our educational institutions are dependent upon the successful teaching of this lesson. As we learn to use the great untapped resources of our people and our land, we shall certainly strengthen the institutions that teach. If we fail to learn that lesson, the schools will bear the burden of responsibility for that failure. EDUCATION AND PROPAGANDA ALEXANDER J. STODDARD, SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS, PHILADELPHIA, PA. Human beings are always trying to change or modify the thoughts, emotions, or actions of one another. Sometimes their motives are quite altruistic, but all too often they are very selfish. There are three ways in which we try to influence other people's reactions. We use force or law based on force; we use indoctrination, which consists PAGE 93 The Convention Never Held 91 of presentiri}; an idea or point of view, cither good or bad, in as effective manner as possible; or \vc use education, which depends for results on faith in the {growth of free men in an environment of freedom. It is this emphasis on faith in the human bein}^ that distinguishes education from indoctrination as a process. Indoctrination is designed to insure the end result while those using education are willing to risk the outcome. It is not that one of these ways should be used to the exclusion of the other two. Almost c\ery individual or group uses all three ways at some time or under some conditions or at different stages of development. What teacher or parent does not depend sometimes on force or law? Or, do we not all try to indoctrinate each other at one time or another? Even governments with their people, or the nations in their relations with one another, seem to resort more often to force and indoctrination than to education. It is true also that frequently force must be used to control those whom we would change, until education can get a chance to operate. The use of law or indoctrination evidences either a lack of faith in one's cause or a lack of confidence in the stage of development of the one to be changed. As the human being develops in his own life cycle or the race develops thru the centuries, there should be a growing dependence on education as opposed either to force or indoctrination as the cause of change. The people of a democracy believe men have a right as human beings to be educated rather than coerced or even persuaded. There is something about the word "education" that seems synonymous with freedom. One does not have exactly the same feeling toward the word "indoctrination" and still less toward the word "force." This does not mean that all force or indoctrination is bad. Nor is all education good. But education involves a faith that men of goodwill and the good way will triumph in the long run if the mind of man is free to grow. So it is that in America we have placed our hope in free schools and other unfettered educational agencies, resorting to force and indoctrination only as intermediary steps in the long trek toward freedom. Maybe we shall never be able to depend wholly on the processes of education, but surely in this democracy, if it can be preserved, we ought increasingly to be able to do so. FROM WAR TO PEACE IN THE WORLD AT LARGE PENNINGTON HAILE, .-VSSISTANT DIRECTOR, COMMISSION TO STUDY THE ORGANIZATION OF PEACE, NEW YORK, N. Y. Now that the L^nited Nations have taken the offensive there is no longer any reasonable ground for reluctance in discussing the sort of world for which we are fighting. In fact, the development of a vision of that world must become an important part of the strategy of our offensive if victory is to be achieved in the shortest possible time and at the least possible cost. I have two propositions: one, that the next peace will be won or lost before the end of hostilities; two, that the chief battleground on which the struggle PAGE 94 92 American Association of School Administrators to win the peace will be fought is in the minds of the people of the United States. Rather than consider the various plans or blueprints for the organization of a peaceful world I prefer now to discuss the policies which must be supported by the people of this country if there is to be any possibility of establishing whatever plan seems best. I want to do this because the problem of the organization of the next peace is not an abstract problem. It is one which involves our own future and the future of our children. I believe it to be true that we want tu find what men have always sought: freedom and dignity in their lives, freedom from fear, and freedom from want. If this is true, how can we best achieve these goals in the sort of world we inhabit today? The time has gone when any nation thru its own strength alone can give security, either economic or political, to its people. The destructiveness, speed, and range of modern weapons of war make oceans and boundaries inadequate as a basis for protection. No nation can be secure in a world of national anarchy. Our own security, like that of all other countries, depends upon our participation in some system for the organization of power behind international authority. It depends also upon the coordination of our economic policies with those of other nations of the world within an international system. As for our liberty and dignity, we cannot preserve these desired values in a world which lives under the constant shadow of war and in which we live under a system of militarism and regimentation, as from now on we shall always have to do in a lawless world. It is well to consider the comparative costs of joining with other nations to establish a world of order and opportunity with the cost of refusing to do so. In one case we shall have to participate in some system of international police. This may cost us the lives of two or three hundred Americans over a period of ten years. The alternative is the shedding of the blood of perhaps millions every quarter century. If we coordinate our economic policies with other nations, certain of our industries for a limited period of time may suffer. The alternative is the complete dislocation of our economic life and our threatened financial ruin every quarter century. If we wish to live in a peaceful world we must try to do what we can to give men everywhere a better chance in life. This need not mean a quart of milk a day for every Hottentot, but it ma\' mean that we cannot retain all the whipped cream in the world for our own use. If the United Nations can develop a better integrated organization in the fields of military direction, of economic planning, and of organization for social welfare during the course of the war and maintain that organization thru the difficult period of transition from war to peace, we have a chance of moving forward into an era of international organization. Our own nation must play a leading role in this endeavor, for it is almost certain that we shall be increasingly the most powerful nation among our allies and consequently in the world. If we again refuse the responsibilities that go with power we have no right to hope for a better world. PAGE 95 Thk Convention Nevkr Held 93 THE EFFECT OF MALNUTRITION ON EDUCATION IN BELGIUM E.MILE CAMMAERTS, PROFESSOR AT THE UNIVERSITY OF LONDON {^Reprinted thru the courtesy of the London Times Educational Supplement) The appeal made by the Swedish Committee for tlie Relief of Belgian Children, published recently in the London Times Educatio?tal Supplement, has already drawn the attention of British teachers and educationists to the appalling; condition under which the youth of Belf^ium pursue their studies. This appeal was based on a report of Dr. Dutholt, head of the Medical Department of Public Assistance in Brussels, which stated that all children from one to fourteen years of age were either losing weight or making subnormal progress. The Swedish Committee declared that the present situation was "infinitely worse than a year ago (when this information was obtained) and that the state of Belgium would soon be as bad as that of Greece." Reliable information received in London from different sources entirely confirms these conclusions. 1 have personally interviewed quite recently certain doctors and political leaders who were compelled to leave the country owing to their anti-German activities, and whose names, for this reason, cannot be published. They all agree that the school children and adolescents are particularly affected by malnutrition and that public education in the urban districts is disorganized owing to the physical weakness and ill health of an ever-increasing number of scholars. Some of the pupils are too weak to go to school, others go without having eaten any breakfast ; cases of fainting are frequent ; afternoon classes have been interrupted ; games and sports have been cancelled. The children have neither the physical nor the intellectual energy necessary for any prolonged effort. Debility and Tuberculosis One of the last numbers of the clandestine paper La Libre Belgique to reach this country states that since September 1941 30 percent of the children have actually lost Aveight, and that the increase in weight of the majority of the remaining 70 percent is 40 percent below normal, in spite of the distribution of e.xtra meals by the municipalities and charitable organizations. These figures refer to the whole country. The same paper quotes a report of Dr. Nyns, head of the Instruction Medicale Scolairc in Brussels, according to which cases of acute anaemia, fainting, and swollen glands are becoming more and more fre(iuent. Slight accidents cause fractures which do not mend easil\ owing to the weak condition of the patient. From other reports we gather that in certain districts the loss of weight of the large majority ranges between four pounds and thirty pounds. In one form, of thirty-four boys subjected t(j medical inspection twelve were in an advanced .stage of debility and fifteen in various stages of tuberculosis. This ma\be an extreme case, and conditions evidently vary according to the ability of parents to procure extra food on the black market, in order to supplement the official ration, but the number of those who arc able to PAGE 96 94 American Association of School Administrators do so Â— formerly 15 percent of the population Â— becomes smaller every month owing to the exhaustion of private resources and to the increased cost of such supplies. The bad quality of the rationed food should also be taken into account. The bread is of very poor nutritive quality and difficult to digest. Children suffer constantly from sickness and headaches. Cases of oedema in the legs, a condition practically unknovrn among the young, have become so frequent that extra allowances of food have had to be granted to those affected by this new illness. The winter brings additional suffering owing to a far from adequate supply of coal. Teachers and masters struggle bravely to pursue their work in these tragic circumstances. Most of them are patriots who, forbidden to use their old textbooks, refuse to use the new ones which the Germans try to force upon them, especially history books interpreting the 1914-1918 events according to the Nazi point of view. They do so at their own risk and dare not even dictate notes to their pupils, since the German inspectors might examine them. The teaching in certain schools has become purely oral. The lack of paper and of copybooks Â— sometimes there is only one available for seven scholars Â— provides an excellent excuse. Slates are used instead, even in the higher forms, and slates can be quickly cleaned in case of emergency. But there is always the danger that the child of some quisling might report to his father any patriotic statement made by a lay teacher, or the fact that prayers have been said in some religious schools for the victory of Britain and her allies and the deliverance of the mother country. Education Paralyzed The proof that this resistance is the rule in all schools, whether free (catholic) or official (state or municipal), is the bitterness expressed by the German-controlled papers, such as J oik en Staat which denounces them as centers of "pro-British feelings." "After two years of occupation," it declares, "a complete reform of public education seems necessary, in order to introduce a new spirit." These attacks are prompted by the fact that the children of the "collaborationists" are ostracized. The lead given by the University of Brussels, which the Germans were compelled to close in the fall owing to the refusal of the academic authorities to comply with their instructions, is followed everywhere. It is in this oppressive atmosphere, with the tramp of marching soldiers resounding under their windows and the threat of arrest hanging over their heads, that the Belgian teachers endeavor to pursue their painful work and to prepare the younger generation for the task of tomorrow. They are faced with rows of pale and hungry faces, and obliged to alter their timetable and their curriculum according to the tragic circumstances in which they are placed. How long will they be able to keep up their pupils' courage, and how long will the scholars themselves be able to attend classes in sufficient numbers? Education is already practically paralyzed. Unless something is done to alleviate present conditions it will die a natural death. It is necessary to make plans for the postwar period and to collect and PAGE 97 The Convention Never Held 95 prepare supplies for the day of victory and liberation. But present urj^ent needs should not be overlooked. The fate of the ne.xt generation in Belgium does not depend on what can be done on a lavish scale in two or three years from now. It depends on what can be done, even on a small scale, within the next two or three months. IMPRESSIONS OF A SCHOOLBOY IN BELGIUM {Reprinted from Belgium, /'o/. Ill , No. 9) A twelve-year-old Belgian schoolboy has just travelled alone from Brussels to London to join his father, an officer of the Belgian Forces in Great Britain. Peter is a bright little boy, and loves to chatter, laugh, and tell secrets. A few weeks ago Peter was attending a communal school in a Brussels suburb. "My school," he says, "is a good school. The teachers were all on our side: they did not like the Boches. It was the same with the boys and girls. In any class there were thirty children, and only three of them were on the wrong side. How do I know? That's easy. You can recognize the proGermans right away, because they look nervous. We never spoke to them, and they kept very quiet. Because, if they had made a move. . . ." And Peter put up his fists, by way of further explanation. The Germans, he reports, only came once to the school. That was to take away the door handles, the copper art pots, and all the other metal objects. "We had no atlas and no history books. They say that in other schools the children have got new history books Â— books full of lies. But in my school I know that we were taught true history. Naturally, we did not put down everything in our exercise books. We were told that the Belgians have always wanted to be masters in their own house ; we learned about the Duke of Alba, who burned the Belgians; and we also heard about the heroes of 1830 Â— Charlier, the man with the wooden leg, and all the rest. . . ." Peter said that he had not been hungry in Belgium. "My grandfather had a garden in the country," he explained ; "he sent us vegetables. We even had, now and then, a little piece of meat on Sundays. But people used to say I was not very well and ought to live in the country. My pals were not so lucky as I was. Two or three times children who had had no breakfast before coming to school fainted in the classroom. Then they were taken to an empty classroom and looked after, and I believe they were given something to eat. Besides that, some children were ill because they could not digest the bread which is damp and sticky, or the potato peelings that the cakes are made of nowadays. Most of the scholars brought money to school every week and were given a bowl of soup for it at eleven in the morning. The bigger boys, those who were twelve like me, had the job of serving it out. For a time we used to get a little glass of milk every day at three o'clock. Then the milk ran short. PAGE 98 96 American Association of School Administrators "It was very cold in the winter," Peter went on to say. "We had a fine stove in the classroom, but very little coal. Teacher used to go and look every quarter of an hour to see if the fire was still alight. Now and again she put a little tiny shovelful of coal on. In the middle of the winter, even in 1940, the schools were closed for a long time because there was no way of heating them. We had very long holidays at Christmas. "I had some good shoes, with leather soles, that had belonged to the son of a friend of ours and had got too small for him. But nearly all the other children had shoes with wooden soles Â— sometimes just plain wood, and sometimes in strips. They made a terrific noise at playtime. Nobody had any new clothes, but we didn't care about that. Now that I am here, I realize that everyone looked poor in Belgium. "We used to talk a lot about the war at school. We knew the Germans were going to be beaten. Here in England everyone is full of courage. Well, it is the same thing in Belgium. Everybody tells funny stories about the Germans. I read some myself in the secret newspaper. At school we used to put some in the secret newspaper of our class, which was called Le Boche and all written by hand. There was only one copy. Of course, it wasn't a serious newspaper: we used to put in it all the jokes we knew. This was one of them I remember : "Question: How do you pronounce 'Heil Hitler' in Belgium? "Answer: We pronounce it, in Brussels cockney: 'Alleie, Alleie, Hitler!' (Clear out. Hitler!)" Peter was not' afraid of guns. "In Brussels," he explained, "when we heard the airplanes of the R.A.F. and the German guns, we used to come out on the balcony to make the Boches wild. It was fine to see the tracer bullets that never hit an Allied airplane. The R.A.F. is grand." And Peter went on talking about his school, his teachers, and "Mademoiselle" (who looked after the fire). She was "grand," too, because she was not afraid of the "Boches" and continued to teach the real History of Belgium. A PHYSICAL FITNESS PROGRAM FOR THE SCHOOLS FROM THE STANDPOINT OF MANPOWER COLONEL LEONARD G. ROWNTREE, CHIEF, MEDICAL DIVISION, NATIONAL HEADQUARTERS, SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM, WASHINGTON, D. C. Man is entitled to good health. It is his right. What do you suppose would have been the effect on the welfare of this nation had the signers of the Declaration of Independence included one additional word "health" in that document Â— "the inalienable rights of man are life, liberty, and the pursuit of {health and) happiness?" As a representative of the medical profession, Benjamin Rush should have included it; Franklin, I think, as a philosopher, would have supported it; and Washington, as the Father of our Country, would have welcomed it. While it is now more than a century and a half too late for inclusion in the Declaration of Independence, it is never too late to recognize health as one of the inalienable rights of man. PAGE 99 The Convention Never Held 97 War, because of its imperative demands for vigorous manhood, forces on us the careful selection of young men who are "fit to fight," but selective service statistics have revealed an unsuspected national weakness, a 40 to 50 percent rate of rejection due to lack of health and physical fitness. Since the need for manpower is present and imperative, our national leaders are now frantically seeking some ready panacea for physical fitness, some quick, rapid cure for the numerous defects unwittingly engendered thru neglect. Ihit health, like farming and education, needs careful cultivation. Weeds of disease have choked, to some extent, the normal growth and development of some of the youth of our nation. Our crucial problem is to correct immediately that which is subject to remedy, but above all we must prevent in the future a repetition of the situation which faces us today. This nation should never again be subjected to the humiliation of a 40 to 50 percent rejection of manpower because of lack of health and physical fitness. The cure for this condition lies largely with the medical and teaching professions, which should unite in a joint campaign of instruction for the education of youth and the enlightenment and support of both the teachers and the parents. The educational system hereafter must provide for adequate instruction in matters of personal, physical, and mental hygiene; for correction of developing defects ; and for the actual phj^sical training requisite to physical fitness. This obviously demands the cooperation of medicine, which has already attempted to meet the situation thru the creation of a special Committee on Student Health at national headquarters of the American Medical Association. The services of this medical committee are now available to the teaching profession. Your profession, under the auspices of the U. S. Office of Education, is meeting the situation squarely and effectively thru the creation of Victory Programs. The Victory Program for Physical Fitness, like that of the Division of Physical Fitness of the New York State War Council, is designed specifically to meet existing conditions. At present two things are essential : first, the correction of defects easy of remedy which threaten life and health ; and second, the building of stamina, strength, endurance, and agilities in all who can qualify for such training. Qualifications should be determined by medical examination. From the standpoint of manpower, students might be placed in three groups: (a) eighteen years of age and over, (b) sixteen to eighteen years of age, and (c) under sixteen years of age. It is imperative that immediate attention be given to the first and second groups. The first represents the immediate source of manpower; the second, a potential source during the next two years. First and foremost, every student of these two groups should be examined by a competent physician, using the physical standards of the Army known as War Department Mobilization Regulation 1-9 (as amended January 20, 1943). Prehabilitation should be effected where and when possible. The program of physical fitness should have as its objective combat efficiency, the development of men willing to do or die but equipped to PAGE 100 98 American Association of School Administrators do rather than to die. It should include mass calisthenics, local competitive sports, and simple exercise such as walking, running, jumping, bicycling, swimming, diving. A more rugged program might include hockey, football, chinning, pushups, setups, dashes, dodging runs. The commando type of training combines many virtues. The best guide to the type of training needs is found in the actual experience of the Army and Navy. The group under sixteen is in a very plastic state and tremendous results may be anticipated from the development of proper methods of training. Colonel Theodore P. Bank, chief of the Athletic and Recreation Branch of the Special Service Division of the War Department, stated: "Many young men are entering the Army today totally unprepared for military life. It takes weeks to bring them into the physical condition necessary to proper military training. This means weeks of wasted time and effort which could be avoided if every young man now in high school engaged in proper physical activities." In any program of physical fitness, sight should not be lost of the need for mental fitness and above all for the "will to win." The needs in this field are as great as in that of phj^sical fitness. The proper approach to this problem should yield results of infinite value. Today the physical fitness program should condition our youth for war; tomorrow, as the national health program, it should condition our youth with the mental and physical vigor essential for world leadership and for the maintenance of lasting universal peace. THE PRINCIPAL AS DIRECTOR OF HEALTH EDUCATION WORTH MC CLURE, SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS, SEATTLE, WASH. I know a school of five hundred pupils in which a health council coordinates the instructional program with other phases of the school life in the interests of the healthful living of boys, girls, and teachers. Established by the principal and the teachers, it now includes the custodian-engineer, the school nurse, and the matron of the school cafeteria. Here are some of the (juestions the health council has considered : Lighting. Seattle is in a coastal dimout area. Uiinoiits and advance of clocks one hour on "war time" made special study of lighting necessary. Seatifig. Is it adequate? Are frequent adjustments necessai\? H rating. Many war immigrant children come from hotter, drier climates, is there a tendency to wear too much or too heavy clothing? Ventilation. Fuel shortage may curtail ventilation to the detriment of adequate circulation. Cleanliness. Classrooms, halls, basements, toilets, grounds. Intermissions. Are they adequate? Noon intermission. Should part of the primary intermission be taken for a rest period? How much? Which part? Cafeteria. Is it adequate? Are children selecting balanced lunches? Atmosphere? Special displays? Nurse. How can the nurse he of greater help to us in the entire school program? How much maladjustment is due to health conditions? PAGE 101 The Convention Never Held 99 Rest Periods. Have we children who should be restinR a part of each day? Physical EJucation. Is it meeting the needs of the individual child? Is it too strenuous for some of our classes? Too light for others? Classroom Instrttction. How can we keep our classroom instruction free from emotional stresses? How interest pupils in safeguarding lighting and temperature? Community. What can the school do to make this community a more healthful place for the children? This council has done more than elaborate organization could do to affect actual school conditions because it is building teacher attitudes. The questions show that "awareness" is the principal's objective. Here are a few tangible results: Primary children remaining at school for noon intermission were encouraged to take rest periods on cots. Not only better attendance, but better school performance resulted. Physical education classes are now varied to conform to individual needs. Some pupils rest. Big "huskies" get better workouts. All classes in Grades V to VIH have units on foods in wartime during which each class makes cafeteria menus and at least one is served to the school. Teachers have discovered connection between things like maladjusted seating, lighting glare, excessive heat, stagnant air, and poor class performance. Health of individual children is made the basis for individual program adjustments. For example, two little girls, cardiac cases, discovered by teachers and followed thru by nurse with family physician, now go home for rest every day from 11 .A.M. to 1 :30 p.m. This health council is typical of a number in the Seattle schools. It meets after the regular biweekh' teachers' meeting, but the members always wish to stay longer than regular adjournment time. Why? Because they learn from each other, can see results from their own planning. As director of health education the principal's responsibility is to bring to bear all the resources of his school and community in the interests of wise healthful living. The health council is not the only way this can be done but it is simple, democratic, economical, and more effective in helping attitudes to change than any amount of executive fiat. It is a happy example of supervision in the modern sense Â— leadership in cooperative study. HEALTH IN THK HABITFOR MING VFARS \\ . U . IMl IR, M.I)., DIRIXIOR, RURHAU OF IIKAI.TH KDICAIION', AMÂ£RICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION, CHICAGO, ILL. Health teaching in the elementary school and especially in the earlier grades must be based on a realization that the child has as yet no conception of such an abstraction as health. He knows when he feels well and when he does not feel well, but except in the latter circumstances he has, quite properly and fortunately, no conception of health or the hazards which threaten it. He lives from day to day, literally taking no thought for the morrow. At this age he is susceptible to teaching by example more than by precept. His idiosyncrasies of speech, e\en the language in which PAGE 102 100 American Association of School Administrators he speaks, to say nothing of his general pattern of conduct, are based largely upon imitation. He reflects the environment in which he grows up. For these reasons, health teaching in the lower grades of the elementary school must be developed largely thru a way of living rather than thru the teaching of subjectmatter as such. The child may read and even enjoy elementary books setting forth healthful practices in an attractive fashion, but he is not guided by what he reads to anything near the extent that he is influenced by what is happening around him. Health teaching in the early grades of the elementary school, therefore, resolves itself largely into the creation of an atmosphere. This atmosphere must be consistent with what is expected of the child. If he is expected to keep his hands clean, he must have soap, water, and towels readily accessible. If he is expected to eat appropriate foods for his good nutrition, he must find them more readily available than unsuitable foods in the school cafeteria or lunchroom. If he is to appreciate the advantages of correct heating and ventilation, these must be provided for him in his school environment. If he is to react happily to safe and not excessively supervised play, he must be able to experience it. If he is to value the standards which his teacher endeavors to create for him. then he must see these standards exemplified in that teacher. The elementary school has the child only for about six hours, five days a week, from nine to ten months in the year. In this time it is difficult to overcome the influence of the wrong kind of home, where all the school's efforts may appear to be nullified. Yet as the child grows older and observes the superiority of school ways over home ways, he may be expected to modify his conduct accordingly. In order to facilitate the smooth accomplishment of such an adjustment, care must be taken never to discredit in the child's eyes even the worst of home conditions, but merely to permit the child, beginning from his home situation, to advance to more favorable situations as portrayed in the school. Health teaching in the earlier grades of the secondary schools depends only to a small extent upon teaching instruments such as textbooks, visual aids, and other equipment. These adjuncts are valuable, but in the early grades the child learns about health and healthful living primarily by living in a healthful environment and associating with a well-adjusted, healthy teacher. SECONDARY-HEALTH EDUCATION IN WARTIME CHARLES C. WILSON, CHAIRMAN, JOINT COMMITTEE ON HEALTH PROBLEMS IN EDUCATION OF THE N.ATIONAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION AND THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY, NEW YORK, N. Y. War conditions create specific administrative problems in the area of secondary-school health education. In many communities schools must conduct their health programs with decreased medical and nursing personnel. In all communities there is greater public recognition of the im- PAGE 103 The Convention Never Held 101 portancc of health education as a means of increasing available manpower thru teaching how sickness and injury may be prevented. The findings of selective service health examinations challenge schools to intensify their efforts to help students obtain the correction of remediable defects. With decreased service available from physicians and nurses, secondaryschool administrators may wisely review the distribution of duties among physicians, nurses, and teachers. The efficient use of physicians and nurses requires that they be used only for duties which other less specially trained persons cannot do. V^ision testing, first aid, hearing testing, and weighing and measuring are duties \\hich health educators or health counselors may do. By limiting the work of physicians and nurses to those duties which require their specialized training, many schools will find that complete, effective school health programs can be maintained despite reduced medical and nursing staffs. A number of schools, under the impetus of war conditions, are broadening the content of their health teaching programs. First aid, nutrition, prevention of disease, home hygiene, prevention of accidents, home care of the sick, military hygiene, and community hvgiene are being incorporated into regular secondary-school health education programs. To do justice to the wide range of topics now part of secondary-school health education, some schools find it desirable to increase the time allotted to this phase of their program. Rccenthrevised regulations of the Regents of the University of the State of New York state that "health teaching shall be required for all pupils in the junior and senior high school grades and shall be taught by teachers with approved preparation." The same regulations require that "provisions shall be made for an approved course in health teaching carrying one unit of credit." Provisions of this nature in New York and elsewhere soon may lead to vital, effective programs of high-school health education. Correction of the remediable defects found in students requires active cooperation between the schools and many other community groups. In most instances corrections can be obtained by students from their private physicians and dentists. Preventive and diagnostic measures may be offered by departments of public health. Frequently cooperative planning by school officials, local physicians and dentists, and local public health and welfare officials makes it possible for communities to provide facilities so that no student need be without treatment for a remediable condition. This is the goal all communities should attain. The 1942 Yearbook of the American Association of School Administrators, Health ill Schools, outlines a comprehensive school health program and suggests plans for administering it. There is no better time than the present to check present health activities with those suggested and to plan expansion and improvement wherever necessary. PAGE 104 102 American Association of School Administrators HOW TO IMPROVE HIGH-SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION RUTH E. GROUT, CONSULTANT IN HEALTH EDUCATION, U. S. OFFICE OF EDUCATION, WASHINGTON, D. C. The health of high-school students grows in significance as the country becomes more deeply submerged in war. The students who have become the nation's main source of manpower must develop a high degree of health so that they may perform well those immediate and future war services which are so essential for the country's survival. An intensification and broadening of existing health education programs will need to take place in order to help students attain a state of better health. An important step in the improvement of health education in high schools today is to attack those health conditions which are common among students of this age and which are causing the greatest waste of manpower. Among the conditions on which schools should take action thru education now, in accordance with individual, school, and community needs, are handicapping defects, preventable illnesses and disease, poor nutrition, accidents, faulty living habits, and poor mental attitudes. Also should be included the health and safety hazards which are associated with the special services for which students are in training, such as military, production, and community services. Improvement in health educational methods and in selection of specific instructional content appropriate to different groups is needed to bring about actual changes in what students think and do about health. As in other aspects of education, help must be given students to recognize their own problems and to do something tangible about solving them. In general, students in the ninth and tenth grades need orientation in the school health program and help in improving their own personal health behavior. Students in the eleventh and twelfth grades need, in addition, assistance in planning ways of living which will enable them to meet the demands of the future. Health education can be improved by closer planning together on the part of school and health personnel so that each is making his most effective contribution to the total program. Provision should be made for direct health teaching which will reach all students. Plans should also be worked out whereby specialized departments and services, such as physical education, biology, home economics, and medical and nursing services, share their unique contributions with the whole school. Trained leadership is essential to bring about these improvements. The suggestions summarized here are contained in a manual on health education which has recently been prepared by a committee appointed by the U. S. Office of Education, consisting of representatives from the secondary field, the U. S. Army, U. S. Navy, U. S. Public Health Service, and the Children's Bureau. The manual is being published by the Office of Education in collaboration with the federal agencies just listed. It will be entitled Physical Fitness through Physical Education for the Victory Corps. PAGE 105 The Convention Never Held 103 CIVILIAN DEFENSEÂ— ITS SCOPE AND IMPORTANCE IN THE SCHOOLS KENNETH L. HEATON, PRINCIPAL CONSULTANT, U. S. OFFICE OF CIVILIAN DEFENSE, WASHINGTON, D. C. Civilian protection is an organized effort of citizens thruout the country to prepare themselves for effective action in case of enemy attack, and if possible, to make the probable outcome of direct enemy action seem so unprofitable that it will not be attempted. Civilian protection as applied to the schools is concerned with the protection of children, teachers, and school property-. The one most important responsibility of school authorities is the selection of shelters for children and staff. To achieve this end satisfactorily it must be recognized that each individual school may present a separate problem of planning. The most important clement in planning shelters for the children of a particular building is the time factor. Two important questions must be answered: How much time will be available to get the children to a shelter? How much time does it take for children to reach the nearest adequate shelter? The neighborhood hazards represent a second important element in planning. These include nearness to industrial targets which may attract enemy action ; nearness to residence or business property of inflammable construction ; proximity to such landmarks as hills, tunnels, rivers, and bridges. All are important in differentiating between schools from which children should be sent home, and schools in which children should remain if there were to be a raid. School buildings themselves differ from one another in the hazards they present. They differ in type of construction, in number and safety of stairways, in amount of glass used in construction, in the presence of chemical laboratories and other special hazards. Quite apart from the building and its location is the problem of providing safe transportation for children who travel to and from home in school buses, which also may be the object of enemy action. These and many other factors call for (a) a careful study by technically capable persons of each school building and the surrounding neighborhood; (b) the planning of a series of shelters near school buildings and along transportation routes; (c) cooperation with parents in the laying of plans; (d) training of teachers, bus drivers, and other school employees in the duties the\' are to perform if an emergency arises; and (e) frequent drill until a plan of action becomes habitual to all children. PAGE 106 104 American Association of School Administrators CIVILIAN DEFENSE IN A SMALL CITY H. A. BILLINGSLEY, DIRECTOR OF PUBLIC RELATIONS, KANSAS CITY, KANS. In the small city of Kansas Cit_v, Kansas, with a population of 135,000 people, a civilian defense orjjanization is functioning in a completely integrated manner. Therefore it is impossible to point out the effort that is being made b}^ the schools only, without telling of the work that is being done by the entire organization. Up to date, over 7000 volunteers have been trained in fifteen different services of civilian defense. These include such workers as air-raid wardens, auxiliary firemen, auxiliary policemen, nurse's aides, and eleven other types of helpers. Many of these are schoolteachers. It is impossible to find a teacher who has not trained in at least one of these services. In addition to these services, seven branches of the United States Citizens Service Corps are functioning. These include salvage, war bonds and stamps, recreation, consumer service, health and nutrition, conservation, and education. Naturally the schools, thru their High-School Victory Corps and other service organizations, have participated in the drives for aluminum, metal, rubber, and fats. A speakers' bureau and a citizens' information bureau have assisted in keeping the public informed. War bonds and stamps are on sale all the time in all the schools. Newspapers are doing their part. Working closely with the local rationing board, our superintendent of schools has taken over completely the job of rationing. With his two assistants he has set up an organization consisting of 12 high-school teachers acting as supervisors, 41 elementary-school principals and their staffs as site administrators, and 800 high-ranking high-school juniors and seniors as registrars. A few days spent in this midwestern town would convince any skeptic that these people are, indeed, patriotic and are eager to do their part. AIR-RAID PROTECTION FOR THE CHILDREN IN A LARGE CITY JOHN E. WADE, SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS, NEW YORK, N. Y. The program adopted for the protection of school children in New York City in the event of air raids includes the following protective measures : 1. The determination of shelter areas in all school buildings. These were mapped out and approved by the proper pedagogical and engineering authorities. 2. The installation of an air-raid warning system in each school, public and parochial. This system is telephonic, stems from police headquarters, and branches out into the schools. 3. The protection of glass in shelter areas. Glass in these areas was PAGE 107 The Convention Never Held 105 coated with two layers of shatter-resistiri}^ liquid plus a rubber base adhesive tape as fabric. 4. The installation of fire-fighting equipment : water buckets, sand bags, shovels, stirrup pumps, and asbestos gloves at strategic places in each school. 5. The selection of alternate shelters. In schools where shelter areas were congested, relatively safe buildings within five minutes' walking distance from the school were selected to house surplus pupils. 6. Periodic practice in air-raid shelter drills. As a rule, children have been drilled to go to assigned shelter areas under teacher escort. Children housed in old-type wall-bearing buildings are escorted to their homes or to alternate shelters if these are available within five minutes' walking distance. 7. The instruction and training of custodians, principals, and teachers in the tcchnic of fire-fighting. The instructors assigned are graduates of the Civilian Defense Protection School at Edgewood Arsenal, Maryland. 8. The organization and introduction of School Defense Aides in the elementary and junior high schools. These aides, largely parents, were recruited by the Parents Associations and the Civilian Defense Volunteer Offices. They serve as receptionists and guards and assist in the care of younger children during air-raid drills. There are nearly 13.000 aides nowin service. These volunteers have received training in first aid, mental hygiene and care of children, and air-raid precautions. Thev are eligible for enrolment in the l-. S. Citizens Service Corps. Their efforts have considerably reduced trespassing on school property. 9. The use of identification tags. Bakelite tagsÂ— 1,500,000 in allÂ— w^ere issued free to all children enrolled in the public and parochial schools. Each disc contains a serial number, name of child, and date of birth. 10. Provision for possible evacuation of school children. Any program for evacuation of children would involve the assignment of teachers to a host of child welfare activities beyond their usual educational functions. A citywide survey of the special abilities of all the teachers revealed a large number of teachers who are familiar with the problems of mass feeding, clothing, and the sheltering of children under emergency conditions. 11. Basic teacher training for the emergency. Unit courses were designed to prepare the school staff for more effective work. At least two teachers from each school were enrolled in each of the following courses: practical gardening, first aid. home nursing and care of the sick, child care, nutrition, mental hygiene and morale, and air-raid precautions. 12. The inauguration of a summer program for the entire stafiF. All members of the staff devoted two weeks of their summer vacations to defense activities in the schools and elsewhere. One week was spent in basic war-related courses and one week in service with war-related organizations such as Red Cross, United Service Organizations, Civilian Defense Volunteer Offices, rationing boards, and selective service boards. 13. A twenty-four hour coverage of the air-raid signal control room of the board of education. All assistant superintendents and high-school prin- PAGE 108 106 American Association of School Administrators cipals have volunteered for this service. Now there is a responsible educational official on hand at all times of the day and night to direct affairs in any emergency and to assure the continuity of our educational program regardless of damage done by enemy action. Schools have been paired so as to make continuity possible in the event that any school is destroyed by enemy action. 14. Establishment of a training program for parents. As the protection of children is of immediate concern to parents, arrangements were made to train parents in air-raid precautions in the home; in the proper mental hygiene care of children; in nutrition; in conservation of fuel, clothing, household equipment ; and in first aid. The above statement sketches in outline some of the measures taken by the New York City schools to insure increased protection of children in the schools and in the home. This program has had the further effect of engendering public confidence in what the schools are doing. TEACHING VALUES OF WAR SAVINGS AND CONSERVATION CLAUDE V. COURTER, SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS, CINCINNATI, OHIO Immediately after Pearl Harbor the schools of America entered the war. They organized their forces to sell war stamps and bonds, to get in the scrap, to war against waste. They marched to such slogans as "Save! Serve! Conserve!" and "Eat It Up. Wear It Out. Make It Do. Do Without." Necessarily these have been programs of action, enlisting youthful energies, loyalties, and enthusiasms to serve Uncle Sam in ways that were open to children and youth, and the response of young America to these calls has been magnificent. Very naturally, the keen youthful interest and enthusiasm aroused by these activities have spilled over into the classroom. Alert teachers in consequence are increasingly recognizing, "Here is splendid motivation for my teaching." Wide-awake administrators in turn are asking such questions as, "What are the teaching values of war savings and conservation?" School people generally have considered that education in wartime consists of two programs, an emergency program and the long-term or regular program. They should, however, be thought of as one program, the long-term program oriented to the pressing demands and vital needs of the present and of the immediate future. When the emergency program and the regular program are merged in our thinking, teaching values begin to stand out with some clearness. For at least a generation, and perhaps for several, public education in our country can have but one over-all objective Â— to make its maximum contribution to the winning of the war and the winning of the peace. Teaching values, therefore, are the values of the contributions of teaching toward these ends. The value of any teachmg that does not make some such contribution is at least doubtful. In the final analvsis the war will be won and the peace will be won thru PAGE 109 The Convention Never Held 107 the intellifient use and careful spendinji of the nation's resources Â— material, cultural, and spiritual. It is the chief business of education, therefore, to develop citizens worthy of our culture and capable of using and spending the nation's resources intelligently. To the extent that this is successfully done, to that extent is complete victory in the war and the peace possible. First steps are even now being taken in the reorientation and reconstruction of public education that it may cope in some degree of adequacy with the needs of the present and the great issues of the near future. Contemplation of the extension of the principles of Lend-Lease into the postwar period and the strain upon our domestic economy of paying the costs of the war and saving and expanding our pre-war social gains would seem to dictate permanent values in the meaning today of war savings and conservation which the needs of the war have brought into such sharp focus. It may very well be that the slogan of the Schools at War Program, "Save! Serve! Conserve!" will become a permanent and very solid plank in the pattern of values which public education will be called upon to establish. In the meantime, the exigencies of the present require that every resource of the school be utilized to establish in the minds of pupils, as part of their credo and patriotism, the meaning and importance of thrift and conservation, and to instil in their hearts the spirit of sacrifice and of service. This is the challenge to the classroom teacher in the teaching of the regular subjects, to those who have charge of the extracurriculum program, and to those who administer to the welfare of the school community for the purpose of developing citizenship. THE SCHOOLS AT WAR PROGRAM D. H. PATTON, ASSISTANT SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS, TOLEDO, OHIO The present world situation, like any period of marked social upheaval, raises challenging questions in the minds of those responsible for the education of the nation's youth. The most challenging of these questions is how to make use of the educational opportunities which are provided in those wartime activities which may be shared by children. It was in answer to this challenge that the War Savings Staff of the Treasury Department, the U. S. Office of Education, and its Wartime Commission instituted the Schools at War Program. Altho the program is an outgrowth of desire to sell war stamps, its broader educational aspects include the saving of all that America holds sacred. It is in this interpretation that we can see its most far-reaching influence on the teaching of the regular subjects. Before we direct our attention to the influence of the Schools at War Program on the regular subjects, it may be well to note some of the more significant factors in the present situation which are encompassed by the program. First, education for H\ ing in a democracy receives its greatest test in time of crisis. The Schools at War Program of cooperative activity furnishes an ideal setting for learning the meaning of democratic life. PAGE 110 108 American Associatiox of School Administrators Second, common dangers, responsibilities, and sacrifices in face of crisis provide unusual opportunities for educational guidance. Personal and group adjustments necessitated by the war emergency cannot be neglected in the program. Third, the salvage program, raising funds for war costs, necessity for conserving materials for personal use, added emphasis on healthful living, and other demands of the present period provide excellent opportunities for teaching thru participation. As a means of implementing the teaching of the regular subjects, the Schools at War Program must be viewed in the light of its ultimate influence. In the long view it is basically a program of understanding, which is sought thru organized and directed action. Such personal controls as the saving of funds for purchase of war stamps and refraining from making purchases which might impair the war effort will result only from a welldeveloped ability to participate intelligently in the world of today and of tomorrow. The many situations included in the framework of the Schools at War Program, arising from the national struggle for survival in the world at war and from the demands of the new position in the society of nations to which America seems destined, give impetus to teaching of organized subjectmatter in two respects. First, they emphasize the need for mastery of the fundamental skills and habits in reading, spelling, language, and arithmetic. Second, their worldwide and all-inclusive nature magnifies the need for an understanding of an increasingly complex world. Knowledge of history, geography, science, economics, and the arts takes on a new significance to citizens in provincial America who have been catapulted into a prominent position in the society of nations. To determine their course of action in meeting the new responsibilities, people will need more and more information and interpretation Avhich must be supplied primarily by the printed page. Thus the teaching of reading to the average American citizen must be intensified and expanded to meet the more difficult requirements. It must be extended far above the intermediate grades and to areas other than those in a reading book or books of literature. Language for the sole purpose of erudition is inadequate for today's citizen. New movements, inventions, trends, and events demand increased vocabulary and meaningful, concise expression for effective participation in a rapidly changing world. The implications of the Schools at War Program for immediate purposeful practice in the classroom In arithmetic are apparent. More significant in the long view is the new prominence given to the machine by the war. We have discovered that a high degree of accuracy and speed in arithmetical computations must be reached by a much larger portion of our population or the machine will mean little to us. The ability to read problems accurately and quickly must be accompanied by the ability to perform the fundamental processes of arithmetic accurately and quickly. PAGE 111 The Convention Never Held 109 Lend-Lcase, for which a part of the funds raised by war stamp purchases are spent, points to the ne\\emphasis in history. It is the expansion of American thinking and acting from that centered in a thousand crossroad communities of self-satisfied American people, to American thinking and acting which includes people of the entire world. The war has brought stupefying evidence that life in Thompsonville, Pleasant Hill, and Abe's Corners, U. S. A., dan be lived with safety and comfort only when life in far distant hamlets may be lived with safety and freedom from distressing want. The new geography provides for a somewhat similar emphasis. Under the impact of the airplane and the new significance of the earth's sphericity, distance and location have become much less meaningful as barriers to world association. The Schools at War Program naturall\' and directly lends aid to teaching both simple and comple.x problems of economics. The arts also face new demands. They receive direct stimulus from the need of the Schools at War Program to appeal to the emotions as well as to reason and from the need for pictorial presentation of otherwise little understood facts. Furthermore, the arts provide a most satisfactory emotional outlet in a period of crisis. Our efforts in education today should not fail to stimulate the great \ irtues of life, particularly understanding, courage, and gratitude. TO WHAT EXTENT SHALL JUNIOR RED CROSS BE A PART OF THE SCHOOL PROGRAM? III-NR-S' }{. mi.T,, SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS, PITTSBURGH, P.\. The program of the Junior Red Cross has up to this date been utilized by enough individual schools to indicate that it can be made an integral part of the educational efifort of a school system. It has been used successfully in high schools but, without too much evidence to justify my opinion, I think its greatest contribution is in the elementary school. In both elementary and high schools, however, it may be made a vehicle which will carry many of the activities associated with the building of the right kind of civic attitude and character. The final success of the Junior Red Cross in any school system will necessarily depend upon the sympathy and interest which superintendents, principals, and teachers manifest toward it. In my opinion best results will be obtained by planning a long-term program which will avoid the one extreme of regarding it as a panacea for the improvement of all extracurriculum activities and the other extreme of regarding it only as a program for the production of nut cups and other aids to soldiers and sailors. It is one of the best means of directing some of the surplus energies of boys and girls toward becoming better citizens of their own communities and Â— of increasing importance Â— toward becoming the world citizens which World War II will make both possible and imperative. PAGE 112 110 American Association of School Administrators WHAT IS THE BEST SETUP IN THE SCHOOLS FOR THE JUNIOR RED CROSS PROGRAM? HEROLD C. HUNT, SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS, KANSAS CITY, MO. Added responsibilities placed upon the schools since the declaration of war have made it necessary to revise curriculums and courses of study to include wartime elements rather than merely to offer them in addition to already complete programs. Integration of wartime courses and activities with the essential items of the school program has rapidly taken place and these timely studies and services have already become fundamental parts of the educational program. The Junior Red Cross in its aspect of "service" may well sound the keynote of the entire school curriculum today. Its organization and activities can be so integrated. For such purpose the organization of the Junior Red Cross must be almost synonymous with the entire administrative organization, as that organization functions democratically. With the superintendent of schools as the chief administrative officer, the philosophy of the Junior Red Cross can readily permeate the entire educational effort. The program itself functions under a director in charge of Junior Red Cross who develops details and plans possible activities ; while a central Junior Red Cross Committee, composed of school and community representatives, assures attention to all areas in broad perspective thru the deliberations in its meetings with those responsible for the program. Teachersponsors supervise the program in individual school buildings and a student Junior Red Cross Council supplies the necessary pupil participation, cooperation, and motivation for determining the extent and nature of pupil effort. Such a setup permits the integration of Junior Red Cross activity into the total school program and affords further strengthening of the democratic aspects of the educational organization by supplying an additional basis for cooperative interaction. Attention should be directed to maintaining the identity of the Junior Red Cross not in the school program but rather with the school program. The best setup for such a program is the one which will relate it most completely to educational endeavor and which will extend its meaning into every possible area, allowing its ideals to become permanenth' implanted in the entire educational program, that it may enrich education and thru education extend its own sphere of influence. HOW CAN SCHOOLS PROCEED HEST TO CARR^' ON THE JUNIOR RED CROSS PROGRAM? LUCILLE SUTHERLAND, TEACHER, MULLANPHY SCHOOL, ST. LOUIS, MO. By agreement among the national Red Cross societies thruout the world, membership in the Junior Red Cross has been limited to school pupils. This was done so that educators might have an opportunity to aid in the development of the desirable classroom activities which could be experienced by children thru participation in a national service organization. Thus, the PAGE 113 The Convention Never Held 111 Junior Red Cross has become a school activity and a school responsibility. It is this responsibility and the manner in which the schools can best assume it, that is of concern here. While it is the classroom teacher who will eventually present the program and integrate it into her curriculum, the school administrator must first give his approval and make plans for the general organization of the entire program as it is to function in the schools. A number of teachers from various grade levels, appointed by the administrator, may serve with him as a central Junior Red Cross Committee. In conjunction with Red Cross chapter representatives, this group aids in planning the work to be carried out. They may also serve as consultants and advisers to the teachers who are carrying on the program in the schools. This Junior Red Cross Committee becomes the medium of relationship between the schools and the chapter, insuring active cooperation between them. The coordinator of the Junior Red Cross activities in each school may be a teacher appointed by the principal. She is called a sponsor. It is she who is in direct contact with the Red Cross chapter and with the Red Cross Committee. If it is desirable in a particular school to have direct student participation in the planning of the program for the school, the sponsormay organize a Junior Red Cross Council. Under her direction the group may discuss and make suggestions for the program in its school. The sponsor also serves as coordinator of activities carried on by teachers in individual classrooms. Ideas and suggestions made by the central committee are passed on to the teachers thru her. Much of the success of the program in a school is determined by the enthusiasm and ability of the sponsor. The classroom teacher will find much in the Junior Red Cross program that will serve as a contributing factor to regular learning situations. It offers opportunities to relate learning and doing and to activate information and skills with socially constructive motives. It also provides the schools with service opportunities for girls and boys. It gives experience in using skills to accomplish constructive, social tasks. And, altho it serves as the source of powerful motives which give new life to lessons in geographv, hygiene, civics, art, history, and language, it comes into the schools not to divert children from their own proper work but to strengthen them in it. Teachers should know that "School Work for Service" is a basic principle of the Junior Red Cross. Ways in which the schools can best proceed to carr\ out the Junior Red Cross program will vary, for no two schools nor even two schoolrooms need begin in exactly the same way to develop identical activities. However, there will be many interests that are of value to every child. The child, interested as he may be, must depend upon the school for permission to transfer his interest to service. To the schools and their administrators falls the responsibility of approving and organizing a Junior Red Cross program which will provide opportunities for boys and girls to put their socially constructive motives to work. PAGE 114 112 American Association of School Administrators SWISS AID TO FOREIGN CHILDREN THE HONORABLE CHARLES BRUGGMANN, MINISTER OF SWITZERLAND, WASHINGTON, D. C. During the present war, the Swiss Red Cross has set itself the task to help as much as possible foreign children of countries which have been the most affected by the war. Up to this time, the help given by Switzerland to foreign children has been made possible by the sacrifice of the Swiss population, and the financial contributions have been limited to Swiss sources. Thus the Swiss population feels that it fulfils a duty of solidarity toward its less fortunate neighbors. The Swiss people are moved in that work also by their feeling of gratitude for having been spared the horrors of war. This is why the children's help organization has endeavored to achieve its task without foreign assistance, which besides might have brought problems likely to jeopardize the movement. The movement of aid to children started after the fall of France. During the last eight months, help was given mostly to French and Greek children. In countries whence children cannot be brought to Switzerland under the present circumstances, Swiss godparents have been designated to attend to the care of one or more children by sending them food, clothes, and medicaments. In France, nurseries have been established where milk and clothes furnished by Switzerland are distributed to needy children. The establishment of similar nurseries has been planned for Greece. The Swiss Red Cross sent to Greece several tons of milk products and vitamins, which a delegation of the "Swiss Aid to Children," composed of Swiss doctors and nurses, distributed on the spot. But the main task of the Swiss Red Cross has been to receive as their young guests, children from neighboring lands at an average of about 10,000 children every three months. They come mostly from France, Belgium, Holland, and Yugoslavia. In the last months of May, June, July, and September, more than 8000 foreign children were lodged in Switzerland; in August, about 10,000. As a rule, the children are sent to private Swiss homes. In other cases, especially when no "temporary parents" with a knowledge of the language of the children can be found, the children are lodged together in a school or a hotel under the supervision of nurses and teachers; such is the case for Serbian and Greek children. The purpose of their stay is not only to have them spend a healthful vacation in Switzerland, but also to build them up to be able to resist long privations. Swiss doctors go to each country to select those children who are in the greatest need to come to Switzerland. Children must be from six to twelve years old and must have no contagious disease. Swiss families who receive the children have also been chosen carefully to insure the happiness of their destitute proteges. The Swiss Red Cross hopes to increase the number of refugee children to 15,000 each three months, and at the same time it is planned that all the clothes and food necessary for their upkeep will be furnished by the Swiss population, which gladly will give up the necessary number of coupons, altho they are already under a strict rationing system. PAGE 115 The Convention JNever Held 113 CARING FOR THE CHILDREN OF WORKING iMOTHERS MRS. WILLIAM KLETZER, PRESIDENT, NATIONAL CONGRESS OF PARENTS AND TEACHERS, CHICAGO, ILL. It is evident, in the face of information coming to us from all parts of the country, that prompt attention must be fjiven to the matter of day care for the children of workin;:; mothers. Not only is the need urgent now, but the increasing need for manpower Â— or should one say womanpower? Â— will draw more and more mothers into industry. Nursery schools and especially school programs extended to cover the hours usually thought of as "before school" and "after school" seem to be the responsibility of the public educational system; day nurseries, the responsibility of the social agencies in the community. Nursery schools are educational. Whether they are inaugurated as part of the war eiifort to meet manpower needs or as part of the educational program, they should be under school jurisdiction. There are many reasons why the schools should undertake the program of extending the school day. First, the children are already there. The schools are conveniently spaced and located for service to children. They have the necessary physical equipment. Their regular jurisdiction over the child while he attends school and until he reaches home is an important factor. This authority is important in the light of present results of the widespread lack of supervision of young children. Control by a less official agency is not always possible. Altho there are many arguments for free service of this kind Â— not the least of which is the undeniable fact that it is cheaper to furnish nursery schools and after-school programs than to have the things happen to children that are happening in many places Â— I believe that most persons are willing to pay for this care. It may or may not be that the community owes them free service, but if they meet the labor requirements of the war the community certainly does owe them a safe and wholesome place for the care of their children at a coft they can afford to pay. Few communities have standard facilities available at any price. It is obvious that because of the manpower shortage any program of this kind will depend to a great degree on volunteer assistance. High-school students belonging to the \'ictory Corps, if given special training and adequate supervision, can carry on many activities in the after-school program. Adult volunteers can serve here and will be especially helpful in the nursery schools. In seeking out adult volunteers one must take care not to let the word "volunteer" stand in the way of a true evaluation of the service. Volunteer service is not necessarily synonymous with amateur or unskilled service. In many cases community recreation facilities and agencies have been drafted to meet the needs of young adults, both those in uniform and those in war industries. Teen-age boys and girls are a much neglected group. To meet their social need-^, school bui'dinirs should be open during the evening as well as during the two or three hours after school. PAGE 116 1 14 American Association of School Administrators CHILD-CARE PROBLEMS AND SERVICES TO CHILDREN OF WORKING MOTHERS KATHARINE F. LENROOT, CHIEF, CHILDREN'S BUREAU, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR, WASHINGTON, D. C. Current estimates indicate that 3,400,000 women will be added to the present labor force during 1943, and that as many as 1,700,000 of these will be mothers of children. The number of children involved probabh?^ will be from 2,000,000 to 3,000,000, of whom about 6 percent may be expected to be under two years of age ; 40 percent, two to five years ; 54 percent, six to sixteen years. War Manpower Commission policy on employment of women emphasizes that "the first responsibility of women with young children, in war as in peace, is to give suitable care in their own homes to their children," and that "the employment of such women should be deferred until full use has been made of all other sources of labor supply." Cooperation of government, management, labor, and the parents themselves is required to make these policy statements effective. Local manpower officials will coordinate recruitment of women with community plans for child care. Employers, thru their personnel departments, should make their employment practices conform to these recruitment policies. If manpower shortages make it absolutely necessary to recruit mothers, split shifts and part-time employment should be considered (a) for men in other occupations who may have free time; (b) for older women not accustomed to full-time work; (c) for mothers of j^oung children. Representatives of industry and labor should participate in local committees responsible for planning and conducting community da^^-care services. These should be conducted as community enterprises. An over-all community plan should include counseling service for mothers, and should have recourse to the best education, recreation, health, and welfare services. It is a mistake to believe that the only child-care facilities needed are for children of nursery-school age. Such children need full-time care in their own home, in another family home, or in a nursery or day-care center. But children of school age whose mothers are employed need the security which comes from a "home base" or a substitute for such a base. Federal agencies interested in the provision of day-care services for children of working mothers include the Children's Bureau of the U. S. Department of Labor, U. S. Office of Education, Work Projects Administration, Farm Security Administration, U. S. Employment Service, and others. In order to develop a coordinated program of federal assistance in provision of care of children of working mothers the War Manpower Commission directed the Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services, in consultation with appropriate departments and agencies of the federal government, to promote and coordinate programs and take such measures as may be necessary to assure the effectuation of all such programs. To enable it to carry out these functions the amount of$400,000 was transferred on

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The Convention Never Held 115 August 28, 1942, from the Emergency Fund for the President, for necessary federal services and for grants to states for state and local administrative services, with the proviso that no part of the funds so granted shall be used for the actual operation of child-care programs. Under this program twentyone plans administered by state departments of public welfare and twentythree plans administered by state departments of education have been approved, on recommendation of the Children's Bureau, for welfare, and of the Office of Education, for education plans. At the present time the only federal funds available for the actual operation of day-care programs are Lanham Act funds and funds for WPA nursery schools under the WPA program which is being terminated by June 30, 1943. THE UNSUPERVISED CHILDÂ— A COMMUNITY RESPONSIBILITY ELIZABETH W. CLARK, DAY-CARE CONSULTANT, SOCIAL PLANNING COUNCIL, ST. LOUIS, MO. Our children are our future wealth. To conserve this wealth calls for united effort. Adults can work their way more or less successfullv thru the tremendous dislocations of war oh the basis of their individual and social experiences, judgment, self-understanding, and self-direction. These are aids to living which children do not have. It is a joint task of education and social welfare to help children acquire these aids. Every child should have a secure family setting, wholesome individual experiences in dealing with his own world, group experience to achieve social purposes, opportunity to explore the making of choices, and increasing ability to recognize and accept his own limitations and to discover the satisfaction of self-direction. These cannot be learned by preschool children thru the process of instruction or of discipline but only thru guided experiment by each individual and by example. These are the contributions essential to normal growth which parents give to their children. But millions of women must fulfil the functions of mother, breadwinner, homemaker, and substitute for father. The physical and emotional strains of this situation throw children ofiF base. Preschool children with inadequate or no care, when it is imperative, are tragically adrift. Younger school children, on their own before and after school, show signs of beha\i()r difficulties when the family anchorage seems lost. Still older children, who have more freedom than their immaturity can deal with, experiment with what they imagine are adult activities and become unself-disciplined. To conserve family life and responsibilities Â— the basis of democracy Â— to supplement home supervision and care, will require the integrated operation of all the resources education and welfare jointly can muster, community by community. It requires an imaginative understanding of the situation, a realistic analysis of the objectives to be achieved, and a flexible service program combining individual and group methods in effective proportions. This is an opportunity for education and for welfare.

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116 American Association of School Administrators SOME PROVISIONS FOR CHILDREN OF WORKING MOTHERS LEONARD POWER, ASSISTANT CHIEF, COMMUNITY WAR INFORMATION SECTION, OFFICE OF CIVILIAN DEFENSE, WASHINGTON, D. C. The primary purpose of making federal provisions for the care of children of working mothers is to assist in making the mothers available in the labor market. Altho it is most desirable not to employ mothers of young children, the employer who is pressed for time is not unwilling to take any workers who may apply, and in actual practice it has been found that mothers of >'oung children have been employed in large numbers in the major defense centers. At the time the mothers were employed temporary provisions were made for taking care of the children thru other members of the family who may have remained at home, thru neighbors, or thru paying for child care in private day nurseries. It was soon found, however, that such measures were wholly inadequate, particularly when the private day nurseries in some instances failed to measure up to proper standards of child care. It was impossible for the public schools to do this job due to lack both of funds and of facilities. The steps which have actually been taken to provide care and facilities for children of working mothers may be outlined as follows : 1. The federal government participates thru the Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services. The responsibility of this office with respect to caring for children of working mothers is discharged thru the Day-Care Section, which furnishes consultative and advisory services, literature, and other types of services to schools establishing child-care centers with Lanham Act funds. 2. State departments of education have appointed directors and necessary assistants to make administrative surveys of needs. The salary of the director and of the assistant is paid by the federal government thru the Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services. 3. Local boards of education, \vith the assistance of state departments of education, have provided facilities by making greater use of kindergarten rooms and by using unoccupied rooms in school buildings. Usually a local supervisor is appointed. The primary responsibility of the supervisor is to take charge of all services to children of ^vorking mothers Avhich are usually known as extended school services. The ages of the children who need to be cared for range from two to fourteen. For children of school age the provisions usually include care before school and after school and for a lunch during the da\'. In some cases it is necessary to provide for feeding when the children come to school and before leaving school to go home later in the evening. Children below school age need to be cared for thruout the hours that their mothers are away from home. All children need to be served meals at the schools and this raises some highly specialized problems. It formerly was possible to secure food and provisions thru the Surplus Commodities Division of the Department of Agriculture but this source of provisions will soon disappear as the needs for food for the armed forces and for our allies grow.

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'['iiE Convention Never Held 117 The method of payinjj; the cost of the services is for the local board of education or the local welfare service af2;encies to apply to the Federal Works Afrency for aid in maintaining the services, supplemented with fees, which are usually adjusted to the ability of the parents to pay. The fees usually include little more than enoufih to pay for the cost of the food and some of the supervisory and administrative costs. The full extent of the needs for these services is not known at the present time but it is safe to say that such services will equal or exceed those of the WPA nurserj' schools which were orfxanized in communities all over the United States. The aim of this service is to make it possible for all women who desire to do so, and who are needed, to work in freedom from worry about their children. EXTENDED SCHOOL SERVICES FOR CHILDREN OF WORKINC7 MOTHERS MAR^' DABNEV DAVIS, SENIOR SPECIALIST IN N URSERY-KINDERGARTENI'RI.MARV EDUCATION, U. S. OFFICE OF EDUCATION, WASHINGTON, D. C. To meet the needs of children whose mothers are employed in warconnected occupations, the l". S. Office of Education is working with state departments of education and, thru them, with local school officers to develop before-and-aftcr-school and vacation-time proo;rams for children of school age and full-da\nursery schools and kindergartens for younger children. This program of Extended School Services is part of a general plan authorized under a directive issued to the Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services by Paul V. McNutt, chairman of the War Manpower Commission, to coordinate all federal programs concerned with the care and guidance of children in wartime. Regional representatives of the Office of Education are assisting state education authorities in determining areas of need for extended school services, in preparing over-all state plans to meet the children's needs, and in organizing the children's programs. Plans submitted by twenty-four states, Hawaii, and the District of Columbia have been approved and are getting under way. These plans include the provision for personnel needed by state education departments in helping local communities develop their programs. Both regional and state administrative and supervisory personnel are provided for b\ a federal fund allocated for the initiation of the extended school services. Local programs are being rtnanced by Lanham funds, local contributions, and parents' fees. Aside from directing teachers, the staff for children's services includes fullor part-time counselors for parents and recreation, health, and nutrition workers. Programs are under way for training volunteers and High-School Victory Corps aides to supplement the professional staff. The school "day" is determined by the hours the mothers are working. Activities for the school-age children supplement hut do not continue the

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The Convention Never Held 119 iiiakinji;. Everywhere emphasis is beinj^ placed on materials specifically related to aeronautics, global geography, nutrition, consumer education, democracy versus naziism and fascism, information concerning our allies and our enemies and their ways of life, financing the war, feeding starving nations, and many other complex problems implied by the global concept of geography, politics, and economics. There is a need now such as there never was before to knoiv, and this nation must rely on the high-school library as one of the great channels of information necessary to understanding and to intelligent participation. To meet these demands, the high-school library has a twofold task. First, it must provide generously the books and materials which will contribute to the student's understanding of the meaning, the background, the accomplishments, and the aims of the war and postwar programs. Then it must secure the widest possible reading for such materials. Its responsibility is clear-cut, its contribution is significant, its place in the all-out war effort is required. The many library services or activities which can prove helpful in meeting the wartime demands cannot be listed in this short paper, but the following are representative: 1. Make the necessary adjustments to meet changes in the school brought about by the war emergency. 2. With other youth-serving agencies, share the responsibility to aid boys and girls of high-school age in making adjustments to the war demands. 3. Become an information center. 4. Provide suitable background materials dealing with present world problems and with postwar problems. 5. Supply suitable technical information for the war worker. 6. Stimulate war-related reading by such motivations as book fairs, booths, display cards, exhibits, maps, leaflets and circulars, newspapers, assembly programs, feature articles in school papers, individual contact, booklists, book talks, and the like. The danger to our American freedom and democratic way of life growing out of ignorance may far overshadow the danger from foreign invasion or subversive activities within our borders. Lack of knowledge, careless thinking, and mental debility can never withstand the ever-growing pressure from foreign ideologies. To the contrary, the indoctrination of American youth in the basic and abiding principles of American democracy becomes the responsibility of our teachers and our schools. The success of our democratic form of government depends on our citizens' being intelligent and well informed. This requires a broad, widespread education, the basis of which our public schools provide ; but it is the library which implements and gives permanent value to the work of the classroom. Education and enlightenment are still our best hope and high-school libraries are tools of both.

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Do you remember? Â— The last afternoon of the San Francisco convention in 1942, when members crossed the Golden Gate Bridge to enjoy the hospitality of "Marvelous Marin" County.

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The Convention Never Held 123 with people as individuals and as groups and to continue their general reading and their studies in the humanities as a means toward that end and toward the preservation of the dignity and worth of each person as an individual, WARTIME ACCELERATION IN EDUCATION A. J. CLOUD, PRESIDENT, SAN FRANCISCO JUNIOR COLI.IXJR, SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. It can hardl\ he questioned that urgent need exists for efiPective organization of waj's and means thru which more rapid progress than formerly may be made by young men and women approaching graduation from high school and about to go forward into college. This series of steps is now being dignified by the term "acceleration." The specific parts to be played in the process by the various levels of education call for careful appraisal, and particularly for clarification and harmonization. It would appear that the war situation has been the primary influence at work to direct immediate attention to this problem of earlier admission to college, but it should be borne in mind that conceivably the problem may have as much pertinence in peacetime as in war. At any rate an experimental approach, thru a long-range study looking toward the unification of aims and procedures at the vital point of juncture between upper high-school years and lower college years, would be an exceedingly important educational enterprise. With this general approach to the subject at issue, I recommend careful perusal of the following statements by Raymond A. Greene and John AV. Harbeson. ACCELERATION IN THE HIGH SCHOOL RAYMOND A. CREFN, PRINCIPAL, NEWTON JITGH SCHOOL, NEWTON. MASS. From the high-school point of view we heartily approve the action of the Executive Committee of the National Association of Secondary-School Principals in recommending that pupils "remain in high school and complete, if possible, the full wartime program of studies offered bv the high school, and thereby qualify for graduation from the high school." We feel that there is little, if any. advantage to a pupil's leaving high school to enter college before the completion of his course. The social, physical, and intellectual maturity of our teen-age youth must be considered. The senior year in high school is the important year of his high-school career. Should the continuity of a boy's education in the high school be broken for a brief period in college prior to his entrance into the Army? Should not our youth take full advantage of free public educational programs? We frankly feel that the high school will do a better job of teaching the high-school senior than the college. We understand the problems of that

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The Convention iNever Held 125 by the Educational Policies Coniinission on the supposition that a student who is to be drafted into military service at the age of eighteen could profit more from the first year of college than the last year of high school before his departure. A number of junior c(jlleges and higher institutions have put this plan into effect, altho in general it has not met with the approval of the high school. Some genuine accelerati(jn can also be accoiTiplished thru cooperation between junior college and university. The age-long criticism of the liberal arts college is that it has been extended over too long a period of time and as a consequence has graduated its students at too advanced an age. Two major efforts have been made in the history of the liberal arts college to eliminate this criticism. The first and original effort was by a group who posed to eliminate \\aste by a shortening of the time with little or no change in requirements, and the second and more recent attempt has been thru a general curriculum reorganization to terminate the college course two years earlier than in the past. It is apparent that the first group was attempting an impossible solution. Most of them were unwilling to shorten the curriculum and were attempting to do four years' work in three. Naturally, their faculties were skeptical and refused to follow. Moreover, they were attempting to solve the problem by working on the college exclusively whereas they should have taken into consideration the secondary school as well. Any effective reorganization of general education must cover the whole field of general education. It must include the high school as well as the lower division of the college. It may be possible to reorganize and save time over an eight-year span, but little can be done within the comparatively short program of the liberal arts college alone. This is particularly true when we consider that the college consists of two heterogeneous and unrelated halves. The proposal to solve the problem thru curriculum reorganization, however, is full of tremendous possibilities. It has long been recognized that the standard liberal arts college is not a homogeneous institution. The first half is plain general education and partakes of the characteristics of the secondary school. The second half involves specialization, research. an
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126 American Association of School Administrators four-year high or preparatory school embracing Grades VII to X, inclusive, and a new four-year liberal arts college embracing Grades XI to XIV, inclusive, organized and administered as single institutions. A reorganization of the curriculum over this eight-year span would make possible the completion of the program of general education at the end of the fourteenth year and the incidental saving of two years of time on the part of the college student. It should be pointed out that this is not merely an idealistic dream ; it is a practical, working plan now in operation in thirty-four junior colleges and public-school systems and in at least one major university. Certainly no more effective program of acceleration has thus far been devised at the college level. ' CRITICAL PROBLEMS OF RURAL EDUCATION IN THE PRESENT EMERGENCY BARTON MORGAN, IOWA STATE COLLEGE, AMES, IOWA; PRESIDENT, DEPARTMENT OF RURAL EDUCATION, NEA It is not necessary to tell teachers and school superintendents that education is one of the essentials in the present emergency. They see the great contribution that schools can make in training needed technical workers, in building health and physical fitness, and in developing sound morale and intelligent citizenship. The war and the peace may be won or lost on the educational front as well as on the battlefield or around the peace table. There is one group of schools in the nation that is not organized or financed or staffed to do the job that our security demands that they should do, and their plight is becoming more desperate because of the emergency which they should help to solve. These are the rural elementary and high schools attended by more than 50 percent of the pupils of the nation, about one-half of whom live in the open country. Rural schools are typified by the following conditions : ( 1 ) For the most part they are small. (2) Many of them depend upon motor transportation to get children to school, especially to high school. (3) Salaries of teachers are low, in general being from a half to two-thirds the salaries of teachers in urban areas. (4) Tenure conditions of the teachers and superintendents arc the most unfavorable of all public employees. (5) The availability of health services, physical education, and facilities for instruction in nutrition are far less than reciuired to meet current needs. Thruout the nation the rural schools are losing their teachers because there are not sufficient funds to pay adequate salaries to hold them. Many of the most successful rural teachers are going into urban schools, or into the WAACS and WAVES ; others are going into industrial or federal employment because of the much higher salaries and wages offered. The most effective remedy is sufficient public funds to pay teachers with adequate training. If the funds for rural teachers' salaries were doubled, the average salary would then barely be comparable to the lowest salaries paid to beginning clerical workers in the federal service. State and local taxing authorities should use every means available to increase the revenues for public-school

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The Convention Never Held 127 support. But with the most that is even remotely possible thru state and local effort, it will be possible to conserve and improve the rural schools for contributinp; to the war effort only if the federal government makes the necessary financial grants to the states. Federal officials responsible for the armed forces and for the production of war materials have requested the high schools to instruct more students, especially boys, in trades, agriculture, mathematics, and physics. The most extensive shortages of teachers in these subjects are in the rural high schools, which include the high schools in villages and small towns. The highest percentages of men teachers are found in the small high schools and men are most often the teachers of trades, agriculture, mathematics, and physics. The loss of men teachers to the armed services and industry constitutes the heaviest loss of the high schools. Immediate steps must be taken to supply trade, agriculture, mathematics, and physics teachers to the rural high schools. The securing of pupil transportation facilities is a serious problem in rural-school districts, and this comes at a time when there is great need for closing many small schools and uniting them with others. The Office of Defense Transportation has announced a plan for alleviating the situation, but the problem is still far from being solved. While the key to the problem is to be found on the national level, state departments of public instruction can do much by taking the leadership in working with local school authorities in devising means of conserving pupil transportation facilities, replanning bus routes, and, in some cases, transferring school bus equipment from one school district to another. Now is the time for states to set up plans for the reorganization of ruralschool administrative units in the postwar period. Unless this is done, rural schools will be unable to utilize the public works programs for school buildings that will probably be instituted by the federal government as a part of the postwar reconstruction program. SHOULD THERE BE A REORGANIZATION OF SCHOOLS IN THE RURAL AREAS? JII.I.AX E. BL TTERWORTH, PROFESSOR OF' RURAI, EDUCATION, AND DIRECTOR, SCHOOL OF EDUCATION, CORNELL UNIVERSITY', ITHACA, \. ^. In these critical times \\c need to consider anew the importance of establishing larger units of administration for the schools of the rural areas in those states where the small district prevails. Of the various types of larger units that are possible, two have received considerable attention of late : the county unit of the "strong" type, as it exists in West V^irginia ; the central district of New York, representing a natural, sociological community. To the usual peacetime arguments for such larger units should be added such special war and postwar incentives as these: 1. The possibility of promoting increased production and conservation of food. It has been estimated that in at least 6700 high schools the enrol-

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The Convention Never Held 129 program. He is concerned about the loss of many of his best teachers who have gone into the military service or who have taken positions in government and industry in order to make a living. Schools Have Done Their Part Accustomed to a heavy load of work, the hours of the superintendent of schools have known no bounds since the federal government has called upon the schools for many extra wartime services. Government officials and public alike have acclaimed the efficient manner in which the schools have conducted nationwide rationing and registration programs, scrap and bond drives, wartime training programs, and other war activities. They have thanked the teachers and praised their work in glowing terms. For example, the Washington Evening Star on February 27, 1943, editorialized as follows : The teachers should he proud of the fine compliments they are receiving for their handling of the latest complicated job of issuing ration books. . . . Who first thought of having the teachers handle these things? Whoever it was deserves a "V". . . . One would have to look far, indeed, to find a group of public servants more keenly aware of the obligations of citizenship or more ready to discharge them. . . . And when Distinguished Service Crosses are issued, for gallantry on the home front, the first to wear them should be our teachers. From across the continent. Mayor Angelo J. Rossi of San Francisco said : The highly competent work of the teaching staff of the San Francisco Public Schools, in connection with the issuance of War Ration Book Two, last week, calls for a rising vote of thanks from every person served. . . . Please convey to those interested the deep sense of appreciation all of us feel, in return for this truly commendable gesture of unselfish public service, so freely made by the public school employees, often at considerable self-sacrifice. Praise Is Welcome Â— but Inadequate Teachers are human. They appreciate praise for arduous, extra tasks well done. Teachers have always lived in part on this kind of remuneration. But today they are living in a period when cash is likewise essential. The cost of living since the global war began has risen 22 percent, whereas teachers' salaries have gone up less than 7 percent. This loss might have been absorbed had there previously been any margin in the salaries of teachers over the bare essentials of a decent standard of living. But teachers had no such margin. In some sections, after long years of hard work, careful planning, and effective public relations, salaries had reached reasonably adequate levels, but, with the national average never reaching $1500, salaries were still far too low for the preparation and experience required. The Teacher Salary Situation Today, despite modest increases in some places, data recently collected b\the NEA Research Division reveal the following facts: Forty teachers in every 100 Â— about 360,000 Â— are being paid less than$1200 for the school year 1942-43. Nearly 8 in every 100 Â— 66,000 in all Â— are being paid less than $600 for the present school year. PAGE 132 130 American Association of School Administrators Low salaries for teachers are typical in the Southern states but they are by no means limited to that region. At least 169,000 of the teachers receiving less than$1200 a year are outside of the Southeastern and Southwestern states; 15,000 receiving less than $600 a year are likewise in states other than the Southern states. There are about 61,000 Negro teachers in the Southeastern and Southwestern states where schools are segregated and salaries differentiated. About 53,000 of these Negro teachers are paid less than$1200 per year; about 30,000 are paid less than $600 a year. Only 2 of the 48 states report that no teachers are being paid less than$1200 for the year 1942-43. Nearly 15,000 teachers in Pennsylvania, 23 percent, are being paid less than $1200 for the year's work in 1942-43. The percentage is even higher in Illinois, where about 30 percent, or some 14,000 teachers, receive less than$1200. Twenty-six states are employing teachers at less than $600 a year. Mississippi and Arkansas are most heavily handicapped by low salaries, with half or more than half of the entire teaching staff being paid less than$600 this year. In New England we find every sixth teacher in Maine being paid less than $600. In South Dakota, employing 8000 teachers, some 1600 are paid less than$600. More than 4500 teachers in Kansas Â— one in five for the state Â— receive" less than $600 for the year's work. In connection with this salary survey the Research Division also investigated turnover. It found that teacher turnover in 1942-43 for the nation as a whole is double that of a normal year. The turnover in 1942-43 has been from 35 to 40 percent in four southern states (Georgia, Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Texas) and in two middlewestern states (North Dakota and South Dakota). Only slightly better conditions (25-35 percent turnover) exist in Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska, and Kansas in the !Middlewest; in Kentucky, Mississippi, and Louisiana in the South ; in the Great Lakes states of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan ; and in Idaho, Wyoming, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico in the Mountain area. The Result It is not surprising that thousands of teachers have left the profession. Faced with rising prices, many found they could not live on their salaries as teachers. School administrators with family responsibilities, especially those in smaller communities, were in a similar predicament. On every hand jobs in government and industry offered far higher pay. The federal government has set$2000 as the minimum salary for professional service and about 20 percent was added for o\ertime when the government went on the 48-hour week. To the lowest grade of unskilled service, such as charwomen, it pays a minimum of $1200. Federal Government Has Helped Others The federal government has increased salaries of its own employees. It has sanctioned and in reality provided the money for marked increases in pay for employees of industrial establishments which are turning out war goods. It has enrdiled industrial concerns to write into their contracts with the government the extra costs of these higher wages and a sure and sizable profit to management and ownership. It has made significant adjustments to place agriculture on a stable financial basis. PAGE 133 The Convention Never Held 131 Time To Give Teachers a Living Wage The teaching profession does not question these increases, but the time has arrived when the federal government must come to grips with the problem of assisting the state and local governments to provide adequate support for the schools. The 1,000,000 teachers of the nation deserve consideration as a group rendering a war service certainly no less vital than that of federal government and industrial workers. Furthermore, either this country will pay decent salaries to its teachers or the school system will be irreparably damaged. There is no alternative. The liarm already done is great. Superintendents Face a Mounting Difficulty The burden of keeping the schools going on an eiifective basis rests squarely upon the shoulders of the superintendent of schools. He is the one who must struggle to keep his staff. He is the one who must find some kind of a replacement for the teacher he can no longer hold or who goes into the armed forces. He is the one who finds that the teaching staff which he has patiently developed over a period of years is being disintegrated by forces he cannot control locally or even with the financial assistance of the state. He knows that every time he must make a replacement now in his staff he will probably get a less effective teacher. In man\ areas he has already had to resort to persons with emergency certificates. The NEA Research Division estimates that 37,000 emergency certificates have been issued in 1942-43, or ten times the usual number. In addition there are at least 13,000 vacant or unfilled positions in elementary and secondary schools. This situation ^\ ith which school administrators are faced will grow worse, not better, as the war takes an increasing toll of the nation's manpower. Teachers will readily find employment this coming summer at very much increased salaries. Many of them will not return to their classrooms in the fall. In addition the supply of new teachers from teachers colleges is greatly reduced. The trend is clear and the issue is drawn. The Federal Government Alone Can Correct the Situation It is time for action. Only one agency can stem the tide. That agency is the federal government. In peacetime there was incontrovertible evidence of the need for the federal government to equalize educational opportunity. Today, with federal taxes mounting to meet the war needs, state and local school systems face an emergency they cannot meet unaided. Education is a war need. It must be treated as such. The federal government can help to correct the teachers' salary crisis by an emergency appropriation. It can help to equalize educational opportunity among the states, the need for which has been shown by every serious study of the problem. To accomplish these two objectives is the purpose of S. 637 Avhich is now before the I'. S. Senate. It was introduced by Senators Thomas of Utah and Hill of Alabama. Following is a thumbnail sketch of the high- PAGE 134 132 American Association of School Administrators lights of this proposal and a table showing the estimated allotments to the states which S. 637 would provide. Provisions of S. 637 in Brief AMOUNTS AND PURPOSES Emergency Fund:$200,000,000 each year in which Congress shall find a need therefor to provide funds to pay teachers' salaries, where needed to keep schools open not less than 160 days a year, to employ additional teachers to relieve overcrowded classes, to raise substandard salaries, and to adjust salaries to meet the increased cost of living. Equalization Fund: $100,000,000 annually, for more nearly equalizing educational opportunities among and within the states. APPORTIONMENT Emergency Fund: Apportioned to the states on the basis of the number of pupils in average daily attendance in public schools in each state. Equalization Fund: Apportioned to the states according to financial need as measured by the number of persons five to seventeen years old and the total income payments in the respective states. The poorer the state the larger the share of aid it will receive. NO FEDERAL CONTROL Control of the schools is reserved strictly to the states and local school systems and forbidden to any federal officials or agencies. TYPES OF SCHOOLS AIDED Funds are made available to the states for aiding public elementary schools (which may include kindergarten and nursery schools) and public secondary schools (which may include thru the fourteenth year). Funds can be expended only for public agencies under public control. STATE DISTRIBUTION OF FUNDS The distribution of funds within a state is to be determined by regular state authority, the emergency funds being available only for teachers' salaries. NO REDUCTION IN STATE SUPPORT To qualify for receiving federal funds a state must continue to spend for public schools from state funds at least as much as it spent in 1941-42 unless reductions occur from causes beyond the control of the state. SALARIES MUST BE INCREASED To qualify for receiving federal funds from the emergency fund for teachers' salaries, a school district must continue to pay from state and local funds average salaries to teachers at least equal to those paid on February 1, 1943. SCHOOLS FOR MINORITY RACES In states that maintain separate schools for minority races, there is to be allotted for the minority schools a proportion of the funds that is not less than the proportion that the minority group is of the total population in the state, without a reduction in the proportion of funds from state and local sources spent for schools for the minority race in 1941-42. PAGE 135 The Convention Never Held 133 ESTIMATED ANNUAL ALLOTMENTS TO STATES UNDER PROPOSED FEDERAL AID BILL S. 637 PAGE 136 134 American Association of School Administrators ESTIMATED ANNUAL ALLOTMENTS TO STATES UNDER PROPOSED FEDERAL AID BILL S. 637 Â— Continued Apportionment on basis of States 1940-41 ADA Section 2 A 1 2 Oregon 1,498,400 Pennsylvania . . 14,722,200 Rhode Island . 878,000 South Carolina. . . 3,501,600 South Dakota. . 1,071,800 Tennessee 4,877,000 Texas 9,999,000 Utah 1,130,200 Vermont 515,000 Virginia 4,411,400 Washington 2,465,000 West Virginia . . . 3,623,200 Wisconsin 4,388,400 Wyoming 429,000 Alaska 48,000 American Samoa 22,000 Guam 41,000 Hawaii 800,600 Puerto Rico 2,329,400 Virgin Islands. . . . 29,000 Apportionment on basis of financial need Section 2B Total Apportionment 393,078 5,802,874 170,226 3,708,222 844,466 4,496,926 8,136,254 707,952 337,316 3,497,424 270,970 2,862,090 2,434,320 163.366 ) = 2,000,000 1,891,478 20,525,074 1,048,226 7,209,822 1,916,266 9,373,926 18,135,254 1,838,152 852.316 7,908,824 2,735,970 6,485.290 6,822,720 592,366 5,270,000 A superintendent of schools can estimate roughly from the table which is given above what the$200,000,000 emergency teachers' salary appropriation might mean to his local school system. Assuming that state educational authorities would prorate the fund his state would receive on a per capita teacher basis, a given school system would receive that proportion of the state's allotment which the number of teachers in the local school system bears to the total number of teachers in the state. Union \oiu The school superintendents of the nation are collectively an extremely powerful group. Now is the time for unified effort to get S. 637 enacted into law. It will help to see your schools thru this critical period. It will safeguard the educational opportunity of the nation's schools. It will provide aid to every state. It will give additional help to those states where the need is greatest. This is a measure which all educators can support. It is a measure the justice of which the lawman will readily understand if the facts arc placed before him.

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136 American Association of School Administrators This leads to recognition of a third factor in the situation Â— the powerful roles of ideology and of social change. The military aspects of this war, critical as they are in importance, are nevertheless surface phenomena; at bottom, the conflict is one of ideas, and of ideas that reflect the revolutionary pressures of modern social existence. These ideas Â— of fascism, communism, and democracy Â— cut deep and touch us all. They have historical roots; they appeal to differing personality types ; and their attractiveness is powerfully affected by variations in social and economic circumstance. The conflict between these ideas will not be decided by force of arms. All that has been said, up to this point, has clear implications for us who are devoted to the work of education. We, too, are facing the question of duty. As individuals and as those responsible for schools, colleges, and the whole great institution of American education, we are striving to determine what it is right that we should do. Our deepest wish is to be guided by patriotism Â— a patriotism that embraces mankind and sees far into the future. To say this, however, is one thing; to find the guidance we desire is quite another. Ultimately, among a people that is or proposes to be free, such guidance must be provided by personal conviction. This does not mean that responsible, constituted authorities may not properly undertake to make certain basic decisions that have the effect of determining for many individuals what their duty is. It is not necessarily an evasion of personal responsibility to yield to the advice of others or to accept the decision of popular government. We all need help with our problems, the help of wise persons and of those with special resources of knowledge. Nevertheless, there is a danger, especially amid the confusions of wartime, that we may yield to temptation to abdicate personal responsibility pretty completely, to seek escape from freedom Â— a by no means painless state of being Â— by sitting back and merely waiting to be told. During the last year this yearning for orders from somebody else must have been felt by most teachers, wondering whether they should stick to teaching, enlist, or enter war industry; and by most school and college staffs, troubled by the problem of how many established educational purposes and practices to retain and how much conversion to new institutional ends to bring about. On the whole, however, education and educators have sought to retain responsibility for guiding their own destinies, seeking always to bear in mind considerations of over-all social importance. They have welcomed and even sought out opportunities to join with representatives of other aspects of our national life in order to form basic policies, to reach basic decisions. They have, it is perhaps true to say, been protected from the impulse merely to accept orders by the otherwise distressing confusion of voices among those who were willing, if not eager, to say just what education should be doing. Against the preceding background of general analysis, it is my intention now to consider the purposes that should animate teacher education in the United States at the present time. It would be obviously inconsistent with the sentiments already expressed if T should speak in any dogmatic

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The Convention Never Held 137 fashion. The views expressed Mill he personal to me and to the Commission on Teacher Education with which I am associated. Their statement will, of course, be designed to persuade Â— but by reason, not by authority. The purpose of teacher education is the improvement of social existence. Education, as a social institution, has as its function the perpetuation of what is best in the life that men have already created together, and the encouragement and equipment of those personal powers that alone can lead to further progress along the road of civilization. In the educational process people constitute the vital element. However fine the buildings, however rich the resources of books and equipment, what the schools can accomplish depends most of all upon the children, the teachers, and the men and women of the community. Moreover, it is not what these are separately, but what they are in relationship, that is significant. The variable with which we are particularly concerned, in the vital human situation that is education, is the teacher. Over that variable we have some control, and upon the quality thereof the excellence of the educational process powerfully depends. If the teacher is "good," the school will be "good" Â— in the sense that the utmost possible, given the other factors in the situation, wnll be achieved. If the school is "good," society Avill be provided with citizens capable together of creating a good life. It is the purpose of teacher education to develop good teachers so that there may be good schools so that there may be a good society. This conclusion leads to a reconsideration of the war situation. This war makes good teaching more desperately important than ever before because fundamental social values are at issue and because equally fundamental social forces are at work, the nature and implications of which are as yet only dimly comprehended. The nation Â— whether it grasps the fact or not Â— must look to its teachers to enable youth to rise to the challenge of our times, both of 1943 and of the decades of dangerous opportunity that lie ahead. But the teachers need help if they are to meet their great obligations. This is true of those Â— mostly young women, now Â— who are preparing for teaching duties; it is equally true of those already on the job. Even those pursuing wonted duties need help; much more is required by the thousands who have undertaken new responsibilities, by the other thousands newly called to teaching as a result of the great loss of experienced teachers from which we are now suffering. It is help ill all these quarters that teacher education must provide, and all who are able to render such help are or should become participants in teacher education. Let me be explicit on this point. Teacher education must become a universally recognized responsibility today not merely of college and university staffs, but of state educational authorities of all sorts, and of superintendents, principals, supervisors, and the teachers themselves. That final phrase is of basic importance; for always one can learn much from one's peers, and always improvement is a personal as well as a group responsibility. On the one hand, then, we must strive to develop in each teacher an active sense of personal obligation to do all things possible to

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138 American Association of School Administrators increase personal capacity for professional service ; on the other hand we must all of us seek to work together to provide conditions most conducive to the attainment of such growth. It should be observed that reasoning which began with emphasis upon the social function of teacher education has led to equal stress upon respect for the personality of the teacher. This was inevitable, given the controlling influence of a democratic philosophy which assumes that free men living and working together as reasonable brethren define the ideal state. If democracy is to be achieved Â— it is always better to think of it as a goal rather than as an attainment Â— teaching must simultaneously enhance both personal freedom and also cooperative powers. Such freedom is a matter of positive personal expression Â— thought, feeling, and action for oneself Â— and not merely a matter of absence of external controls. Moreover, it is fully consistent with cooperative behavior, which is indeed becoming more and more a condition of freedom in our interdependent human world. But if teachers are to breed freedom and cooperation, they must themselves be free and cooperative. This statement suggests some basic aims for teacher education in our times. It reminds us that teachers are human beings and teaching a human enterprise. It warns us against mechanical modes of thinking when teacher education is at stake. We cannot produce teachers fit for democracy by treating them as things to be manipulated or as potentially interchangeable parts. No two "good" teachers for the kind of world we are fighting for will ever be alike. If we force teachers in preparation to say and do things that they do not understand or believe in, we may enable them to meet the requirements of our system but we shall unfit them for association with the children of a democracy. If we treat them as cogs once they are employed, decreeing just what they shall do, placing narrow limits upon their opportunities for creation, we shall compound the damage. In a fascist society teachers must do as they are told and the trainers of teachers Â— observe that I did not say "educators" Â— must tell them, they in turn having been told by some higher authority. In a static society teachers and the teachers of teachers may vegetate, repeating year after year a performance already made familiar by their predecessors. But our society, by our determination, is not fascist, and social forces will not permit it to be static. Our society must have teachers capable of discharging the heavy responsibilities of creative freedom. It is their task to help the youth of this nation to grow and develop in understanding of themselves and their world and in ability to act boldly and intelligently in controlling both to the end that men may live nobly together. It is the task of teacher education to prepare teachers well for the performance of this function, and to aid them in their efforts to perform it ever more successfully. On democratic assumptions, therefore, teacher education must be infused with respect for human personality and a deep sense of social responsibility. It must seek to raise up free teachers who are dedicated to the cause of human well-being. Such teachers will think, feel, and act for themselves, hut the\will do so with due regard for Â— and indeed in cooperation with Â—

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140 American Association of School Administrators sit at the conference table in an atmosphere of cordiality and friendship is in itself heartening, but the existence of the Board has deeper significance. It negates completely the cynical Axis doctrine that the strong inevitably and logically must absorb and dominate the weak. Every American nation, no matter how small its military establishment, no matter how undeveloped its economy, has an equal voice in the deliberations of the Board. The conscience of the Americas would not tolerate any other arrangement, for each country, realizing that it must assume its share in maintaining the freedom of the hemisphere, has an interest in joint defense that transcends considerations of national size and strength. The Inter-American Defense Board, then, is a symbol of the military unity of the hemisphere. Furthermore, innumerable instances could be given of political and economic solidarity. This unity has great importance in the present, and for the future benefit of all the American nations it must be preserved and increased. True unity is founded on understanding, and understanding, on knowledge. The educative function expressed in its simplest terms is to impart knowledge. Consequently, a great responsibility devolves upon the educators of the hemisphere. Theirs is the task of strengthening the bonds of friendship that join the Americas. Especially is this true of the teachers of the United States, for until quite recently the study of Latin America in this country has been largely restricted to secondary schools and colleges. The time has come to broaden the base of instruction in hemispheric subjects. Such instruction may well begin in primar}^ schools. Our neighbors' struggle for freedom is a fascinating and inspiring story, ennobled by the same high courage and perseverance that marked our own fight for independence. Bolivar and San Martin are worthy of the same homage we pay to Washington and Jefferson. The parallel courses of United States and Latin-American history should be emphasized. All nations of the Western Hemisphere have been motivated by the same ideals; each has shown the same devotion to liberty and justice. The interdependence of the American peoples should be kept constantly in view and the necessity for cooperation should be instilled in our youth until a desire to understand and appreciate our neighbors becomes almost instinctive. The culture of Latin America has been the field of study for comparatively few of our scholars. This has been caused in part by the language barrier. Recently educational programs in the United States have placed emphasis on the study of Spanish and Portuguese in our schools. Much remains to be done, however. Instruction in these languages should perhaps be begun much earlier than is the present practice. In view of the importance of our relations with Latin America in the future, the study of Spanish and Portuguese has very practical and material advantages. Once the language difficulty has been overcome, the way is opened to the appreciation of the Latin-American culture. If the mental processes of a people are understood, if the basis for their conduct is known and respected, possible sources of friction are minimized or removed. Beyond all such considerations, the study of the rich and highly developed Latin-

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The Convention Never Held 141 American culture is in itself rewarding. Latin-American literature antedates our own, and yet only in the past few years have its brilliance and depth been recognized. The fine arts have reached a stage of development in Latin America that at least is abreast of our own. These facts have been recognized by scholars in the United States, it is true ; but it is the task of the educators of the United States to make these facts known to all. This may entail a reorientation of educational policy, a reorientation that can bring nothing hut good. It is high time that the peoples of the New World came to know one another. There are many other means by which the power of education may be utilized to bring about greater understanding among the Americas. For example, the existent student exchange programs should be extended so that hundreds of students may have the opportunity to prepare themselves for participation in future joint activities of the hemisphere. Moreover, frequent conferences should be held among American educators to exchange opinions and to discuss methods designed to guarantee even better relations among our nations. It has been said that this century will be the American century. This statement should not be subject to a narrow or selfish interpretation. "American" should not mean "United States" ; it should be applied in a hemispheric sense. Furthermore, the hemisphere should not be a bloc of nations sufficient unto themselves and aloof from the world. The New World should be a model, an example of the value of friendly cooperation. The nations of the Western Hemisphere can be an immense force for world stability. Other areas will look to us for inspiration, because our belief in a unity based on sympathy and understanding is the only sound basis for future international relations. Our first duty, however, is to insure that our belief in unity is translated into an actual fact. In fulfilling that duty, American educators, who mold the minds of our youth, must play an important role. CANADIAN SCHOOLS IN WARTIME (Furnished thru the courtesy of the Canadian IVartime Information Board) Canada, neighbor Dominion to the north, a full-fledged member of the United Nations and a warring entity in her own right, has a population of a little more than 11,000,000. Now in their fourth year of war, Canadians numbering more than 775.000 are on active service as volunteers in the armed services, while many thousands of women are in the imiform of the army, navy, or air force. With this heavy drain on manpower threatening inevitable gaps in the home industrial front, the school children ha\e, in their own way, gone to war in Canada. Contribution by the secondary and public schools of the nation has been remarkable in an all-out war effort, and this contribution is steadily increasing.

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The Convention Never Held 145 GOOD NEIGHBORS Don Alejandro Alfaro Arriaga, Professor of Urban Primary Instruction and Advocate in the Tribunals of the Republic of Honduras, is now on leave of absence as a graduate student at the University of Colorado on an Inter-American Study Fellowship. Before he left his country, a large body of teachers in Honduras prepared a statement of goodwill to be presented to the teachers of the United States. The presentation was to have been a feature of the St. Louis convention of the American Association of School Administrators. We are happy to present herewith a reproduction of the original goodwill plaque. On behalf of the teachers of the United States, the American Association of School Administrators accepts with deep appreciation this auspicious expression of friendship from the teachers of the Republic of Honduras. Translation of Message on Plaque REPUBLIC OF HONDURAS Central America .MESS.AGE FROM THE TEACHERS OF HONDURAS TO THE TEACHERS OF THE UNITED STATES OF NORTH AMERICA "ximerica for the Americans." Â— Monroe BROTHERS: The bearer of this message is Don Alejandro Alfaro Arriaga, Professor of Urban Primary Instruction and Advocate in the Tribunals of the Republic, who brings to you our cordial greeting and interprets for us the deep and sincere feeling that stirs all the teachers of Honduras. We should like to make clear to you that we have always felt for you a sincere admiration for the great material and spiritual achievements that 30U have realized in your great nation, and now, in the supreme moments of the maximum test, which will better all humanity, we are on 5^our side to defend the sacred interests of the continent without fear and to the death for the welfare of our Mother America. Our messenger will live for a )'ear among you doing specialized study and we want him to present this message to you so that in his person, by us greatly loved, you may see represented the teaching profession of this small nation which together with yours has offered its blood and its life for the defense of human rights. We wish you the greatest possible good for your personal happiness and for the aggrandization of your country, and we extend to you our hand of friendship with an affection that is forever becoming stronger and with ardent prayers for the victory of the Democracies. fraternally yours, J. TOMAS QUINONEZ A., Local Superintendent of Primary Education in the Central District of Tegucigalpa; and sixty-seven other teachers.

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146 American Association of School Administrators EVERY DAY IS "M-DAY" FOR US ELLIOTT C. SPRATT, PRESIDENT, ASSOCIATED EXHIBITORS OF THE NATIONAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION What might have been called "M-Day" for educators has been called off. The American Association of School Administrators convention has been canceled. The happy, friendly cooperation between educators who develop minds and us exhibitors who develop materials has made past conventions eventful ones. The St. Louis "M-Day" Â— minds and materials Â— was to have been a far-reaching one for all. We in the material division must, in these critical times, do more than show, sell, and service; and educators in the mind division of education must do more than investigate and buy. We must do more than improve ourselves, our programs, our products, our teachers, our methods. We must give fully of our talents to help each other, for in this way we will help our country which is at war. Nearly 185 outstanding industrial concerns, manufacturing institutions, publishing houses, and distributing companies had planned to review at the St. Louis convention their efforts of fast-changing 1942 and to bring to the school administrators their ideas of what 1943 and 1944 would bring forth. Some of these companies had nothing to exhibit except a proud record of 100 percent cooperation in the war effort and unbounded determination to give repair and maintenance service to their customers of the past. Other companies, with improved substitutes, planned to exhibit what these new products, programs, materials, and methods are doing Â— and can do Â— -for the betterment of education. Never before in our country's history have the suppliers watched the material and scientific side of their businesses more closely. Never have publishers examined more minutely their relea'^es and suggested programs. Everyone is "all-out" to do his part to win the war and prepare for the peace to follow. On behalf of the members of the Associated Exhibitors and representatives thruout the country, we thank every educator for his many kindnesses and helpful suggestions in the past and pledge our hearty cooperation in the stress periods of the future. While the St. Louis "M-Day" has been canceled, every day until this war is won should be an "M-Day" Â— where minds and materials work closely together for the betterment of education's program for supporting our country at war.

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The Convention Never Held 14> THF AMERICAN KDrCATIC^N AWARD In 1928 the Associated Exhibitors of the National Education Association introduced for the first time an American Education Award. This Award was conceived in the minds of the directors as a tribute to and in recognition of outstanding contributions made in the broad field of education. Those who during the past years have been presented \\ith the Award, in the order named, are James W. Crabtree, Susan AI. Dorsey, Randall J. Condon, Philander P. Claxton, Albert E. Winship, Amos Alonzo Stagg, Walter J. Damrosch, Jane Addams, Lorado Taft, William AIcAndrew, Charles Hubbard Judd. Payson Smith, William Lyon Phelps, Frank Pierrepont Graves, and Robert Andrews Alillikan. Capt. Eddie Rickenbacker, whose faith and deeds speak to all humanity, has been selected as the recipient of the 1943 Award. Followihg is the text of the illuminated manuscript presented him: TO Ichdtarb l^nntou Bicluntbarlun* IS AWARDED THIS TESTIMONIAL THE AMERICAN EDUCATION AWARD Hour unselfish devotion to your country has fired the imag nation and enthusiasm of our youth. You have made us more conscious of our most precious heritage, the privilege and responsibility of being a citizen of the great democracy o.' the United States of America . ^ouR heroic and outstand ng service as a "^oldier will be retold again and again to succeeding generations of Americans. |?ouR efforts and accomplishments in Aviation have aided in the writing of new curricula, vital, invigorating and heartening to our youth. You have helped to give Wings to their dreams. j^ouR miraculous return to us is a story of Divine Providence Who has preserved you for other and larger services. Hour courage and sacrifice of self to bring comfort to others exemphfies the essence of Democracy in its love and loyalty to fellowman. ^E salute you as a teacher of true patriotism, a so'dier of intrepid courage, an American who has wri*:ten the name of our country in the skyline of all lands and for all time.

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The Convention Never Held 149 Athletic and Recreation Branch Â— Athletics and recreation when properly directed make a vital contribution to the mental and physical stamina of troops. They not only develop leadership, aggressiveness, initiative, and the will to win, but they also effectively prevent dissatisfaction, boredom, alcoholism, and exposure to venereal disease. Special Service officers are trained to organize and direct athletic activities and to organize musical activities, including the training of song leaders, bands, and orchestras. They coordinate and route professional entertainment provided by U.S.O. camp shows and they develop soldier shows from the talent so plentiful among the troops. They organize dances, stag parties, smokers, picnics, outings, arts and crafts programs, and hobby groups. When it becomes a matter of morale and is in conformity with the wishes of the commanding officer, the Special Service officer is often called on to help with welfare work such as advising about insurance and dependency problems. The Special Service officer helps to coordinate the work of the Red Cross and the Army Emergency Relief for the benefit of the individual soldier. He also helps to run the largest chain of motion picture theaters in the world, the Army Motion Picture Service. The School for Special Service The Army conducts a school for Special Service officers. The School for Special Service is located at the historic institution, Washington and Lee University, in Lexington, Virginia. During a six weeks' course, four weeks of basic instruction for all and two weeks of specialized instruction, according to the officer's probable assignment, is given to about five hundred officers in each course. Graduates of the school go to commands in this country and overseas. As staff officers, they assist the commanding officer to maintain and improve the physical and mental stamina of his troops. The curriculum of the School for Special Service includes instruction in the duties of a Special Service officer as a staff officer and in the various aspects of the work performed by Special Service officers in organizing and administering the information, education, athletic, and recreation activities. Field experience gathered from troops all over the globe is called on to help the student officer to a better understanding of the variety of factors which he may meet and to make him conscious of the need for imagination, the ability to improvise Â— in other words. Special Service. Special emphasis is being placed on knowledge of the physical and human resources of the United States and the unique characteristics of the government and people of our country. The school has found that its students, most of whom are college graduates, are, like Americans generally, lacking in understanding of American ways of life and of the purposes for which the war is being waged. In the Special Service Division of the Army there has grown steadily the conviction that the public schools and colleges need to change their objectives and programs in order that they may send into the Army men better prepared with many skills and abilities which are now generally inadequate for the job to be done.

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The Convention Never Held 151 THE SCHOOL OF MILITARY GOVERNMENT University of 1'irginia, Charlottesville, Fa. The School of Military Government, located at the University of Virginia, Charlottesville, V^irginia, is operated under the general supervision of the Provost Marshal General and is designed to train officers for future detail in connection with military government and liaison. The school is teaching carefully selected groups of officers to administer, during the interim between the fighting and the peace, the towns and settlements which our forces already are capturing in various parts of the world. Eventually these military administrators will have whole provinces, states, and perhaps countries to hold as tranquilly as possible, as the fighting men sweep onward. The present program of the School of Military Government calls for the training during each sixteen weeks' course of a maximum of one hundred commissioned officers of the various branches of the Army of the United States in the grades of captain to colonel, inclusive, and of fifty civilians who will be qualified, upon selection, for commissions in the Specialists Reserve Section, Officers Reserve Corps. Reserve commissions may be granted only in accordance with the rules and regulations of the Officer Procurement Service. Under existing regulations, persons under thirty-five years of age will not be commissioned. Persons thirty-five years of age and under forty-five are ineligible if in Class 1-A or Class 2. Students commissioned in the Officers Reserve Corps will be called to active duty for the purpose of attending the school. Those for whom further active duty assignments are not immediately available upon the completion of their instruction will revert to an inactive status pending further need for their services. Students are selected by the War Department following recommendations of the commandant based on knowledge or experience particularly fitting them for the work of military government or liaison. Qualifictitions include experience in a former military government or in our own federal government, or in the government of a state, county, or city. Experienced lawyers, fiscal experts, educational executives, sanitation engineers, and experts in communications, public welfare, public works and utilities, public health, public safety, or economics are eligible for admission if otherwise qualified. Demonstrated administrative ability of a high order is required. It is not enough for a man to have had some experience along his line. He must have been exceptionally successful in his field. Foreign languages also are stressed. The officer who can speak the language of the country to which he is assigned always has an advantage, and many of the candidates speak one foreien language or more. Those who know some country important in the global conflict or who have traveled widely enough to have absorbed knowledge of several countries are in demand. Necessarily most of the officers arc older men, oi ripe experience.

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152 American Association of School Administrators All applications should give complete and detailed information of the applicant's age, education, training, and experience, both military and civilian. Civilians should address all communications to the Military Government Division, Office of the Provost Marshal General, Munitions Building, Washington, D. C. EDUCATION FOR MEN AND WOMEN IN MILITARY SERVICE colonel FRANCIS T. SPAULDING, AUS, CHIEF, EDUCATION BRANCH, SPECIAL SERVICE DIVISION, SERVICES OF SUPPLY, WAR DEPARTMENT, WASHINGTON, D. C. In much of the discussion about the extension of selective service to young men eighteen and nineteen years old, there has appeared an assumption which is worth noting because it is so directly contrary to fact. The assumption has been that once a boy leaves school or college to enter the Army or Navy there is an end to his education Â— using "education" in any broad sense of the word. The fact is very different. The United States Army and Navy today are educational institutions on a scale surpassed only by all the secondary schools and colleges of the country put together. What kinds of education the Army and Navy provide, how widely they provide this education, and how best the educational experience which they offer can be taken into account for students returning to school or college after their military service is over, are questions of the first importance not merely to the young men and young women who are going into service, but to the schools and colleges themselves. The armed services provide five major programs of education for their personnel. Two of the programs are training programs for enlisted men and women; two more are training programs for officers; the fifth is a supplementary program for ofâ€¢-duty time. The training programs for enlisted personnel include, first, the basic military and naval training required of all newly enlisted or inducted men and women. Replacement training centers in the Army and "boots" schools in the Navy furnish rigorous courses not merely in the strictly military and naval skills which the various branches of the service require, but in important phases of general education. Personal hygiene and physical training occupy a large place in the basic program. Both Army and Navy provide systematic instruction in the rights and duties of citizens of the United States and especially of citizens who have become soldiers or sailors, and both give part of the training program to instruction in the background and significance of the present war. For enlisted men who are deficient in elementary education, both services have established special courses in reading, writing, spelling, arithmetic, and histor}^ Â— again as part of basic military training. Second, the services maintain special technicians' schools for enlisted personnel who are being trained for the enormous range of technical jobs

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The Convention Never Held 153 which modern warfare requires. In the Army there are more than a hundred different kinds of such schools, offering courses varying in length from three or four weeks to several months of intensive training. In the Navy the range of training is correspondingly wide. Out of the technicians' schools come men Â— and increasing numbers of women Â— equipped for the military versions of jobs which have important counterparts in civilian life: motor mechanics, radio operators, machinists, draftsmen, clerks and typists, and a great variety of other vocational specialists. The training programs for officers, like those for enlisted men, provide first for introductory training and second for more specialized courses. Initial training for officers is presented in the officer candidate schools, in courses of some four months' duration, so planned as to lead on from the basic training required of enlisted men before they can become officer candidates. The technicians' courses for enlisted men are paralleled by intensive courses for officers who have already been commissioned, and who are now preparing themselves for specialized military duties. In these courses, as in the technicians' schools, there is noteworthy emphasis on many jobs with civilian counterparts Â— engineering, chemistry, electricity, communications, transportation Â— all important in technical warfare. The fifth program is not a training program, tho it furnishes an important supplement to training. It is a part of the broad provisions which the Army and Navy are making for the healthy and constructive use by soldiers and sailors of their off-duty time. Leisure time is not plentiful for men who are undergoing basic training or who are enrolled in the various schools for specialists, and the provision of more education for such leisure time as these men have is not likely to be especially welcomed. Nor are troops on maneuvers or in active theaters of operations good candidates for more studying. But with men who are of necessity inactive for many hours a day the situation is dift'erent. Soldiers and sailors at stations in the Caribbean, on the wait for action that has not come ; troops in Iceland, w^th four hours of daylight in the winter months; soldiers in Australia, sitting tight against a future need Â— these men, and others all over the world, want something useful, as well as entertaining, to do. From their commanding officers have come clues to what they want: requests for books in quantity Â— not books of fiction or of passing interest alone, but books on history and mathematics, textbooks in science and English, courses in automechanics and electricity. I he armed services are meeting this need for supplementary education in two ways. One way consists of setting up off-duty classes, with instructors drawn from among the men themselves, and with teaching materials specially procured or made available thru the Army Library Service. The other way consists in the provision of correspondence-study materials, usable even where classes cannot be arranged and where competent instructors cannot be found among the men. In the provision of such materials the Armed Forces Institute (formerly called the Army Institute), with headquarters at Madison, ^V'isconsin. and a branch in the Hawaiian Islands, serves the Army and the Navy alike.

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154 American Association of School Administrators Because the Armed Forces Institute is occupying an increasingly important place in the off-duty educational program, its method of operation deserves special explanation. It now offers sixty-four courses of its own. largely in subjectmatter on the secondary-school level, which it supplies to men in service at an enrolment fee of $2 for each course. In addition, it registers military and naval personnel in some five hundred courses offered by seventy-seven colleges and universities, for which the government pays half the tuition fees up to a maximum of$20 for a single course. The college and university courses are drawn from the regular correspondence-instruction courses of these institutions ; they cover a wide range of general as well as technical and professional education from the high-school to the university level. For men stationed within the continental United States or in the Hawaiian Islands instruction is carried on according to usual correspondence-school methods. For men who cannot be reached regularly by mail, whole courses may be made available at once, so that students need not be dependent on the exchange of letters. Working with the Armed Forces Institute are two staffs of civilian specialists. One is an editorial staff, engaged in the preparation of teaching materials suited as directly as possible to the conditions under which soldiers and sailors must study. Self-teaching materials are especially needed ; and the editorial staff is now employed in the development of such materials, using not only books but pictures, diagrams, and phonograph recordings as means of supplying effective substitutes for teachers, with students who will have no teachers. The second staff is concerned with the preparation of tests. Since the studying which men do under the Institute will be carried on under all sorts of conditions, the usual methods of evaluating their work thru records of hours spent in study or marks on papers regularly submitted will have little meaning. What is needed is a system of measurement which will show what the men have actually learned, no matter how they learned it or how long it took them to do so ; and this system of measurement the testing staff is working out. The question of what kinds of education the armed services are providing for young men and women who leave the secondary schools and colleges is perhaps sufficiently answered by this account of the army and navy educational program. In their training programs they are offering nearly as wide a range of technical and professional education as civilian institutions offer, with an intensity of training which few civilian institutions can approach. In their off-duty program they are furnishing opportunity not merely for supplementing the training programs, but for continuing the more general education which may have been interrupted by military service, or for gaining an education that might not have been gained at all in civilian life. The question of how widely the armed services will have provided this education by the time the war is over cannot be answered exactly but the answer can at least be indicated. All soldiers and sailors receive basic military and naval training with its accompanying general education. No less than half, according to present figures, are receiving some form of

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160 American Association of School Administrators At the outset of war, schools in dangerous areas were evacuated. Since then, many of the town schools have reopened, and many evacuees have returned to their parents, but there still remain over 500,000 who will stay evacuated until the end of the war. They are scattered over the countryside, living in school camps or with foster parents, and enjoying the best educational facilities we can offer. And for evacuees taken from crowded areas to reception areas, the gain in health has been enormous. Speaking of London children, Emil Davies, chairman of the London County Council, said, when addressing the City Club of Chicago: "The evacuation of 400,000 children from the city to the country was a 95 percent unqualified success. The children are healthier, they go to bed earlier, and they have learned much. After the war, the school curriculum will include at least four weeks annually in country camps for London children." Hence the evacuation of children from the congested parts of large towns has been all to the good. It has taken children back to the land and given their education a more practical turn, while the improved health of the town children by evacuation to the country will not be without influence. Arrangements whereby town and country schools will exchange long visits are already being discussed by the London County Council and other bodies, and schemes for summer camp schools and the like for town children are being urged. Meantime, how has the school curriculum been adapted to meet war needs? There has been no abandonment of the basic subjects taught. The curriculum remains very much the same, but the war has brought a more realistic interpretation and a more practical application to the subjects taught. Almost every article of food is rationed, and children no longer are able to get either the quantity or the variety which they hitherto enjoyed. Hence they are intensely interested in the countries which no longer send bananas, oranges, grapefruit, sugar, butter, beef, and mutton. Thus the war has not only stimulated the child's desire for knowledge, but awakened his understanding and secured his cooperation in the war effort. He realizes why rationing is necessary and why it is his duty to waste nothing and to conserve everything, since by doing so, a gallant sailor's life may be saved. He also gets some idea of world sources of food and raw materials, and of the interdependence of nations, which will serve as a firm foundation of understanding of the problems which will face us when the war is over. A subject like home economics has intense practical significance in relation to planning balanced meals, nutrition, conservation of foods, and in the economic use of materials in dress and in the home. The teaching of the pure sciences like chemistry and physics is no longer academic but related to an understanding of the mechanism of war. Geography is now vital and history has quickened understanding of peoples and movements. The old curriculum may stand, but the content has new meaning; it is inescapably focused on the war, the war effort, and at the same time arousing an interest in the postwar world. At the same time, enormous strides have been taken to teach more details of American history and the American way of life. While it is true to

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The Convention Never Held 161 say some knowledfre of America has always been given in history and geography courses in British schools, yet the war has called for a more realistic understanding of our American allies. Toward that end, the Board of Education these past two summers has held schools for teachers, where American scholars had the opportunity to convey more intimately the spirit of America, both past and present. The Board of Education has also compiled lists of suitable books on American history and culture to assist British teachers, and is now requiring schools to either adopt special courses on America, or to insert into existing courses that right understanding of the great American people. Moreover, the American Information Services in Britain is cooperating in the distribution of films, books, and so on. Then what of the extracurriculum activities? The arts are still very much alive by way of debating societies, school orchestras, and choral groups, but not at the expense of "digging for victory" and organized work on the land. Last summer holidays, over 10,000 boys worked on the land, while the Board of Education is now allowing up to fourteen half-days' absence for agricultural work when it is necessary at harvesting periods. Then it was long since realized that senior boys and girls, many in the front line of battle, naturally wanted to participate actively in the war effort, hence the Pre-Military Training Courses for both boys and girls. Boys can volunteer to join the Army Cadet Corps at twelve, or to join the Sea Cadet Corps or the Air Training Corps. It is calculated that one boy in three is in the A.T.C. Girls may join the Girls' Training Corps, on the same lines as the boys', in their various districts. Here it may be pointed out that the officers of these various corps are largely staffed by teachers who have the requisite qualifications in their particular subjects. That means teachers are, for the most part, putting in long and arduous hours. Those who are not attached to the Pre-Military Training Courses are largely engaged in youth activities after school hours, while all teachers in town schools must take their turns in "fire-watching," as the government requires all buildings in town areas to have fire watchers bv night, on the premises in case incendiaries should fall. Much could be said about the feeding of school children. All children are required to drink half a pint of milk at morning recess, while the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Health have worked together to institute the hot midday meal in all schools, wherever possible. In industrial areas, provisions have been made for the serving of breakfasts and teas, so that the children of women war workers shall be taken care of. Quite obviously, very careful arrangements have been made for the children of women war workers. Apart from wartime nurseries, there are nursery classes now attached to schools in defense-work areas for children from three to five, while after-school supervision is arranged for children until their mothers are home from work. This brief eflFort to cover the field of Britain's wartime schools is far from complete. However, the newly instituted section of the British Information Services, 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York, serves to fill the gap.

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The Convention Never Held 163 total and global in order to endure, involves morale and wisdom. An informed and aroused citizenry is a first consideration in the emergency. The program of ci\'ic education in American schools must be adapted to the present and emerging needs of the nation. Aware of this necessity, the National Council for the Social Studies appointed in the autumn of 1942 a Commission on Wartime Polic_\ . The Commission, composed of a hundred men and women vitally interested in civic education and alert to the social scene, prepared a report suggesting basic directions of change in education for increasingly effective citizenship. The report, called The Social Studies Mobilize for Victory, was published by the National Council in December 1942, and has since been made the basis for discussion by groups of social studies teachers thruout the country. Out of their discussions have come action and improvement in the civic contribution of education in the emergency. Believing that education for citizenship is of crucial importance today and that the social studies must make essential contributions in that area, the Commission recommended that increased attention should be given in school programs to such matters as the following: 1. The meaning of democracy, its history, its practice, its development, together with the alternatives posed by totalitarianism. 2. The American traditions and institutions that we are fighting to preserve and defend. 3. The causes, issues, strategy, and aims of the war. 4. World geography, including its relations to war strategy and to the economic foundations of an enduring peace. 5. The responsibilities which total war places on all citizens. 6. The United Nations and the technics by which their cooperation and effectiveness can be increased. 7. The peoples and cultures of Asia and Latin America. S. The nations and peoples with which we are at war. 9. Peace plans and objectives on a world scale. 10. Problems of the reconstruction period. 11. The place and problems of youth in society, both in war and in the coming peace. The Commission recommended that stud>' of these matters be given special attention in 1943. They suggested the revision of existing courses to permit inclusion of new topics and infiltration of new materials along the lines suggested above. In addition to internal reconstruction of existing courses, both constant and elective, they recommended the establishment of new short-term courses as a part of the preinduction program. The Commission also favored pupils' participation in constructive community enterprises as a desirable apprenticeship in education. The Social Studies Mobilize for Victory is a small pamphlet and does not outline a program in finished detail. That program must be made by individual schools and teachers. But the report does indicate directions and policies of consummate importance in these critical days. Its suggestions are worth consideration by all who believe that schools have a share in shaping the public opinion of today and tomorrow, and that public opinion is the fidcrum of action in a democratic society.

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The Convention Never Held 165 of citizens in supporting rationing, and in educating the public in regard to the dangers of inflation. Other opportunities for experience in practical citizenship are presented b>' the Junior Red Cross and by various preinduction and Victory Corps programs. We can already point to solid achievement and be confident of greater achievement in the months to come. One important challenge still faces us Â— the need for understanding the problems that will face us in postwar reconstruction and in building international organization that reduces the dangers of war and that promotes the security of our peoples. We need to study our failure in the years that followed the First World War. We need to be aware of the almost overwhelming problem of feeding populations that will be starving; of reestablishing economic life on farms, in factories, and in business; of bringing disease under control ; and of reestablishing exiles and forced laborers in their homelands or in other places where existence can be made tolerable. We need to give attention to the choices that we can make in setting up a new political and a new economic world order. Again the current-events magazines and some new publications are helping us, but our resources are more limited in this area than in those previously considered. Related to programs for understanding both the w^ar and the problems of the postwar world is the need for increased understanding of geography. That need cannot be met simply by spending more time on the kind of geography we have taught in the past. Modern technology, modern chemistry, and modern transportation have created a world in w^hich new geographical concepts must be grasped. Ocean geography and map projections useful to those who navigate the seas will be useful as long as the seas are navigated, but air-age geography and polar projections must also be understood in an age that relies increasingly on the airplane for peacetime travel, for transportation, and for military strength. The new geography calls for more maturity than much of the geography we have studied in the past. Room must be made for it in the secondary schools and no doubt in the colleges. That may mean a new high-school course in world geography which might well be related to our established course in world history. Another possibility, however, lies in bringing geographical concepts into the stud> (if world history, American history, and modern problems. ]"'rom all parts of the country come reports of \\artime adjustments within the social studies program. .Most of them are along the lines that have been sketched. The confusion and uncertainty into which Pearl Harbor plunged social studies teachers have given way to an understanding of what needs to be done and what can be done. Some of the state departments of education, many city departments, and many professional organizations of teachers have provided leadership. H much still remains to be done, at least we can be sure that needs are recognized and that the progress alread\ made is certain to be continued.

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r 166 American Association of School Administrators NEWSPAPERS HONOR OUR PAST PRESIDENTS Suave Frank Cody Comes to End of Smoothly-Run Reign over Schools For most of Detroit, this week will be just the end of another school year, the one hundredth since the publicschool system was founded. For Frank Cody, superintendent of schools, it will mark the end of an era. For at the month's end he will lay down the burden of education which he has carried in and about Detroit ^^^^H|p'' for more than half the century of the educational ^H^^^j^ system's existence. [^^^^L mk Cody has been pointed to as one of the finest politicians in a city noted for its politics, altho he has never identified himself with a political movement. A better description would be "diplomat," for it was that quality which kept the school system under his guidance free from major scandal. Cody was able to maintain an evenness of disposition and outlook which ironed out the path for his subordinates and made their work a pleasure. Frank Cody is unique in that his entire life's work has lain within the county of his birth. In 1919 he was appointed superintendent, "pending the selection of a permanent superintendent." Nobody else ever got a chance at that appointment. Since then, newspaper men in Detroit have what they call a "standing head" which they take out and dust off for use every three years Â— "Cody Renamed as School Head." To several generations of scholars and teachers, however, the foregoing record doesn't tell all by a long shot. They know that during the days of Detroit's tremendous expansion, their school system expanded, too Â— miraculously and without undue growing pains. There was rarely an occasion of tension which he could not relieve with a quickly turned quip or story. During one of the recurrent Red scares, some of his teachers were accused of being Communists. He replied that if "10 of them are Red and the other 8000 well-read, that's a pretty good average in any community." Â— Detroit free press, June 22, 1942. A Job Well Done, Superintendent Glenn Major credit for the excellence of the Birmingham Public Schools and their high standing among the public education systems of the nation must be given Charles B. Glenn, whose retirement as superintendent will bring to a close forty-four years of faithful and efficient service. It was twenty-one years ago that j\Ir. Glenn took over the direction of public education in Birmingham, following the death of John Herbert Phillips. The system then employed 817 teachers, operated fifty-five schools with an average daily attendance of 28,124. Today Birmingham operates seventy schools with a teaching staff of 1496 and average dailv attendance of 44,166. The value of our school plant when Mr. Glenn took over was $1 ,744,188. PAGE 169 The Convention Never Held 167 When he steps out Aujjust 31, he will deliver into the keeping of his successor a plant valued at$9,550,242. But such statistics cannot measure the {greater hut intangihle contribution which Mr. (llenn has made to two generations of Birmiiij^ham school children durinj^ his twenty-one years as superintendent. Mr. Glenn did a remarkable job of building up the school plant but never was he in favor of nor did he build at the expense of instruction. One of his greatest concerns in recent years was the city's inability to give proper maintenance to its school plant. No doubt one of his greatest disappointments has been our failure to date to resume the building program to which he gave so much thought and careful planning. Mr. Glenn has earned his retirement. Â— Birmingham post, July 14, 1942. fVell Earned Â— The Schoolboard's Tribute to Superintendent Potter Milton C. Potter has served Milwaukee and its children for a quarter-century as superintendent of our public schools. He has served with rare ability and devotion, and Milwaukee's splendid standing in respect to public education stands as proof of the qualities he brought to the post and his faithfulness in discharging its duties. Milwaukee has appreciated Mr. Potter's services and has honored him day by day as he carried on his work. Now that he is about to relinquish his responsibilities, Milwaukee, thru its schoolboard, desires to give public testimony to the regard and esteem in which he is held and the public affection he has gained. And the Sentinel, with all Milwaukee, rejoices that such acknowledgment is proposed. At the same time we are entirely sympathetic with Mr. Potter's attitude as indicated by his letter to the schoolboard. To us it expresses more than perfunctory modest reluctance to accept a public tribute. It is rather an expression of his deep concern that every available dollar be dedicated to the support of our nation's war. Mr. Potter's splendid work in promoting the sale of war bonds and stamps thru the school system has demonstrated his devotion to this patriotic service. The schoolboard, however, overrules his objection and the plans for the public testimonial are under way. Despite the needs of the war, as Mr. Potter perceives them, the Sentinel is glad the people of Milwaukee are to have the opportunity to make public acknowledgment of their esteem and afifection for him. It is a fine and proper gesture to which Mr. Potter responded as those who know him best expected. Â— .milw.-xukee sentinel, February S, 1943.

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Do you remember? Â— The Krewe of NOR, the children's carnival organization of Mardi Gras, with its parade of sixty-two floats, which lent color to the New Orleans convention in 1937. Here we present the Child King NOR III and his court.

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The Convention of the Air THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS March 17-28, 1943 Eastern fVar Time WEDNESDAY, MARCH 17 9:15-9:45 a.m. School of the Air of the Americas Â— CBS Topic: New Horizons Â— Report from the Pacific Participants: Captain Eddie Rickenbacker, flying ace Colonel Hans Christian Adamson, Army Air Forces Roy Chapman Andrews, explorer 4:45-5:00 p.m. Teachers and the WarÂ— CBS The impact of war upon the schools in three of the United Nations Â— a program arranged in cooperation with the Educational Services Division of the Office of War Information Presiding: Eva G. Pinkston, executive secretary, Department of Elementary School Principals, NEA Participants: Alexander Khomianin, Washington Embassy, USSR Lillian DeLissa, Principal, Gypsy Hill Training College, London, England C. H. W. Hasselriis, Director of Research and Information, National America Denmark Association THURSDAY, MARCH 18 8:30-9:30 p.m. America's Town Meeting of the Air Â— Blue Topic: What the Schools Should Teach in Wartime Moderator: George V. Denny, Jr., president. The Town Hall Participants: Brooks Hays, congressman from Arkansas Alexander J. Stoddard, superintendent of schools, Philadelphia, Pa. Mark Van Doren, Columbia University John FredI'RICK Wolfenden, headmaster, l^ppinghani School, England Â— speaking from London 1 1 :30-12:00 P.M. Music of the New WorldÂ— NBC NBC Symphony Orchestra directed by Dr. Frank Black Presiding: Jacob Green berg, associate superintendent of New '^'ork City Schools Speaker: Leopold Stokowski, conductor of NBC Symphony FRIDAY, march 19 10:30-10:45 p.m. Price Control and the SchoolsÂ— NBC Presiding: Homer W. Anderson, president, AASA Speaker: Prentiss M. Brown, director, Office of Price Administration [169]

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170 American Association of School Administrators sunday, march 21 2:00-2:30 p.m. University of Chicago RoundtableÂ— NBC Topic: Education for Freedom 11 :30-12:00 p.m. Unlimited HorizonsÂ— NBC Topic: The High-School Laboratory and the War Speaker: ViERLiNG Kersey, superintendent of schools, Los Angeles, Calif. MONDAY, MARCH 22 9:15-9:30 p.m. Door Key ChildrenÂ— MBS Spotisor: Department of Elementary School Principals, NEA Presiding: EvA G. PiNKSTON, executive secretary, DESP Speakers: Charles P. Taft, assistant director. Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services Mrs. Frances P. Bolton, congresswoman from Ohio TUESDAY, march 23 2:30-3:00 p.m. The Victory HourÂ— Blue Topic: The Victory Corps in Action 6:00-6:30 p.m. Third National Teachers Meeting by RadioÂ— NBC Topic: The Long Look Ahead Sponsor: Educational Policies Commission WEDNESDAY, MARCH 24 12:30-1 :00 p.m. National Farm and Home Hour Â— Blue Topic: Victory Farm Volunteers Â— How School and Community Are Training "Soldiers of Production" Presiding: Belmont Farley, National Education Association Speakers: M. L. WiLSON, U. S. Department of Agriculture George R. Snyder, superintendent of schools, Vermillion, Ohio Wallace L. Kadderley, U. S. Department of Agriculture High-school boys and girls of New York and Baltimore THURSDAY, MARCH 2 5 10:30-10:45 p.m. Manpower and the Schools Â— CBS Presiding: Sherwood D. Shankland, executive secretary, AASA Speaker: Paul V. McNuTT, chairman. War Manpower Commission FRIDAY, MARCH 26 3 :45-4.00 p.m. Schools in Wartime Â— Blue Topic: What the Schools Are Contributing to the Winning of the War Presiding: Carroll R. Reed, first assistant superintendent of schools, Washington, D. C. Speakers: JoHN W. Studebaker, U. S. Commi-^sioner of Education William G. Carr, secretary, Educational Policies Commission

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The Convention of the Air 171 SATURDA^, MARCH 21 1:00-1:30 p.m. Coiinti> journalÂ— CHS Topic: The Scliool Bus and the Rural School Speaker: Fraxk W. C^r, Teachers College, Columbia University 6:15-6:45 p.m. The People's PlatformÂ— CBS Topic: What Kind of Hif2;h-School Education for Leadership in the Postwar World ? Sponsor: National Association of Secondary-School Principals PresiduKj: Lyman Brvson, educational director, CBS Participants: Francis L. Bacon, principal. Township High School, Evanston, 111. Thomas H. Brigcs, professor emeritus, Teachers College, Columbia University W. D. Fuller, president, Curtis Publishing Company; chairman, Education Committee, National Association of Manufacturers Alonzo F. Myers, head, Department of Higher Education, New York University SUNDAY, march 2 8 3:30-4:30 p.m. The Army HourÂ— NBC Topic: How the High School Can Serve the Army Speaker: Brigadier General Joe AL Dalton, assistant chief of staii', U. S. Army 4:30-4:55 p.m. Inter-American University of the Air Â— NBC Topic: Lands of the Free Speaker: Carlos Davila, former president of Chile APPRECIATION Â— The Convention of the Air brought to nationwide listening audiences a significant part of the program originally planned for the seventy-third annual convention of the American Association of School Administrators at St. Louis. This unique project luas made possible thru the cordial cooperation of the four major networks Â— The Blue Network, The Columbia Broadcasting System, The Mutual Broadcasting System, and The National Broadcasting Company Â— to whom lue owe a real debt of gratitude. The Convention of the Air teas organized under the direction of Belmont Farley, coordinator of radio for the National Education Association.

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176 American Association of School Administrators In thinking of the attitudes of civilians on the home front, we cannot help but draw comparisons with the outlook of our soldiers. When we think of a soldier, we think of him bearing a rifle. That rifle is heavy. It can be quite a burden. It must constantly be kept oiled, cleaned, and in good working order. A good soldier knows that. He knows that his life, and the life of those at home, may depend on the way he uses and cares for that rifle. It seems that we at home might take a soldier's attitude toward the weapons we are using Â— price control, rationing, rent control. In a democracy all things come back to the people. In a democracy we are proud of our schools and of our school administrators and of our teachers. The schools represent the people and the people are the product of the schools. Because the schools have accepted the challenge of wartime obligations they will earn to an even greater extent the trust and faith of the American people. DOOR KEY CHILDREN Participants: Eva G. Pinkston, executive secretary. Department of Elementary School Principals of the National Education Association, Washington, D. C. Charles P. Taft, assistant director of the Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services, Federal Security Agency, Washington, D. C. The Honorable Frances P. Bolton, congresswoman from Ohio Announcer: The Mutual Broadcasting System presents a program of the Convention of the Air sponsored by the American Association of School Administrators Â— the nation's school executives who, because of the strain of wartime travel, canceled their seventy-third annual convention which was to have been held in St. Louis this month. The highlights of the canceled convention are shared with the public in the Convention of the Air. This evening's highlight is sponsored by the Department of Elementary School Principals of the National Education Association on the topic of "Door Key Children." Our speakers are Charles P. Taft, assistant director of the Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services, Federal Security Agency; and the Honorable Frances P. Bolton, congresswoman from Ohio. They will be introduced by Eva G. Pinkston, executive secretary of the Department of Elementary School Principals of the National Education Association. Miss Pinkston : Thank you, Mr. Stepler. The schools of the nation are deeply concerned about the millions of children who are the victims of the ever-growing war effort. The problems of juvenile delinquency are increasing rapidly and we are told that most of the trouble has been caused by these "door key children." I mean the child who has had the door key hung about his neck as you would hang an emblem. He locks the door when he leaves for school in the morning and uses the key again to enter his home in the afternoon when he returns. You see his mother leaves for work early and she returns from work late. Principals and teachers have gladly given of their time by staying many afternoons a week with those children who

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178 American Association of School Administrators An educator to whom I was talking the other day about this before-andafter-school program had the idea that it offered an excellent opportunity for teacher training. By using teachers-in-training as leaders of before-andafter-school groups, they would get experience in sustaining an educational program based entirely on the child's interest, without benefit of the classroom atmosphere. This it seems to me would be bread cast upon the waters for school people. In return for helping out with a pressing wartime community problem, the schools will be helped in training their teachers. How the school's part in the community program for services to children of working mothers is developed and worked out will depend on the local situation. In order to size up the local situation, it is a good idea to have a group representative of all interested agencies act as a planning and steering committee for the community program. The welfare department, local industries and labor groups, the health and recreational departments, the public employment service, housing authorities, private welfare and educational agencies, and the parents themselves will have important contributions to make in communitywide planning and action. Integration of the activities of all these groups, agencies, and individuals concerned with the health and welfare of children is essential to an effective program of wartime child-care services. The defense council is the best location for this committee because it offers neutral ground and over-all interest. Operation of the community program will normally be the joint responsibility of the education and welfare departments, with other agencies and organizations supplementing their services. Thru participation in the work of this committee, the education department can see where its responsibilities lie and adopt programs which will meet local needs. There will be legal barriers ; there will be jurisdictional disputes ; there will be financial limitations ; there will be personnel shortages, and various other temptations to "throw up the sponge." But community after community is accepting the challenge which the wartime employment of women presents, and marshaling all its resources to protect its children, its homes, and its community life. One of the most important of these resources is the school. Miss Pinkston: Thank you, Mr. Taft. Our next speaker is the Honorable Frances P. Bolton from Ohio, who, before giving her valuable services to the nation, was very active for many years in public health nursing and nursing education, social service, and education. She holds LL.D. degrees from both Colgate and Wesleyan universities. It gives me great pleasure to have you hear Mrs. Bolton on this subject. Mrs. Bolton : Thank you. Miss Pinkston, for this opportunity of taking part with Mr. Taft in this program of the Convention of the Air Â— sponsored by the important Department of Elementary School Principals, which is so vividly aware of the tragedies that lie behind the very words that have been used Â— "door key children." Think of it! Little children with the keys of their homes hung around their necks, hideously symbolic of the burden of responsibility we have per-

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180 American Association of School Administrators All these things are possible if we men and women of America recognize and assume our responsibilities. The war must be won, or all light goes from the world. But in giving ourselves to that end we must remember that we are fighting for a better world, for a finer, stronger, happier humanity. Our family is as big as our great nation. Our strength as a people in the world of tomorrow will be measured by the physical, mental, and spiritual stature these children of today can attain. Let us assume the responsibility that is ours. Let us take the door keys from about the necks of our little ones and open to them the doors of a decently protected childhood that they may be ready to take a constructive part in the rebuilding of a world. Announcer: You have been listening to a program of the Convention of the Air, broadcast by the Mutual Broadcasting System in cooperation with the American Association of School Administrators. Speakers were Charles P. Taft, assistant director of the Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services, Federal Security Agency; and the Honorable Frances P. Bolton, congresswoman from Ohio. Eva G. Pinkston, executive secretary of the Department of Elementary School Principals of the National Education Association, presided. This is the Mutual Broadcasting System. THE HICtH-SCHOOL LABORATORY AND THE WAR VIERLING KERSEY, SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS, LOS ANGELES, CALIF. NBC Network Â— Convention of the Air High-school young men and young women regard the high-school diploma and the eighteenth birthday as the most important document and date in their current living. The high-school diploma is the key to entrance into every avenue of promotion for the man or woman in the armed forces or their supplementing services. A high-school diploma is not a lifeless document. It is dynamic, indicative of capacity and potential. The high-school diploma is a guarantee of the readiness of the learning mind and of the spirit of study, research, and appraisal. The training front is a vital front in every phase of this wartime. The training front is a universal war front. Training is a requirement for wartime life whether it be life at home, in production, in the armed forces, or for peacetime after the war. High-school life in its entirety is a laboratory experience. Life as it has been lived, as it is lived, and as it should be lived is examined, considered, and integrated into codes for right living. In this training front which we emphasize, there is found no substitute for the teacher and teaching. This verv program on which we speak is dedicated to the "unlimited horizon." Science is the basis for an unlimited horizon. Knowledge of science makes it possible to see beyond these days and also to project im-

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The Convention of the Air 181 afiinatioii. Laboratory learning and laboratory methods are of unusual significance and importance right now. No youth should miss such learning experiences. Facts reveal that laboratory learning gives in greater amount and intensity the essence of learning for wartime and peace days. This is a technical, scientific, and machine age for the vast majority of men and women in our society. The invention of the gasoline engine proved to be an event of greater significance to modern warfare than was the discovery of gunpowder by the Chinese. Sixty-three out of every one hundred men in the Army are assigned to duties requiring specialized laboratory training and knowledge. They must know the fundamentals of science and mathematics. The schools, the teachers, have the responsibility of rightly guiding and training those men. Science concerns itself today with many new processes and materials in the fields of plastics, metals, textiles, food processing, health, nutrition, blood plasma, and drugs. Great discoveries of recent years have advanced science more than the total of the previous five hundred years. Let us now acknowledge that the safeguarding of human happiness, welfare, progress, and balance in real living is to be found in the combination of social science and the laboratory sciences. Social science needs some of the exactness of laboratory science and laboratory science calls for the humanity of the social sciences. Learning in the high-school laboratory will be tuned to this combination of social and exact sciences. The real laboratory material for learning is found in every life situation. The introduction to that real laboratory is the high-school program of laboratory learning. The success which schools are attaining in their whole program of preinduction training, productive community services, production of commodities, processing of products, practicing democracy, stimulating leadership, and respecting the spirituality of magnificent living is a program of practical laboratory study. Such learning is motivated by wartime fervor, enthusiasm, and determination to learn more and better, faster and more accurately, for war davs and for peacetime. MANPOWER AND THE SCHOOLS Part'uipanis : Shkrvvood D. Shankland, executive secretary, American Association of School Administrators, Washington, D. C. The Honorable Paul V. IVIcNutt, chairman. War Manpower Commission, Washington, D. C. Announcer: The Columbia Broadcasting System, in cooperation with the American Association of School Administrators, presents a program of the Convention of the Air. Our speaker is War ALinpower Commissioner Paul V. McNutt. He will be introduced to you by S. D. Shankland, executive secretary of the American Association of School Administrators. IVIr. Shankland: For over seventy years, the superintendents of schools of the United States have met together in annual convention for deliberation and counsel. The acute transportation situation made such a meeting

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182 American Association of School Administrators impracticable this year. In its stead, we are employing the unique device of holding a Convention of the Air, consisting of seventeen radio programs. We appreciate the fine cooperation of the Columbia Broadcasting System in this project. The distinguished oflficial to address us this evening was to ha\e been one of the speakers from the platform of our convention. The educators are deeply interested in manpower, for the schools are the source of much of the knowledge and skills which make this manpower effective. The schools themselves have a manpower problem. There is a serious shortage of teachers. Some of them have entered the armed forces, others have been lured into the \\ ar industries by the higher incomes needed to meet the increased cost of living. In consequence, untrained recruits, married women with teaching experience, and men on the retired list are eagerly sought to fill vacancies. Should this trend continue, it may seriously deplete the teaching force and thus impair the efficiency of the schools in preparing the manpower of the nation. No one knows better the demands upon the schools for keeping this stream of manpower continuous and effective than the nation's manpower commissioner, who Avas formerly an educator himself, Paul V. iXIcNutt. Mr. AIcNutt: One cannot speak of America's progress toward its production goals without paying tribute to teachers and school administrators thruout the land. The American Association of School Administrators has given invaluable aid in coordinating their tremendous efforts. You have given bountifully to the armed forces, to industry, and to every one of the major organizations engaged in fighting this war. As you know, wartime America has gone back to school. Our country, on December 7, 1Q4], was fortunate indeed to have at its disposal for the conduct of the war the greatest system of public and private schools on earth. Think of this vast school system of ours. See before you the billions of dollars worth of buildings and equipment. See its well over 1,000,000 teachers and instructors. There is a reservoir of technical and scientific personnel and knowledge unsurpassed anywhere in the world. Never before in the history of world conflicts have the universities,^ the technical schools, the vocational schools, public and private, been so important to the immediate task of winning a war. War in 1943 is an enterprise of machines. Millions of technicians, specialists, and trained men are essential to the building of armed forces and war production industries. In modern warfare the nation which wins must fight a smart war. Not merely manpower, but brainpower, is the measure of the nation's strength. Technological superiority, trained chemists, scientists, physicists, doctors, dentists, teachers, and the equipment needed for the mass production of welltrained workers in war industries Â— these are the factors that determine the outcome of today's battles. We must utilize all f)ur educational facilities. We must develop, train, equip, and supply our armed forces and those of our allies. In this emergency, the nation has called upon the school

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The Convention of the Air 183 systems and upon their graduates, c-pecially those of the technical colleges and univcr ities and the public vocational schools. Never before in our history has the educational system been so well prepared to meet a challenge. Never before has it been able to convert its great resources so quickly to the business of defeating the nation's enemies. One illustration of the readiness of the school system to acquit itself with distinction in carrying war training burdens is found in the billion-dollar public vocational school system. FZnriched by more than twenty years of experience gained since the First World \V\ar, when they trained 60,000 men for war work, the vocational schools instituted more intensive training operations in 1940. In the last thirty-one months they have trained millions of men for war industries and close to a million others in farm skills and for other essential services! To properly understand the contribution of the school to the war program, let us glance quickly at our manpower situation. To get men at a time of great expansion of the armed forces, the War Manpower Commission has exerted its powers to the utmost. To train them for war industries the Commission has enlisted the vast resources of the entire school system and has coordinated and accelerated the work of all civilian training agencies. I am proud that, despite manpower problems of their own, the schools are shouldering all burdens offered them. ^Vith a great and growing shortage of teachers and unprecedented loads, they do not complain. Indeed, the only complaint coming to Washington from the schools is that they are not being given enough to do. They are turning out trained men so fast that Â— with the withdrawals necessary for work and battle Â— many facilities can shoulder a greater load. I want to say to all school administrators and to all school people that I am doing all that I can to give you more work, to make even greater use of your facilities, to keep the educational machinery functioning at full throttle. The Bureau of Selective Service and the U. S. Employment Service have assigned millions to appropriate wartime tasks. They are equipped to appraise and apportion millions more. The relatively small number of highly specialized men and women indispensable for the more responsible wartime positions are the hardest to obtain. The National Roster of Scientific and Specialized Personnel has on file the qualifications of nearly 700,000 highly qualified professional and technical men and women. From among these we have already drawn some of the almost indispensable persons needed for the planning and management of essential war enterprises. If we were to draw all of them tomorrow, however, the brainpower need would not be one-quarter filled. America must train manpower as never before. Fortunately, it is not essential to start from scratch. During 1942 alone nearly 4,500,000 workers were trained thru the efforts of agencies in the Bureau of Training of the War Manpower Commission. These training agencies were all functioning before the declaration of war. Each has its special task. Each is geared

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The Convention of Tnii Air 185 ill which to obtain greater use of those institutions for the training of civilians not needed for combat dut\Â— women, older men, and those w^ho cannot bear arms. These plans envisage greatly increased training of teachers, nurses, doctors, dentists, and veterinarians, as well as engineers, chemists, and physicists Â— they go far beyond anything yet attempted. Final approval of these steps is yet to come, but I have every hope that financial aid to worthy students in need and to institutions extending their services into fields bevond their established curriculums soon will be realized. Legislation is now pending to make available federal grants in aid to the states to assist in adjusting and organizing high-school curriculums, in the medical examination of students, and in the improvement of teachers of physical education, preflight aeronautics, mathematics, physics, and chemistry. In view of the low^ered age of induction and the need for the training of young men in the high schools along lines appropriate for military service, I hope and expect that the Congress will act to provide funds for the necessary emphasis in training boys of high-school age which the High-School Victory Corps is designed to bring about. My conception of the relationship of the War Manpower Commission to organized education is one of assistance and coordination, not of domination and control. The determination of manpower needs and particularly of training needs is a function of the War ^lanpower Commission. In this war every man and woman is needed. We have utilized the schools, the colleges, and the training agencies just as we have called upon every other source of national strength. The nation has the power, the resources, the brains, the organization, and the will to win. The road ahead will be hard but triumph is certain. Announcer: You have been listening to War Manpower Commissioner Paul V. McNutt in a program of the Convention of the Air presented by the Columbia Broadcasting System in cooperation with the American Association of School Administrators. Commissioner McNutt was introduced by S. D. Shankland, executive secretary of the Administrators. This program has come to you as a public service feature of the Columbia liroadcasting System.

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kit.' 'jf.^" /. ^ N ^ vÂ«!Â»^Â«Â«^. Vjl ^^"^i^^M^

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188 American Association of School Administrators exhibitors. They, much more than the individual member perhaps, were affected by uncertainties. Shipments, preparation of material, and assignment of personnel necessarily needed to be planned far in advance. The patience shown during periods of uncertainty, the loyalty to stand by, and the spirit with which the cancellation was accepted have again demonstrated that the men who participate in our exhibits have the cause of education deep in their minds and hearts. For the fine cooperation of the exhibitors who had contracted for space, and whose names are listed herewith, the American Association of School Administrators and the National Education Association are deeply indebted. DIRECTORY OF EXHIBITORS Albert Teachers' Agency 25 East Jackson Blvd., Chicago, 111. Teacher placement service. Allied Youth, Inc. 1201 16th St., N. W., Washington, D. C. The Allied Youth, Alcoholfax Educational Service. Allvn and Bacon Boston, New York, Chicago, Atlanta, Dallas, San Francisco. Schoolbooks. Americana Corporation 2 West 45th St., New York, N. Y. The Encyclopedia Americana. American Automobile Association Safety & Traffic Engineering Dept. 17th and Pennsylvania Ave., Washington, D. C. Safety education. American Book Company New York, Cincinnati, Chicago. School and college textbooks. American Crayon Company, The Sandusky, Ohio ; New York, N. Y. Prang Water Colors and Tempera Colors, drawing crayons, chalk crayons, white and colored drawing paper, inks, adhesi\es, and modeling material. American Education Press, Inc. 400 South Front St., Columbus, Ohio. Current Events, My Weekly Reader, Everyday Reading, Current Science, Every Week, Our Times, Your Future, Our Weekly News, Diagnostic Reading Workbooks, unit study books. American Library Association 520 North Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111. School library service; consultation service provided by the Joint Committee of the NEA and ALA ; books, pamphlets, and periodicals for school administrators, teachers, librarians, and students. American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn St., Chicago, III. Hygeia, The Health Magazine.

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Directory of Exhibitors 189 American Optical Company Southbridge, Mass. The Metron-O-Scope: A reading aid. The Ophthahn-O-Graph : For analyzing reading habits by means of eye-movement photography. American School .and University, The 470 Fourth Ave., New York, N. Y. A yearbook devoted to the construction, equipment, and maintenance of educational buildings. American Seating Company 9th and Broadway, Grand Rapids, Mich. School and auditorium furniture. American Technical Society Drexel Ave. at 58th St., Chicago, 111. Vocational, industrial arts, and commercial books. American Type Founders 200 Elmora Ave., Elizabeth, N. J, School printing outfits. Ampro Corporation 2839-51 North Western Ave., Chicago, 111. 8 mm and 16 mm silent, convertible to sound, sound-on-film and continuous silent and sound-on-film motion picture projectors. Associ.ATiON for Childhood Education 1201 16th St., N. W., Washington, D. C. Childhood Education Â— Serves teachers of young children. Balfour Company, L. G. Attleboro, Mass. Class, school, college, and fraternity jewelry, special insignia, commencement announcements, diplomas, programs, medals, cups, trophies. Beckley-Cardy Company 1632 Indiana Ave., Chicago, 111. Books, teaching material, diplomas, assembly and classroom seating, blackboards, bulletin boards, window shades, laboratory and library furniture, science apparatus, equipment, and supplies. Bell & Howell Company 1801 Larchmont Ave., Chicago, 111. Filmo 8 mm and 16 mm motion picture cameras, projectors, accessories; Filmosound 16 mm sound projectors; Filmoarc 16 mm arc lamp sound and silent projector; record players, recorders, public address systems; Filmosound library 16 mm educational, religious, and recreational films. BiNNEY t^ Smith Co. 41 East 42d St., New York, N. Y. Crayons, chalks, water colors, paste. Borbs-Merrill Company, The Indianapolis, Ind.; New York, N. Y. Te.xtbooks and reference books. Boy Scouts of America 2 Park Ave., New York, N. Y. Activities of the Boy Scouts of America.

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190 American Association of School Administrators Bradley Company, Milton Springfield, Mass. Art, kindergarten, educational supplies and equipment. Bruce Publishing Co. Milwaukee, Wis. American School Board Journal ; Industrial Arts and Vocational Education ; books. Building America 2 West 45th St., New York, N. Y. Pictured studies of American problems. Burroughs Wellcome & Co. (U.S.A.), Inc. 9-11 East 41st St., New York, N. Y. First-aid equipment. Cadmus Books 1 1 1 Eighth Ave., New York, N. Y. Books. California Test Bureau * 5916 Hollywood Blvd., HolWood, Calif. { Standardized tests and supplementary materials. j Celotex Corporation, The 120 South LaSalle St., Chicago, 111. Acoustical products Â— Acousti-Celote.x, Calicel, Calistone, MufHetone, j Absorbex, Acousteel-B. , Center for Safety' Education " New York University, New York, N. Y. Safety education materials. Central Scientific Company New York, Boston, Chicago, Toronto, San Francisco. < Scientific laboratory apparatus. ! Chicago Apparatus Company 1735 North Ashland Ave., Chicago, 111. Scientific instruments, laboratory supplies, chemicals. Christian Science Monitor, The Boston, Mass. An international daily newspaper. Civic Education Service 744 Jackson Place, N.W., Washington, D. C. " The American Observer, The Weekly News Review, The Junior Review, The Civic Leader, The Promise of Tomorrow, Making Democracy Work, Suggested Studies in Secondary Education. Clarin Mfg. Company 4640 West Harrison St., Chicago, 111. Steel folding and auditorium portable chairs. Columbia Broadcasting System, Inc. 485 Madison Ave., New York, N. Y. American School of the Air. ^ CoMPTON & Company, F. E. 1000 North Dearborn St., Chicago, III. Compton's Pictured Encyclopedia and Compton's Picture Library.

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Directory of Exhibitors 191 Continental Car-Na-Var Corporation 1525 East National Ave., Brazil, Ind. Heavy duty floor treatments, fillers, sealers, finishes, waxes, cleaners; Car-Na-Lac, Car-Na-Var, Rubber Var, Continental "18," Car-Na-Seal, Clean-O-Shine, De-Ter-Go; also Silent Chief electric floor machines, scrubbing machines, portable vacuum plants. Cram Company, Inc., The George F. 730 East Washington St., Indianapolis, Ind. School maps, atlases, globes, and charts. Davis Company, F. A. 1914-16 Cherry St.. Philadelphia, Pa. Textbooks. Denoyer-Geppert Co. 5235-5257 Ravenswood Ave., Chicago, 111. Geography and history maps, globes, pictures, biology charts, models, and visual instruction aids. DeVry Corporation 1111 Armitage Ave., Chicago, 111. Motion picture equipment, 16 and 35 mm for classroom and auditorium use; sound-on-film and silent; public address systems. Dick Company, A. B. 720 West Jackson Blvd., Chicago, 111. Mimeograph stencil duplicators and Mimeograph brand products. Ditto, Inc. Harrison at Oakley Blvd., Chicago, 111. Duplicating machines and supplies. Dixon Crucible Compan>-, Joseph Jersey City, N. J. Pencils, penholders, crayons, and erasers. Doubleday, Doran and Company, Inc. Garden City, Long Island, N. Y. Books. Draper Shade Co., Luther O. Spiceland, Ind. Adjustable window shades. Dudley Lock Corporation 570 W. Monroe St., Chicago, 111. Dudley combination locks, masterkeyed combination locks, key locks for lockers and school equipment. Eagle Pencil Co. 703 East 13th St., New York, N. Y. Lead pencils, steel pens, penholders, erasers, compasses, protractors. Economy Company, The Oklahoma City, Okla. ; Atlanta, Ga. Textbooks and workbooks. Educational Publishing Corpor.ation Darien, Conn. The Grade Teacher, teaching material books.

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192 American Association of School Administrators Educational Test BureauEducational Publishers, Inc. Minneapolis, Philadelphia, Nashville. Standardized educational tests and scales, professional books. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. 20 North Wacker Drive, Chicago, 111. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Britannica Junior. Erpi Classroom Films, Inc. 1841 Broadway, New York, N. Y. Instructional sound films and foreign language records. Evaporated Milk Association 307 North Michigan Ave., Chicago. Material on nutrition and health. Faber Pencil Co., Eberhard 37 Greenpoint Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. i Pencils (including Microtomic Van Dyke, Mongol Pencils, Mongol | Colored Pencils, Nupastel Color Sticks), penholders, rubber ' erasers, rubber bands. | FiNNELL System, Inc. Elkhart, Ind. Finnell electric floor machines for waxing, polishing, and scrubbing; finishes, waxes, cleansers, floor maintenance equipment and supplies. Foley & Edmunds, Inc. 480 Lexington Ave., New York, N. Y. Visual aids. Follett Publishing Company 1257 South Wabash Ave., Chicago, 111. Textbooks, workbooks, and library books. Frontier Press Company, The Lafayette Bldg., Buffalo, N. Y. Books, The Lincoln Library. GiNN & Company Boston, New York, Chicago, Columbus, San Francisco, Dallas, Atlanta, and London. School and college textbooks. Gregg Publishing Co., The New York, Chicago, Boston, San Francisco, Toronto. Textbooks. Grolier Society, Inc., The 2 West 45th St., New York, N. Y. The Book of Knowledge, Lands and Peoples, and Building America. Hamilton Manufacturing Company Two Rivers, Wis. Laboratory and vocational furniture for schools. Hammond & Co., C. S. 88 Lexington Ave., New York, N. Y. Maps, atlases, and globes. Harcourt, Brace and Company, Inc. 383 Madison Ave., New York, N. Y. Textbooks for junior and senior high schools.

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Directory of Exhibitors 193 Harprr & Brothers 49 East 33d St., New York, N. Y. School anil college text and general trade books. Heath and Company, D. C. 1815 Prairie Ave., Chicago, 111. School and college textbooks. Heinz Co., H. J. Pittsburgh, Pa, Informative material on nutrition, food preservation, and child feeding. HiGGiNs Ink Co., Inc. '271 Ninth St., Brooklyn, N. Y. Drawing inks, writing inks, adhesives, sealing wax. HiLLYARD Sales Company St. Joseph, Mo. Floor seals, finishes, waxes, cleaners, scrubbing and polishing machines, steel wooling machines, maintenance and sanitation products and supplies. Holden Patent Book Cover Co., The Springfield, Mass. Book covers. Holt and Company, Inc., Henry New York, Chicago. San Francisco, Atlanta, Dallas. High-school and college textbooks. Houghton Mifflin Company Boston, New York, Chicago, San Francisco, Dallas, Atlanta. Textbooks, reference books, and tests. Huntington Laboratories, Inc. Huntington, Ind. Liquid soaps, floor maintenance products, disinfectants. Ideal Pictures Corp. 28 East Eighth St., Chicago, 111. 16 mm motion pictures, projectors, and accessories Â— sound and silent. International Business Machines Corp. 590 Madison Ave., New York, N. Y. Time indicating, recording and program signaling equipment ; fire alarm, telephone and signal systems; public address, sound and central control radio systems; test scoring machines; all-electric writing machines; electric accounting machines, proof machines and ticketograph machines. Iroquois Publishing Co., Inc. Syracuse, N. Y. Textbooks and school supplies. Irwin Seating Company Grand Rapids, Mich. School furniture and auditorium chairs. Jam Handy Organization, The 2900 East Grand Blvd., Detroit, Mich. \'isual aids, slidefilms.

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194 American Association of School Administrators Joint University Press Exhibit Cornell University Press, Ithaca, N. Y. Duke University Press, Durham, N. C. Stanford University Press, Stanford University, Calif. University of California Press, Berkeley University of Chicago Press, Chicago University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill Yale University Press, New Haven, Conn. Publications of University Presses. Kenworthy Educational Service 13700 Woodworth Ave., East Cleveland, Ohio. Workbooks, seatwork, supplementary material, diplomas, invitations. Kewaunee Manufacturing Co. Kewaunee, Wis. f Wood and metal laboratory, home economics, vocational and library \ furniture. j Keystone View Company Meadville, Pa. Stereographs, lantern slides, Ready-to-Read Tests. Laidlaw Brothers, Publishers Chicago, New York, San Francisco, Dallas, and Atlanta, Textbooks and test and practice materials. Laurel Book Company Chicago, 111., and New York, N. Y. Textbooks and reference books. Linguaphone Institute 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York, N. Y. Foreign and English speech. LiPPiNCOTT Company, J. B. 333 West Lake St., Chicago, 111. School and college texts. Little, Brown & Company, Inc. 34 Beacon St., Boston, Mass. School and college textbooks. Lyons & Carnahan Chicpgo, 111., and New York, N. Y. Textbooks and reference books. Macmillan Company, The 60 Fifth Ave., New York, N. Y. School and college text and reference books. Manual Arts Press, The Peoria, 111. Books on industrial arts, vocational education, home economics, and art crafts. McClurg & Co., A. C. 333 East Ontario St., Chicago, 111. General trade books of all publishers for school libraries.

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Directory of Exhibitors 195 McCormick-Mathers Publishing Co., The Atlanta, New York, Columbus, Portland, Wichita. Books. McGraw-Hill Hook Co., Inc. 330 West 42d St., New York, N. Y. Textbooks. McKnight & IMcKnight Blooniin^ton, 111. Guidance materials, general shop, practical arts, home economics, etiquette, supplementary readers, geography texts, tests and maps, nature study and health, and school records. Medart jManufacturing Company, Fred Potomac and DeKalb Streets, St. Louis, Mo. Steel lockers, gj'mnasium apparatus, telescopic gym seats, steel shelving, steel storage cabinets, steel wardrobes (The Lockerobe) for elementary-school classrooms, playground apparatus. "Goal-Hi" Â— A game. Merrlam Company, G. & C. Springfield, Mass, MerriamWebster Dictionaries. Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. 1 Madison Ave., New York, N. Y. School health material. Midland Laboratories, Inc. Dubuque, Iowa. Floor seals, finishes, waxes and cleansers, disinfectants, soaps, insecticides, and the Midland Floormaster scrubbing and polishing machines. Modern School Products Box 2606, Cleveland, Ohio. Markable maps and charts including those for instruction in aviation. Nation's Schools Publishing Co., Inc., The 919 North Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111. The Nation's Schools Â— a magazine devoted to the interests of the school executive. National Association of Teachers' Agencies 533 Genesee Valley Trust Bldg., Rochester, N. Y. National organization for better teachers' agencies. National Audio-Visual Council, Inc. 160 North LaSalle St.. Chicago, 111. Audio-visual test material. National Broadcasting Co. 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York, N. Y. Educational broadcasting. National Congress of Parents and Teachers 600 South Michigan Blvd., Chicago, 111. Promotion and conduct of parent-teacher associations. National Parent-Teacher Magazine, Schools for Democracy, The Child in His Community and The Summer Round-up of the Children. National Education Association 1201 16th St,, N,W., Washington, D. C. Publications and periodicals of the Association and its departments.

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196 American Association of School Administrators National Forum, The 417 South Dearborn St., Chicago, 111. Organization of forums and publications in the field of social studies. National Geogr.a.phic Society 16th and M Sts., N.W., Washington, D. C. National Geographic Magazine. National Lock Co. Rockford, 111. Combination locker locks and laboratory furniture locks. National Safety Council, Education Division 20 North Wacker Drive, Chicago, 111. Safety education material. Nesbitt, Inc., John J. State Road and Rhawn St., Philadelphia, Pa. Nesbitt syncretizer heating and ventilating units. Neumade Products Corporation 427 West 42d St., New York, N. Y. \ 16 mm and 35 mm motion picture equipment for the filing, handling, \ editing, shipping, and cleaning of film. j New Tools for Learning 7 West 16th St., New York, N. Y. Pamphlets, radio transcripts, and films. Noble and Noble, Publishers, Inc. 100 Fifth Ave., New York, N. Y. Books. Norton Door Closer Co. 2900 North Western Ave., Chicago, 111. Norton Door Closers. Novelty Press, Inc. 292 Madison Ave., New York, N. Y. Posters on health, hygiene, and patriotism. Nystrom & Co., A. J. 3333 Elston Ave., Chicago, 111. Visual aids to learning and teaching in social studies and biological science. Owen Publishing Company, F. A. Dansville, N. Y. The Instructor, and books for teachers and schools. Palmer Company, The A. N. 55 Fifth Ave., New York, N. Y. Penmanship textbooks. Parents' Institute, Inc. 52 Vanderbilt Ave., New York, N. Y. Parents' Magazine, True Comics, and School Management. Books and pamphlets on child study and parent education. Popular Science Publishing Co., Inc. 353 Fourth Ave., New York, N. Y. Popular Science Monthly. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Publishers New York, Chicago, San Francisco. Books for secondary schools and colleges.

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198 American' Association of School Administrators School Specialty Supply Salina, Kans. Plan books, permanent records, ledgers, library supplies, school administrative forms. Scott, Foresman and Company Chicago, Atlanta, Dallas, New York. Textbooks. Scribner-Charles Scribner's Sons 597 Fifth Ave., New York, N. Y. Textbooks. Sheldon & Company, E. H. Muskegon, IMich. Laboratory, home economics, shop, art, library, commercial, and drawing furniture. Signal Press i 1730 Chicago Ave., Evanston, 111. ^ Alcohol education, experiments, objective devices, reference material. j Silver Burdett Company New York, Chicago, San Francisco. School and college textbooks. Society for Visual Education, Inc. 100 East Ohio St., Chicago, 111. ' S. V. E. Picturol and Tri-Purpose projectors (film stereopticons Â— | single and double frame) ; Filmslides and Picturol films, miniature and candid cameras; educational motion pictures; projection screens; special production and all visual aids. Southern Teachers' Agency Columbia, S. C. Teacher placement service. South-Western Publishing Company 201-203 AVest Fourth St., Cincinnati. Commercial textbooks. Spencer Lens Company Buffalo, N. Y. Microscopes, microtomes, optical instruments and projection apparatus, visual education apparatus, filmslide equipment. Spencer Turbine Co., The Hartford, Conn. Vacuum cleaners ; stationary and heavy duty portables. Standard Electric Time Co., The Springfield, Mass. Electric time equipment, laboratory panel equipment, fire alarm equipment, telephone equipment, sound distribution systems. Superior Coach Corporation Lima, Ohio. School bus bodies. Travel Letters 816 Wilson Bldg., Dallas, Texas. School correspondence thruout the Americas.

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Director^' of Exhibitors 199 Underwood Elliott Fisher Company ^^Npcwriters, accountlnj^ machines, flat surface accounting-writing machines, ten key adding-figuring machines, fanfold billers, address stencil writers, check writers, key set decimal tabulators, Underwood Elliott Fisher ribbons, carbon papers, and typewriter supplies. United Air Lines Transport Corporation Lhiited Air Lines Building, Clearing Station, Chicago. Airline maps and teaching materials. University of Iowa, Bureau of Educational Research and Service Iowa City, Iowa. Educational research studies and test publications. University of Nebraska, Extension Division Lincoln, Nebr. Books, courses, and monographs. University Publishing Co., The Lincoln, Nebr.; Chicago, 111.; New York, N. Y. ; Kansas City, Mo. School and college textbooks. University of Wisconsin Summer Session Madison, Wis. Vestal Chemical Laboratories, Inc. 4963 j\Lanchester Ave., St. Louis, Mo. Approved floor seals, waxes, cleaners, and floor machines. Victor Animatograph Corporation Davenport, Iowa. Audio-visual equipment, stereopticons, lantern slides, daylight screens, 16 mm motion picture cameras and projectors, and 16 mm talking motion picture equipment and films. Vocational Guidance Films, Inc. 2718 Beaver Ave., Des Moines, Iowa. 16 mm sound films on vocational guidance. VoNNEGUT Hardware Co. Indianapolis, Ind. Von Duprin self-releasing fire and panic exit latches. Wakefield Brass Co., The F. W. Vermilion, Ohio. Fluorescent and incandescent lighting fixtures for schools. Wallace Pencil Company St. Louis, Mo. Pencils. Ward Company, The C. E. New London, Ohio. Graduation caps and gowns, band uniforms, and a cappella gowns. Weber Costello Co. Chicago Heights, 111. Maps, globes, blackboards, erasers, colored chalks, crayons, and other classroom supplies. Webster Publishing Company 1808 Washington Ave., St. Louis, Mo. Textbooks, workbooks, and seat work material.

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200 American Association of School Administrators Welch Manufacturing Company, W. M. 1515 Sedgwick St., Chicago. Diplomas, scientific apparatus, laboratory furniture, annuals and yearbooks, scientific charts, and general school supplies. Welfare Engineering Company Waukegan, 111. School seating Â— research engineering and manufacturing. West Disinfecting Company 42-16 West St., Long Island City, N. Y. Also branches in all large cities. Sanitary products and devices. Whitman & Company, Albert 560 West Lake St., Chicago. Books. Wiley & Sons, Inc., John i 440 Fourth Ave., New York, N. Y. t Books. \ Winston Company, The John C. | Winston Building, Philadelphia. Textbooks, Bibles, children's books, general and reference publications. World Book Company Yonkers-on-Hudson, N. Y. ; Chicago, Atlanta, Boston, Dallas, Portland, San Francisco. Standard tests, textbooks, and professional books. World Publishing Co., The Time-Life Building, New York, N. Y. Textbooks, reference books, art books, reprints of nonfiction best sellers in history and biography, classics for grade schools. Wright Co., E. A. ] Broad and Huntingdon Sts., Philadelphia. Diplomas, certificates, commencement invitations, and stationery. Wyandotte Chemicals Corporation J. B. Ford Division Wyandotte, Mich. Wyandotte cleaning products. Yale & Towne Mfg. Company, The Stamford, Conn. Locks for steel lockers. Zaner-Bloser Co., The Columbus, Ohio. Zaner-Bloser and Freeman's Correlated Handwriting books and materials.

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OFFICIAL RECORDS

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in jHemorj) of Â€()e ^emhtts Wf)o l^abe 2Dicti lÂ«itl)tn tf^t ^a^t fear The American Association of School Administrators A Department of the National Education Association of the United States John L. Alger North Haven, Connecticut C. R. Aydelott St. Louis, Missouri A. G. Balcom New Providence, New Jersey Charles L. Broadwater El Segundo, California H. O. Burgess Atlanta, Georgia Harold G. Campbell New York, New York Harry A. Carpenter Rochester, New York Arthur H. Chamberlain San Francisco, California A. R. Clifton Los Angeles, California Orvis K. Collins Hingham, Massachusetts C. W. Daugette Jacksonville, Alabama V. L. EiKENBERRY Vinceunes, Indiana A. N. Gingrich Neffsville, Pennsylvania Ben G. Graham Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Julia L. Hahn Washington, D. C. Ernest A. Harding Trenton, New Jersey Irvin C. Hendrickson Bellwood, Illinois James Hurst Norfolk, Virginia Raymond A. Kent Louisville, Kentucky Philip H. Kimball Machias, Maine LeRoy a. King Indiana, Pennsylvania Charles E. Kittrell West Waterloo, New York F. J. McConville San Mateo, California C. R. Mann Washington, D. C. M. Burr Mann Boonton, New Jersey Herbert McComb Moore Lake Forest, Illinois Edgar E. Muller Oakland, California James E. Murphy Norwich, Connecticut Charles H. Reagle Newton, New Jersey D. W. Reidy Pasadena, California Clinton E. Rose Tucson, Arizona Richard E. Rutledge Sacramento, California R. S. Smith Whitewater, Wisconsin Catherine A. Soffel Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania R. E. Souers Bisbee, Arizona Fred Lee Thurston Pasadena, California R, H. Waterhouse Akron, Ohio J. B. Watson Pine Bluff, Arkansas fe&ruarp 28, 1943

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Official Records 203 REPORT OF THE HOARD OF TELLERS Washington, I). C, January 9, 1943 Results of the Final Preferential Hallot for the Office of President of the American Association of School Administrators a Department of the National Education Association of the United States We hereby certify that the results of the final preferential hallot for the office of president of the American Association of School Administrators for the year beginning J\Lirch 15, 1943, as provided in Article V, Section 1, of the Constitution, are as follows: First choice Second choice Third choice Nominee 1. William J. Hamilton 2. Henry H. Hill 3. Charles H. Lake 4. Worth McClure 5. DeWitt S. Morgan votes

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204 American Association of School Administrators REPORT OF THE AUDITING COMMITTEE Washington, D. C, January 27, 1943 Dr. Homer W. Anderson, President, American Association of School Administrators, Washington, D. C. Dear Dr. Anderson: The Auditing Committee of the American Association of School Administrators, a Department of the National Education Association of the United States, submits to you the following report. The committee has gone over most carefully all records in the office of the Department and has checked all vouchers and all cancelled checks and has made a careful examination of all of the special accounts and funds of the Department. The audit includes all vouchers for expenses, records of bank deposits and withdrawals, and the accounts of the permanent funds of the American Association of School Administrators. A careful check of the membership records was made for the purpose of noting the receipts in this Department. This committee examined and checked on the books the list of securities^ certified by the Executive Secretary and the Business Manager of the National Education Association. General Fund The distribution of receipts and expenditures was as follows: Total receipts $59,328.98 Balance January 1, 1942 18,551.84 Grand total$77,880.82 Total expenditures 60,170.35 Balance on hand December 31, 1942 $17,710.47 It will be noted from the above that the balance on hand December 31, 1942, was$841.37 less than the balance December 31, 1941. There would have been an operating profit for the year except for a reduction of about $3,000.00 in exhibit receipts due to the U. S. Army occupation of a portion of the San Francisco exhibit hall. Permanent Fund Assets on hand January 1, 1942 ..$31,319.55 Receipts Â— life memberships 320.00 Assets as of December 31, 1942 $31,639.55 The income from the permanent fund during the year was$1,168.33, which was used, as is required, for educational research. The committee desires to express its sincere appreciation for the cooperation and helpfulness of the Executive Secretary, of his office assistants, and of the Assistant Treasurer and Business Manager of the National Education Association. Respectfully submitted, J. H. BiNFORD, Chairmon Ray E. Cheney Evan E. Jones 1 The list of securities is printed on page 430 of the 1943 Yearbook of the American Association of School Administrators.

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208 American Association of School Administrators We realize the burden which the war throws upon our transportation systems and the necessity for diverting civilian travel unless it is directly and seriously concerned with the war. We recognize further that there should be no convention of the usual type. Our 1943 convention has been planned to meet actual wartime needs. The convention period has been shortened and the dates changed to avoid weekend travel. The meetings of several affiliated groups have been entirely eliminated, and a direct effort has been made to consider all war-related topics of immediate pressing importance or which may be of increasingly greater importance as the war progresses. We have consistently announced that attendance should be confined to those whose presence and participation are deemed to be useful and that activities not closely connected with the war effort are not in order. Attendance will be substantially reduced and those who are expected to attend will be the school leaders who are willing to ride in day coaches and take ^ their full share of the hardships of wartime transportation in order to gather I the practical help which is so much needed. I It is our judgment Â— reached after hours of deliberation together and consultation with many other school leaders Â— that this meeting will advance the war effort. We are hopeful that you will concur with our conclusion, having in mind not only the convention aims but also our efforts to curtail i attendance and relieve transportation loads. If you do not concur, will you so advise us within the next few days, so that contracts signed long ago can be promptly cancelled. Very truly yours, THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS S. D. Shankland Homer W. Anderson Executive Secretary President

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210 American Association of School Administrators THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS A DEPARTMENT OF THE NATIONAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION 1201 SIXTEENTH STREET, NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON, D. C. January 26, 1943 Your file: 612-9 Mr. H. F. McCarthy, Director Division of Traffic Movement The Office of Defense Transportation Washington, D. C. Dear Mr. McCarthy: Thank you for your prompt attention to our letter of January 19 and for the judicial manner in v^hich you have weighed the evidence for and against the holding of the seventy-third annual convention of the American Association of School Administrators as proposed for February 26-March 2, 1943, at St. Louis. Your statement of January 23 is thoroughly convincing. In recognition of the problem of transportation as you have stated it, we have decided that it is in the best interests of the Nation in its war effort to cancel the proposed convention. Enclosed is statement to that effect which vyill be circulated immediately among all interested parties. We are appreciative of the sympathetic consideration with which you have discussed this matter with us. Very truly yours, THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS S. D. Shankland Homer W. Anderson Executive Secretary President

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EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT OFFICE FOR EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT WASHINGTON. D. C. THE OFFICE OF DEFENSE TRANSPORTATION JOSEPH B. EASTMAN, DuÂ«clar Febniary 2, 1943 File: 612-9 Mr. Homer W. Anderson, President American Association of School Administrators 1201 Sixteenth Street, N. W. Washington, D. C, , Dear Kr. Anderson: your letter in recogniti the need for of a non-ess the American decided that in its war e vention. Lr. McCarthy has called to my attention of January 26 in -which you inform us that on of the problem of transportation and conservation and curtailment of all travel ential natxire, the Executive Committee of Association of School Administrators has it is in the best interest of the Nation ffort to cancel the proposed St. Louis con&yiCTORY BUY I' Â»Â• I r r o Â•TATrS WAR \ STAMPS The conspicuous support of our travel conservation program by an outstanding organization such as yours merits my sincere appreciation. I congratulate your organization upon its leadership. It is my hope that you will make known to all of yoxir members my gratitude for j''our understanding and the action that you have taken. Very sincerely yours. 'irector I

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Official Rixords 213 Section 5. All members of the National Education Association who are eligible to active membership in the American Association of School Administrators shall become life members of the Association upon the payment of a membership fee of $100, which may be made in ten equal annual payments, or upon securing a contribution of$250 to the Permanent Educational Research Fund, which may be paid in five equal annual installments. All such contributions and life membership fees shall become a part of the Permanent Educational Research Fund. Life members shall be exempt from the payment of all other membership fees in the American Association of School Administrators, and shall have all the rights and privileges of active members. Section 6. The Executive Committee shall have power to pass upon the credentials of all applicants for membership, in accordance with the provisions of the preceding sections of this article. Article IV Â— Officers Section 1. The officers of this Association shall be a President, a First \'icepresident (who shall be the retiring President), a Second Vicepresident, an Executive Secretary, and four members of the Executive Committee who, with the other officers of this Association, with the exception of the Executive Secretary, shall constitute the Executive Committee. Section 2. The President and Vicepresidents shall hold office for the period of one year, from March 15 following their election. Section 3. The Executive Secretary shall be selected by the Executive Committee for an indefinite period. Section 4. ^Members of the Executive Committee shall hold office for four years, commencing March 15 following the date of election, one member retiring each year. At the first election the member receiving the largest number of votes shall serve for a term of four years and the others for three, two, and one years, respectively, according to the number of votes received. Article V Â— Election of Officers Section 1. The election of the President shall be conducted by mailing an annual preferential ballot to all active members of the Association. The primary preferential ballot shall call for three nominations, designated as first, second, and third choices. The names of the five persons receiving the highest number of votes in this primary preferential ballot shall be submitted in a final preferential ballot, on which active members shall again indicate their first, second, and third choices. The primary ballot shall be mailed on or before October 1 and returned not later than midnight of October 21. The final ballot shall be mailed not later than December 1 and returned not later than midnight of December 2 1 . The person who receives the preferential plurality in the final ballot shall be declared elected by the E.xecutive Committee. On or before February 1 the Board of Tellers shall officially certify and announce the results of the election. Section 2. The procedure for the election of officers other than the President shall be as follows: Nominations shall be made from the floor

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214 American Association of School Administrators at the conclusion of the general session held on the morning of the third day of the annual meeting. Section 3. Method of balloting Â— The membership cards issued by the Executive Secretary of the Association to the members shall be provided with a detachable stub, to be exchanged for a ballot. Suitable places for the balloting shall be provided and announced in the official program. One of the ballot boxes shall be at the main entrance to the auditorium in which the general sessions are held. The ballot boxes shall be open for voting from 11 a. m. until 6 p. m. on the fourth day of the annual meeting. Those candidates receiving the highest number of votes for the respective offices shall be considered the choice of the Association, and declared elected. Section 4. Announcement of the results of balloting Â— At the last regular business session, the President shall call for the report of the Executive Secretary, announcing the result of the ballot cast for the several officers of the Association. In case of a tie vote, the Executive Committee shall cast lots to determine the successful candidate. Section 5. The Board of Tellers, the Executive Comm.ittee, and the Executive Secretary shall be in charge of the entire procedure of balloting for all officers. Article VI Â— Standing Committees The standing committees of this Association shall consist of a Resolutions Committee, an Audit Committee, and a Board of Tellers of three members. Other committees may be authorized by the Executive Committee or the Association from time to time. Article VII Â— Annual Meeting The annual meeting of this Association shall be held on the fourth Sunday in February, and the four succeeding days. Article VIII Â— Amendments This Constitution may be altered or amended at any annual meeting by two-thirds vote of the active members present, the proposed amendment having been submitted in writing at the previous annual meeting. BYLAWS Article I Â— Duties of Officers Section 1 . It shall be the duty of the President to preside or to arrange for presiding officers at all meetings and in conjunction with the Executive Committee to prepare programs for the annual meeting of the Association; to appoint all committees not otherwise provided for. He shall be chairman and a member of the Executive Committee, and shall call meetings of this Committee whenever he deems it necessary, or whenever he is requested so to do by a majority of the members of the Committee. He shall perform all other duties appertaining to his office.

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Official Rfcords 215 Section 2. In the absence of the President, the Vicepresidents shall preside in turn. In case of vacancy in the office of President, the Second Vicepresident shall at once succeed to the office of President. Section 3. The Executive Secretary shall keep a complete and accurate record of the proceedings of all meetings of the Association and all meetings of the Executive Committee; shall conduct the business of the Association as provided by the Constitution and Bylaws; and in all matters not definitely prescribed therein be under the direction of the Executive Committee, and in the absence of direction by the Executive Committee, shall be under the direction of the President. He shall receive all moneys due the Association and transmit them monthly to the Executive Secretary of the National Education Association; shall countersign all bills approved for payment by the Executive Committee or by the President in the interval between meetings of the Executive Committee. He shall have his records present at all meetings of the Association and Executive Committee. He shall keep a list of members of the Association and shall revise said list annually. He shall be Secretary of the Executive Committee and custodian of all property of the Association. He shall give such bond as may be required by the Executive Committee. He shall submit an annual report to the Executive Committee at each annual meeting. At the expiration of his term of office he shall turn over to his successor in office all money, books, and property of the Association. He shall serve during the pleasure of the Executive Committee. Article II Â— Duties of Committees Section 1. The Executive Committee shall assist the President in arranging the annual program. It shall fix the place of the annual meeting. It shall select an Executive Secretary for an indefinite term and fix his salary. It shall authorize the appointment of special commissions for investigation and research. It shall determine the amount of money to be expended in such investigations, but in no case shall it incur debt. It shall determine what departments of the National Education Association and what other educational organizations shall be invited to hold meetings with this Association. Section 2. The Resolutions and Audit Committees and the Board of Tellers shall be appointed by the President and shall make their reports at the next annual meeting succeeding their appointment. Article III Â— Dues The dues of this Association shall be \$5 per year for both active and associate members, and shall be paid annually to the Executive Secretary. Article IV Â— Vacancies All vacancies occurring in any office other than that of President shall be filled by the Executive Committee.

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216 American Association of School Administrators Article V Â— Rules of Order Robert's Rules oj Order shall govern in all business meetings of this Association. Article VI Â— Amendments These Bylaws may be amended at any annual meeting of this Association by a majority vote of the members present, the amendment having been submitted in writing at the previous annual meeting. CALENDAR OF MEETINGS Historical Note Â— At the meeting of the National Teachers' Association in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, August 1865, the state and city superintendents present decided to form an organization, to be composed exclusively of those engaged in supervisory work in the schools. This group agreed to meet in Washington, D. C, in February 1866, at which time the work of organizing was completed. The new organization was called the National Association of School Superintendents. Nine states and twenty cities were represented. The National Association of School Superintendents became the Department of School Superintendence of the National Educational Association at a convention held at Cleveland, Ohio, August 1870. In 1907 a new act of incorporation which had been passed by Congress and approved by the President of the United States was accepted and adopted by the summer meeting of the parent association at Los Angeles, California. According to one of the provisions of this new act, the name was changed to the Department of Superintendence of the National Education Association. Following an amendment to the bylaws of the National Education Association at Des Moines, Iowa, in July 1921, the Department of Superintendence was reorganized under a new constitution of its own, with a full-time executive secretary. The 1937 convention at New Orleans adopted a new constitution changing the name from the Department of Superintendence to the American Association of School Administrators, a department of the National Education Association of the United States. NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL SUPERINTENDENTS, 1S6S-1870 1865Â— HARRISBURG, PA. (Organization) 1868Â— NASHVILLE, TENN., August Auuust Emerson E. White, President BiRDSEY Grant Northrop, Chairman Daniel Stevenson, Vicepresident L. Van Bokkelen, Secretary L. Van Bokkelen, Secretary 1866Â— WASHINGTON. D. C, February 1869Â— TRENTON, N. J., August INDIANAPOLIS, IND., August J. W. Bulkley. President Birdsey Grant Northrop, President Emerson E. White, Vicepresident Charles R. Coburn, Vicepresident L. Van Bokkelen. Secretary L. Van Bokkelen, Secretary 1870Â— WASHINGTON. D. C, March 1867 Â— No Meeting James P. Wickersham, President S. S. Ashley, X'icepresident W. R. Creery, Secretary

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Official Records 217 DEPARTMENT OF SCHOOL SUPERINTENDENCE OF THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION, 1870-1907 1871Â— ST. I.nns, MO., AuKUst \V. n. Henkle, President \V. M. Colby, V'iccpresident Warren Johnson. Secretary 1872Â— BOSTON. MASS., August John Hancock, President A. P. Marble, Secretary 1873Â— ELMIRA, N. V.. August William T. Harris, President John W. Pace, Vicepresident .\. P. Marble, Secretary 1874^WASHINGTON, D. C. January DETROIT, MICH.. August J. H. BiNFORD, President .Allen Armstrong, Secretary 1875WASHINGTON, D. C. January MINNEAPOLIS. MINN.. August J. Ormond Wilson, President A. Abernethy, Vicepresident R. W. Stevenson, Secretary 1876Â— BALTIMORE, MD., July Charles S. Smart. President A. Pickett, Vicepresident Horace S. Tarbell, Secretary 1877WASHINGTON. D. C, March LOUISVILLE, KY., August WASHINGTON, D. C, December Charles S. Smart, President Horace S. Tarbell, Secretary 1878Â— No Meeting 1879Â— WASHINGTON, D. C, February PHILADELPHIA. PA., July James P. Wickersham, President James H. Smart, Vicepresident R. W. Stevenson, Secretary 1880Â— WASHINGTON. D. C, February CHAUTAUQUA, N. V., July ' M. A. Newell, President N. A. Calkins. Vicepresident S. A. Baer, Secretary 1881Â— NEW YORK. N. Y., February ATLANTA, GA., July A. P. Marble, President N. A. Calkins, Vicepresident Samuel Findley, Secretary 1882Â— WASHINGTON, D. C, March SAR.\TOGA SPRINGS, N. Y., July W. H. Ruffner, President N. A. Calkins, Vicepresident Henry S. Jones, Secretary 1883Â— WASHINGTON, D. C. February SARATOGA SPRINGS, N. Y., July N. A. Calkins, President Horace S. Tarbell, Vicepresident Henry S. Jones, Secretary 1884Â— WASHINGTON, D. C, February MADISON, WIS., July B. L. Butcher, President D. F. DeWolf, Vicepresident Henry R. Sanford, Secretary 1885NEW ORLEANS, LA., February SARATOGA SPRINGS, N. Y., July Leroy D. Brown, President W. O. Rogers, Secretary 1886Â— WASHINGTON. D. C, February TOPEKA, KANS., July Warren Easton, President A. P. Stone, Vicepresident Charles C. Davidson, Secretary 1887Â— W.\SHINGTON, D. C, March CHICAGO, ILL.. July Charles S. Young, President N. C. Dougherty, \'icepresident Charles C. Davidson, Secretary 1888Â— WASHINGTON, D. C, February SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF., July N. C. Dougherty, President Henry A. Wise, V'iccpresident W. R. Thigpen, Secretary 1889Â— WASHINGTON. D. C, February NASHVILLE, TENN., July Fred M. Campbell, President Charles C. Davidson, Vicepresident W. R. Thigpen, Secretary 1890Â— NEW YORK, N. Y., February Andrew S. Draper, President J. A. B. Lovett, Vicepresident L. W. Day. Secretary 1891Â— PHILADELPHIA, PA., February Andrew S. Draper, President J. A. B. Lovett, Vicepresident L. W. Day, .Secretary 1892Â— BROOKLYN, N. Y., February Hknky Sabin, President X'iRoiL G. Curtis, Vicepresident L. W. Day, Secretary 1893Â— BOSTON, MASS., February Edward Brooks, President John E. Bradley, Vicepresident J. H. Phillips, Secretary 1894Â— RICHMOND, VA.. February D. L. Kiehle, President Warren Easton, Vicepresident Frederick Treudley, Secretary 1895CLEVELAND, OHIO, February William H. Maxwell, President Oscar T. Corson, Vicepresident James M. Carlisle, Secretary 1896Â— JACKSONVILLE. FLA.. February Lewis H. Jones. President J. H. Phillips, Vicepresident Robert E. Denkield, Secretary 1897Â— INDIANAPOLIS, IND., February C. B. Gilbert. President A. B. Blodgett, Vicepresident Lawton B. Evans. Secretary 1898Â— CHATTANOOGA. TENN.. February Nathan C. Schaeffer. President Frank B. Cooper. Vicepresident William L. Steele, Secretary 1899Â— COLUMBUS, OHIO, February Edgar H. Mark. President George H. Conley. \"icepresidcnt James H. Van Sickle. Secretary 1900Â— CHICAGO, ILL., February Augustus S. Downing, President G. R. Glenn. Vicepresident Charles M. Jordan, Secretary 1901Â— CHICAGO, ILL., February Lorenzo D. Harvey, President Arthur K. Whitcomb. Vicepresident Frank B. Cooper, Secretary 1902Â— CHICAGO. ILL., February G. R. Glenn, President Henry P. Emerson, N'icepresident John W. Dietrich, Secretary 1903Â— CINCINNATI, OHIO, February Charles M. Jordan, President Clarence F. Carroll, Vicepresident J. N. Wilkinson. Secretary 1904Â— ATLANTA, GA., February Henry P. Emerson, President Edwin B. Cox, Vicepresident John H. Hinemon, Secretary 190SÂ— MILWAUKEE, WIS., February Edwin G. Cooley, President Lawton B. Evans, Vicepresident Evangeline E. Whitney, Secretary 1906Â— LOUISVILLE, KY., February John W. Carr, President J. H. Phillips, Vicepresident Ella C. Sullivan, Secretary 1907Â— CHICAGO, ILL., February W. W. Stetson, President H. H. Seerley, V'icepresident J. H. Harris, Secretary

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218 American Association of School Administrators DEPARTMENT OF SUPERINTENDENCE OF THE NATIONAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION, 1907-1937 1908Â— WASHINGTON, D. C, February 1923Frank B. Cooper, President Stratton D. Brooks, Vicepresident George B. Cook, Secretary 1909Â— CHICAGO, ILL., February 1924WiLLiAM H. Elson, President David B. Johnson, Vicepresident A. C. Nelson, Secretary 1910Â— INDIANAPOLIS, IND., March 1925Stratton D. Brooks, President Wales C. Martindale, Vicepresident John F. Keating, Secretary 1911Â— MOBILE, ALA., February 1926William M. Davidson, President J. A. Shawan, Vicepresident Arthur D. Call, Secretary 1912Â— ST. LOUIS, MO., February 1927Charles E. Chadsey, President O. J. Kern, Vicepresident Harlan Updegraff, Secretary 1913Â— PHILADELPHIA, PA., February 1928Franklyn B. Dyer, President Samuel Hamilton, Vicepresident Burr W. Torreyson, Secretary 1914_RICHMOND, VA., February 1929Ben Blewett, President W. E. Ranger, Vicepresident Anna E. Logan, Secretary 1915CINCINNATI, OHIO, February 1930Henrv Snyder, President Paul W. Horn, Vicepresident Mrs. Ellor C. Ripley, Secretary 1916Â— DETROIT, MICH., February 1931M. P. Shawkey, President Lawton B. Evans, Vicepresident E. C. Warriner, Secretary 1917Â— KANSAS CITY, MO., February 1932JoHN D. Shoop, President Fred L. Keeler, Vicepresident Margaret T. Maguire, Secretary 1918Â— ATLANTIC CITY, N. J., February 1933Thomas E. Finegan, President A. A. McDonald, Vicepresident Lida Lee Tall, Secretary 1919Â— CHICAGO, ILL., February 1934Ernest C. Hartwell, President David B. Corson, Vicepresident Marie Gugle, Secretary 1920Â— CLEVELAND, OHIO, February 193SE. U. Graff, President D. J. Kelly, Vicepresident Charl Ormond Williams, Secretary 1921Â— ATLANTIC CITY, N. J., February 1936Calvin N. Kendall, President Ernest A. Smith, Vicepresident Belle M. Ryan, Secretary 1922Â— CHICAGO, ILL., February 1937Â— Robinson G. Jones, President Will C. Wood, Vicepresident Sherwood D. Shankland, Secretary CLEVELAND, OHIO, February John H. Beveridge, President Frank W. Ballou, Vicepresident Sherwood D. Shankland, Secretary CHICAGO, ILL., February Payson Smith, President M. G. Clark, Vicepresident Sherwood D. Shankland, Secretary CINCINNATI, OHIO, February William McAndrew, President John J. Maddox, Vicepresident Sherwood D. Shankland, Secretary WASHINGTON, D. C, February Frank W. Ballou, President E. E. Lewis, Vicepresident Sherwood D. Shankland, Secretary DALLAS, TEXAS, February Randall J. Condon, President David A. Ward, Vicepresident Sherwood D. Shankland, Secretary BOSTON, MASS., February Joseph M. Gwinn, President Frank D. Boynton, Vicepresident Sherwood D. Shankland, Secretary CLEVELAND, OHIO, February Frank D. Boynton, President Frank G. Pickell, Vicepresident Sherwood D. Shankland, Secretary ATLANTIC CITY, N. J., February Frank Cody, President Norman R. Crozier, Vicepresident Sherwood D. Shankland, Secretary DETROIT, MICH., February Norman R. Crozier, President Daniel S. Kealey, Vicepresident Sherwood D. Shankland, Secretary WASHINGTON, D. C, February Edwin C. Broome, President George C. Bush, Vicepresident Sherwood D. Shankland, Secretary MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., February Milton C. Potter, President George Melcher, Vicepresident Sherwood D. Shankland, Secretary CLEVELAND, OHIO, February Paul C. Stetson, President David E. Weglein, Vicepresident Sherwood D. Shankland, Secretary ATLANTIC CITY, N. J., February E. E. Oberholtzer, President A. J. Stoddard, Vicepresident Sherwood D. Shankland, Secretary ST. LOUIS, MO., February A. J. Stoddard, President A. L. Threlkeld, Vicepresident Sherwood D. Shankland, Secretary NEW ORLEANS, LA., February A. L. Threlkeld, President Jesse H. Mason, Vicepresident Sherwood D. Shankland, Secretary AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS A Department of the National Education Association of the United States, 1937 Â— 1938Â— ATLANTIC CITY, N. J., February C. B. Glenn, President J. W. Ramsey, Vicepresident Sherwood D. Shankland, Secretary 1939Â— CLEVELAND, OHIO, February John A. Sexson, President Paul T. Rankin, Vicepresident Sherwood D. Shankland, Secretary 1940Â— ST. LOUIS, MO., February Ben G. Graham, President Homer W. Anderson, Vicepresident Sherwood D. Shankland, Secretary 1941Â— ATLANTIC CITY, N. J., February Carroll R. Reed, President HoBART M. Corning, Vicepresident Sherwood D. Shankland, Secretary 1942Â— SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF., February W. Howard Pillsbury, President Worth McClure, Vicepresident Sherwood D. Shankland, Secretary 1943Â— ST. LOUIS, MO., February Canceled at request of Office oj Defense Transportation Homer W. Anderson, President Charles H. Lake, Vicepresident Sherwood D. Shankland, Secretary

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Official Records 219 Ainoriran Association of School Administrators Officers, 1942-43 President, Homer W. Andkkson Associate Field Director in charge of the Education Section, War Savings Staff, Treasury Department Washington, D. C. First Viccprcsident, W. Howard Pillsbury Superintendent of Schools Schenectady, N. Y. Second Viccpresidcnt, Charles H. Lake Superintendent of Schools Cleveland, Ohio Executive Secretary, Sherwood D. Shankland 1201 Sixteenth Street, Northwest Washington, D. C. Executive Committee Wh.liam J. Hamilton. Superintendent of Schools Oak Park, III. Henry H. Hill, Superintendent of Schools Pittsburgh. Pa. Stanley H. Rolfe. Superintendent of Schools Newark, N. J. Worth McClure. Superintendent of Schools Seattle, Wash. The President, First and Second Vicepresidents, ex officio. Commission on Schools and Manpower Â— 1943 Yearhook DeWitt S. Morgan, Chairman, Superintendent of Schools . Indianapolis, Ind. Edmund deS. Brunner, Professor of Education, Teachers College. Columbia University New York, N. Y. Paul L. Es.=;ert, Superintendent of Schools Grosse Pointe, Mich. Herold C. Hunt, Superintendent of Schools Kansas City, Mo. Paul B. Jacobson, Principal. University High School, University of Chicago Chicago. 111. Cl.\ude L. Kulp, Superintendent of Schools Ithaca, N. Y Ch.\rles H. Lake, Superintendent of Schools Cleveland, Ohio Edwin A. Lee, Dean, School of Education, University of California Los Angeles, Calif. Barbara H. Wright, Supen'isor of Counselors, Board of Education Minneapolis, Minn. Commission on Education for Citizenship, Character, and National Morale Â— 1944 Yearhook Carroll R. Reed, Chairman, First Assistant Superintendent of Schools Washington, D. C. John E. Anderson, Director, Institute of Child Welfare, University of Minnesota Minneapolis, Minn. Winifred E. Bain. President, Wheelock College Boston, Mass. Frank S. Freeman, Professor of Psychology and Education, Cornell University Ithaca. X. Y. Roy W. Hatch, Head. Department of the Social Studies, New Jersey State Teachers College Montclair, X . J. Laura E. Kellar, Principal, Atwater Elementary School, Shorewood Milwaukee. Wis. J. Cayce Morrison, Assistant Commissioner for Research, State Education Department Albany. X. Y. Ralph Barton Perry, Professor of Philosophy, Harvard University Cambridge. Mass. J. W. Ramsey. Superintendent of Schools Fort Smith, Ark. James M. Spinning, Superintendent of Schools Rochester, X. Y.

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220 American Association of School Administrators Advisory Council Alabama Â— Charles B. Glenn, 3215 Sterling Road Birmingham Arizona Â— Robert D. Morrow, Superintendent of Schools Tucson Arkansas Â— J. W. Ramsey, Superintendent of Schools Fort Smith California Â— Pansy Jewett Abbott, Count j' Su])erintendent of Schools Redwood City John A. Sexson, Superintendent of Schools Pasadena Colorado Â— James H. Risley. Superintendent, School District Xo. 1 .. Pueblo Connecticut Â— Fred D. Wish, Jr., Superintendent of Schools Hartford Delaware Â— H. V. Holloway, State Superintendent of Public Instruction Do\'er District of Columbia Â— Frank W. Ballou, Superintendent of Schools Washington Florida Â— Ulric J. Bennett. County Su])erintendent of Schools . . Fort Lauderdale Georgi.a Â— Willis A. Sutton, Superintendent of Schools Atlanta Idaho Â— Glenn W. Todd, President, State Normal School Lewiston Illinois Â— R. O. Evans, Superintendent of Schools Quincy William J. Hamilton, Superintendent of Schools Oak Park Indiana Â— J, Raljih Irons. Superintendent of Schools Evansville Iowa Â— Jordan L. Larson (on leave Â— in U. S. Army) Dubuque Kansas Â— L. W. Mayberry, Superintendent of Schools Wichita Kentucky Â— Lee Kirkpatrick, Superintendent of Schools Paris Louisiana Â— E. W. Jones. Parish Superintendent of Schools Shreveport Maine Â— Charles E. Lord, Superintendent of Schools Camden Maryland Â— David E. Weglein. Superintendent of Schools Baltimore Massachusetts Â— John J. Desmond, Jr., Superintendent of Schools. . Chicopee Michigan Â— Otto W. Haisley, Superintendent of Schools Ann Arbor Paul T. Rankin, Super\ising Director of Research and Informational Service, Board of Education Detroit Minnesota Â— S. T. Neveln. Superintendent of Schools Austin Mississippi Â— H. M. Ivy, Superintendent of Schools Meridian Missouri Â— Willard E. Goslin, Superintendent of Schools Webster Groves Montana Â— Payne Templeton, Superintendent of Schools Helena Nebraska Â— C. Ray Gates, Superintendent of Schools Grand Island Nevad.a Â— Mildred N. Bray, State Superintendent of Public Instruction Carson City New Hampshire Â— James N. Pringle, State Commissioner of Education Concord New Jersey Â— John H. Bosshart, Superintendent of Schools South Orange and Maplewood A. S. Chenoweth, Superintendent of Schools Atlantic City New Mexico Â— John P. Steiner. Superintendent of Schools Portales New York Â— Claude L. Kulp. Superintendent of Schools Ithaca North Carolina Â— W. Frank Warren. Superintendent of Schools Durham North Dakot.a Â— H. H. Kirk. Superintendent of Schools Fargo Ohio Â— Georsre A. Bowman. Superintendent of Schools Yoimgstown Claude V. Courier, Superintendent of Schools Cincinnati Oklahoma Â— Jcseph R. Holmes, Superintendent of Schools Muskogee Oregon Â— Frederick M. Hunter, Chancellor, State System of Higher Education. University of Oregon Eugene Pennsylvani.a Â— F. Herman Fritz, Superintendent of Schools Chester John G. Rossman, Superintendent of Schools Warren Rhode Island Â— James L. Hanley. Superintendent of Schools Providence South Carolina Â— James H. Hope, State Superintendent of Education. Columbia South Dakota Â— John C, Lindsey, Superintendent of Schools Mitchell Tennessee Â— Sue M. Powers. County Su])erintendent of Schools Memphis Texas Â— William M. Gi'een, Superintendent of Schools Fort Worth E. E. Obcrholtzer. Superintendent of Schools Houston Utah Â— L. John Nuttall, Jr.. Superintendent of Schools Salt Lake City Vermont Â— F. S. Irons, District Superintendent of Schools Bc-nnington Virginia Â— Omer Carmichael, Superintendent of Schools Lynchburg Washington Â— Orville C. Pratt, Superintendent of Schools Spokane West Virginia Â— W. W. Trent, State Superintendent of Free Schools. .Charleston Wisconsin Â— G. F. Loomis. Superintendent of Schools Kenosha Wyoming Â— Jesse L. Goins, Superintendent of Schools Cheyenne United St.\tbs Office of Education Â— John W. Studebaker. . . .Washington, D. C.

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Official Rkcords 221 Educational Policies GoniiniHHion Alexander J. Stoddard, Chairman, Superintendent of Schools . . Philadelphia. Pa. Edmund E. Day. Pn^sident, Cornell Univer.'^ily Ithaca, N. Y. Geou(;e D. Strayer, Director of Inc|uiry to Investigate the Public Educational Sj'stem. State of New York New York, N. Y. James B. Conant. Presid(>n(. Har\:ird University Camhridne, Mas.s. Charles B. Clenn. Board of iMlucation Birriiinj^liain, Ala. Sidney B. Hall, Professor of Education, George Washington University Wa.shington, D. C. Francis L. Bacon, Superintendent, Evanston Township High School Evanston. III. Edwin A. Lee, Dean, School of Education, University of California Los Angeles, Calif. George D. Stoddard, State Commissioner of Education Albany, N. Y. Mrs. Pe.arl A. Wanamaker, State Superintendent of Public Instruction Olympia, Wa.sh. Frederk K M. Hunter. Chancellor, Oregon State System of Higher Education. Univcrsit}' of Oregon Eugene, Oreg. John K. Norton, Professor of Education, Teachers College, Columbia University New York, N. Y. Emily A. Tarbell. Teacher. Vocational High School Syracu.se. N. Y. J. W. Stidebaker, it. S. Commissioner of Education Washington, D. C. George F. Zook. President. American Council on Education . . Washington, D. C. A. C. Flora. President, National Education A.ssociation Columbia, S. C. Worth McClure, President. American Association of School Administrators Seattle, Wash. Harold H. Blanchard, President, Department of Classroom Teachers South Bend. Ind. WiLLARD E. GivENS. Executive Secretary, National Education Association Washington. D. C. S. D. SHANKL.AND, Executivc Secretarj', American Association of School Administrators Wa-shington. D. C. Audit Committee . Jesse H. Binford. Chairmaii, Superintendent of Schools Richmond, Va. Ray E. Cheney, Superintendent of Schools Elizabeth. N. J. Evan E. Jones. Superintendent of Schools Port Che.ster, N. Y. Committee To Cooperate with the Committee on Education of the Chamher of Commerce of the United States Alexander J. Stoddard. Chairman, Superintendent of Schools. . Philadelphia. Pa. Frank W. Baluhi, Sui)erinten(lent of Schools Washington, D. C. Willard E. Givens, Executive Secretary, National Education A.ssociation Washington, D. C. W. Howard Pillsbury, Superintendent of Schools Schenectady, N. Y. David E. Weglein, Superintendent of Schools Baltimore, Md. Convention Exhihit Committee Homer W. Anderson, Chairman, War Savings Staff, Treasury Dojiartment Washington. D. C. PniLii' J. HicKEY, Acting Superintendent of Schools St. Louis. Mo. John W. Lewis. Assistant Sui)erintondent of Schools Baltimore, Md. Board of Tellers Paul Loser, Otairmayi. Su]>erint( ndcnt of Schools Trenton. N. J. Julius E. Scott, Superintendent of Schools Peekskill. N. Y. Harvey A. Smith. Superintendent of Schools Lancaster, Pa.

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INDEX Acceleration in the high school (Green), 123; Wartime acceleration in education (Cloud), 123; Acceleration on the junior college level (Harbeson), 124 Aeronautics (Engelhardt), 36; (Wilson), 44 Air age, The campus and the (Wilson), 44 Air-conditioning education (Engelhardt), 36 Air-raid protection for the children in a large city (Wade), 104 Allan, H. A., 187 American Education Award, The, 147 Anderson, Homer W., 3, 172 Army, Guidance in the (Holdridge), 155; The School for Special Service (Judd), 148; The School of Military Government, 151; Education for men and women in military service (Spaulding), 152 Associated Exhibitors, Presentation of American Education Award to Captain Eddie Rickenbacker by, 147; Greetings from the president of the Associated Exhibitors (Spratt), 146 Auditing Committee, Report of, 204 Batchelder, Mildred L., 121 Bauer, W. W., 99 Belgium, The effect of malnutrition on education in (Cammaerts), 93; Impressions of a schoolboy in Belgium, 95 Bigelow, Karl W., 135 Billingsley, H. A., 104 Bolton, Frances P., 176 Britain, Education and the war effort in, 159 Brown, Prentiss M., 172 Brown, William B., 156 Bruggmann, Charles, 112 Bryan, John E., 79 Bus uses. War emergency (Power), 80 Butler, Helen L., 120 Butterworth, Julian E., 127 Byers, Jean, 82 Bylaws, Constitution and, 212 Cammaerts, Emile, 93 Canadian schools in wartime, 141 Cancellation of convention, Correspondence with Office of Defense Transportation concerning, 205 Carr, William G., 22 Children of working mothers Â— See "Working mothers" Chips are down. The (Odegard), 58 Civilian defense Â— its scope and importance in the schools (Heaton), 103; Civilian defense in a small city (Billingsley), 104; Air-raid protection for the children in a large city (Wade), 104 Clark, Elizabeth W., 115 Cloud, A. J., 123 Cocking, Walter D., 90 Cody, Frank, 166 Committees and commissions, 219 Constitution and bylaws, 212 Consumer, War comes home to the (Troelstrup), 89; Schools must help consumer education (Cocking), 90 Convention 1943 (Moffitt), 4 Convention of the Air, The, 169 Coulbourn, John, 118 Courier, Claude V., 61, 106 Curriculum guidance, Wartime (Brown), 156 Davis, Mary Dabney, 117 Democracy in the classroom. Teaching (Goodykoontz), 81 Door key children (Bolton), 176; (Taft), 176 Eastman, Joseph B., 211 Education, The cause of (Stoddard), 13 Education, the way to freedom (Sexson), 17 Elementary student the American way, Teaching the (Goodykoontz), 81 Engelhardt, N. L., 36 Engle, Kenneth, 15 Equipment, Economic use of supplies and (Holy), 74 Exhibit, The (Allan), 187 Exhibitors, Directory of, 188 Federal aid to save the schools (Givens), 128; Educational finance in wartime (Simpson), 66, 72 Finance in wartime. Educational (Simpson), 66, 72; The demands of the war upon the financial resources of the school district (Courter), 61 Food Â— our weapon (Engle), 15 Foreign children, Swiss aid to (Bruggmann), 112 Foreign countries, The effect of the war upon education in Â— Belgium, 93, 95; Britain, 159 ; Canada, 141 ; Norway, 83 Foreword (Anderson), 3 Freedom, Education, the way to (Sexson), 17 Givens, Willard E., 128 Glenn, Charles B., 166 Goodykoontz, Bess, 81 Green, Raymond A., 123 Grout, Ruth E., 102 Guidance in the Army (Holdridge), 155 Haile, Pennington, 91 Harbeson, John W., 124 [222]

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Index 223 Health in the habit-forming years (Bauer), 99; Effect of malnutrition on education in BelRium (Cammaerts), 93; How to improve high-school health education (Grout), 102; The principal as director of health education (McClure), 98; A physical fitness program for the schools from the standpoint of manpower (Rowntree), 96; Secondary-health education in wartime (Wilson), 100 Heaton, Kenneth L., 103 High school, Acceleration in the (Green), 123 High-school health education, How to improve (Grout), 102 High-school laboratory and the war, The (Kersev), 180 Hill, Henry H., 109 Holdridge, Brigadier General H. C, 155 Holy, T. C, 74 Honduras, Message from the teachers of, 144, 145 Hubbard, Frank W., 4 Hunt, Erling M., 164 Hunt, Herold C, 53, 110 In-service education of teachers (Hunt), 53 Inter-American understanding. Education for (Winship), 139 Johnson, B. Lamar, 121 Judd, Charles H., 148 Junior college level. Acceleration on the (Harbeson), 124 Junior Red Cross (Hill), 109; (Hunt), 110; (Sutherland), 110 Kersev, Vierling, 180 Kirk, H. H., 162 Kletzer, Mrs. William, 113 Lake, Charles H., 45 Lee, Edwin A., 49 Lenroot, Katharine P., 114 Libraries in wartime, A study of school (Butler), 120; (Johnson), 121 ; School libraries meet new demands (Batchelder), 121; The contribution of the high-school librarv to the war effort (Coulbourn), 118 ' McCarthv, H. P., 205, 209 McClure, Worth, 98 McNutt, Paul v., 181 Malnutrition on education in Belgium, The effect of (Cammaerts), 93 Manpower, A physical fitness program for the schools from the standpoint of (Rowntree), 96 Manpower and the schools (McNutt), 181 Manpower, Schools and (Morgan), 9 Meetings, Calendar of, 216 Military Government, The School of, 151 Military service. Education for men and women in (Spaulding), 152 Militia, The myth of the (Rosengren), 23 Moffitt, Frederick James, 4 Morale, Education for (Morrison), 83; Norway fights on Â— morale in action (Skard), 83 Morgan, Barton, 126 Morgan, DeWitt S., 9 Morrison, J. Cayce, 83 Mothers, Children of working Â— See "Working mothers" Necrology, 202 Norway fights on Â— morale in action (Skard), 83 Nuttall, L. John, Jr., 88 Occupational adjustment and the war (Lee), 49 Odegard, Peter H., 58 Office of Defense Transportation concerning cancellation of convention. Correspondence with, 205 Officers, 1942-43, 219 Official Records, 201 Parmenter, L. E., 76 Past presidents, Newspapers honor our, 166 Patton, D. H., 107 Peace in the world at large. From war to (Haile), 91 Personnel policies in wartime (Nuttall), 88 Phillips, Mitzi, 14 Physical fitness program for the schools from the standpoint of manpower, A (Rowntree), 96 Pinkston, Eva G., 176 Postwar training and adjustment (Kirk), 162 Potter, Milton C, 167 Power, F. Ray, 80 Power, Leonard, 116 Prayer, A (Byers), 82 Preparedness (Rosengren), 23 Price control and the schools (Brown), 172 Principal as director of health education. The (McClure), 98 Priority dilemma (Parmenter), 76 Propaganda, Education and (Stoddard), 90 Radio, Convention by, 169 Rickenbacker, Edward Vernon Â— Presentation of American Education Award to, 147 Rosengren, Major Roswell P., 23 Rowntree, Colonel Leonard G., 96

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224 American Association of School Administrators Rural education in the present emergency, Critical problems of (Morgan), 126; Should there be a reorganization of schools in the rural areas? (Butterworth), 127 Schools and manpower (Morgan), 9 School's contribution to the war effort. The (Carr), 22 Schools, Coordinating wartime activities in the (Lake), 45 Science in the high school (Kersey), 180 Secondary-health education in wartime (Wilson), 100 Sexson. John A., 17 Shankland, Sherwood D., 181 Simpson, Alfred D., 66, 72 Skard, Sigmund, 83 Social studies teaching in wartime (Hunt), 164; The social studies mobilize for victory (Wilson), 162 Spaulding, Colonel Francis T., 152 Special Service, The School for (Judd), 148 Spratt, Elliott C, 146 Stoddard, Alexander J., 13, 90 Summary that was never written. The (Hubbard), 4 Supplies and equipment. Economic use of (Holy), 74 Sutherland, Lucille, 110 Swiss aid to foreign children (Bruggmann), 112 Taft, Charles P., 176 Teachers for what? Educating (Bigelow), 135 Teachers, In-service education of (Hunt), 53 Tellers, Report of Board of, 203 Transportation, Problems of pupil (Bryan), 79; War emergency bus uses (Power), 80 Transportation concerning cancellation of convention. Correspondence with Office of Defense, 205 Troelstrup, A. W., 89 Wade, John E., 104 War effort, The school's contribution to the (Carr), 22 War means to American youth, What the (Phillips), 14 War savings and conservation. Teaching values of (Courter), 106; The chips are down (Odegard), 58; The schools at war program (Patton), 107 Wartime activities in the schools, Coordinating (Lake), 45 Welfare services for children of working mothers Â— See "Working mothers" Wilson, Charles C, 100 Wilson, Gill Robb, 44 Wilson, Howard E., 162 Winship, Major General Blanton, 139 Working mothers. Extended school services for children of (Davis), 117; The unsupervised child Â— a community responsibility (Clark), 115; Caring for the children of working mothers (Kletzer), 113; Child-care problems and services to children of working mothers (Lenroo*^!, 1x4; Some provisions for children of working mothers (Power), 116; Doer key children, 176 Youth, What the war means to American (Phillips), 14

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