Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Half Title
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Part I
 Part II
 Back Matter
 Back Cover

Group Title: The Complete Works of Count Tolstoy
Title: The complete works of Count Tolstoy
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00094187/00019
 Material Information
Title: The complete works of Count Tolstoy
Uniform Title: Works ( 1904 )
Physical Description: 24 v. : fronts., plates, ports., facsims. ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Tolstoy, Leo, 1828-1910
Wiener, Leo, 1862-1939 ( ed. and tr )
Publisher: D. Estes & Co.
Place of Publication: Boston
Publication Date: 1904-05
Edition: Limited ed. Translated from the original Russian and edited by Leo Wiener.
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
festschrift   ( marcgt )
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
General Note: Half-title.
General Note: "Édition de luxe, limited to one thousand copies." This set not numbered.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00094187
Volume ID: VID00019
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 02116920
lccn - 04024594

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
        Front Matter 3
        Front Matter 4
    Half Title
        Half Title 1
        Half Title 2
        Half Title 3
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
    List of Illustrations
        List of Illustrations 1
        List of Illustrations 2
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Part I
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 6a
        Page 6b
        Page 7
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    Part II
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    Back Matter
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    Back Cover
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Full Text





Translated from the Original Russian and Edited by
Assistant Professor of Slavic Languages at Harvard University



Limited to One Thousand Copies,

of which this is

No. ...4. 1

Copyright, 1904

Entered at Stationers' Hall

Colonial Press : Electrotyped and Printed by
C. H. Simonds & Co., Boston, Mass., U. S. A.



. 290


1" MASLOVA STARTED UP (p. 46) Frontispiece


Parts I. and II.


"Then came Peter to him, and said, Lord, how often shall
my trother sin against me, and I forgive him ? till seven
J. 4u, caith unto him, I say not unto thee, Until seven
imei buti Until seventy times seven." (Matt. xviii. 21-22.)
.** And %. Ly beholdest thou the mote that is in thy brother's
eye, bu '.onsiderest not the beam that is in thine own eye ?"'
N(M tt. i;. :3.)
lie that is without sin among you, let him first cast a
-ti:'rje i her." (John viii. 7.)
h" Tbh- dciple is not above his master: but every one that
is r.erifct tall be as his master." (Luke vi. 40.)

No matter how people, congregating in one small spot
t,. the numb,:-r of several hundred thousand, tried to
*,:If;r-t:m theb earth on which they were jostling; how they
pavved th- earth with stones, that nothing might grow
u[pn it; how they weeded out every sprouting blade ; how
th'-y s nmrok,"d up the air with coal and naphtha; how they
lo:pped the trees and expelled all animals and birds;-
pMrirg wa spring, even in the city. The sun gave
warmth ; th- grass, reviving, grew strong "and lush wher-
ever it h:,iD not been scraped away, not only on the
greensiwards *:.f the boulevards, but also between the flag-


stones; and the birches, the poplars, and the bird-:'h.rri.:s
had unfolded their viscid, fragrant leaves, and the liud>:.ns
had swelled their bursting buds; the jackdaws, the
sparrows, and the pigeons were cheerfully buildiiig thiir
vernal nests, and the flies, warmed by the sun, wcrc
buzzing along the walls. Happy were the plants, aiud the
birds, and the insects, and the children. But tihe people
--thebig, the grown people-did not stop chi:ati g :iud
tormenting themselves and each other. People r..-ard-.Ji
as sacred and important not this spring morning, nor tlhi
beauty of God's world, given to all creatures t:o e pjy,
- a beauty which disposes to peace, concord, anud love, -
but that which they themselves had invented, in ord.:r to
rule over each other.
Thus, in the office of the provincial prison, what they
regarded as sacred and important was not that the blissful-
ness and joy of spring had been given to all animals and
to all people, but that on the previous day a numbered
document, bearing a seal and a superscription, had been
received, which said that at nine o'clock in the morning,
of this, the twenty-eighth of April, three prisoners, two
women and one man, who were kept in the prison subject
to a judicial inquest, should be brought to the court-house.
One of these women, being the most important criminal,
was to be delivered separately.
To carry out this instruction, the chief warden entered,
at eight o'clock of the twenty-eighth of April, the malo-
dorous corridor of the women's department. He was
followed by a woman with a care-worn face and curling
gray hair, wearing a jersey, with sleeves bordered by
gallons, and girded with a blue-edged belt. This was
the matron.
"Do you want MWslova?" she asked, going up with
the warden of the day to one of the cell doors whitih
opened into the corridor.
The warden, rattling his keys, turned the lock, and open-


ing the door of the cell, from which burst forth an even
greater stench than there was in the corridor, called out':
"Mislova, to court!" and again closed the door, while
waiting for her to come.
Even in the prison yard there was the brisk, vivifying
air of the fields, wafted to the city by the wind. But in
the corridor there was a distressing, jail-fever atmosphere,
saturated by the odour of excrements, tar, and decay,
which immediately cast a gloom of sadness on every new-
comer. The same feeling was now experienced by the
matron, who had just arrived from the outside, notwith-
standing the fact that she was accustomed to this foul
air. The moment she entered the corridor she was over-
come by fatigue, and felt sleepy.
A bustle, caused by feminine voices and by the steps
of bare feet, was heard within the cell.
"Livelier there, hurry up, Maslova, I say!" shouted
the chief warden through the door of the cell.
About two minutes later, a short, full-breasted young
woman, in a gray cloak, thrown over a white vest and a
white skirt, walked briskly out of the door, swiftly turned
around, and stopped near the warden. The woman's feet
were clad in linen stockings, and over them she wore the
prison shoes; her head was wrapped in a white kerchief,
underneath which, apparently with design, protruded ring-
lets of curling black hair. The woman's whole counte-
nance was of that peculiar whiteness which is found on
the faces of persons who have passed a long time indoors,
and which reminds one of potato sprouts in a cellar. Of
the .-tme colour were her small, broad hands, and her
whitt, full neck, which was visible from behind the large
collar of the cloak. In this countenance, especially
ag.-inst the dull pallor of the face, stood out strikingly a
p .r of jet-black, sparkling, slightly swollen, but very
lively eyes, one of which was a bit awry. She carried
hers>,-lf very erect, extending her swelling bosom.


UI.pou arriving in the corridor, she threw her head back
a little, looked the %warden straight in the eyeS, and stood
re.ldy to execute anything that might be demanded of
her. The warden was on the poiut of locking the door,
when from it emerged the pale, austere, wrinkled face of
a straight-haired old woman. The old woman u began to
tell Mdaslova something; but the warden pressed the door
again.it her head, and so it di.a ,'peared. In the cell .1
feminine voice burst out laughing,. M\,islova herself
smiled, and turned toward the barred little window of the
door. The old woman pressed her face to it, and said in
a hoarse voice:
.. Above all, lon't say a superfluous word ; stick to the
sawe 3tory, and let that be the end of it'"
STh it's all one, it can't l.e any worse," said MH.alova,
shaiking her head.
h"Of n our-he, it's on., antd not two," said the chief
warden, with au official eousc-iousness oi hi. wit. -. After
me, march T "
The eye of the old woman, visible through the window,
diskppeare.l, and M.islo.'a stepped into (he middle of the
'corridor. and with rapid, mincing steps walked behind
the chief ward,:-n. They de-cended the stone stiirease,
passed by the meu'n .:ells. which were even more mal-
odorous and noi.y than the women's, and from which
they were everywhere watched by eyes at the loopholes
in tlie doos : they eut.ered the ohi:e, wh-ere t wo soldiers
if the guird. with their gtus, were waiting for them.
The clerk, who wag sitting there, handed to one -of the
soldiers a document, which wa. saturated by tobacco
smoke, and, pointing to the prisoner, said, --Take her!"
The .:ldier, a Niz.hni-N6o'gorod peanut, \vith a red, pock-
marked face, stuck th'- paper ifto the rolled.-up -leeve of
hi otverco:'t. .ad, ailing. winked to his companion, a
broad-cheeked Chuvrsh, in order to directt hi.; attention
to the prisoner. The soldiers, with the prisoner between

The soldier I u. SIA II C pI-Wer Inito
thle rc-PIIled -LI I) Slt-eV Or Ili!, 0' r-


them, desc-:ended the st.nircaa, tand walked over to the
ma*lii entDctlce.
A small gate was opened iu the door of the main
entr.an-ce, adi, t.ppiung acroi, the thitLhold of the gate
into th, yard, th' sO.ldirs, with the pris. ner, walked out
of the enclo-sure, tandI prl.ceeil through the city, keeping
iu the middle of the p.ave,.l stiets.
Ctl.mren, shopkLeepers, c:ks, wolikmeu, and officials,
st.'-ppdl to lo ,:k with curiosity at. the prisoner; some
shook their hendd, an] thought, --This is what a bad
beh,-vioui, not 3uch as ours, leais t''." Children looked
in terror at the murderess, being reassured only because
she was accompanied by soldiers, and could no longer do
any harm. A village peasant, who had sold coal and had
drunk some tea in the tavern, went up to her, made the
sign of the cross, and gave her a kopek. The prisoner
blushed, bent her head, and muttered something.
Being con-.-iJous of the looks which were directed
toward he-r, she imperceptibly, without turning her head,
cast side glances at thr(.e who were gazing at her, and
the attention which she attracted cheered her. She was
al;o cherre, by the vernal air, which was pure in com-
r.i.::,n with that iu the jail; but it was painful for her
ti. walk or the cobldestones, for her feet were now
uniac-cut.ilij.d t6, w,.lkin2, and were clad in clumsy prison
shc s; and so, she looked down at them, and tried to step
as lightly as p. s'ibl. As she passed near a flour shop,
in frut of which pigeous waddled, unmolested by any-
bodly, lhe almost stelppd on one: the pigeon fluttered
up, and tulpping its wings, flew past the prisoner's ear,
tanning the air against her. She smiled, and drew a deep
-igh, as she re.allel her situation.

TIlE stiry of prisoner MIiIlova's lite was nothing out of
th,:. ordiiniry. Mrslova was the 'laughter of an, unujarri,-d
nmiaorLal s ..rvant-girl, who had been living with her
mother in the capacity of dahymaid, on the estate of
two maiden sisters. This unmarried woman bore a ,uhild
every year; as always happens in the country, the baby
was baptized, but afterward the mother did not suckle
the undesired child, and it died of starvation.
Thus five children had died. They bh-d all been bap-
tized, then they were not fed, and did The sixth.
begotten by an itinerant gipsy, was a girl, :in her fate
would have been the same, if it had not happened that
one of the old maids had gone into the stable to upbraid
the milkers on account of the cream, \ihh sIc-llk-d '.if
the cows. In the stable lay the mother with her pretty,
healthy, new-born baby. The old maid ufpbra.ided themo
on account of the cream and for having allowed a lying-in
woman in the stable, and was about to leave, when, having
espied the child, she took pity upon her, and oilfcred ti.i
become her godmother. She had her biptic.Id, and,
pitying her godchild, gave the mother milk an']d on'.-y,
and thus the girl remained alive. The old naiids ev'-.
called her the saved girl.
The child was three years old when her mother fell ill
and died. The old stable-woman, her graindiuothler, wa9
harassed by her gran]hiJld, and so the Ladi',s took her to
the house. The black-eyed girl grew to b,:. exceedingly
vivacious and charming, and the old maids took delight
in her.


The yo:uun-ei, Sy:'.ya Ieiuna, who had had the child
t.aptize., w\as the kinder of the two, and the elder, Marya
lw,-in~i ra, was the mo':re iatelr. S6fya Ivinovna dressed
he-r, t.-ught her tc. real. .ani wanted to educate her. Mdrya
Ivua:iovni, bh:,we'.,:-i, a;.id that she ought to be brought up
as a. woirkiun. oirl,-a goud hambermaid,-and conse-
quently w:;, ex:tingu, and.i punished and even struck her,
when nu.-t in a .:.,d humOiur. Thus, between these two
indtlenues, the girl grew up to be partly educated and
partly a chanl..ermi.l. She was even called by a dimin-
utive, exples.ive neither of endearment, nor of command,
but i. s,:imething. intermedlia.te, namely, not Kdtka or K6-
Lenka, bu, Katydsha. She did the sewing, tidied up the
rooms, cleaned the pictures with chalk, cooked, ground,
serve,.. the coffee, washed the small linen, and often sat
with the ladies and read to them.
Several men sued for her hand, but she did not wish to
Imarr. ifeliig that a life with those working people, her
-uitor-, w,,uld be hard for her, who had been spoiled by
the :,mf:'itts of the manor.
TLhu she lived until her sixteenth year. She had just
1, a-s:-. her sixteenth birthday, when the ladies received a
vtlit fr:,om their student-nephew, a rich prince, and Kat-
ytisha, not daring to acknowledge the fact to him or even
to herself, fell in love with him. Two years later, this
aiue n-ephew of theirs called on his aunts, on his way to
the wt r, and passed four days with them; on the day
pre,:edin,_ his departure, he seduced Katydsha, and press-
rig .- hIaundred-rouble bill into her hand, he left her. Five
m,-,nth. after his visit she knew for sure that she was
I prcgu aut.
After that. she grew tired of everything, and thought of
nothing ele butl of a means for freeing herself from the
shame, which awaited her; she not only began to serve
the ladies relutatLly and badly, but once, not knowing
herself lhw it cai,- about, her patience gave way: she said


some rude things to them, which she herself regretted
later, and asked for her dismissal.
The ladies, who had been very much dissatisfied with
her, let her go. She then accepted the position of cham-
bermaid at the house of a country judge, but she could
stand it there no longer than three months, because the
judge, a man fifty years of age, began to annoy her; once,
when he had become unusually persistent in his attentions,
she grew excited, called him a fool and an old devil, and
dealt him such a blow in the chest that he fell down.
She was sent away for her rudeness. It was useless to
take another place, for the child was soon to be born, and
so she went to live with a widow, who was a country
midwife and trafficked in liquor. She had an easy child-
birth, but the midwife, who had delivered a sick woman
in the village, infected Katyiisha with puerperal fever, and
the child, a boy, was taken to the foundling house, where,
according to the story of the old woman who had carried
him there, he died soon after his arrival.
When Katyulsha took up her residence at the midwife's,
she had in all 127 roubles, twenty-seven of which she had
earned, and one hundred roubles which her seducer had
given her. When she came away from that house, all she
had left was six roubles. She did not know how to take
care of money, and spent it on herself, and gave it away
to all who asked for some. The midwife took for her
two months' board-for the food and the tea-forty
roubles; twenty-five roubles went for despatching the
child; forty roubles the midwife borrowed of her to buy
a cow with; and twenty roubles were spent for clothes
and for presents, so that there was no money left, \\heu
Katyuisha got well again, and had to look for a place.
She found one at a forester's.
The forester was a married man, but, just like the judge :
before him, he began the very first day to annoy Katyd-
sha with his attentions. He was hateful to her, and she


tri'd to evade him. But he was more experienced and
cunning than she; above all, he was her master, who
could send her wherever he pleased, and, waiting for an
opportune moment, he conquered her. His wife found
it out, and, discovering her husband alone in a room with
Katydsha, she assaulted her. Katyutsha defended her-
self, and a fight ensued, in consequence of which she was
expelled from the house, without getting her wages.
Then Katyutsha journeyed to the city and stopped with
her aunt. Her aunt's husband was a bookbinder, who
used to make a good living, but now had lost all his
customers, and was given to drinking, spending every-
thing that came into his hands. Her aunt had a small
laundry establishment, and thus supported herself with
her children and her good-for-nothing husband. She
offered to Maslova a place in her laundry; but, seeing
the hard life which the laundresses at her aunt's were
leading, Maslova hesitated, and went to the employment
offit>ce, tr.: look for a place as a domestic.
Shei found such a place with a lady who was living
with, her two sons, students at the gymnasium. A week
att:r entering upon her service, the elder boy, with sprout-
ing w.'i3taches, a gymnasiast of the sixth form, quit
w:rkiug and gave M6slova no rest, importuning her with
bi, .-,tt,:ntions. The mother accused Maslova of every-
thing and discharged her.
Shei could not find another situation; but it so hap-
pen.d thit when Maslova once went to an employment
*:.th':, -he there met a lady with rings and bracelets on
elic plump bare hands. Having learned of Maslova's
edartch for a place, the lady gave her her address, and
invit0:.,l her to her house. Maslova went there. The
la.lv ricived her kindly, treated her to pastry and sweet
winfl?, aud sent her chambermaid somewhere with a note.
In the evening a tall man, with long grayish hair and
gr.iy b.-ard, entered the room; the old man at once sat


down near IM:\il:va, and began, with gleamic eyes, .min
smiling, to survey her, and to je-L with he:r. Thf land-
lady called him out into another ronim, aund MjIlova
heard her say: "She is fresh, straight from thl? country !"
Then the landlady called out Mi:.lva andi told her that
this man was an author, who bad imu'h n onr y, and iwh.:,
would not be stingy with it, if he took hlikinc' to her.
She pleased the author, who gave h,-r tw-nty-tve ruiul.b.s,
promising to see her often. The rm-ony ;. i .,os n spent
in paying her aunt for board, ad on new lr.-.-., .i it,
and ribbons. A few days lat,.r the author -,ut for her
again. She went. Heagaing-ive hbrr twntv-txh roibl,<,
and proposed that she take rooiu for lhir,:-lt ,,om:whr,:-.
While living in the apartm:.-nt whi,:h Lb.the iithor had
rented for her, Maslova fell in lov- with a merry Jlerk,
who was living in the same yvir. Sh- h-er-lf told th,:-
author about it, and took upt other, smrnil-i qiuart,-ia .
The clerk, who had promised to mairry her, -iuddenly l.ft
for Nizhni-N6vgorod, without sa %vvi a worl to lir, with
the evident intention of abandoninrz her, .-ad alone. She wanted to keep the ro.:'ins :.,v herself. b'ut
was not permitted to do so. The- inil.:cto:r of polki t.lid
her that she could continue to: live ti-r,. o:,nly by g,.-ttiug
a yellow certificate and subjectiu._, her-elf to exaiiniati:ou.
So she went back to her aunt's.. I1,r aunt, se-ing her
fashionable dress, her mantle, and hlr h:t, rcc,-iv-d her
respectfully, and did not dar, to olfer lIher a Liuudr':sI'S
place, since she considered her a. hbviii risn to a higher
sphere of life. For Maslova thLe ,l-,.--zti:,'n v.hthir sihe
had better become a laundres or not, no Ilon;ger e:ijt5,.
She now looked with compassion at that lite of ertforced
labour, down in the basement, whidi tihe p,~Ir la und]r-.:e-ts ,
with their lean arms, some :f t hLrn .we:.r, co:nsu impu[r v?,
-were leading, washing and ii o:ing in an at in u phie.r of
thirty degrees R4aumur, filled with steaii front, te'? soII1-
suds, the windows remaining opi:en, winte-r .rind suiimmier,-


aiil ish shuddered at the thought that she, too, might be
lii.ughbt ti., such a life. And just at this time, which was
ex:e.din-ly hard for Mislova, as she could not find a
single protector, she was approached by a procuress, who
furnished houses of prostitution with girls.
Mdslova had started smoking long before, and had be-
come accustomed to drinking during the end of her con-
nection with the clerk, and still more so after he had
abandoned her. Wine attracted her, not only because it
tasted good, but more especially because it made her
forget all the heavy experiences in the past, and because
it gave her ease and confidence in her own worth, which
she did not have without it. Without wine she always
felt sad and ashamed. The procuress treated her aunt to
dainties, and having given wine to Maslova, proposed
that she should enter the best establishment in the city,
representing to her all the advantages and privileges of
such a position.
Maslova had the choice: either the humiliating position
oi a se-rvJnt, where there would certainly be persecution on
the ;ide of the men, and secret, temporary adultery, or a
se.': ire quiet, legalized condition, and open, legitimate, and
will-paid constant adultery,-and she chose the latter.
Dcidie she thought in this manner to be able to avenge
the wr:ing done her by her seducer, the clerk, and all
theirr pe..ple who had treated her shamefully. She was
alo. enticed by the words of the procuress,-and this
w 'Als ne of the causes that led to her final decision,-
that the could order any dresses she wished, of velvet, of
,'auze t..f silk, or ball-dresses with bare shoulders and
armc And when Maslova imagined herself in a bright-
yellow silk garment, with black velvet trimmings,-
d.-ulA lt', she could not withstand the temptation, and
,urrendered her passport. On that same evening the pro-
:ule" i: ailed a cab and took her to Kitdeva's well-known


From that time began for MAslova that life of c-hr..ame
transgression of divine and human laws, which :s l.d by
hundreds and thousands of thousands of women, not only
by permission, but under the protection of the govern ent
caring for the well-being of its citizens: that life which en il
for nine out of every ten women in agonizing disea ', pre-
mature old age, and death.
In the morning and in the daytime-slumber after the
orgies of the night. At three or four o'clock a tired
waking in an unclean bed, seltzer to counteract the rif:-f4:t.
of immoderate drinking, coffee, indolent strolling thr.:'ugh
the rooms in dressing-gowns, vests or cloaks, looking kehiu.i .
the curtain through the windows, a lazy exchange f:i au-ry
words; then ablutions, pomading, perfuming of the body
and the hair, the trying on of dresses, quarrels with the
landlady on account of these garments, surveying .:.ne-.lf
in the mirror, painting the face, dyeing the eyebrow., eat-
ing pastry and fat food ; then putting on a bright silk dres3,
which exposed the body ; then coming out into a bright,
gaily illuminated parlour: the arrival of guests; music,
dances, sweetmeats, wine, smoking, and adultery with
youths, half-grown men, half-children, and desperate old
men; with bachelors, married men, merchants, clerks, Ar-
menians, Jews, Tartars; with men who were rich, poor,
healthy, sick, drunk, sober, coarse, tender; with officers,
private citizens, students, gymnasiasts, of all condi-
tions, ages and characters. And cries, and jokes, and
quarrels, and music, and tobacco and wine, and wine
and tobacco, and music, from evening to daybreak. And
only in the morning liberation and heavy slumber. And
the same thing every day, the whole week. At the end ._.f
the week a drive to a government institution, the p.:,lice
station, where officers in government service, the doctors,
men who sometimes seriously and austerely, and somwe-
times with playful mirthfulness, examined these women,
annihilating that very sense of shame which has bee:-n


_,vl-n I y Nature not only to men, but also to animals, in
(vi.:er to: put a check to transgressions; then they handed
thiu a patent for the continuation of these transgressions,
,.f" which they and their partners had been guilty during
the. p.ast week. And again such a week. And thus every
day, in summer and winter, on week-days and on holi-

M i-t'luv had passed seven years in this manner. Dur-
ing that time she had changed houses twice, and had been
',ncv in a hospital. In the seventh year of her sojourn
in :, h.:.u e of prostitution, and in the eighth since her first
fail, %hen she was twenty-six years old, there had hap-
p neti ti.. her that for which she had been imprisoned, and
n...w w.,.- Ieing led to the court-house, after six months in
jail, with murderers and thieves.

AT the same time that M4slova, worn out by the l.:'ng
march, reached, with the soldiers of the guard, the luil.mi-
ing of the circuit court, that very nephew of her educ.it:tors.
Prince Dmitri IvAnovich Nekhlyddov, who had j:liluctd
her, was lying on his high, crumpled spring bed, %with its
feather mattress, and, unbuttoning the collar of hi,; cleau
linen night-shirt, with its ironed gussets, was swm..'-lk. a
cigarette. He was gazing in front of him with his uotlion-
less eyes, and thinking of what he would have t'o dc. that
day, and of what had happened the day before.
As he recalled the previous evening, whi,:L he ha:l
passed at the house of the Korch6gins, rich anu dis-
tinguished people, whose daughter, so all were con vi uite, lihe
was going to marry, he drew a sigh, and, throwing awi
his finished cigarette, was on the point of taking another
out of his silver cigarette-holder; but he c3:uge.1 his
mind, and, letting down from the bed his smooth whit.
feet, found his way into his slippers; he threw ..':-r his
full shoulders a silk morning-gown, and, striding rapidlly
and heavily, walked into the adjoining dressing-r,.i1.1in,
which was saturated with the artificial odours of !lixirs,
eau de Cologne, pomatum, and perfumes. There, with ;,
special powder, he cleaned his teeth, which we:e fillt-,l mi
many places, washed them with fragrant tooth-water, aud
then began to wash his body all over, and to dry hims:ilf
with all kinds of towels. He washed his hba,.ds with
scented soap, carefully cleaned his long nails with a brush,
and rinsed his face and fat neck in the large marble \vash-

* L~n i)I1 his hiiL,,I im i ,isriI1


stand ; then he walked into a third room, near the cham-
ber, where a douche was waiting for him. He there
washed his muscular, plump, white body with cold water,
and rubbed himself off with a rough sheet; then he put
on clean, freshly ironed linen, and his shoes, which shone
like mirrors, and sat down in front of the toilet-table to
brush his short, black, curly beard, and the curling hair
on his head, which was rather scanty in front.
All the things which he used, all the appurtenances of
his toilet, the linen, the garments, the shoes, the ties, the
pins, the cuff-buttons, were of the best, of the most ex-
pensive kind; they were unobtrusive, simple, durable, and
Having selected from a dozen ties and pins those which
he happened to pick up first, at one time, it had been
new and amusing, but now it made no difference to him,
- Nekhlyddov put on his well-brushed clothes, which
were lying on a chair, and, clean and perfumed, though
i-iL feeling very fresh, proceeded to the long dining-room,
the parquetry of which had been waxed on the previous
d-av by three peasants; here stood an immense oak buffet,
anrd in e-qually large extension table, which had a certain
solemn appearance on account of its broadly outstretched
carv',-d legs in the shape of lion-claws. On this table,
c,-.'ered with a fine starched cloth with large monograms,
et,...dl a silver coffee-pot with fragrant coffee, a sugar-bowl
of i milar design, a cream-pitcher with boiling cream, and
a bre:id-blsket with fresh rolls, toast, and biscuits. Near
the service lay the last mail, the papers, and a new num-
ber of the Revue de Deux Mondes.
Nekhlyddov was on the point of taking up his letters,
when the door from the corridor opened and a plump,
elderly woman in mourning and with a lace head-dress,
which c.: vered the widened parting of her hair, glided into
the room. This was Agraf6na Petr6vna, the chambermaid
of Nekhlytidov's mother, who had but lately died in this


very house; she was now staying with the son in the ca-
pacity of housekeeper.
Agraf4na Petr6vna had at various times been abroad
with Nekhlyddov's mother, and had the looks and manner
of a lady. She had lived in Nekhyhidov's house since
her childhood, and had known Dmitri IvAnovich when he
was a boy and when they called him Mitenka.
"Good morning, Dmitri IvAnovich."
"Good morning, Agraf6na Petr6vna. What is the
news ?" asked Nekhlyidov, jestingly.
A letter from the princess, or from her daughter. The
chambermaid brought it long ago; she is waiting in my
room," said Agraf6na Petr6vna, handing him the letter,
and smiling significantly.
"Very well, in a minute," said Nekhlyudov, taking the
letter and frowning, as he noticed Agrafena Petr6vna's
Agrafdna Petrovna's smile meant that the letter was
from the young Princess Korchigin, whom, according to
Agraf6na Petr6vna's opinion, Nekhlyudov was going to
Then I will tell her to wait," and Agraf4na Petr6vna,
picking up the crumb-brush, which was out of place, and
putting it away, glided out of the dining-room.
Nekhlyddov broke the seal of the perfumed letter,
which Agraf6na Petr6vna had given him, and began to
In fulfilment of my self-assumed duty to act as your
memory," so ran the letter on a sheet of thick gray paper
with uneven margins, in a sharp, broad hand, I remind
you that to-day, the twenty-eighth of April, you are to
serve on a jury, and consequently can by no means drive
out with Kolos6v and us to look at the pictures, as you
yesterday, with your characteristic thoughtlessness, prom-
ised us you would; & moins que vous ne soyez dispose h
payer & la cour d'assises les 300 roubles d'amende que vous


refuse pour votre cheval for not having appeared in
time. I thought of it yesterday, the moment you left.
So don't forget it.

On the other page was the following addition:

Maman vous faith dire que votre covert vous attendra
jusqu'A la nuit. Venez absolument & quelle here que
cela soit.
"M. K."

Nekhlyudov frowned. The note was a continuation of
that artifice which the young Princess KorchAgin had
been practising on him for the last two months, and
which consisted in drawing him evermore to herself by
invisible threads. On the other hand, Nekhlyidov had,
in addition tQ the usual indecision before marriage, which
all people have who are past their first youth and are not
passionately in love, another important reason, which kept
him from proposing at once, even if he had made up his
mind to do so. This reason was not that he had ten
years before seduced and abandoned Katyisha, this
he had entirely forgotten, and did not regard as an im-
pediment to his marriage; the real cause was that at that
time he had a liaison with a married woman, which,
though broken by him, had not yet been acknowledged
as broken by her.
Nekhlyudov was very shy with women, and it was
this very timidity which had provoked a desire in that
married woman to subdue him. She was the wife of the
marshal of the nobility of the county whither Nekhlyddov
used to go for the elections. This woman had drawn him
',- into a liaison, which from day to day became more bind-
ing on him and at the same time more repulsive. At
first, Nekhlyddov could not withstand her seductive


charms; then, feeling himself guilty toward her, he was
not able without her consent to tear asunder this union.
This was the reason why Nekhlytidov felt that he had no
right to propose to Princess Korchigin, even if he wished
to do so.
On the table happened to lie a letter from that woman's
husband. Upon noticing the handwriting and postmark,
Nekhlyiidov blushed, and immediately experienced an
onrush of energy, which always came over him at the
approach of danger. But his agitation was vain: her
husband, the marshal of the nobility in the county where
the more important estates of Nekhlyuidov were located,
informed him that at the end of May there would be an
extra session of the County Council, and asked him to be
sure and come in order to donner un coup d'dpaule in
the important questions concerning schools and roads
which were to be brought up before the coming meeting
of the County Council, when it was expected that the
reactionary party would put up a strong opposition.
The marshal was a liberal, and with several party
friends was engaged in struggling against the reaction
which had set in during the reign of Alexander III.; he
was busily occupied with this struggle, and knew nothing
of his unfortunate family life.
Nekhlyiidov recalled all the painful minutes which he
had passed in the presence of this man: he recalled how
once he had thought that her husband had found out
everything, and how he had prepared himself to fight a
duel at which he had intended to shoot into the air; and
he recalled that terrible scene with her, when in de-spair
she had rushed out into the garden ready to drown
herself in its pond, and how he had run after her to
find her.
I cannot go there, or undertake anything, unless I
first hear from her," thought Nekhlydudov. The week
before he had written her a decisive letter in which he


had confessed his guilt, and had declared himself ready
for any atonement; but, nevertheless, for her own good,
he regarded their relations as for ever ended. He was
expecting an answer to this very letter, but none had yet
been received. The delay in replying he considered a
good sign. If she had not agreed to the disruption of
the union, she would have written him long ago, or would
have come to see him, as she had done on previous occa-
sions. Nekhlyuidov had heard that there was a certain
officer in the country, who was paying her attentions, and
this gave him a twinge of jealousy, and at the same time
filled him with hope that he should be freed from the lie
which was harassing him.
Another letter was from the superintendent of his
estates. The superintendent wrote Nekhlyddov that he
would have to come down himself, in order to be con-
firmed in the rights of inheritance, and besides, to decide
the question of how the estates were to be managed
henceforth; whether as in the days of the deceased prin-
cess, or, as he had proposed to the defunct, and now was
again proposing to the young prince, by increasing the
inventory and himself working the land, which had been
parcelled out to lthe peasants. The superintendent wrote
that such an exploitation would be much more profitable.
At the same time he excused himself for having some-
what delayed the transmission of the three thousand
roubles which, by order, had been due on the first. The
money would be sent by the next post. The reason for
this delay was that he had been absolutely unable to col-
lect from the peasants, who had gone so far in their dis-
honesty that it became necessary to invoke the authorities
to compel them to pay their debts.
This letter was both pleasant and unpleasant to Nekh-
lyudov. It was pleasant for him to feel his power
,-ver his extensive possessions, and unpleasant, because in
his first youth he had been an enthusiastic follower of


Herbert Spencer, and, being himself a large landed propri-
etor, had been particularly struck by his statement in his
Social Statics that justice did not permit the private
ownership of land. With the directness and determina-
tion of youth he then maintained that land could not
form the object of private ownership, and he not only
wrote a thesis on the subject while at the university, but
at that time really distributed to the peasants a small
part of the land, which did not belong to his mother, but
which by inheritance from his father belonged to him
personally, so as not to be possessed of land, contrary
to his convictions. Having now become a large landed
proprietor by inheritance, he had to do one of the two
things: either to renounce his possessions, as he had done
ten years before in connection with the two hundred
desyatinas of his paternal estate, or by his silent consent
to acknowledge all his former ideas faulty and false.
He could not do the former, because he had no other
means of subsistence but the land. He did not wish to
serve in a government capacity, and in the meantime had
acquired luxurious habits of life, from which he consid-
ered it impossible ever to depart. Nor was there any
reason why he should, since he no longer had that force
of conviction, nor that determination, nor that ambition
and desire to surprise people, which had actuated him in
his youth. Similarly he was quite incapable of doing
the latter, -to recant those clear and undeniable proofs
of the illegality of private ownership of land, which he
had then found in Spencer's Social Statics, and the
brilliant confirmation of which he had found later, much
later, in the works of Henry George.
For this reason the superintendent's letter did not
please him.

HAVING finished his coffee, Nekhlyudov went into his
cabinet, to find out from the summons at what time he
was to be at court, and to write the princess an answer.
The cabinet was reached through the studio. Here stood
an easel with a covered, unfinished picture, and studies
were hanging on the wall. The sight of this picture, on
which he had vainly worked for two years, and of the
studies, and of the whole studio, reminded him of his
feeling of impotence to advance farther in painting, a
feeling which of late had overcome him with unusual
force. He explained to himself this sensation as arising
from a too highly developed aesthetic feeling, but still
the consciousness of it was exceedingly disagreeable to
Seven years before, he had given up his government
position, having decided that he had a talent for painting,
and from the height of his artistic activity he looked
down somewhat contemptuously on all other activities.
Now it appeared that he had no ground for such an
assumption, and thus every reminder of it was extremely
distasteful to him. He looked with a heavy heart at all
these luxurious arrangements of his studio, and in an
unhappy frame of mind entered his cabinet. The cabinet
was a very large and high room, with all kinds of adorn-
ments, appliances, and comforts.
He immediately found in the drawer of the immense
table, under the division of memoranda, the summons,
which said that he had to be at court at eleven o'clock.
He sat down and wrote a note to the princess, thanking


her for the invitation, and promising to come to dinner, if
he could. But after he had written this note, he tore it
up: it was too familiar; he wrote another, and it was
cold, almost offensive. He again tore it up, and pressed
a button on the wall. On the threshold appeared an
elderly, morose, cleanly shaven, whiskered lackey, in a
gray calico apron.
"Please send for a cab."
"Yes, sir."
"And tell her there is somebody here from the
Korchagins waiting for an answer tell her that I am
much obliged, and that I shall try to be there."
Yes, sir."
It is impolite, but I cannot write. I shall see her
to-day, anyway," thought Nekhlytidov, and went away to
dress himself.
When, all dressed, he appeared on the porch, his
familiar cab with the rubber tires was already waiting
for him.
Yesterday, the moment you had left Prince Korchi-
gin," said the cabman, half turning around his powerful,
sunburnt neck, in a white shirt collar, "I came back,
but the porter told me, He has just left.'"
"Even the cabmen know of my relations with the
Korchagins," thought Nekhlyudov, and the unsolved
question, which had of late constantly preoccupied him,
- whether he should marry Princess Korchagin or not, -
rose before him, and, as happened with him in the
majority of questions which presented themselves to him
at that time, he was unable to solve it one way or the
In favour of the marriage spoke the fact that marriage,
in addition to supplying him with a domestic hearth,
would remove the irregularities of sexual life, and would
make it possible for him to lead a moral existence; and,
in the second place, and this was most important, Nekh-


lyuidov hoped that a family and children would give a
meaning to his empty life. So much for marriage in
general. Against marriage in general was, in the first
place, the fear of losing his liberty, a fear which is
common to all old bachelors, and in the second, an un-
conscious dread before the mysterious being of a woman.
In favour of his marrying Missy in particular (Princess
Korch6gin's name was Mdriya, but, as in all families of a
certain circle, she was nicknamed Missy) was, in the
first place, her breeding, for in everything, from her wear-
ing-apparel to her manner of speaking, walking, and
laughing, she stood out from among common people, not
by any special features, but by her general decency," -
he could not think of any other expression for this
quality, which he esteemed highly; and in the second,
because she respected him above all other men, conse-
quently, according to his conceptions, she understood
him. And it was this comprehension, that is, the
acknowledgment of his high worth, which testified in
Nekhlyudov's opinion to her good mind and correct
Against his marrying Missy in particular was, first,
that it was quite possible that he should find a girl who
would possess an even greater number of desirable qual-
ities than Missy had, and who consequently would be
worthier of him; and, secondly, the fact that she was
twenty-seven years old and, therefore, must have been in
love before, and this thought tormented Nekilyddov.
His pride could not make peace with the thought that at
any time, even though it be in the past, she could have
loved anybody but him. Of course, she could not have
foreseen that she would meet him, but the very idea that
she could have been in love with some one else offended
Thus there were as many arguments in favour of
marrying as against it; at least these two classes of argu-


ments were equally urgent, and Nekhlyuidov, laughing at
himself, called himself Buridan's ass." And he remained
one, for he could not make up his mind to which bundle
to turn.
However, since I have received no answer from Mfrya
Vasilevna (the marshal's wife), and have not completely
settled that affair, I cannot begin anything," he said to
The consciousness that he could and should delay his
decision was agreeable to him.
Still, I will consider all this later," he said to himself
when his vehicle inaudibly drove over the asphalt drive-
way of the court-house.
Now I must act conscientiously, as I always execute,
and always should execute my public duties. Besides,
they are frequently interesting," he said to himself, pass-
ing by the doorkeeper, into the vestibule of the court-

IN the corridors of the court-house there was already
animated motion, when Nekhlyuidov entered it.
The janitors were either walking rapidly, or even run-
ning, without lifting their feet from the floor, but shuffling
them, and out of breath, carrying orders and documents
up and down. The bailiffs, the lawyers, and the judges
passed from one place to another, while the plaintiffs and
the defendants who were not undersurveillance morosely
walked up and down near the walls, or were sitting, wait-
ing for their turns.
Where is the circuit court ? Nekhlyudov asked one
of the janitors.
Which ? There is a civil division, there is a supreme
I am a juryman."
"Criminal division. You ought to have said so. Here,
to the right, then to the left, second door."
Nekhlyiudov followed his directions.
At the door indicated two men stood waiting for some-
thing. The one was a tall, fat merchant, a good-hearted
man, who had evidently had something to drink and to
eat, and was in a happy frame of mind; the other was a
clerk, of Jewish extraction. They were talking about the
price of wool, when Nekhlyudov walked over to them and
asked them whether this was the jury-room.
"Here, sir, here. Are you one of our kin, a jury-
man ?" the merchant asked good-naturedly, winking
"Well, we shall all work together," he continued, upon


Nekhlyuidov's affirmative answer. "Baklash6v, of the
second guild," he said, extending his soft, broad, open
hand. We shall have to work. With whom have I
the honour ?"
Nekhlyidov mentioned his name, and went into the
In the room there were some ten men of all descrip-
tions. They had all just arrived, and some were seated,
while others walked about, eyeing one another and getting
acquainted. There was an ex-officer in his uniform; the
others wore long or short coats, and one was clad in a
sleeveless peasant coat.
Though many of those present had been taken away
from their work, and complained that this was a tiresome
affair, they all bore the imprint of a certain pleasure, as
though they were conscious of performing an important
public duty.
The jurors, having become acquainted with each other,
or merely guessing who was who, were talking about the
weather, about the early spring, and about the work before
them. Those who did not know Nekhlyiidov hastened
to become acquainted with him, obviously regarding this
as a special honour. Nekhlyuidov received their advances
as something due him, as he always did when among
strangers. If he had been asked why he regarded him-
self higher than the majority of mankind, he would not
have been able to answer the question, because no part of
his life was distinguished for any particular qualities. The
fact that he spoke English, French, and German correctly,
and that his linen, his attire, his ties, and his cuff-buttons
came from the first purveyors of these articles, could not
have served at all, so he knew himself, as a reason for
supposing any superiority in himself. And yet, he un-
questioningly assumed this superiority, and received the
expressions of respect as something due him, and felt
offended whenever they were not forthcoming. In the


jurors' room he had occasion to experience the disagree-
able sensation arising from an expression of disrespect.
Among the jurymen was an acquaintance of Nekhlyd-
dov's. This was Peter GerAsimovich (Nekhlyddov never
had known his family name, and even boasted of this
fact), who had formerly been a teacher of his sister's
children. This Peter Gerisimovich had finished his course
at the university, and now was a teacher at a gymnasium.
Nekhlyddov never could bear him on account of his
familiarity, and his self-satisfied laughter, in general, on
account of his "vulgarity," as Nekhlyidov's sister used
to express herself.
Ah, you are caught, too," Peter Gerasimovich met
Nekhlyddov, with a guffaw. You could not tear your-
self away ?"
I did not even have any intention of tearing myself
away," Nekhlyidov said, austerely and gloomily.
Well, this is a citizen's virtue. Just wait, when you
get hungry, and don't have any sleep, you will sing a
different song!" Peter Gerisimovich shouted, laughing
louder still.
This protopope's son will soon be saying thou' to
me," thought LNekhlyddov, and with a face expressive of
a sadness which would have been natural only if he had
suddenly received the news of the death of all his rela-
tives, he went away from him, and joined the group which
had formed itself around a tall, cleanly shaven, stately
gentleman, who was relating something with animation.
The gentleman was telling of the lawsuit which was
being tried in the civil department, as of an affair which
he well knew; he called all the judges and famous law-
yers by their Christian names and patronymics. He was
expatiating on the wonderful turn which a famous lawyer
had given to it, so that one of the contesting parties, an
old lady, though entirely in the right, would have to pay
an immense sum to the other party.


A brilliant lawyer !" he said.
He was listened to with respect, and some tried to put
in a word of their own, but he interrupted them all, as
though he were the only one who could know anything
Although Nekhlyidov had arrived late, he had to wait
for a long time. The case was delayed by one of the
members of the court, who had not yet arrived.

THE presiding judge had come early. He was a tall,
stout man, with long, grayish side-whiskers. He was
married, but led a very dissolute life, and so did his wife.
They did not interfere with each other. On that morning
he had received a note from the Swiss governess, who lived
in their house in the summer and now was on her way to
St. Petersburg, that she would wait for him in town, in
" Hotel Italy," between three and six o'clock. And so he
was anxious to begin and end the sitting of the court as
early as possible, in order to get a chance of visiting this
red-haired Klra Vasilevna, with whom he had begun a
love-affair the summer before, in the country.
Upon entering the cabinet, he bolted the door, took out
a pair of dumb-bells from the lowest shelf of the safe with
the documents, and twenty times moved them up, for-
ward, sidewise, and downward, and then three times
squatted lightly, holding the dumb-bells above his head.
"Nothing keeps up a man's physique so well as water
and gymnastic exercises," he thought, feeling with his left
hand, with a gold ring on its ring-finger, the swelling
biceps of his right arm. He had still to make two wind-
mill motions, which he always practised before a long
session, when the door was shaken. Somebody was try-
ing to come in. The presiding judge immediately put the
dumb-bells away, and opened the door.
I beg your pardon," he said.
Into the room stepped one of the members of the court,
in gold spectacles; he was short, with raised shoulders
and frowning face.


Matvy6y Nikitich is again absent," said the member
with displeasure.
"He is not yet here," replied the presiding judge,
donning his uniform. He is eternally late."
I wonder he is not ashamed of himself," said the
member, and angrily sat down and took the cigarettes
out of his pocket.
This member, who was a very precise man, had had an
unpleasant encounter with his wife on that morning,
because she had spent the money which was to have lasted
her a whole month. She had asked for some more in
advance, but he insisted that he would not depart from
his rules. A scene ensued. His wife said that if he
insisted upon this, there would be no dinner, and that
he had better not expect any. Thereupon he left, fearing
that she would keep her word, for she was capable of
anything. So this is what you get for living a good,
moral life," he thought, looking at the shining, healthy,
gay, and good-hearted presiding judge, who, spreading
wide his elbows, was with his beautiful white hands
clawing his thick and long grayish side-whiskers on both
sides of his embroidered collar. He is always happy
and content, and I suffer."
The secretary entered, bringing some papers.
"Very much obliged to you," said the presiding
judge, lighting a cigar. Which case shall we launch
first ?"
I suppose the poisoning case," the secretary said,
apparently with indifference.
Very well, let it be the poisoning case," said the
presiding judge, reflecting that it was a case that might
be ended by four o'clock, whereupon he could leave.
"Has Matvy4y Nikitich not yet come ?"
Not yet."
And is Breve here ?"
He is," answered the secretary.

The Judges


-- r-ll him, then, if you see him, that we shall begin
with the p-i'soning case."
Ere? w;a. the assistant prosecuting attorney who was
tc. pr,,':ute it the present sitting.
Upr.n [-.aIhing the corridor, the secretary met Br6ve.
R4iiiing high his shoulders, he was almost running along
tLhe ':'rri,:l':,r; his uniform was unbuttoned, and he carried
hi. p.rtt':li:, under one arm; he continually struck his
h.l-k together, and swung his free arm in such a manner
that the pilia of his hand was perpendicular to the
direction cf his walk.
Mikhafl Petr6vich wants to know whether you are
ready ?" the secretary asked him.
Of course I am," said the assistant prosecuting attor-
ney. "Which case comes first ?"
"The poisoning case."
"Very well," said the assistant prosecuting attorney;
but he did not think it well at all, for he had not slept
the whol, ni,-ht. There had been a farewell party, where
thbe'y had drunk and played cards until two o'clock in the
m':',in.En; then- they all called on the women in the very
h,,u.ew %%h-r'- MAslova had been six months ago, so that
he had n..t had any time whatsoever to read up the brief;
he h':ped' t: ie able to do so now. The secretary, who
knew that he had not yet read up the poisoning case, had
Pur[",',sly :id-ised the presiding judge to start with it.
TLhe, se :retry was a man of liberal, nay, even radical
vi'ew.. i,5d"-, on the contrary, was a conservative, and,
Lke all Germans in Russian service, a devout Greek-
(':thli:,'; the secretary did not like him, and envied him
his pla:i.
\\'ell, how about the Castrate Sectarians?" asked the
I s;iid. I would d not," said the assistant prosecuting
atto:tru-y F.,r want of witnesses, -I shall so report to
the coutt."


But, all the same "
I cannot," said the assistant prosecuting attorney,
and, swaying his arm as before, entered his cabinet.
He delayed the case of the sectarians on account of the
absence of an unimportant witness, who was not at all
needed, and his reason for doing this was just because the
case was to be heard in a court where the jury were an
intelligent set, and where it might easily end in their
favour. By agreement with the presiding judge, this case
was to be transferred to the session in a county seat,
where there would be more peasants on the jury, and a
better chance to end the case unfavourably for the
The crowd in the corridor was getting more animated.
Most people were gathered near the hall of the civil divi-
sion, where the case was being tried, of which the stately
gentleman, the lover of lawsuits, had been telling the
jurors. During an intermission, from the hall emerged
the same old woman from whom the brilliant lawyer had
succeeded in wrenching away her whole property in
favour of a pettifogger, who did not have the slightest
right to it. The judges knew that, and the plaintiff and
his attorney knew it even better; but the case had been
conducted in such a manner that there was no other issue
possible but that the property should be taken away from
the old woman, and given over to the pettifogger. The
old woman was a stout lady in her holiday clothes, and
with enormous flowers on her hat. Upon coming out of
the door, she stopped in the corridor, and, swaying her
plump short arms, kept repeating, as she turned to her
lawyer: How will that be ? I beg you. How will that
be ? The lawyer was looking at the flowers on her
hat, and, without listening to her, was considering some-
Immediately after the old woman, there hurried out of
the hall of the civil division, resplendent in his wide-open


vest, that same famous attorney, who had fixed matters
in such a way that the old woman with the flowers was
left penniless, while the pettifogger, who gave him a fee
of ten thousand roubles, received more than one hundred
thousand roubles. All eyes were directed upon the
lawyer, and he was conscious of it, so that his whole
countenance seemed to be saying, "Please, no special
expressions of respect," as he rapidly passed by the group
congregated there.

FINALLY Matvy4y Nikitich arrived, and a bailiff, a spare
man, with a long neck and sidling gait, and also a lower
lip that protruded sidewise, entered the jury-room.
This bailiff was an honest man, who had received a
university education, but was not able to keep a place
any length of time, because he was a confirmed tippler.
Three months before, a countess, a protectress of his wife,
had got this place for him, and he had so far been able to
hold it, which made him feel happy.
Well, gentlemen, are you all here ?" he said, putting
on his eye-glasses, and looking over them.
It seems, all," said the merry merchant.
"Let us see," said the bailiff, and drawing a list from
his pocket, he began to call out the names, looking now
through his glasses, and now over them.
"Councillor of State I. M. Nikfforov."
"Here," said the stately gentleman, who knew about
all the cases at law.
Ex-Colonel Tvin Semdvich Ivanov."
"Here," said the haggard man in the uniform of an
officer out of service.
"The Merchant of the second guild, Petr Baklash6v."
"Here he is," said the good-hearted merchant, smiling
with his mouth wide open. "Ready !"
"Lieutenant of the Guard Prince Dmitri Nekhlyuidov."
"Here," answered Nekhlyidov.
The bailiff, looking with an expression of pleasurable
politeness above his glasses, made a bow, as if to honour
him above the rest.


Captain Ytri Dmitrievich Danchenko, Merchant Gri-
gdri Efimovich Kulesh6v," and so on.
All but two were present.
Now, gentlemen, please proceed to the ball," said the
bailiff, pointing to the door with a polite gesture.
They started, and, letting one after another pass through
the door into the corridor, went from the corridor into the
The court-room was a large, long hall. One end of it
was occupied by a platform, which was reached by three
steps. In the middle of this elevation stood a table
which was covered with a green cloth, bordered by a
green fringe of a darker shade. Behind the table stood
three chairs, with very high carved oak backs, and behind
the chairs hung a bright life-sized picture of the emperor
in the uniform of a general, with a sash; he was repre-
sented in the act of stepping forward, and resting his
hand on his sabre. In the right-hand corner hung a
shrine with the image of Christ in his crown of thorns,
and stood a Jpulpit, while on the right was the desk of the
prosecuting attorney. On the left, opposite the desk, was
the secretary's table, set back against the wall; and
nearer to the audience was a screen of oak rounds,
and back of it the unoccupied bench of the defendants.
On the right on the platform stood two rows of chairs,
also with high backs, for the jurors, and beneath them
were the tables for the lawyers. All this was in the fore
part of the hall, which was divided by the screen into
two parts. The back half was occupied by benches,
which, rising one behind the other, went as far as the
back wall. In the front benches sat four women, either
factory girls or chambermaids, and two men, also labourers,
evidently oppressed by the splendour of the room's inte-
rior, and therefore speaking to each other in a whisper.
Soon after the jurors had entered, the bailiff went with
his sidling gait to the middle of the room, and shouted in


a loud voice, as though he wished to frighten some-
The court is coming !"
Everybody rose, and the judges walked out on the
platform. First came the presiding judge, with his well-
developed muscles and beautiful whiskers. Then came
the gloomy member of the court, in gold spectacles, who
now was even more gloomy, because just before the ses-
sion began he had seen his brother-in-law, a candidate for
a judicial position, who had informed him that he had
just been at his sister's, and that she had told him that
there would be no dinner.
Well, I suppose we shall have to go to an inn," said
the brother-in-law, smiling.
"There is nothing funny in this," replied the gloomy
member of the court, and grew gloomier still.
And, finally, the third member of the court, that same
Matvy4y Nikitich, who was always late. He was a
bearded man, with large, drooping, kindly eyes. This
member suffered from a gastral catarrh; with the doctor's
advice he had begun that morning a new regimen, and it
was this new regimen which had detained him at home
longer than usual. Now, as he was ascending the plat-
form, he had a concentrated look, because he was in the
habit of using all kinds of guesses, in order to arrive at a
solution of such questions as he propounded to himself.
Just now, he had made up his mind that if the number of
steps from the door of the cabinet to the chair should be
divisible by three, without a remainder, the new regimen
would cure him of the catarrh, but if it did not divide
exactly, the regimen would be a failure. There were in
all twenty-six steps, but he doubled one, and thus reached
the chair with his twenty-seventh step.
The figures of the presiding judge and of the members,
as they ascended the platform in their uniforms with the
collars embroidered in gold lace, were very impressive.


They were themselves conscious of this, and all three, as
though embarrassed by their grandeur, swiftly and mod-
estly lowering their eyes, sat down on their carved chairs,
back of the table with the green cloth, on which towered a
triangular Mirror of Law with an eagle, and a glass vase
such as is used on sideboards for confectionery ; there also
stood an inkstand, and lay pens, clean paper, and newly
sharpened pencils of all dimensions. The associate prose-
cuting attorney had come in at the same time as the judges.
He at once walked up to his place near the window just
as hurriedly,'with his portfolio under his arm, and waving
his hand in the same manner as before, and at once buried
himself in the reading and examination of the papers,
utilizing every minute in order to prepare himself for the
case. This was the fourth time he had had a case to
prosecute. He was very ambitious and had firmly deter-
mined to make a career, therefore he regarded it as neces-
sary that the cases should go against the defendant every
time he prosecuted. He was acquainted with the chief
points in the poisoning case, and had even formed a plan
of attack, but he needed a few more data, and was now
hurriedly reading the briefs, and copying out the necessary
The secretary was seated at the opposite end of the
platform, and, having arranged all the documents that
might be needed, was looking over a proscribed article,
which he had obtained and read the day before. He
was anxious to talk about this article to the member
of the court with the long beard, who shared his views,
and was trying to become familiar with its contents before
he spoke to him about it.

THE presiding judge looked through the papers, put a
few questions to the bailiff and the secretary, and, having
received affirmative answers, gave the order to bring in
the defendants. The door back of the screen was imme-
diately thrown open, and two gendarmes in caps, and
with unsheathed swords, entered, and were followed by
the defendants, by a red-haired, freckled man, and
by two women. The man was clad in a prison cloak,
which was much too broad and too long for him. As he
entered the court-room, he held his hands with their out-
stretched fingers down his legs, thus keeping the long
sleeves back in place. He did not glance upon the
judges or upon the spectators, but gazed at the bench,
around which he was walking, Having got to the other
end, he let the women sit down first, and himself took up
a seat on the very edge; gazing fixedly at the presiding
judge, he began to move the muscles of his cheeks, as
though whispering something. After him came a young
woman, also dressed in a prison cloak. Her head was
wrapped in a prison kerchief; her face was ashen-white,
without eyebrows or lashes, but with red eyes. This
woman seemed to be very calm. As she was going up to
her seat, her cloak caught on something, but she carefully,
without any undue haste, freed it, and sat down.
The third defendant was MAslova.
The moment she entered, the eyes of all the men who
were in the court-room were directed upon her, and for a
long time were riveted upon her white face, with her
black, sparkling eyes, and her swelling bosom underneath


her cloak. Even the gendarme, near whom she passed,
gazed at her uninterruptedly, until she had gone beyond
him; when she sat down, he rapidly turned away, as
though conscious of his guilt, and, straightening himself
up, fixed his eyes upon the window in front of him.
The presiding judge waited until the defendants had
taken their seats, and the moment Mislova sat down, he
turned to the secretary.
Then began the usual procedure: the roll-call of the
jurors, the discussion about those who had failed to make
their appearance, and the imposition of fines upon them,
the decision in regard to those who wished to be excused,
and the completion of the required number from the
reserve jurors. Then the presiding judge folded some
slips of paper, placed them in the glass vase, and, rolling
up a little the embroidered sleeves of his uniform and
baring his hirsute arms, began, with the gestures of a
prestidigitator, to take out one slip at a time; these he
unrolled and read. Then the presiding judge adjusted
his sleeves, and ordered the priest to swear in the jurors.
The old priest, with a swollen, sallow face, in a cinna-
mon-coloured vestment, with a gold cross on his breast
and a small decoration pinned to his vestment, slowly
moving his swollen legs under his garment, went up to
the reading-desk which stood under the image.
The jurymen arose and in a crowd moved up to the
Please, come up," said the priest, touching the cross
on his chest with his swollen hand, and waiting for the
approach of all the jurors.
This priest had taken orders forty-six years before, and
was preparing himself in three years to celebrate his
jubilee in the same manner in which the cathedral proto-
pope had lately celebrated his. He had served in the
circuit court since the opening of the courts, and was very
proud of the fact that he had sworn in several tens of


thousands of people, and that at his advanced age he con-
tinued to labour for the good of the Church, of his country,
and of his family, to whom he would leave a house and
a capital of not less than thirty thousand roubles in
bonds. It had never occurred to him that his work
in the court-room, which consisted in having people take
an oath over the Gospel, in which swearing of oaths is
directly prohibited, was not good; he was not in the least
annoyed by his routine occupation, but, on the contrary,
liked it very much, because it gave him an opportunity
of getting acquainted with nice gentlemen. He had just
had the pleasure of meeting the famous lawyer, who
inspired him with great respect because he had received
a fee of ten thousand roubles for nothing more than the
case of the old woman with the immense flowers.
When the jurors had walked up the'steps of the plat-
form, the priest, bending his bald, gray head to one side,
stuck it through the greasy opening of the scapulary, and,
arranging his scanty hair, addressed the jurors.
Raise your right hands and put your fingers together
like this," he said, in the deliberate voice of an old man,
lifting his plump hand, with dimples beneath every finger,
and putting three fingers together. Now repeat after
me," he said, and began, "I promise and swear by Al-
mighty God, before His Holy Gospel and before the Life-
giving Rood of the Lord, that in the case, in which "
he said, making a pause after every sentence. Don't drop
your hand, but hold it like this," he addressed a young
man, who had dropped his hand, -" that in the case, in
which "
The stately gentleman with the whiskers, the colonel,
the merchant, and others held their fingers as the priest
had ordered them to do; some of these held them high
and distinctly formed, as though this gave them special
pleasure; others again held them reluctantly and in an
indefinite manner. Some repeated the words too loudly,

The JiIr\
.. p . .. . s .


as though with undue zeal and with an expression which
said, There is nothing to prevent my speaking aloud ;"
others again spoke in a whisper, and fell behind the words
of the priest, and then, as if frightened, hastened to catch
up with him; some held their three fingers firmly folded,
and flaunted them, as though they were afraid of freeing
something from their hands; others loosened their fingers
and again gathered them up. All felt awkward, and the
old priest alone was firmly convinced that he was per-
forming a useful work.
After the oath had been administered, the presiding
judge told the jurors to elect a foreman. The jurymen
arose, and, crowding each other, went into the council-
room, where they immediately took out their cigarettes,
and began to smoke. Somebody proposed the stately
gentleman for a foreman; he was chosen by unanimous
consent, and, throwing away and extinguishing the ciga-
rette stumps, they returned to the court-room. The stately
gentleman announced to the presiding judge that he had
been chosen foreman, and, stepping over each others' feet,
they sat down in two rows, on the chairs with the high
E.erything went without a hitch, almost with solem-
nity. and this regularity, this sequence and solemnity,
atl' .rded all the participants pleasure, for it confirmed them
in their conviction that they were performing a serious
an.I important public duty. Nekhlydidov, too, felt this.
Th,- moment the jurors had taken their seats, the pre-
siding judge made a speech to them about their rights,
their duties, and their responsibilities. While delivering
Ih 1 speech, the judge kept changing his pose: he leaned
n.,w on his right arm, now on his left, now on the back,
n u.1 now on the arm of his chair; he smoothed out the
,ligS of the papers, or he stroked the paper-knife, or
fingered a pencil.
Their rights consisted, according to his words, in being


permitted to ask questions of the defendants through the
presiding judge, in having pencil and paper, and in being
allowed to inspect the exhibits. Their duty consisted in
judging justly, and not falsely. And their responsibility
was this: if they did not keep their consultations secret,
or if they established any communication with the out-
side world, they would be subject to punishment.
Everybody listened with respectful attention. The
merchant, wafting around him the odour of liquor, and re-
straining himself from loud belching, approvingly nodded
his head at every sentence.

HAVING finished his speech, the judge turned to the
Sim6n Kartinkin, arise !" he said.
Simon got up with a jerk, and the muscles of his
cheeks moved more rapidly.
Your name ?"
"Sim6n Petr6v Kartinkin," he answered rapidly, in a
crackling voice, evidently having prepared his answer in
"Your rank ?"
What Government and county ?"
"From the Government of Tula, Krapivensk County,
Kupyinsk township, village of B6rki."
How old are you ?"
Thirty-three; born in one thousand "
What is your religion ?"
"I am a Russian, an Orthodox."
"Married ?"
"No, sir."
"What is your occupation ?"
"I worked in the corridor of Hotel Mauritania.' "
"Have you been in court before ?"
"I have never been sentenced, because I used to
live "
"You have not been tried before ?"
"So help me God, never."
Have you received a copy of the indictment ?"
"I have."


Take your seat! Evffmiya IvAnovna B6chkova," the
presiding judge addressed the next defendant.
But Sim6n continued standing, and B6chkova could
not be seen behind his back.
Kartinkin, sit down."
Kartinkin continued to stand.
Kartinkin, sit down !"
But Kartinkin still stood up; he sat down only when
the bailiff ran up, and, bending his head down, and un-
naturally opening his mouth, said to him in a tragic
whisper: Sit down, sit down "
Kartinkin dropped as fast into his seat as he had shot
up before, and, wrapping himself in his cloak, began once
more silently to move his cheeks.
Your name ?" the judge addressed the second defend-
ant, with a sigh of fatigue, without looking at her, and
looking up something in the document which was lying
before him. The presiding judge was so used to his cases
that, in order to expedite matters, he was able to attend
to two things at the same time.
B6chkova was forty-three years old; her rank, burgess
of Kol6mna; her occupation, corridor maid in the same
" Hotel Mauritania." She had not been before under trial,
and had received the indictment. She answered all the
questions very freely, and with such intonations as though
she meant to convey the idea: "Yes, I, Evfimiya B6ch-
kova, have received the copy, and am proud of it, and
allow nobody to laugh at me." She did not wait for the
permission to be seated, but sat down the moment the
last question was answered.
Your name ?" the gallant presiding judge exceedingly
politely addressed the third defendant. You must stand
up!" he added, softly and kindly, noticing that Maslova
was sitting.
Maslova started up with a swift motion, and with an
expression of readiness, thrusting forward her swelling


bosom, looked, without answering, at the face of the judge
with her smiling and slightly squinting black eyes.
What is your name ?"
Lyub6v," she quickly replied.
In the meantime, Nekhlyddov, who had put on his
eye-glasses, was watching the defendants while the ques-
tions were being asked. "It can't be," he thought, rivet-
ing his eyes on the defendant. But how is it Lyub6v ?"
he thought, upon hearing her answer.
The judge wanted to continue his questions, but the
member in the spectacles, saying something angrily under
his breath, stopped him. The judge nodded consent, and
again turned to the defendant.
Lyub6v ?" he said. "A different name is given
The defendant remained silent.
I ask what your real name is ?"
By what name were you baptized ?" the member
asked, angrily.
"Formerly I was called Katerifa."
"It is impossible," Nekhlyidov kept saying to himself,
and meanwhile he knew beyond any doubt that it was
she, the same girl, half-educated, half-chambermaid, with
whom he had once been in love, precisely, in love, but
whom he had seduced during an uncontrollable transport
and then had abandoned, and whom he later never thought
of, because that recollection would have been too painful
to him and would have condemned him; it would have
proved that he, who was so proud of his decency," not
only was not decent, but had simply treated this woman
Yes, it was she. He now saw clearly that exclusive
and mysterious individuality which separates one person
from another and makes him exclusive, one, and unre-
peated. Beneath the unnatural pallor and plumpness
of her face, this individuality, this sweet, exceptional


individuality, was in her face, her lips, her slightly squint-
ing eyes, and, above all else, in her naive, smiling glance,
and in that expression of readiness, not only in her face,
but in her whole figure.
"You ought to have said so," the judge said, still very
softly. "Your patronymic ?"
"I am of illegitimate birth," said M3aslova.
How were you called by your godfather ?"
"What could her crime be ?" Nekhlyutdov continued to
think, breathing with difficulty.
"Your family name ? continued the judge.
Mslova, by my mother."
Rank ? "
"Of the Orthodox faith ?"
"Occupation ? What was your occupation ?"
Mdslova was silent.
What was your occupation ?" repeated the judge.
"I lived in an establishment," she said.
"In what kind of an establishment ?" angrily asked
the member in the spectacles.
"You know yourself in what kind," said Mislova,
smiling, and, immediately turning around, she again fixed
her eyes on the presiding judge.
There was something so unusual in the expression of
her face, and something so terrible and pitiable in the
meaning of the words which she had uttered, in her
smile, and in that rapid glance which she then cast upon
the whole court-room, that the presiding judge lost his
composure, and for a moment ensued a complete silence
in the hall. The silence was broken by the laughter of
somebody among the spectators. Somebody else cried,
"Hush !" The presiding judge raised his head and con-
tinued the questions.


Have you ever been tried or under a judicial inquest
before ? "
"No," softly said Maslova, with a sigh.
Have you received the indictment ?"
"I have."
Take your seat," said the presiding judge.
The defendant lifted her skirt with a motion with
which dressed up women adjust their train, and sat down,
folding her small white hands in the sleeve of the cloak,
without taking her eyes off the presiding judge.
Then began the roll-call of the witnesses, and the re-
moval of the witnesses, and the determination of the
medical expert, and his call to the court-room. Then
the secretary rose and began to read the indictment. He
read with a clear and loud enunciation, but so rapidly
that his voice, with its incorrectly articulated r's and 1's,
mingled into one uninterrupted, soporific din. The judges
leaned now on one arm of the chair, now on the other,
now on the table, or against the back, and now closed
their eyes or opened them and passed some words to each
other in a whisper. One gendarme several times held
back his incipient convulsive yawning.
Of the defendants, Kartinkin never stopped moving his
cheeks. Bochkova sat very quiet and erect, occasionally
scratching her head underneath her kerchief.
MAslova sat motionless, listening to the reader and
looking at him; now and then she shuddered, as though
wishing to contradict, blushed, and drew deep sighs; she
changed the position of her hands, looked around her, and
again riveted her eyes on the reader.
Nekhlyuidov sat in the first row, on his high chair, the
second from the outer edge; he did not take off his eye-
glasses, and gazed at Mislova, while his soul was in a
complicated and painful ferment.

THE indictment was as follows : On the seventeenth of
January, 188-, the police was informed by the proprietor
of Hotel Mauritania," of that city, of the sudden death
of the transient Siberian merchant of the second guild,
Ferap6nt Smyelk6v, who had been staying in his establish-
ment. According to the testimony of the physician of the
fourth ward, Smyelk6v's death had been caused by a rupture
of the heart, induced by an immoderate use of spirituous
liquors, and Smyelk6v's body was committed to the earth
on the third day. In the meantime, on the fourth day
after Smyelk6v's death, there returned from St. Petersburg
his countryman and companion, the Siberian merchant
Tim6khin, who, upon learning of the death of his friend
Smyelk6v, and of the circumstances under which it had
taken place, expressed his suspicion that Smyelk6v's death
was due to unnatural causes, and that he had been poi-
soned by evil-doers, who had seized his money and a gold
ring, which were wanting from the inventory of his
property. As a result of this, an inquest was instituted,
and the following was ascertained: First, that it was known
to the proprietor of Hotel Mauritania and to the clerk
of Merchant Starik6v, with whom Smyelk6v had had busi-
ness affairs after his arrival in the city, that Smyelk6v
ought to have had 3,800 roubles, which he had received
from the bank, whereas in the travelling-bag and pocket-
book, which had been sealed up at his death, only 312
roubles and sixteen kopeks were found. Secondly, that
the day and night preceding his death, Smyelk6v had


passed with the prostitute Lyubov, who had been twice
to his room. Thirdly, that said prostitute had sold a
diamond ring, belonging to Smyelkdv, to the landlady.
Fourthly, that the hotel maid Evfimiya B6chkova had
deposited eighteen hundred roubles in a bank on the day
after Smyelkov's death. And, fifthly, that, according to
the declaration of the prostitute Lyub6v, the hotel servant
Sim6n Kartinkin had handed a powder to said prostitute
Lyub6v, advising her to pour it into the wine of Merchant
Smyelkov, which she, according to her own confession,
had promptly done.
At the inquest, the defendant, said prostitute, named
Lyub6v, deposed that during the presence of Merchant
Smyelkdv in the house of prostitution, in which, according
to her words, she had been working, she had really been
sent by the said Merchant Smyelk6v to his room in the
" Hotel Mauritania to fetch him some money ; and that
there she had opened his valise with the key which he had
given her, and had taken from it forty roubles, as ordered
to do, but that she had not taken any more money, to
which Sim6n Kartinkin and Evffmiya Bochkova could
be her witnesses, for she had opened and closed the valise
and had taken out the money in their presence.
But as to the poisoning of Smyelk6v, prostitute Lyub6v
deposed that upon her third arrival at Merchant Smyel-
k6v's room, she had really, at the instigation of Simdn
Kartinkin, given him some powders in his cognac, think-
ing them to be such as would induce sleep, for the purpose
of being freed from him as soon as he fell asleep; that she
had taken no money ; and that the ring had been given
her by Smyelk6v himself, when he had dealt her some
blows, and she had intended to leave.
At the inquisition, the defendants, Evfimiya B6chkova
and Sim6n Kartinkin, deposed as follows: Evflmiya Boch-
kova deposed that she knew nothing of the lost money;
that she had not once entered the merchant's room; and


that Lyub6v had been there by herself, and that, if any
money had been stolen, it must have been stolen by Lyu-
b6v when she had come with the merchant's key for the
At this point of the reading, M4slova shuddered, and,
opening her mouth, glanced at Bdchkova.
When the eighteen-hundred-rouble bank-bill was pre-
sented to Evfimiya B6chkova, the secretary continued
reading, and she was asked where she got such a sum
of money, she deposed that it had been earned by her
during twelve years in conjunction with Sim6n, whom
she had intended to marry.
At the inquest, the defendant Sim6n Kartinkin in his
first deposition confessed that he and B6chkova had
together stolen the money, at the instigation of MAslova,
who had come from the house of prostitution with the
key, and that he had divided it among himself, MAslova,
and B6chkova; he had also confessed that he had given
the powders to Maslova, in order to induce sleep. But at
the second deposition he denied his participation in the
stealing of the money, and his having handed any powders
to Maslova, and accused MAslova alone. But in regard
to the money which B6chkova had deposited in the bank,
he deposed, similar to her statement, that she had earned
that money in conjunction with him during the eighteen
years of her service at the hotel, from the gratuities of
the gentlemen.
To clear up the circumstances of the case, it was found
necessary to hold an inquest over the body of Merchant
Smyelk6v, and consequently an order was given to ex-
hume Smyelkdv's body and to investigate both the con-
tents of his entrails, and the changes that might have
taken place in his organism. The investigation of his
entrails showed that death had been occasioned by poison-
ing. Then there followed in the indictment the descrip-
tion of the cross-examination, and the depositions of the


witnesses. The conclusion of the indictment was as
follows :
Smyelk6v, merchant of the second guild, having in a
fit of intoxication and debauch entered into relations
with a prostitute in Kitaeva's house of prostitution, by
the name of Lyub6v, and having taken a special liking
to her, had, on the seventeenth of January, 188-, while
in Kit6eva's house of prostitution, sent the above-men-
tioned prostitute Lyub6v, with the key of his valise, to
his room in the hotel, in order that she might procure
from his valise forty roubles, which he had wished to
spend. Having arrived at his room, Katerina Maslova,
while taking this money, had entered into an agreement
with B6chkova and with Kartinkin to seize all the money
and the valuables belonging to Merchant Smyelk6v, and
to divide them up among themselves, which was promptly
executed by them (again M6slova shuddered, raised her-
self in her seat, and grew purple in her face), whereat
Maslova received the diamond ring, the secretary con-
tinued reading, and probably a small amount of money,
which has been either concealed or lost by her, since
during that night she happened to be in an intoxicated
In order to conceal the traces of their crime, the par-
ticipants had agreed to entice Merchant Smyelk6v back
to his room and to poison him there with arsenic, which
was in Kartinkin's possession. For this purpose, Mdslova
returned to the house of prostitution and there persuaded
Merchant Smyelk6v to drive back with her to his room
in Hotel Mauritania." Upon Smyelk6v's return, Mas-
lova, having received the powders from Kartinkin, poured
them into the wine, and gave it to Smyelkov to drink,
from which ensued his death.
In view of the above-mentioned facts, Simon Kartin-
kin, a peasant of the village of B6rki, and thirty-three
years of age, Burgess Evfimiya Ivanovna B6chkova, forty-


three years of age, and Burgess Katerina MikhAylovna
Maslova, twenty-seven years of age, are accused of hav-
ing, on January 17, 188-, conspired to seize the money
of Merchant Smyelk6v, to the sum of twenty-five hundred
roubles, and to deprive Merchant Smyelk6v of his life,
in order to conceal the traces of their crime, for which
purpose they administered poison to him, which caused
his death.
This crime is provided for in Article 1455 of the Crimi-
nal Code. In pursuance thereof, and on the basis of
article so and so of the Statutes of Criminal Procedure,
Peasant Simon Kartinkin, Evfimiya B6chkova, and Bur-
gess Katerina Maslova are subject to the jurisdiction of
the circuit court and are to be tried by jury.
Thus the secretary ended the reading of his long indict-
ment, and, putting away the documents, sat down in his
seat, passing both his hands through his hair. Everybody
drew a sigh of relief, with the pleasant conviction that
now the investigation would begin, when everything
would be cleared up, and justice would be satisfied.
Nekhlytidov alone did not experience that sensation: he
was all absorbed in the contemplation of the terrible
charges brought against M slova, whom he had known
as an innocent and charming girl ten years before.

WHEN the reading of the indictment was ended, the
presiding judge, having consulted with the members,
turned to Kartinkin with an expression which manifestly
said that now they would most surely ascertain all the
details of the case.
Peasant Sim6n Kartinkin," he began, leaning to his
Sim6n Kartinkin got up, holding his hands close at his
sides, and bending forward with his whole body, while
his cheeks continued to move inaudibly.
You are accused of having, on January 17, 188-, in
company with Evfimiya B6chkova and Katerina Mis-
lova, appropriated from Smyelk6v's valise his money, and
then of having brought arsenic, and having persuaded
Katerina Mislova to give it to Merchant Smyelk6v to
drink in wine, from which his death ensued. Do you
plead guilty ? he said, leaning to his right.
"It is entirely impossible, because it is our duty to
serve the guests "
You will tell that later. Do you plead guilty ?"
"Not at all. I only -"
You will say that later. Do you plead guilty ?" the
presiding judge repeated calmly, but firmly.
I can't do that because "
Again the bailiff ran up to Sim6n Kartinkin, and
stopped him, in a tragic whisper.
The presiding judge, with an expression on his face as
though this matter had been settled, changed the position


of the elbow of that arm, in the hand of which he was
holding a paper, and addressed Evfimiya Bdchkova.
Evfimiya Bdchkova, you are accused of having taken,
on January 17, 188-, in company with Sim6n Kartinkin
and Katerina.1Mislova, from Merchant Smyelk6v's valise,
his money and ring, and after dividing the property up
among yourselves, of having tried to conceal your crime
by giving Merchant Smyelk6v poison, from which his
death ensued. Do you plead guilty ?"
"I am guilty of nothing," the defendant spoke boldly
and firmly. I did not even go into his room And
as this lewd one went in there, she did it."
You will tell that later," the presiding judge said
again, just as gently and firmly as before. So you do
not plead guilty ?"
I did not take the money, and I did not give him
anything to drink, and I was not in his room. If I had
been in there, I should have kicked her out."
You do not plead guilty ?"
"Very well."
"Katerina M2slova," began the presiding judge, address-
ing the third defendant, you are accused of having
come from the public house to the room of Hotel Mauri-
tania,' with the key to Merchant Smyelk6v's valise, and of
having taken from that valise money and a ring," he said,
as though reciting a lesson learned by rote, leaning his
ear to the member on the left, who was informing him
that according to the list of the exhibits a certain vial
was wanting, of having taken from that valise money
and a ring," repeated the judge, and, after having di-
vided up the stolen property, and having arrived with
Merchant Smyelk6v at Hotel Mauritania,' of having
offered Smyelk6v poisoned wine to drink, from the effects
of which he died. Do you plead guilty ?"
"I am not guilty of anything," she spoke rapidly.


"As I have said before, so I say now: I did not take it,
I did not, I did not; and the ring he gave me himself."
You do not plead guilty to the charge of having taken
the twenty-five hundred roubles ?" said the presiding
I say I took nothing but the forty roubles."
Do you plead guilty to having put some powders into
the wine of Merchant Smyelk6v ?"
"I do. Only I thought that they were sleeping-powders,
and that nothing would happen to him from them. I
had no intentions of doing wrong. I say before God,
I did not wish his death," she said.
"And so you do not plead guilty to having taken the
money and ring of Merchant Smyelkov," said the presid-
ing judge. "But you do plead guilty to the charge of
having administered the powders ?"
I plead guilty to this, only I thought they were
sleeping-powders. I gave them to him to put him to
sleep; I had no other intention."
Very well," said the presiding judge, evidently satis-
fied with the result. Tell, then, how it all happened,"
he said, leaning against the back of the chair, and placing
both his hands on the table. "Tell everything as it hap-
pened. You may be able to alleviate your condition by a
frank confession."
Maslova continued to gaze at the presiding judge, and
to keep silent.
Tell how it all happened."
"How it happened ?" Maslova suddenly began, in a
hurried voice. "I arrived at the hotel; I was taken to
his room, and he was already there, very drunk." She
pronounced the word he with a peculiar expression of
terror, opening her eyes wide. I wanted to drive home,
but he would not let me."
She stopped, as though having suddenly lost the thread
of what she was saying, or recalling something else.


Well, and then ?"
And then ? I stayed there, and then drove home."
At that time the associate prosecuting attorney half
raised himself, leaning unnaturally on one elbow.
"Do you wish to ask a question ?" said the presiding
judge, and, on the associate prosecuting attorney's affirma-
tive answer, he indicated by a gesture that he could put
the question.
I should like to ask whether the defendant had been
acquainted with Sim6n Kartinkin before that," said the
associate prosecuting attorney, without looking at MIs-
Having put the question, he compressed his lips and
The judge repeated the question. Maslova gazed
frightened at the assistant prosecuting attorney.
With Sim6n ? Yes," she said.
"I should like to know wherein the defendant's ac-
quaintance with Kartinkin consisted, and whether they
had frequent communications."
"What this acquaintance consisted in ? He used to
invite me to his room, but there was no other acquaint-
ance," replied Mislova, restlessly turning her eyes from
the associate prosecuting attorney to the presiding judge,
and back again.
I should like to know why Kartinkin used to invite
Maslova exclusively, and no other girls ?" said the asso-
ciate prosecuting attorney, half-closing his eyes, and with
a light Mephistophelian smile.
"I do not know. How can I know ?" replied Maslova,
casting a frightened look all around her, and for a moment
resting her eyes on Nekhlyidov. He invited whom he
Has she recognized me ?" Nekhlyuidov thought in
terror, feeling all his blood rush to his .face; but Maslova
did not separate him from the rest, and, turning imme-


diately away from him, riveted her eyes on the assistant
prosecuting attorney, with an expression of terror in her
The defendant, then, denies having had any close rela-
tions with Kartinkin ? Very well. I have nothing else
to ask."
And the associate prosecuting attorney immediately re-
moved his elbow from the desk, and began to write some-
thing down. In reality he was not writing anything at
all, but only running his pen over the letters of his brief,
but he pretended to imitate the prosecuting attorneys and
lawyers who, after a clever question, make a note in their
speeches that are to crush their opponents.
The presiding judge did not at once turn to the defend-
ant, because he was just then asking the member in the
spectacles whether he agreed to his putting the previously
prepared and noted down questions.
What happened next ?" the presiding judge continued
his inquiry.
I came back home," continued M6slova, looking more
boldly at the judge, "and gave the money to the land-
lady, and went to bed. I had barely fallen asleep when
one of our girls, B4rta, woke me up with Go, your mer-
chant has come again!' I did not want to go out, but
the madam told me to go. In the meantime, he," she
again uttered this word with manifest terror, "he had
been all the time treating our girls; then he wanted to
send for some more wine, but his money was all gone.
The landlady did not trust him. So he sent me to his
room; and he told me where his money was, and how
much I should take. So I went."
The presiding judge was whispering something to the
member on the left, and did not hear what Mlslova was
saying, but to show that he was listening, he repeated her
last words.
You went. Well, and then ?" he said.


I went there and did as he had ordered me to do. I
went to his room. I did not go by myself, but called
Simdn Mikhaylovich, and her," she said, pointing to
She is lying; I did not put my foot in there -"
began Evfimiya B6chkova, but she was stopped.
I took out four red bills in their presence," Maslova
continued, frowning, and without glancing at B6chkova.
"Well, did not the defendant notice how much money
there was in it, while she was taking the forty roubles ?"
again asked the prosecuting attorney.
MIslova shuddered, the moment the prosecuting attor-
ney addressed her. She did not know how to explain
her feeling, but she was sure he meant her harm. I did
not count, but I saw there were some hundred-rouble
bills there."
"The defendant saw hundred-rouble bills, I have
nothing else to ask."
Well, so you brought the money ?" the presiding
judge went on to ask, looking at his watch.
"I did."
"Well, and then ? asked the presiding judge.
"Then he took me with him once more," said Mislova.
"And how did you give him the wine with the
powder ?" asked the judge.
How ? I poured it into the wine, and gave it to
"Why did you give it to him ? "
Without answering the question, she heaved a deep
and heavy sigh.
"He would not let me go," she said, after a moment's
silence. I got tired of him, so I went into the corridor,
and said to Sim6n Mikhaylovich, If he'd only let me
go, I am so tired.' And Sim6n Mikhaylovich said,
' We are tired of him, too. Let us give him some sleep-
ing-powders; that will put him to sleep, and then you


will get away.' And I said, Very well!' I thought it
was a harmless powder. He gave me a paper. I went
in, and he was lying behind a screen, and asked me at
once to let him have some cognac. I took from the
table a bottle of fine-champagne, filled two glasses,-
one for myself, and one for him, and poured the powder
into his glass. I should never have given it, if I had
known what it was."
Well, how did you get possession of the ring ?" asked
the presiding judge.
"He himself had made me a present of it."
"When did he give it to you ?"
"When we came to his room, I wanted to leave, and
he struck me upon the head, and broke my comb. I grew
angry, and wanted to go away. He took the ring off his
finger and gave it to me, asking me to stay," she said.
Just then the associate prosecuting attorney half-raised
himself, and, with the same feignedly naive look, asked
the judge's permission to put a few more questions. His
request being granted, he bent his head over his em-
broidered collar, and asked:
"I should like to know how long the defendant re-
mained in Merchant Smyelk6v's room."
Again Maslova was overcome by terror, and, her eyes
restlessly flitting from the associate prosecuting attorney
to the presiding judge, she muttered, hurriedly :
"I do not remember how long."
"Well, does the defendant remember whether she called
elsewhere in the hotel upon coming out of Merchant
Smyelk6v's room ?"
M1slova thought awhile.
I went into the adjoining room, it was unoccupied,"
she said.
Why did you step in there ?" said the associate
prosecuting attorney, enthusiastically, and addressing her


"I went in to fix myself, and to wait for a cab."
And was Kartinkin in the room with the defendant,
or not ?"
He came in, too."
"What did he come in for ?"
"There was some of the merchant's fine-champagne
left, so we drank it together."
Ah, you drank it in company. Very well."
"Did the defendant have any conversation with
Sim6n ?"
MAlslova suddenly frowned, grew red in her face, and
rapidly said: "What I said? Nothing. I have told
everything that took place. I know nothing else. Do
with me what you please. I am not guilty, and that's
"I have nothing else," the prosecuting attorney said to
the presiding judge, and, unnaturally raising his shoulders,
began swiftly to note down in the brief of his speech the
confession of the defendant that she had been in an un-
occupied room with Sim6n.
There ensued a moment's silence.
Have you nothing else to say ?"
I have said everything," she declared, with a sigh, and
sat down again.
Thereupon the presiding judge made a note of some-
thing, and, upon having listened to a communication
which the member on the left had made to him in a
whisper, he announced a recess of ten minutes in the
session, and hurriedly rose and left the room. The con-
sultation between the presiding judge and the member on
his left, the tall, bearded man, with the large, kindly eyes,
consisted in the latter's information that his stomach was
slightly out of order, and that he wished to massage him-
self a little and swallow some drops. It was this that he
had told the presiding judge, and the judge acceded to
his request and granted a ten minutes' recess.


Right after the judges rose the jurors, the lawyers, and
the witnesses, and, with the pleasurable sensation of
having performed a part of an important duty, they
moved to and fro.
Nekhlyuidov went into the consultation room, and
there sat down at the window.

YEs, this was Katyuisha.
Nekhlyidov's relations with Katyusha had been like
Nekhlyudov saw Katyusha for the first time when, as
a third-year student at the university, he passed the
summer with his aunts, working on his thesis about
the ownership of land. His vacations he usually passed
with his mother and sister on his mother's suburban
estate near Moscow ; but in that particular year his sister
was married, and his mother went abroad to a watering-
place. Nekhlyudov had to work on his essay, and so he
decided to stay during the summer with his aunts. There,
in the depth of the country, it was quiet, and there were
no distractions; and the aunts tenderly loved their nephew
and heir, and he loved them and their old-fashioned ways
and simplicity of life.
During that summer Nekhlyddov experienced that rap-
turous mood which comes over a youth when he for the
first time discovers, not by the indications of others, but
from within, all the beauty and significance of life and all
the importance of the work which is to be performed in
it by each man; when he sees the endless perfectibility
of himself and of the whole universe; and when he de-
votes himself to that perfectibility not only with the hope,
but with the full conviction of being able to attain the
perfection of which he has been dreaming. During that
year, while attending his lectures, he had had a chance of
reading Spencer's Social Statics, and Spencer's reflec-
tions on the ownership of land had produced a strong


impression upon him, especially since he himself was the
son of a large proprietress. His father had not been rich,
but his mother had received about ten thousand desyatinas
of land as a dowry. It was then the first time that he
had perceived the cruelty and injustice of private owner-
ship, and, being one of those men to whom a sacrifice in
the name of moral demands affords the highest spiritual
enjoyment, he had decided not to make use of his right
of the ownership of land, and had given away to the peas-
ants the land which he had inherited from his father.
And it was on this subject that he was writing his essay.
His life on the estate of his aunts, during that summer,
ran like this: he rose very early, sometimes at three o'clock,
and before sunrise, frequently before the morning mist had
lifted, went to bathe in the river at the foot of a hill, and
returned home while the dew was still on the grass
and the flowers. : At times, he seated himself, soon after
drinking his coffee, to write on his essay, or to read up
the sources for his essay; but very frequently, instead of
reading or writing, he went away from the house and
wandered over fields and through woods. Before dinner
he fell asleep somewhere in the shade of the garden; then,
at table, he amused his aunts with his jollity; then he
rode on horseback, or went out rowing, and in the evening
he read again, or sat with his aunts, playing solitaire.
Frequently he could not sleep during the night, especially
when the moon was shining, because he was overflowing
with a billowing joy of life, and so, instead of sleeping, he
would stroll through the garden, dreaming and thinking.
Thus he had quietly and happily passed the first month
of his sojourn on the estate of his aunts, without paying
the slightest attention to the half-chambermaid, half-edu-
cated, black-eyed, swift-footed Katytisha.
At that time, Nekhlyudov, who had been brought up
under his mother's wing, though nineteen years of age,
was an entirely innocent youth. He dreamed of woman


only as of a wife. But all the women who, according to his
opinion, could not be his wife, were people and not women,
so far as he was concerned. But on Ascension day of
that summer a neighbour happened to call with her chil-
dren, two young ladies and a gymnasiast, and a young artist,
of peasant origin, who was staying at their house.
After tea they began to play the burning catching-
game on the lawn before the house, which had already
been mowed down. Katydsha was of the company. After
several changes of places Nekhlyddov had to run with
Katyisha. It was always a pleasure for Nekhlyudov to
see Katyusha, but it had never occurred to him that there
could be any special relations between them.
Well, I sha'n't be able to catch them," said the burn-
ing," jolly artist, who was very swift on his short and
crooked, but strong peasant legs.
Maybe they will stumble "
"No, you will not catch us !"
"One, two, three "
They clapped their hands three times. With difficulty
restraining her laughter, Katyisha rapidly exchanged
places with Nekhlyidov, and, with her strong, rough,
little hand pressing his large hand, she started running to
the left, rustling her starched skirt.
Nekhlyddov was running fast, and, as he did not wish
to be caught by the artist, he raced as fast as his legs
would carry him. As he looked around he saw the artist
close at her heels, and she, moving her lithe young legs,
did not submit to him, but got away to his left. In front
was a clump of lilac bushes, behind which no one was
running, and Katydsha, looking back at Nekhlyudov,
made a sign with her head to him to join her behind the
bushes. He understood her, and ran back of the clump.
But here, back of the lilac bushes, there was a small ditch
overgrown with nettles, of which he did not know; he
stumbled into it, and in his fall stung his hands with the


nettles, and wet them in the evening dew; but he imme-
diately got up, laughing at himself, and ran out on a clear
Katyusha, gleaming with a smile and with her eyes as
black as moist blackberries, was running toward him.
They met and clasped each other's hands.
"The nettles have stung you, I think," she said, adjust-
ing her braid with her free hand; she breathed heavily
and, smiling, looked straight at him with her upturned
I did not know there was a ditch there," he said, him-
self smiling, and not letting her hand out of his.
She moved up to him, and he, himself not knowing
how it all happened, moved his face up to hers; she did
not turn away, and he pressed her hand more firmly, and
kissed her on the lips.
I declare!" she muttered, and, with a swift motion
freeing her hand, ran away from him.
She ran up to the lilac bushes, picked off two bunches
of withering white lilacs, and striking her heated face with
them and looking around at him, waved her hands in a
lively manner and went back to the players.
From that time the relations between Nekhlyidov and
Katyusha were changed for those other relations which
are established between an innocent young man and an
equally innocent young girl, who are attracted to each
The moment Katydsha entered the room, or if he saw
her white apron from a distance, everything seemed to
him as though illuminated by the sunlight, everything
became more interesting, more cheerful, more significant,
and life was more joyful. She experienced the same. It
was not merely Katydsha's presence and nearness that
produced that effect upon Nekhlyidov; it was also pro-
duced by the mere consciousness that there was a Ka-
tyusha, just as she was affected by the consciousness of his


existence. If Nekhlyddov received an unpleasant letter
from his mother, or if his essay did not proceed satisfac-
torily, or if he felt an inexplicable youthful sadness, it
was enough for him to think of Katyusha's existence, and
to see her, in order that all that should be dispersed.
Katydsha had many household cares, but she generally
had time to spare, and in such moments she read books;
Nekhlyudov gave her the works of Dosto6vski and of
Turg4nev, which he himself had just finished reading.
Nothing gave her so much pleasure as Turg4nev's "The
Calm." They conversed with each other by fits, while
meeting in the corridor, in the balcony, in the yard, and
sometimes in the room of the aunts' old chambermaid,
Matr4na Pavlovna, with whom Katyusha was living, and
to whose room Nekhlyddov used to go to drink unsweet-
ened tea. The conversations which took place in the
presence of Matrena Pvlovna were the most enjoyable.
It was much worse when they talked to each other with-
out witnesses. Their eyes at once began to say something
different, something much more important than what the
lips were saying; the lips pursed, and they felt uneasy,
and hastened to get away from each other.
These relations existed between Nekhlyddov and Ka-
tyusha during the whole time of his first visit at his aunts'.
They noticed these relations, were frightened, and even
wrote about them to Princess E14na Iv6novna, Nekhlyd-
dov's mother. Aunt MAriya Iv6novna was afraid lest
Dmitri should have a liaison with Katymisha. But her
fears were groundless: Nekhlyddov, without knowing it,
loved Katydsha, as only innocent people love, and his
love was his main shield against his fall, and against hers.
He not only had no desire of a physical possession of
her, but was even terrified at the thought of such a possi-
bility. There was much more reason for the fears of
poetical S6fya Ivanovna, lest Dmitri, with his uncom-
promising and determined character, being in love with


the girl, should make her his wife, without paying any
attention to her origin and position. If Nekhlyddov had
then clearly been conscious of his love for Katydsha, and
especially if they had tried to convince him that he could
not and should not by any means unite his fate with that
of the girl, it might have easily happened that he, with
his customary directness in everything, would have de-
cided that there were no urgent reasons against marrying
a girl, whoever she might be, if he loved her. But his
aunts did not tell him their fears, and so he departed
without confessing his love to Katyusha.
He was convinced that his feeling for Katydsha was
only one of the manifestations of those feelings of the joy
of living, which at that time filled all his being, and
which was also shared by that dear, merry girl. As he
was leaving, and Katyusha, standing on the porch with
his aunts, saw him off with her black, slightly cross eyes,
full of tears, he was conscious of leaving behind him
something beautiful and dear, which would never be
repeated. And he felt very sad.
Good-bye, Katyusha, I thank you for everything," he
said, across S6fya Ivanovna's cap, seating himself in the
Good-bye, Dmitri Iv6novich," she said, in her pleasant,
soothing voice, and, restraining her tears, which filled her
eyes, ran into the vestibule, where she could weep at her

AFTER that Nekhlyuidov did not see Katytisha for three
years. And he saw her only when, having been promoted
to the rank of a commissioned officer, he, on his way to join
the army, came to see his aunts; he was then a different
man from what he had been three years before.
At that time he had been an honest, self-sacrificing
youth, ready to devote himself to any good cause; but
now he was a dissolute, refined egotist, who loved only
his own enjoyment. Then, God's world had presented
itself to him as a mystery, which he had joyfully and
rapturously tried to solve; but now, in his new life,
everything was simple and clear, and was defined by
those conditions of life in which he happened to be.
Then, he had regarded as necessary and important a com-
munion with Nature and with men who had lived,
thought, and felt before him (philosophy, poetry); now
human institutions and communion with comrades were
the necessary and important things. Then, woman had
presented herself to him as a mysterious and enchanting
creature, enchanting by dint of her very mysterious-
ness; now, the significance of woman, of every woman,
except such as were of his family, or the wives of his
friends, was quite definite; woman was one of the best
instruments of tasted enjoyment. Then, money had not
been needed, and one-third of the money offered him by
his mother had sufficed, and it had been possible to re-
nounce the land left him by his father in favour of his
peasants; now, the fifteen hundred roubles granted him
every month by his mother were not enough, and he had


had some unpleasant encounters with her on account of
money. Then, he had regarded his spiritual being as his
real ego; now, he regarded his healthy, virile, animal ego
as his actual personality.
All this terrible change had taken place in him only
because he had quit believing himself, and had begun to
believe others. The reason he had quit believing himself
and had begun believing others was because he had found
it hard to live by believing himself : while believing him-
self, every question had to be solved not in favour of his
own animal ego, in search of frivolous enjoyments, but
nearly always against himself; whereas believing others,
there was nothing to solve, everything had been solved
before, and not in favour of the spiritual, but of the
animal ego. More than that: while he believed himself,
he was constantly subjected to the judgment of others; .
while believing others, he met the approval of those who
surrounded him.
Formerly, when Nekhlyudov had been thinking, read-
ing, and speaking about God, about truth, about wealth,
about poverty, all his neighbours had considered this
out of place and even ridiculous, and his mother and his
aunt had called him "notre cher philosophy" with good-
natured irony; but when he read novels, told nasty
anecdotes, drove to the French theatre to witness ridicu-
lous vaudevilles, and mirthfully narrated them, he was
praised and applauded by everybody. When he had
regarded it as necessary to limit his needs, and had worn
an old overcoat, everybody had considered this an odd
and boastful originality; but when he spent large sums
on the chase, or on the appointments of his extremely
luxurious cabinet, everybody praised his good taste and
presented costly things to him. When he had been
chaste and had intended to remain so until his marriage,
his relatives had been afraid for his health, and even his
mother was not grieved, but, on the contrary, rejoiced,


when she heard that he was a real man and had won a
certain French woman away from his comrade. But the
princess could not think without horror of the incident
with Katydsha, namely, that it might have occurred to
him to marry her.
Similarly, when Nekhlyudov, upon having reached his
majority, had given away to the peasants the small estate
inherited from his father, because he had considered the
ownership of land to be an injustice, this deed of his
had horrified his mother and his relatives and formed a
constant subject of reproach and ridicule for all his kin.
They never stopped telling him that the peasants who
had received the land had not only not become any
richer, but that, on the contrary, they had been impover-
ished, through the establishment of three dram-shops and
from their cessation from work. But when Nekhlyidov,
upon entering the Guards, had gambled away so much
money in the company of distinguished comrades that
Elna Ivanovna was compelled to draw money away
from the capital, she was hardly grieved, for she con-
sidered it to be natural and even good to have this virus
inoculated early in youth and in good society.
At first Nekhlyddov had struggled, but it was a hard
struggle, because everything which he had considered
good, while believing himself, was regarded as bad by
others, and, vice versa, everything which he, believing
himself, had regarded as bad, was considered good by all
the people who surrounded him. The end of it was that
Nekhlyddov succumbed, ceased believing himself, and be-
gan to believe others. At first this renunciation of self
had been unpleasant, but this disagreeable sensation lasted
a very short time, and soon Nekhlyudov, who in the
meantime had begun to smoke and drink wine, no longer
experienced this heavy sensation, but rather a great
Nekhlyudov surrendered himself, with all the passion


of his nature, to this new life, which was approved by all
his neighbours, and drowned that voice in himself that
demanded something quite different. This had begun
after his arrival in St. Petersburg and was an accom-
plished fact after he had entered upon his military service.
Military service in general corrupts people by putting
the military men into a condition of complete indolence,
that is, by giving them no intelligent and useful work to
do, and by liberating them from common human obliga-
tions, in place of which it substitutes the conventional
honour of army, uniform, and flag, and by investing them,
on the one hand, with an unlimited power over other
people, and, on the other, by subjecting them to servile
humility before their superiors.
But when to this corruption of the military service in
general, with its honour of the army and flag, and its
legalization of violence and murder, is added the seduc-
tion of wealth and the communion with the imperial
family, as is the case in the select regiments of the Guards,
in which only rich and aristocratic officers serve, this cor-
ruption reaches in people who are under its influence a
condition of absolute insanity of egotism. It was in such
an insanity of egotism that Nekhlyuidov was from the
time when he entered the military service and began to
live in the manner of his comrades.
There was no other work to do but to put on a uniform
which had been beautifully made and brushed, not by
himself, but by others, and a helmet and weapons, which
had also been made and burnished and handed to him by
others; to ride on a beautiful charger, which somebody
else had brought up, exercised, and groomed; to go thus
to instruction or to parade, with people similarly ac-
coutred, and to gallop, and sway his sword, to shoot, and
teach others to shoot. There was no other occupation,
and distinguished dignitaries, young and old men, and
the Tsar and his suite, not only approved of this occupa-


tion, but even praised and rewarded it. In addition t.-.
this, it was regarded good and proper to squander the
money, which came from one knew not where, to come
together in the clubs of the officers or in the most expen-
sive restaurants to eat, or, more particularly, to drink;
then to the theatre, to balls, and to women, and then
again riding, swaying of sabres, galloping, and squander-
ing of money, and wine, cards, and women.
Such a life has a peculiarly corrupting influence upon
the military, because if any man, not belonging to the
army, should lead such an existence, he could not help
feeling ashamed of it to the bottom of his heart. But
military people think that it cannot be otherwise, and
brag and are proud of such a life, particularly during war
time, just as had been the case with Nekhlyuidov, who
had entered the army immediately after the declaration
of the war with Turkey. We are ready to sacrifice our
lives in war, and therefore such a careless, gay life is not
only permissible, but even necessary for us. And we do
live such a life."
Such were the thoughts which Nekhlyuidov dimly
thought during that period of his life; he experienced
during that time the rapture of liberation from moral
barriers, which he had erected for himself before, and he
continuously remained in a chronic state of egotistical
He was in that condition when, three years later, he
visited his aunts.

NEKHLYtDOV made a call upon his aunts because their
estate was on the way to the regiment, which was in
advance of him, and because they had earnestly requested
it, and, chiefly, in order to see Katyfisha. It may be
that in the bottom of his heart there was already an evil
intention in regard to Katyiisha, which his unfettered
animal man kept whispering to him, but he was not con-
scious of this intention, and simply wanted to visit the
places where he had been so happy before, and to see
the somewhat funny, but dear and good-hearted aunts,
who always surrounded him with an invisible atmosphere
of love and transport, and to look at dear Katytisha, of
whom he had such an agreeable recollection.
He arrived at the end of March, on Good Friday,
while the roads were exceedingly bad and the rain came
down in sheets, so that he was wet to his skin and
chilled, but brisk and wide awake, as he always was
during that time. I wonder whether she is still here !"
he thought, as he drove into the snow-covered old coun-
try courtyard with its brick wall. He had expected her
to come running out on the porch upon hearing the tin-
kling of his bell, but on the servants' porch there came
out only two barefooted old women with their dresses
tucked up and buckets in their hands. They were evi-
dently busy washing floors. Nor was she at the main
entrance; none came out but lackey Tikhon, in an apron,
who, no doubt, was also busy cleaning up. In the ante-
chamber he met S6fya IvAnovna, in a silk dress and a
cap, who had come out to meet him.


Now, it is nice that you have come!" said S6fya
Ivinovna, kissing him. Mdriya is a little ill; she was
tired out in church. We have been to communion."
"I congratulate you, Aunt Sdfya," said Nekhlyddov,
kissing S6fya Ivdnovna's hands. Forgive me for having
wet you."
Go to your room. You are dreadfully wet. I see
you now have a moustache Katydsha! Katyuisha!
Quick, get him some coffee."
Right away was heard the familiar, pleasant voice
from the corridor. Nekhlyuidov's heart gave a joyful
She is here!" And he felt as though the sun had
come out from behind the clouds. Nekhlyudov merrily
followed Tikhon to his old room to change his clothes.
Nekhlyidov wanted to ask Tikhon about Katyiisha -
how she was, and whether she was going to marry soon.
But Tikhon was so respectful and, at the same time, so
stern, and so firmly insisted upon pouring water from the
pitcher upon Nekhlyidov's hands, that he did not have
the courage to ask him about Katyuisha, and inquired
only about his grandchildren, about the old stallion, and
about the watch-dog, Polk6n. All were well and hale,
except Polkan, who had gotten the hydrophobia the year
He had barely thrown off his damp clothes, and was
dressing himself, when he heard hurried steps, and some-
body knocked at the door. Nekhlyuidov recognized the
steps and the knock at the door. Nobody walked or
knocked that way but she.
He threw over him his damp overcoat, and went up to
the door.
Come in!"
It was she, Katyusha. The same Katyusha, only more
charming than before. Her smiling, naive, slightly squint-
ing, black eyes were as upturned as before. She wore, as

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