Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Half Title
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 The four Gospels: Harmonized and...
 Short exposition of the Gospel
 Back Matter
 Back Cover

Group Title: The Complete Works of Count Tolstoy
Title: The complete works of Count Tolstoy
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00094187/00014
 Material Information
Title: The complete works of Count Tolstoy
Uniform Title: Works ( 1904 )
Physical Description: 24 v. : fronts., plates, ports., facsims. ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Tolstoy, Leo, 1828-1910
Wiener, Leo, 1862-1939 ( ed. and tr )
Publisher: D. Estes & Co.
Place of Publication: Boston
Publication Date: 1904-05
Edition: Limited ed. Translated from the original Russian and edited by Leo Wiener.
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
festschrift   ( marcgt )
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
General Note: Half-title.
General Note: "Édition de luxe, limited to one thousand copies." This set not numbered.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00094187
Volume ID: VID00014
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 02116920
lccn - 04024594


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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
        Front Matter 3
        Front Matter 4
    Half Title
        Half Title 1
        Page 8
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
    List of Illustrations
        List of Illustrations 1
        List of Illustrations 2
    The four Gospels: Harmonized and translated: Volume II
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    Short exposition of the Gospel
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    Back Matter
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    Back Cover
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Full Text

Chinsegut Hill


University of Florida







Tr,n ,I,rtd fro:i, I. l O riir.il PlJi.,'ii
: ~., ,- PI" ,, 01 , .I '.1. ..,,..,I S .I

Ira,*.J, I'l I i*.*~,I

B 0 S T C () N
C 0 N P A N N



Limited to One Thousand CopiS,

of which this is

No. 41 1

Copyright, po04

Entered at Stationers' Hall

Colonial Press : Electrotyped and Prinrcd h
C. II. Sunonds & Co., Boston, Mlass., U. 'S


*I i rrPT PAGE
(', NCLUSION . 389



S. 91

Volume II.

1881- 1882





SERVING God consists only in doing the work of God.
IM.o's life is from God. The true life is the life in
GI.d. The life in God consists in doing the will of God.
Thi will of God is in the law of God; the law of God con-
9ikt- in not being angry at men; in not seeking the love
f.L woman; in not binding oneself by promises and oaths;
in rn,.t resisting evil, and in making no distinction between
f,'r,-igners and countrymen. Only in the life of the flesh
c i one do the will of God. The life of the flesh is food
f:.r the execution of the will of God. The will of God
:ini be executed only by works. The teaching of Jesus
i- the teaching about the works of life. Serving God
ii:ncists in doing the work of God, and so it cannot be
i'r.:.v-d by words.
II Kal I4XOov ol Mark viii. 11. And 11. And the Pharisees
*at,.i7ao, Kal poavpro the Pharisees came came out, and began to
S forth, and began to dispute with him, trying
Cl rirrvf.' aOi, rTrOvrTes question with him, seek- to get proofs from him
Tap' a27roU (Tfetov dnr5 ing of him a sign= from and investigating his
r :*i- :-ipavoo, irepdowvres heaven,b tempting him. teaching.


12. Kal i avaorTevdar
T7 vrveiua-rt aTero X7yea,
TI ij yevei aDi-?) i)ARdov
ra1Tfre?; dpihP X1Tg'
i'pv, El 84einTerai Tr
ycrve9 Ta6rTrI easmeAov.
54. 'EXeyc e Kc ai Tor
6XXota, Orav f8r rTE ri
vepeXv dv arT\XXovaav
dr6b 5voLcAiv, e6Oswls X-
yere, 'Opfpos pXecra&s
Kal ylveTra oTrw-
55. Kai drav vbroy
vreovra, Xd7ere, OrTI
Kaverw IfTatca Kal, )'lve-
56. 'T'roKxpral, T7
rp6boewov 7rs 7-y Kal
ro7 o pavo9 ofarTe 50KL-
ptifeav Tbv U1 Katpbv
Toreov rs o; Son-
57. TI 68 Kca do'
eavrTr or Kplvere 7r
38. T6Tr dreKpldo gTd
rTiyv r Piv ypaIp/arTwP
Kal 4apaealwyv, Xdovres,
ASlbdUOKca, O6foeV dir6
troD emptoiv 16er,.
29. Tayv U6 dxXwv
dra0poteogvav iparo
XdyeLV, 'H 'yeve aVri)
rotqipd (cnrrT a77por
&71 ir TEi Kal ae-deOY o6
SoOriffat ahrv, el p
Tr 'mIAPeov 'Iwva Tro
M0. KaOBri ydp ylg-
vrTO'lwv&s o'rnriov TroW
Ntvevtrat olrws *e'ra
Kat 6 vSi roD6 dvOp&rrov
7 'yeveY Tafrry.
31. BaciXia oa 'brou
tyepbOerai Iv r~ KpiareO
pierCT T Sv dvSpcv r7
yevear Tra7lrf, Kal Kara-
Kpitvi ahvoer -ri Xi e
kK r7iv rppdTWv Tjs 7YtS

12. And he sighed
deeply in his spirit, and
saith, Why doth this
generation seek after a
sign? verily I say unto
you, There shall no sign
be given unto this gen-
Luke xii. 54. And he
said also to the people,
When ye see a cloud rise
out of the west, straight-
way ye say, There cometh
a shower; and so it is.

55. And when ye see
the south wind blow, ye
say, There will be heat;
and it cometh to pass.

56. Ye hypocrites,* ye
can discern the face of
the sky and of the earth;
but how is it that ye do
not discern this time?d

57. Yea, and why even
of yourselves judge ye
not what is right?
Matt. xii. 38. Then
certain of the scribes
and of the Pharisees
answered, saying, Mas-
ter, we would see a sign
from thee.
Lukexi. 29.Andwhen
the people were gath-
ered thick together, he
began to say, This is an
evils generation: they
seek a sign; and there
shall no sign be given
it, but the sign of Jonas
the prophet.

30. For as Jonas was
a sign unto the Nine-
vites, so shall also the
Son of man be to this

31. The queen of the
south shall rise up in
the judgment with the
men of this generation,
and condemn them: for
she came from the ut-
most parts of the earth
to hear the wisdom of

12. And suffering in
spirit, he said, \Mh'u?
These people u ut
proofs? Can there le
any proofs for :th.b

54. And be s ld t!.. the
people, Theil, Iu e
a cloud i r. Erv v--t, t..u
suppose t'.,'. there a ill
be rain, andri a.) it b,-

55. And when it bl:wsa
from the south, ...u u |..
pose that it will be i ..r.l
weather, and so it hap-
56. You are ablr It.
comprehend the ap: ear-
ance of earth ani. of
heaven, but this life vr ..
do not comprehend.

57. Why do you u..t
judge correctly ab.-tL
38. Then some of lthe
disciples turned t-..
Jesus, and said, Teacher.
we should like to e.9
proofs of thy teachil .

29. And when the iv*--
ple were gathered. Ie
began to speak Thi
tribe seeks proofs, tut
they shall have no c t[b r
proof than what Ji.,iu

30. And since JnaL
was a proof for the Ni ue
vites, the same wi:.l 1-.
the proof of the socL .f
man for this tribe.

31. If tie .u enC ie thei
south re l.r...u; it I.
life anid ,,: npir-:.i iii.
the mei. I ill,, erra-
tion, sht' i.i. stjl l .l -
pear rj.r ju'i ihin
they, fc r -shb i fr,.It,
the utmost parts of Iu1


dKovat rc Gv oofiav Zo-
XopSvTos- Ka Iob i ?ro e XEo
Zo\opoivro j5e.
32. "Avspes Nevcvt
ivaiaTri"ovrat Iv rT KpI-
oen ger& 7rs oyeceas -ra6-
T71r, Kai KaTaK KpPOVTLY
adri) S 67LI peTrev6'iqac
cis rb K ipViypa 'wL' a
Kal SoIt) trXie 'IwTva
1. Kat repteirdret 6
'I?)o0s Irera ra 7a v
7j raXtaiLg o01 Tap
ioexep iv 7 'Iovuaig
7reparaTeiv, 76ri e rovv
arbv ol 'Iovsai'o dxro-
2. 'HP Ut ty'yt ib
eopr`i Trv 'Iovsaiwv
i fTKT]OT7r'yia.
3. Eiros otv 7rpbs
avrbl ol dIc4Xol a'roO,
MeTrdf770t veTOOev, Kat
ira'ye els ripv 'ovsalaa,
tva Kai ol taOr'qal frov
Oewpdawrt rT& pya sov
& iroists
4. 063es yap IP
KpUiTTi T rTTOre, sKal
SriTre atrbs Iv vraapiiio
edlat* eC Tarra rosi-s,
tavipnrsov oeavrla v T7
5. OdSI yap oa de4thosi
asTov brilOfevov els ab-
6. A4yet oiv at5rots
6 'Iqo00s, '0 Katpbs 6
s osirrw irdpeoarrn- 6 I
Kcapbs 6 6pdAepos 7rdrsOTr
iartv trTOqoS.
7. 00 66varat 6 K66(go
ptwelv 6OlF. 4It U& picket,
7Lt I(y tiaprupi 7rept
afros, 87 Toa spya a'roa
rovrc'pd idorv.
8. 'Tges dcdfqrre dt
TrP iop7YT TaarVn*i iyL'

Solomon; and, behold,
a greater than Solomon
is here.
32. The men of Nineveh
shall rise up in the judg-
ment with this genera-
tion, and shall condemn
it: for they repented at
the preaching of Jonas;
and, behold, a greater
than Jonas is here.,

John vii. 1. After
these things Jesus
walked in Galilee: for
he would not walk in
Jewry, because the Jews
sought to kill him.h

earth to hear the wis-
dom of Solomon, but
here it is more impor-
tant for you.
32. If the men of Nine-
veh were brought back
to life and compared
with the men of this
generation, they would
appear more just, for
they came to their senses
after Jonah's preaching,
but here is one more im-
portant than Jonah.
1. After this, Jesus
walked in Galilee; he
did not want to walk
through Judea, because
the Jews had condemned
him to death.

2. Now the Jews' feast 2. And a Jewish feast
of tabernacles was at was at hand,

3. His brethren there-
fore said unto him, De-
part hence, and go into
Judea, that thy disciples
also may seei the works
that thou does.

4. For there is no man
that doethi anything in
secret, and he himself
seeketh to be known
openly. If thou do these
things, shew thyself to
the world.

3. And his brothers
said to him, Go away
from here, and go to
Judea, that thy disciples
may see before the oth-
ers how thou servest

4. For no man will
conceal his service of
God, but every man
seeks to show himself.
If thou servest God in
this manner, show thy-
self to the world.

5. For neither did his 5. For his brothers did
brethren believe in not believe in his teach-
him.k ing.

6. Then Jesus said
nnto them, My time is
not yet come: but your
time is always ready.

7. The world cannot;
bate you; but me it
hateth, because I testify
of it, that the works
thereof are evil.

6. Jesus said to them,
My time has not yet
come; but for you the
time has, of course,

7. The world will not
hate you; but me it
hates, because I prove
that the world's way of
serving God is evil.

8. Go ye up unto this 8. Go to this feast;
feast: I go not up yet but I cannot go to this


ofrw dvapaalv elts T v
dopri)v Tatrjv, 67r 6
KaCLps 6 ldph o"rw
rcr\Xhpw rai.
9. Taira 56 el^rdp
aroFrs, $CLVEV uV 7r
10. 'Os 6 v dpPa-av
ol a6eXotl a&rog, rT67
Kal arbs dvfi 17 c rlTv
6eprTv, oi 0apacvps, dXX'
lS IV Kpv'7rr.
11. O ov 'louvbaor
4trTouv arbyv iv r-
copT~, Kal \c7ov, Ho0
eTtv iKE VOS ;
12. Kai yoyyavo~yi
roXis rep! aciroD pV Iv
To70 dXXOeS. o0i p&v XE-
yov, Ort dcya0bs db riY
6XXoxs Uh Xeyov, O-
dXX& arXav$ rbv d6Xov.
13. O0Shir p iroe
raPAjelral idXE Trepi
a6roe, Mid rhy rb6fov
7rev Iovsalwv.

unto this" feast; for my feast, for my time has
time is not yet full not yet come.

9. When he had said 9. So he spoke, and he
these words unto them, remained in Galilee.
he abode still in Galilee.

10. But when his breth-
ren were gone up, then
went he also up unto the
feast, not openly, but as
it were in secret.*

10. And when they
went away, he went
there, not for the feast,
but simply.

11. Then the Jews 11. The Jews sought
sought him at the feast, him at the feast, and
and said, Where is he?- said, Is he here, or not?

12. And there was much
murmuring among the
people concerning him:
for some said, He is a
good man: others said,
Nay; but he deceiveth
the people.

12. And there was
much contention about
him among the people:
some said that le was
a good man, and others
said, No, he misleads
the people.

13. Howbeit no man 13. But no one spoke
spake openly of him for openly of him for the
fear of the Jews. fear of the Jews.

(a) acrjyeov means proof, and is in this sense used in
the language of the gospels. Evidently it stood here
in the sense of proof, and then from heaven was added,
and the whole was transformed into a miracle. Here are
the places where a-71raeov is unquestionably used in the
sense of proof. The signification of miracle does not suit
them in the least. But the meaning of proof fits all those
places where it is translated by miracle:

Luke ii. 12. And this shall be a sign unto you; Ye shall find
the babe wrapped in swaddling-clothes, lying iu a manger.
John ii. 18. Then answered the Jews, and said unto him,
What sign shewest thou unto us, seeing that thou doest these
John vi. 30. They said therefore unto him, What sign shew-
est thou then, that we may see, and believe thee ? what dost thou
work ?
2 Cor. xii. 12. Truly the signs of an apostle were wrought


among you in all patience, in signs, and wonders, and mighty
2 Thess. iii. 17. The salutation of Paul with mine own hand,
which is the token in every epistle: so I write.

In these passages it cannot mean anything but proof.
In all the other passages it means the same, and only by
stretching it can it be interpreted as miracle:

Matt. xxiv. 3. And as he sat upon the mount of Olives, the
disciples came unto him privately, saying, Tell us, when shall
these things be ? and what shall be the sign of thy coming, and
of the end of the world ?

and elsewhere.

(b) Many texts have notfrom heaven.
(c) The word hypocrites is wanting in many texts.
(d) KaLpdo temporal life.
(e) The word orovvpd is wanting in many texts, and I
prefer to leave it out.
(f) For as Jonah the prophet was in the belly of the
whale for three days and three nights, so will the son of
man be three days and three nights in the heart of the
earth. Here there exists another variant, which is still
more simple, and independent of the supposed resurrec-
tion. Ical tca 'Ov 'IcovW; v ry K icoLX(a ICjov' I pel~
pMe'pa ; Kal v'kcrav, ob'TO? ieal UtI' 70T avuipcrov ev vy
y,. Jonah the prophet was sent by God into Nineveh to
preach to the Ninevites, but, foreseeing the enmity of the
Ninevites, he did not go to them, but went into Spain;
when a storm arose on the sea, he repented of his sins,
and the sailors threw him into the sea. There a fish
swallowed him and threw him out on the shore, and he
went to the Ninevites, and converted them.
Jonah did not want to convert the Ninevites, but he
was none the less led by the will of God to convert them.


The son of man did not wish to recognize his divinity in
these people, but yet, by the will of God, he will turn
them to the knowledge of God. And as Jonah d.partl.1-
from the execution of the will of God and was c:,oc:nleil
in the belly of the whale, so the son of man di,:c[rt t:l
from all, but, as the Ninevites were converted, so v: ill tie.
son of man be received.
(g) The meaning of the passage is this: the Pharisees
and the learned demand proofs of the truth of the teach-
ing. Jesus replies, The comprehension cannot be proved
in any way. John has said, He who speaks the words
of God is from God. And he who understands them, by
this very fact puts the seal on the truth of the words.
There are no proofs. But all men have always sought
the comprehension, like the Ninevites and the queen
of the south, who came to Solomon. I am revealing the
comprehension to you, and you ask for proofs. You shall
have no proofs.
(h) Te E~ijovv aTObv ol 'Iov8alot &7nroceZvat is used
many times, as though it were a definite expression for a
certain relation in which the Jews came to stand to him.
In Chapter V. it says that they wanted to kill him for
breaking the Sabbath. According to the law of Moses,
he who broke the Sabbath was subject to death. So we
must assume that ejTroVV atroicTEvat means, They tried
him in order to sentence him to death.
(i) Oeope'w to be a spectator. Here it has to be trans-
lated, That they may see your works in the presence of
others; or else the words make no sense. Why should
he go into Judea that the disciples might see, since they
saw even there ? But the words, The works which thou
dost, I translate by, Thy serving God, since the words
rh e'pya o-ov a rotel have a definite and clear meaning:
the life in God, the good life, serving God. The words
are used in the following passages of the Gospel of John,
and always with the same meaning:


III. 21. But he that doeth truth, cometh to the light, that his
deeds may be made manifest, that they are wrought in God.
I. 34. Jesus saith unto them, My meat is to do the will of
him that sent me, and to finish his work.
V. 20. For the Father loveth the Son, and sheweth him all
things that himself doeth: and he will shew him greater works
than these, that ye may marvel.
36. But I have greater witness than that of John: for the
works which the Father hath given me to finish, the same works
that I do, bear witness of me, that the Father hath sent me.
IV. 28. Then said they unto him, What shall we do, that we
might work the works of God ?
29. Jesus answered and said unto them, This is the work of
God, that ye believe on him whom he hath sent.

This passage directly defines what is to be understood
by works of God.

VI. 30. They said therefore unto him, What sign shewest
thou then, that we may see, and believe thee? what dost thou
*ork ?
X. 37. If I do not the works of my Father, believe me not.
XIV. 14. If ye shall ask anything in my name, I will do it.

(j) T7 rotc ought to be translated by does something,
but such a translation deprives the discourse of sense.
Not every man who does something wants to show it to
the world, but every man who professes the truth, who
serves God for himself. To the word 7rotei must here be
added "'pya TOV 8eoD; such contractions frequently occur.
The whole expression is 7roielv 'pya 0o OeoD, but fre-
quently 'pyov alone or roteiv alone is used, with the
same meaning.
(k) The words, For his brothers did not believe in him,
that is, in his teaching, clearly confirm the statement
that 'pya 7roeiv refers to his teaching.
(1) o 8vvarat is in John used in the sense of a simple
The conversation between the brothers and Jesus refers
to this, that if he wishes to preach his teaching, he has a


chance to go to the feast, when there will be a large mul-
titude, and then he can announce his teaching in the
presence of all. Then the disciples will see the truth of
his teaching in the presence of others. They insist that
he should go to the feast. To this Jesus says, For ) ou
there is a time of week-days and of holidays, but for
me there is no particular time. This is the very reason
why they hate me, for I show that their whole worship is
evil, that there are no holidays.
(m) The word this twice repeated shows once more
that Jesus does not recognize the holiday.
(n) It says, Not openly but in secret. In relation to
his coming to the feast, and in connection with what was
said before, this word must mean that he did not come
for the holiday, that he might be seen on the holiday, but
for his own sake.
(o) 7roD here designates doubt, as in Luke viii. 25.
Then he said to them, Where is your faith ? Knowing
that he denied their faith, the Jews ask whether he
came for the feast, or whether by his absence he denied
the feast, and on that occasion they dispute about his
teaching, but are afraid to say openly that he rejects the
whole worship of the Jews.


14. "HS8 b TV {oprj Johnvii. 14. Now about
SI the midst of the feast,
lscaodaris, dvdto IpIcoUs Jesus went up into the
cls rb lepbv, xal (6i- temple, and taught.
15. Kal 4Wat5aov or 15. And the Jews mar-
l.o6aiot, Xyores, I,, veiled, saying, How
lov l, o s knoweth this man let-
oTros ypdpppaTa oSe, IP ters,= having never
pK/paOaTK5 ; ; learned?
16. 'ATrEKpl i aWtro 16. Jesus answered
S'Ios 7 al aircs7, 'H them, and said, Mly doc-
trine is not mine, but
us Mtaxi o0OK o"rTv his that sent me.
i t, 4XX& 7TO wt44av-
r6s iAf

14. In the middle of
the feast Jesus entered
the temple, and began
to teach.
15. And the Jews mar-
velled, and said, How
does he know, having
never learned?
16. To this Jesus re-
plied, My teaching is not
mine, but his who sent


17. 'Edv rts O Xy r7 17. If any man will do 17. He who will do his
,X?)/,a a o roi his will, he shall know will will know of the
a aoro i f the doctrine, whether teaching, whether It is
yvwCEtrTt repi 7T s S5ia- it be of God, or whether from God, or whether I
X7i, rbrepov IK Too 1 speak of myself. speak of myself.
eos 4Trv f dy7, dr'
4savsro- XaX&.
18. '0 d0' EavTro 18. He that speaketh 18. He who speaks of
XaXOv rT'v S6fav r~v of himself seekethb his himself discusses what
own glory : but he that seems proper to him;
lilaYv rep- 6 S trv, seeketh his glory that but he who discusses
7riv 6afav reoDiputavrov sent him, the same is what seems proper to
a, rb ot70r d7 aj. true, and no unright- him who sent him, is
Seousness is in him. true, and there is no
aer, Kai d&Kta Iv arp untruth in him.

(a) ypd a'ra means learning. Acts iv. 5. 'Ee'vero
8E 4Tr T 74v a rpLOV avvaxOyvat aTrrv 70ov apyXovTra Kal
7rpeo-/3uTepov Ka'ic ypat/a'r7E EL 'IEpovaU'aXft.
As in the majority of passages in the Gospel of John,
it has to be mentally supplied by what is said in other
gospels. In this place it says that Jesus taught the
people, and the people marvelled at his teaching.
Consequently, to make the context clear, we must
imagine what he taught. What did he teach? We can-
not invent anything, and so must mentally supply his
teaching about the falseness of the Jewish worship, about
God being spirit, and about the necessity of serving him
in spirit and with deeds, the sermon on the mount, the
teaching about mendicancy and the five rules, in general,
one of his teachings according to the gospel, all of which
include the teaching about rejecting the false God, and
about serving him in the spirit and with deeds: with
doing good, with love, and with meekness.
(b) r)Telv has heretofore been used by the writer and
has the meaning to seek, to try, but now it is for the first
time used by Jesus and cannot be rendered by to seek:
one cannot seek glory, seek judgment. ZvrTEv here
means to reflect, to deliberate.

Mark xi. 18. And the scribes and chief priests heard it, and
sought how they might destroy him.


.Mark xiv. 1. And the chief priests and the cril-, ,-...-. lht
how they might take him by craft.
11. And he sought how he might conveniently 1..-tray lim.l
Luke xii. 29. And seek not ye what ye shall eat.
Luke xxii. 2. And the chief priests and scribes 5.:i.cit hl..v.
they might kill him.
1 Peter v. 8. Be sober, be vigilant; because y.:.ur .:.lers.,l y
the devil, as a roaring lion, walketh about, seekiD~ ulih.u, he
may devour.
And especially in John xvi. 19. Ilepi To0TOL' .rTiTcr
/E' aXXiXwov. In all these passages T-eiv is traslat.:-..,
and cannot be translated otherwise than, by dr"1..:'r'c.
(According to the dictionary: eogitando, medit-., i.,i, ,.-
liberando qucero.) Even so, if 86da is translated herie i :t.
glory, which it cannot mean, but judgment or ti,.t .i:. ;',.
seems, and ip-rel inevitably as to deliberate, we g,.t ar I.r.-
cise and clear meaning out of the absurdity, and w-:- gIt a
confirmation of Verse 17. The same is said in Johb \.
30. I can of mine own self do nothing: as I hi -r. I
judge: and my judgment is just; because I *el; nrut
mine own will, but the will of the Father wLih h;,th
sent me; 39. The Scriptures are a witness that I c,:r-
rectly transmit the will of the Father. 44. IHow can
you believe since you receive from each other wh,,t LCI.mu
proper to you, but do not understand what seem. right to:
This passage is an expression of the same thought that
the only proof of God lies in the soul of man. We mist
well remember that, speaking of his teaching. Je-su,
speaks of the destruction of the Jewish worship. o:f C":.1's
being a spirit; he says that man can know G(d *,nly
within himself, that the life of the spirit consists in d:,ing
the will of God.
In order to understand John's discourses, we must
remember that Jesus in these discourses confirms, rI'r:t;,
elucidates what he has said in the discourse wtli Ni.::'-
demus, and does not expound any positive t-:,ihbig.


There is here no new teaching, but only a confirmation of
the old, which is especially expressed in the discourse
with Nicodemus. Only by remembering this does it
become clear why according to John the speeches of
Jesus, which have nothing repulsive to the Jews, rouse
their ire. We must remember that the purpose of every
discourse of Jesus with the Jews is the denial of the wor-
ship of the Jews and of the whole law of Moses. Every
discourse begins with their asking for his proofs of the
legality of his denial.

19. 0 6Mwojs 5j6w- John vii. 19. Did not 19. Moses did not give
KeY b'?v M7v /ov, Ka Moses give you the law, you the law, and none
K UOIP T76P vPov, Kat and yet none of you of you lives according to
ovdels i 6/AP eroe? r7v keepeth the law? Why the law, so how do you
vyev; rI /j i7reTre go ye about to kill me? condemn me to death?

The first part is by no means an interrogative sentence.
Jesus says, Moses has not given you the law of God,
and none of you keep the law. Jesus is speaking here
of the eternal law, of which he speaks in the sermon
on the mount. He says, Moses did not give you the
law; the law is given by God, and by following the law
of Moses none of you executes the law. And he asks
them on what law they base their demand to have him

20. 'ArcKpli9O 6 SXXos
Kal eTr, Aag(6ptov VXctr'
Tis ore Z 6re d7rOKTC Yae
21. 'AreKplt6 6 Ij-
croDS Kai ere aTroir,
'Ev fp-yox TroIlfa, Kat
irdPvcr Oavd.TerTe.
22. Aia rTo70 Mio-us
81SUKeYv O v rPv 7reptTo-
pivV, (o0X 8rT &K roO
Micraws diurli, dXX' dK
TOP v raTrpw ,) Kat iv
eraffdrqr repTIrAeTere dv-

John vii. 20. The peo- 20. And the people re-
ple answered and said, plied to him, Thou art
hou hast a devil: who besides thyself.
goeth about to kill
21. Jesus answered and 21. And Jesus an-
said unto them, I have swered them, I have
done one work,b and ye made the service of God
all marvel, to be one, and at that
you marvel.
22. Moses therefore' 22. For Moses gave you
gave unto you circum- circumcision, not be-
cision; (notbecauseit is cause it is from Moses,
of Moses, but of the but from the fathers (as
fathers;) and ye on the a covenant with God to
sabbath day circumcise keep the command-
a man. ments and the Sabbath),
and yet you circumcise
on a Sabbath.


(a) The words, Who goeth about to kill thee, I omit,
because these words say nothing and form a contradiction
and do not call forth any answer from Jesus, andi because
they break the sense of the words, Thou art ,:c.. : thy-
(b) "pyov means serving God; v means only. Th.:
double accusative means here, I have made the inattcr
(c) ta Tro~To, as in many passages in John, is used here
as a connective. None of you fulfils the law of God, anl
here is the proof.
The explanation of this passage, which has no meaning
according to the exposition of the church, depends on the
preceding verses: on this, that Moses gave you the law
and none of you lives according to the law, and on tbh
preceding verse, where Jesus says that he has made
the worship to be one, complete, not contradictory, -i
is the law of Moses. And so he gives an example of thte
internal contradiction, which is to be found in the law I:i
Moses. We must also remember that the circumcision
has two meanings: one external, the other a cove-
nant with God, like the observance of the Sabbath. The
Sabbath was a sign of the covenant with God. Jesus
says, Here is an example: Moses told you to cut off the
outer flesh, so that you may be in a covenant with God'l.
The covenant with God is confirmed by the observanc.e
of the Sabbath, and now you, in order to keep the law of
Moses, which has for its purpose the keeping of the?
covenant with God, break the Sabbath, the covenant
with God.
23. El repirolghvXa\- John vii. 23. If a man 23. If a man recelti'
5dvYt dtvpwroes Iv ira#- on the sabbath day re- the circumcision on .
ceive circumcision, that Sabbath, that tue I .-f
P7ri), pra u-i \vuO 6 the law of Moses should Moses should r-.t '---
v6ptos Mwacdwr, dJol Xo- not be broken; are ye broken, why :'r., y..u
X&TE rTi 5Xov dvOpwreov angry at me, because 1 angry at me, I.:- "ie I
S have made a man every have made a man right
7'iyty (1rolisca Iv ua#- whit whole- on the sab- on the Sabbath?
fldTy ; bath day?


(a) iy'q means not only well, but also straight, right,
not false. Tit. ii. 8: Sound speech, that cannot be con-
demned; that he that is of the contrary part may be
ashamed, having no evil thing to say of us.
The whole passage, from the beginning to the end, is,
in our opinion, incorrectly conceived and translated.
This is the way the church explains it (Gospel of John,
p. 264):

One work: The Lord did many miracles in Jerusalem on the
first day of the passover, and of the events of the second passo-
ver only one work is mentioned,- the miracle which was the
cause of the accusation preferred against him for breaking the
law on the Sabbath.
Ye all marvel: Since I determined to do that on a Sabbath,
thus, in your opinion, offending the law about the Sabbath, you
marvel, are troubled and excited, and start a persecution against
me; you press me hard and seek to kill me. The conception of
surprise here includes the conception of an unfavourable relation
to him who roused the surprise. But, continues the Lord, if I,
according to your thinking, have once broken the law of Moses,
you break it constantly, and I will prove it to you, and the Lord
proceeds to disclose the idea which is in general terms expressed
in Verse 19. The words, Moses gave unto you circumcision,
correspond to the words, Did not Moses give you the law? etc.,
the same Moses who gave you the law in general, and among
others the law about the Sabbath, gave you also the law of cir-
cumcision. The words, And ye on the Sabbath day circumcise a
man, correspond to the words, None of you keepeth the law, that
is, on the basis of the law of circumcision you break the law of
the Sabbath, when you circumcise the new-born on the Sabbath.
The Lord is pointing to a fact of common occurrence in the life
of the Jews, which was that, if the eighth day, on which the
law demanded that the new-born boy be circumcised, fell on a
Sabbath, every father broke the law of the Sabbath, in order to
observe the law of circumcision. In this manner, concludes the
Lord, if you break the law of the Sabbath for the sake of observ-
ing the law of circumcision, and do not consider yourselves as
lawbreakers, why do you think that I broke the Sabbath, when I
did a much higher act than circumcision, when I made a man
whole on the Sabbath ?


Do you il,[p.F:.' thar manrj in; 'i nman w-l.i.l, i; a le-Ier .,et tLin
cutting off tlh. onti-r td--h of tli- n- .*-Iorii oy ?
In order c.:. co:ii.r irelh-nd tli r c:.:i[parrio,' of the cireluehi;ii..n
with the mir.jel,- ..f h- iliug, [prfo in-d b.Lv [i.. Lord, q v- imust
remember rbht in -itlhe- c.,-_ Lh-re is a phslical atri,:.U nilJ .'a
spiritual r-actiin.- the eintrani..:,- of th.i '.irT.uiLUuIt'I ir'to the
society of the ch,:---!t of <.;i.J. In th- I-'ilinn the phyl c:al act'.n
is a com plet': r.:-.:ital-llinl .: t ...f Ii,:- ly-..11 i .alth; tl- :I- ri-
tual react.-i, i- t1 aib, _, ntit nt of the .-.h.i- nrin G. nd :-in
no m ore, .1. i It e lt.r :i..: the heali, ii ligh,.-r thai th,
circumcisi.on. :;,a th- .ctloni s .:-I thei Lir.d a:r. thlii, 1ully jis ~Liri-]
Thus the tl ,ln.. atal ubr.I [,rin l.a |I- in "\w hch thi] J-s fel,-ir -
speech of the LoiJ i l..ed, 'It I ltF. iaI- Whictb l. .j'i-: v :'i l
decidedly *.xlpre- e-.J I.y hlu :, n ii-Ott,-r oc.:.- ioi ,n: Th. -il..t.'Lh
was made oi i' niin, .I'. l not n .ia for the :lt.tt ti (tMark xi. 27).
By dirt ,:.f ti,.. principle th- li:. iof t SI- Sat-blath is I.-roken
whenever i: more irmilortant .:- -: ; ti: I- .e A'c:c..nl 11 -'ed, though
the permi'ston to iw ,o m, ;" rn oet -et dir-ctly ex[pr_--*-.- tn the la-v.
If you m ist cirrwue,:ise, oi: 11 h, .11.1-itih, do ,o, ..ld d.:. not ,o..I-
sider your -.l .-- t..ike-r- o:f tie .aw; 1I did on the .SbtN:ih -1
more imp-:i tt l :.ork tihan Irculuei s r, ,o why do 7. :i 0t-Lnd.:-er
me a breal:et of th'e I.-I of the SWaldl.,tl., ain p['erectit.: _,, Ind
seek to kill ri-?
The rern.lrk niade iby tle I.or.d conterningi the i r.:i.mtin':iol,
that it is not fro:rn IMoei., but i-Im] th, fA-thels, tilli niiore
strengthens idt ;.Il. TlI-, liW of tlT .S.il.l-ath Is .o:, in liptant
that it eilteied wtto tire dec.alo,- (th,- fo-ith oinimmaindirrnt),
while the l... :f A.colirc.onri dlo.-i n.t form !,ia :,f th- *1e d ca.
logue; it 'n r. transinttedI f..:.m the fh.uh-ie, th.t sa the- .atri-
archs, and M31-:. oril) oni-e ri. ntioni it in :a ee. rc' wo.d. ThiIs.
the most ;li. :.'CtaLt I -l nhich enter-,d into the d,,' :,logi ., i'
broken ir. tIe pr.lc'ce oif thi: .)-u for tldo [ak of no ,vilig
a law wh;ch .11.1 iot entei into: the .I-cailonu-. W'hy, thenr,
accuse me iof I.r. k .: '.- til. I I of the- Sa.illah. iin.:e :.'i the
Sabbath I d;i a nmore ;iri:.orrt i i n:vorl tli:n cIiriJlii:i-'5li, and
those whc Il.i:il: tlI,- Sil.I.:It fo:r the s.'lk-.: v the later do. not
consider tli-eii el es'-- hr-.il:-el: f h-e I'-. ?

Reuss ( V,:. I.. pp. 211)1 -iu1 -'i2r-
Voici en .I.ux m10tt I.- -esi l. r.ii-soun.. nint ,oil it-iu d:lns J
derniEres li' : I. .' :tr t st.-. L.I u.' ; 'ri n Ii arailyti ,l t ,
operke pen. nt Ile arih.l-,i a.i. pa.,rni voui n t.i hU'.iuint iel
que vous en ar-ve nius-e voetlu nra vie. 1ais i11 y a dl-: co:,.-A


qui priment le sabbat (Marc ii. 27). Ainsi la circoncision,
institute longtemps avant Moise, se pratique a jour fixe, le hui-
tipme apres la naissance de 1'enfant, sans regard an sabbat. Or,
qu'est-ce que la circoncision, en comparison de la guerison d'un
home malade de tous ses membres? Qu'est-ce qu'une con-
secration rituelle, en comparison d'un acte de bienfaisance?
Qu'est-ce que la chair en comparison de 1'esprit?" Le rai-
sonnement est moins populaire que celui conserve par les Synop-
tiques (Matth. xii. 11. Luc xiv. 5, etc.), mais il r6pond mieux
i la circonstance, en tant qu'il s'agissait pour J6sus de s'autoriser
de la loi meme pour justifier son acte.
II y a cependant un peu d'obscurit6 dans l'expos6 de I'argu-
ment, et les editions memes s'en sont ressenties. Le texte vul-
gaire, que nous suivons ici, commence le v. 22 par les mots:
C'est pour cela que, tandis que les modernes rattachent ces mots
au verset pr6c6dent : vous vous dtonnez & cause de cela. Cette
dernikre combinaison parait plus simple, mais elle est contraire A
1'usage constant de l'auteur, qui met r4gulierement ces mots en
tete de ses phrases, et jamais t la fin (Chap. v. 16, 18; vi. 65 ;
viii. 47, etc.). Ici ils doivent insinuer que c'est A dessein que
Moise a conserve l'antique institution de la circoncision, come
telle, et sans y d6roger au profit du sabbat, afin de faire ressortir
la sup6riorit6 de la premiere. J6sus voulant mettre la guerison
qu'il a operke sur la meme ligne que la circoncision, come
quelque chose de supdrieur au sabbat, indique ce but par
I'adverbe en question plac6 en tete de son raisonnement. Avec
1'autre ponctuation, le v. 22 est isol6 du reste et le fil de l'argu-
mentation est perdu.

Philologically such a translation is impossible, and
what comes of this translation and of these interpreta-
tions ? Jesus begins his discourse by saying that he
does not teach from himself, but from God, and that
he who does the will of God knows whether what he
does is true or not. Then he says that it is not Moses
who gave the eternal law, and that none of them lives
according to the law, and he asks why they want to kill
him. They say, No, we do not want to kill thee. And
he answers (according to the interpretation of the church),
You want to kill me because I healed one on a Sabbath,
but the Sabbath is not important; and here is interpolated


a still more irrelevant detail about this, that it was not
Moses, but the fathers, who gave the circumcision. You
yourselves break the Sabbath, and it is more important
to heal a man. And immediately after this excursus,
which is out of season and out of reason, he says, Do
not judge by appearances, but in truth. And immedi-
ately after that he says, You know me, but you do not
know him who has sent me, etc., and he continues the
same speech.
Involuntarily the question rises what sense there is
in speaking in such a rambling fashion, and in uttering
things which are quite useless and which break the train
of thought and descend from high truths to base polemics.
In the proper translation nothing of the kind takes
place, and these verses directly continue the same thought
and are connected with the subsequent discourse. Jesus
says, Not Moses gave you the law, but God, and you do
not observe the law, why, then, do you want to kill me ?
They say, Because thou art beside thyself. He says, I
made the worship to be one, I gave you the one law,
which is not contradictory, and that seems strange to
you. And yet you do not marvel that Moses gave you
the law, to be in a covenant with God, and that, though
one of the chief conditions of the covenant with God is
the keeping of the Sabbath, you circumcise on the Sab-
bath, in order to keep the law of Moses. Why, then, do
you marvel that I made a man completely free and right
on a Sabbath ? Judge not by the letter, but by the spirit.
And he continues his speech, Do not ask who I am, but
who he is who has sent the man, etc.

24. M3i KpiYCTC KaT John vii. 24. Judge 24. Do not judge ac-
xv, &\XX& Thy Kalav not according to the cording to the appear-
v appearance, but judge ance, but in truth.
KpItvv KpvarE. righteous judgment.-
25. 'EXeyoe or T7 es 25. Then said some of 25. Then some of the
(IK 'I, poa*1,, them of Jerusalem, Is inhabitants of Jerusa-
K Tep IpoX"urV, not this he, whom they lem said, Is this he
0iX o r6b t er v 4V f- seek to kill? whom they want to kill?
To rLv d7TrOKTLvai ;


26. Kal tfe, araij lA y
XaXeZ, Kat o0ptv akri
XtyowrV. p/iroTe aXls
tyvwaav oi apxoeres, Sri
OB6rs &drtv ddihX)s 6
27. 'AXXA roroVo otaa-
Iper r60dv earlv 6 &8 Xpc-
arbc &rav epxelrai, o6elsr
7LYvjKCL 7r60ev EtrT[-
28. 'Expauev oy 1v rq
lep 6atda'Kw v 6 'I1eroV9r,
Kal ?uywv, Kdp o6ar7c,
KaI ofsare 7r68ev el/ui' Kal
dr' i iavroG odK 1N/XvOa,
dXX' iWrt'V dX37d0b 6
rly Las Ae, div LeS o0dK
29. 'E-yA a of6a ad-
r6v, S7r rap' anroe eil/4,
KdKCPb6S e AdrdireCT eiv .
30. 'E~7irov ov ad-
Tb vuTidTar Kal od3ls
trpf3aXev 6r' akrbv 7rv
Xedpa, S6T odirw dr\6X ei
6 bpa atroe.
31. IIokXXo d iK 70
6XXov erirevo av eli ad-
7rv, Kal gXeyov, "OTn 6
Xptwrbe dTav 7 X18, prt
TrXdcova alepa rofbrwv
rotret cSv otIrOEs troIf-

32. 'HKOUov oel 4apt-
Cator 7o dXxov XV 7776-
ovroS wrrepl abroD Ta0ra
Kai drTre tav ol 4apt-
raoli Kai ol ,pXLcpE s
TrrlpTrar, fva rtduiwtrv
33. E1rev obv a'roL 6
'I37oD0s, 'ETr tLKpbv Xp6-
Pov peO v6jv el t Kal
brd'yw rpbs rbv irtI-
#PavTd ye.
34. Z7i1Trert ~Le, Kal
obx ebph'freT Kal t6rov
flp.ti ,yj, peis ov Siva-
O& dAheriv.

26. But, lo, he speaketh
boldly, and they say noth-
ing unto him. Do the
rulers know indeed that
this is the very Christ?

27. Howbeit we know
this man whence he is:
but when Christ cometh,
no man knoweth whence
he is.
28. Then cried Jesus
in the temple as he
taught, saying, Ye both
know me, and ye know
whence I am: and I am
not come of myself, but
he that sent me is true,
whom ye know not.

29. But I know him-
for I am from him, and
he hath sent me.
30. Then they sought
to take him:b but no
man laid hands on him,
because his hour was not
yet come.

31. And many of the
people believed on him,
and said, When Christ
cometh, will he do more
miracles than these
which this man hath

32. The Pharisees heard
that the people mur-
mured such things con-
cerning him; and the
Pharisees and the chief
priests sent officers to
take him.

33. Then said Jesus
unto them, Yet a little
while am I with Iyou,
and then I go unto him
that sent me.

34. Ye shall seek me,
and shall not find me:
and where 1 am, thither
ye cannot come.

26. He speaks openly,
and they do not answer
him. Have not the rulers
acknowledged him to be
the anointed one?

27. The only thing is
we know this man.
When the anointed one
comes, no man will
know whence he comes.
28. And teaching in
the temple, Jesus said
loudly, You know me,
and you know whence I
come; but I do not come
of myself: he who has
sent me is true, and him
you do not know.

29. I know him; I
know that 1 am from
him and that he has
sent me.
30. They wanted to
overcome him, but could
not vanquish him, for
it was not yet to be.

31. And many of the
people believed in his
teaching, and said,
When Christ comes, he
will hardly prove better
than this one.

32.The Pharisees heard
that the people were dis-
turbed about his teach-
ing; and the Pharisees
and chief priests sent
servants to take him.

33. And Jesus said,
Only for a short time do
I walk with you and
lead you to him who has
sent me.

34. You will seek argu-
ments against me, and
you will not find them;
and whither I go you
cannot come.


85. E~rov oiv ol 'Iov- 35. Then said the Jews 35. And the Jews said,
ai0 p avro, Iov among themselves, Whither will he go, that
aot irpobs gavTobs, U Whither will he go, w. 1h ,ll ot flad i.;m?
otros yAIXet roped6~ati, that we shall not tind 1'-,., h. w:rt ii '.:. ti:
t ippeis a t evpabpfaop him? will he go unto tul- r, rc. II. iei. 1,
a iv t els v 6ta- the dispersed among ti,.:m
aklhi,; ucis ehr iv t- ^the Gentiles, and teach
oreop&v rCv 'EXX.vwvr the Gentiles?
/dIXXt ropteodOati, Kal
6idxaeitv robs EXXrat ;
36. Tis aritv oirTs 6 36. What manner of 36. Whrt nd.i- m In,
67-o SP EIre, Zr 0`fTr saying is this that he You wvll sj-!.L .,l iil
X6yor res, ZTrd said, Ye shall seek me, not fli.l, h.1i ':l will
bit, Kal obX ebpoe7e-' and shall not find me: not come whither I go?
Kal 6vrov ely dy-&, 6b Zic and where I am, thither
oe vaO f AXO yv; ye cannot come?'
37. 'Ev 6 T7T 1Xdry 37. In the last day, 37. On the last chief
iAlpq T A6dXII T* that great day of the day of the feast, Jesus
T'1 feast, Jesus stood and stood and spoke loudly,
ioprjs elrT?)Kt i I 7- cried, saying, If any If any man is thirsty
0ous, Kal cKpaf X6cav, man thirst, let him let him come to me and
'Edp vts 641, dpxdsOw come unto me, and drink.
7rp6s pU Kail TIrTu' d
38. '0 rtirTedwv cls 38. He that believeth 38. He who believes in
Ka s e re, h on me, as the Scripture my teaching, as the
Ka ~v hath said, out o his Scripture has said, out
ypail, 7rorauol dK T~7 belly shall flow rivers of of his belly will flow
KotAlas aiTro pebdovat living water (Isaiah xii. rivers of living water.
b6aros Li' roT. 3; Joel iii. 18).
39. ToCTo 6i dre reply 39. (But this spake he 39. This he spoke of
oO IIve6aroT o -,,- of the Spirit, which they the spirit of God, which
i Teas o EE- that believe on him they who believed in
Xov Xa.sfpdvetv ol irt- should receive: for the him would receive; for
crTeovrTe els a6rbv" Holy Ghostd was not yet the spirit was not yet,
or p -v ve given; because that Je- because Jesus was not
sus was not yet glori- yet understood.
A'yiov, 6rt 6 'IoOs fled.)-

40. lloXXo oelv dK ro 40. Many of the peo- 40. Many of the people,
6Xos dovere *i,- ple therefore, when they having understood his
ou K s i heard this saying said, teaching, said, He is
X6yov IXeyo, Orei Of a truth this is the truly a prophet.
4errT daoi6rs 6 rpo5q- Prophet.

41. AXXoit Xeyov, 41. Others said, This 41. Others said, This
OT6s larTv 6 XptIT. is the Christ. But some is the chosen one of God.
O6,s I p 6 said, Shall Christ come Some said, Shall the
dXhko 60 U keyov, MNI out of Galilee? chosen one come out of
-yep dK TI5 raXtXalta 6 Galilee?
XpOrbi7s pXrTa ;
42. OBXl i ypaop 42. Hath not the 42. The Scripture says
JTrcv, 67t 1o o- ripbia- Scripture said, That that he is of the seed of
drei TeC rpa- hrist cometh of the David, and out of the
Tro Aap~3, xal 4rb B13- seed of David, and out village of Bethlehem.
O \dM, Trs xcvbr7s tro fv, of the town of Bethle-
Aapli, 6 XpaT ipe- hem, where David was?
43. ZXlTpa opv 4v 7 43. So there was a 43. And there was a
6XXy dydvcro t', ar16v. division among the peo- division among the peo.
ple because of him. pie because of him.


44. Tths 64 4JOeXov
4Z aroPv rrtdaa abrbv,
d4X' o5els ir4iaXecv 4r'
airb6v ras Xepas.
45. 'HXov oiv oel 6rl-
ptrac rpbs srobs dpxcpets
Kal 'apuraelovs ca erov
a6roTs KEY voI ALari O6K
yd-yeree aGr6 ;
46. 'A7rEKpl07Trav ol
brr)pirac, O V roTe oe-
TWS XddoX ev dpOpwaroe,
ds otro7 6 &vdpwros.
47. 'ATreKpl0f7av oSv.
airots ol (apwraot, M)1
Kal b6eFs resrXdfvcOie;
48. M4t rts K r&Tiv
dpx6vrwv 4dhrievaev eIS
aurbv, 4 4K 7ic v r ap(-
49. 'AXX' 6 x\os oe-
T7S, 6 It YLPdioKW rbT
vP6ov, IrWKaTiparTo elt.
50. Adgee NtK65i6tlov
irp4s abrobs, 6 0Xt0yv
vvxrbs rpbs aTrbv, etS
6v 4$ abrT5d,
51. Mi 6 P6pors itdrjv
KplveC Tbv 7 vOpwrov, &rv
tAi dKo6av rap" avrov
rp6repoP, Kai 'vY Trl
52. 'ArcKpl0t-qcav Ka
drOV atcT, M31 Keatl ir
4K r4s raXeXalas elf;
ipeDrPovqa Kca i'e, 6T&
7rpo r)T7s 9K T9S raXe-
Xalas icK a -yfyEPrat.
53. Kal &roped ti Kea-
eros eIS r7v O7KOs airT0.

44. And some of them
would have taken him;
but no man laid hands
on him.

45. Then came the
officers to the chief
priests and Pharisees;
and they said unto
them, Why have ye not
brought him?
46. The officers an-
swered, Never man
spake like this man.s

47. Then answered
them the Pharisees, Are
ye also deceived?
x48. Have any of the
rulers or of the Phari-
sees believed on him?

44. Some of them
wanted to overcome him,
but no one vanquished

45. Then the servants
came to the priests, and
the priests said, Why
have you not taught

46. The servants re-
plied, No man ever spoke
like this one.

47. And the Pharisees
said, Have you, too,
48. For none of the
rulers and none of the
Pharisees believe in

49. But this people who 49. But this rabble,
knoweth not the law are accursed people, does
cursed. not know the law.

50. Nicodemus saith
unto them, (he that
came to Jesus by night,
being one of them,)

51. Doth our law judge
any man, before it hear
him, and know what he

62. They answered and
said unto him, Art thou
also of Galilee? Search,
and look: for out of Gal-
ilee ariseth no prophet.

53. And every man
went unto his own

50. Nicodemus said to
them (it was he who had
come to Jesus in the
night, and he was with
51. Does our law allow
us to condemn a man
without learning first
how he teaches?

52. They answered him,
Art thou also of Galilee?
Search in the law, and
see whether there can be
a prophet out of Galilee.

53. And all went home.

(a) These words are directly connected with Verse 19,
which is, that it is not Moses who taught you the law, and
nobody fulfils the law. He who will judge not by appear-
ances but by the essence of the thing will understand it.
(b) eTrovu 7rta'aa and oSeiv re'/3aXe a'rod'. Both
expressions may have the direct meaning to take him by


force, or the transferred meaning to overcome him in dis-
pute and vanquish him with arguments. The second is
more closely connected with what follows.
(c) Jesus says, You will dispute with me, and will not
find anything. You must not dispute, but fulfil, do, fol-
low me, then you will know whether it is true.
(d) In the majority of texts &ytov is wanting.
(e) Sotdlo1Mat, like *rapaXa1LP3dvw, does not mean to
glorify, but to acknowledge, to understand.
(f) 7yw has the meaning of to teach.
(g) The answer of the servants of the priests shows
that they were not police officers, but assistants of the
priests in the interpretation of the laws, and that they
tried to vanquish him with words.

Jesus does not go to celebrate the holiday, for he denies
all holidays and all external worship; but he comes in the
middle of the feast, not to celebrate it, but to speak with
the people. And, entering the temple, he teaches the
people to serve God in the spirit, and they marvel at his
teaching, and wonder how he, an unlearned man, can
know all this. He says, This teaching is not mine, but
God's, the spirit's. When he is asked for the proofs of
the truth of his teaching, he says that there is one thing
to prove the justice of what he is teaching: You must
try to do the will of God the Father, and then you will
know whether it is true, or whether it is an invention.
But the will is known to everybody: it is expressed
by Jesus in his preaching, where he says that God is
spirit, that no one has ever seen him, that the worship
of the Jews is a deception, that the spirit of God is
intelligible in man only.
To the objections made to him concerning the law of
Moses, Jesus replies that it is not Moses who gave the
law, but God, and that they do not understand the law.
To exemplify the relation of his teaching to the law, he


tells them that the chief law consists in the communion
with God, which Moses commanded men to express by
the circumcision. The covenant is the main thing, but the
execution of the whole written law is contradictory. And
he adduces as an example the case of the circumcision per-
formed on the Sabbath. If, he says, the circumcision is
performed on the Sabbath, we must understand that the
chief and least important in the law is the covenant.
In my teaching the chief thing is to serve God by
deeds. They do not understand him, and dispute with
him, as to whether he is the Messiah, or not. It seems
to them that he is not, for they know him, and no one
will know the Messiah. And Jesus cries to them, You
say that you will not know him who is sent by God.
You do not know him: you know only me, the son of
the carpenter; but you do not know him who within me
speaks of God. And he is Christ, the chosen one of God,
and promised to you, -there is no other, and there will
be none. Even now I lead you to the Father. Follow
me and do not trouble yourselves about finding out who I
am. If you do, you will not understand the Father.
Follow me, I have revealed the true life to you: so
come to me, and commune with this life. It is like
spring water: it will never be exhausted.
The words of Jesus Christ convinced many who had
no learning; but the priests and high priests said, This
accursed rabble does not know the law. They believe
anything which they are told. Nicodemus said, But
ought we not to understand what he is saying? He
may be telling the truth.
Impossible, said the Pharisees, for he is from Galilee.
The learned repeated what the Jews had told Christ,
what the churches have been saying for eighteen hundred
years, namely, that according to the prophecies the son
of God would come in a certain place, under definite con-
ditions; and they did not hear what Jesus cried to them,


You know me and whence I came. But I did not come
in my own name, and true is he who sent me, and you do
not know him. And that is all you need know. If you
do not know that, that is, God within yourselves, you can-
not help but not know me. If I said that I am Christ,
you would believe me; but you would not believe God
who is within you. Only by believing God through me
will you be able to understand God who is within you.

12. IIdXtv ov 6 'I-
coes a6roer 7 XdXlce Xd-
ywv, 'Eych elt r b 4iu
r70 K6frIuou 6 dKcoXOVUfO
0po, o6 Ai repurar5crCL
dv Tr rKOT7r, & ) EEL
rb lsr 7Trjs twis.

John viii. 12. Then 12. Another time Jesus
spake Jesus again unto said, I am the light of
them, saying, I am the the world. He who will
light of the world: he follow me will not walk
that followetl me shall in the darkness, butwill
not walk in darkness, have the light of life.
but shall have the light
of life.

John i. 4. In him is life, and life is the light of men.
In this place we find what by all critics is recognized to
be an interpolation of the history of the harlot's pardon;
but the didactic part of the discourse is a continuation of
the preceding chapter. The peculiarity of speech in this
chapter is this, that before this Jesus addressed the
people, while now he addresses the Pharisees.
After the conversation of the Pharisees with the serv-
ants, it must be assumed that they themselves entered
into a discussion with Jesus.

13. ElTrov orv avrc
ol 4'apiwawoi, 2:6 repi
reavvro paprvpcsp' }
,paprvpla roev oK *'rtv

14. 'ATreKplBO '17oOs
Kal drcy arTors, Ka& g y 7b
paprvpo rept l pavroD,
dr7ff0s drTvY ij paprvpla
perv 67T o065a bi0cv y\X-
0ov, Ka t0 7o lrd'yw
OpIecs 6U ois ot6are r ~b(t
WpXopac, tal K eio rrdfyw.

John viii. 13. The
Pharisees therefore said
unto him, Thou nearest
record of thyself; thy
record is not true.

14. Jesus answered
and said unto them,
Though I bear record of
myself, yet my record is
true: for I know whence
I came, and whither I
go; but ye cannot tell
whence I come, and
whither I go.

13. And the Pharisees
said to him, Thou bear-
est witness of thyself,
and scr thy testimony is
not true.

14. And Jesus replied
to them, Though I bear
witness of myself, my
testimony is true, for I
know whence I came,
and whither I lead: it is
you only who do not
know whence I como
and whither I lead.


15. 'T/t s Kar Tra v
oapKa KplvPETer yi" 0o
Kplvw o6Sdva.
16. Kat id& Kpivw 54
Cyib, i Kplis is ?i) dXhat-
Ofs dinr'V 87ri pbvos OK
eIil, dXX' d-yt Kal 6 rd-
V/as ple ran-jp.
17. Kal d 7r vY6py
S4 r7 6Tperdpe yy7par-
rTa, 86ri 5o adOpdBrwv7
psaprvpla diX105 dirritv.
18. 'Eyc eldpt 6 paprv-
pGp, rept dpavroO, Ka2i
paprvpet repl ,udpo 6
irdpl'as Aec rasp,.
19. "EXeyov oiv atrQ,
110o &rtiv 6 rar0 p aov;
&TreKptiO 6 'IRo1r0s, OTre
pi olfare, o6-e Tb ra-
7dpa poUV cl d1 SciTeC,
Kai rbv vrarpa paov

20. Ta7Ta rc PjMfara
IXdXvtev S 'IyIos ?v
Tq Y7aoIuVXaK(P, 5tid-
OxKWoV d ry tEp&" Ka
obSSes driaacv adrbdv, Sril
oarw AXiX dOc i lpa a6-
21. El-er oev wrdXtv
adtros 'IyroOs, 'Eyd
t7rdiyw, Kai friTre-er pAe,
Kal dv r7j dpapriq tpIjv
diroeave&tO"c Srov dyi,
6rdywi, pettis o6 Spvatre

22. "EXeyop o0S ol
'Iovsatoe, M'r4 &rOKre-
ve? davTrb, 67S X'ysei,
"Orov ybA yTrdyw, vyiets
ot SUvatrfe B6XOes ;
23. Kal drer ai}ToTs,
'TysS dK T r sKtir dr(',

6ipets ?K rTO Ki6rTov ro-
rov dar-, dyC3 o3t ellL
dK roe K6oou T70orov.

15. Ye judge after the 15. You judge after
flesh; I judges no man the flesh; but judge
in-: man.

16. And yet if I judge,
my judgment is true:
for 1 am not alone, but
I and the Father that
sent me.b

16. And if I judge, my
judgment is true: for I
am not alone,-there is
also the Father who sent

17. It is also written in 17. It is also written in
your law, that the testi- your law, that the testi-
mony of two men is true. money of two men is suf-

18. I am one that bear
witness of myself, and
the Father that sent me
beareth witness of me.

19. Then said they
unto him, Where is
thy Father? Jesus an-
swered, Ye neither
know me, nor my
Father: if ye had known
me, ye should have
known my Father also.d

20. These words spake
Jesus in the treasury, as
he taught in the temple:
and no man laid hands
on him; for his hour
was not yet come.-

21. Then said Jesus
again unto them, I go
my way, and ye shall
seek me, and shall die
in your sins: whither I
go, ye cannot come.

22. Then said the Jews,
Will he kill himself? be-
cause he saith, Whither
I go, ye cannot come.

23. And he said unto
them, Ye are from be-
neath; I am from above:
ye are of this world; I
am not of this world.

18. I bear witness of
myself, and the Father
who sent me bears wit-
ness of me.

19. The Jews said to
him, Who is this Father
of thine? And Jesus
said to them, You do
not know me, and you
do not know my Father.
If you knew me, you
would know my Father.

20. These words Jesus
spoke near the treasury
in the temple, and no
man overcame him; for
evidently his time had
not yet come.

21. And again Jesus
said to them, I lead, and
you will discuss who I
am, and through your
error you will die. You
will not go whither I

*-. And the Jews said,
',.,3e he mean to kill
himself? For he said,
You will not go whither
I lead.

23. And he said to
them, You are from be-
neath, but I am from
above. You are of this
world, but I am not of
this world.


24. Efrov oi*' &vP 24. I said therefore un- 24 I s.id ihat you will
Sdroae 4 rais, to you, that ye shall die die iri 3.,ir errors if you
6Tc di-oeavec Iv 7rais, in your sins: for if ye do n.- i r-st in me.
&papTrlair &gpv" 4&v yap believe not that I am he,
Ad rTer(6drcTe 6Sn 'Yu ye shall die in your sins.
d!pt, drsoavwodOe Iv rais
&rtais uIAuv.
25. EXeyov odv abr4, 25. Then said they un- 25. Then they said to
Zt t Eli iKal efrev at- to him, Who art thou? him, Who art thou?
And Jesus saith unto And Jesus said to them
ToT7 'In-oOs, TivdpXhv them, Even the same First of all am what
3 7 Kal haX4, &piv. that I said unto you tell you.
from the beginning.
(a) That Kp'voa here means to judge, condemn, is con-
firmed by the object oSe'va.
(b) In reply to the question, why his teaching is true,
Jesus gives as the first proof, that if a man would do what
he says, he would find out that his teaching is true; as
the second proof of the truth he advances this, that he
explains whence comes the soul of man, and whither it
goes, while they do not know.
(c) In many texts Verses 15 and 16 are omitted.
They add nothing, and only make the discourse obscure.
(d) As the third proof of the truth of his teaching,
Jesus states that its truth is attested by two witnesses:
by man himself, and by his Father, God.
The Jews ask, Who is thy father? The trouble is, you
do not know your Father; you do not know your origin.
If you knew, everything would be clear to you. He says
the same that he told Nicodemus, that the foundation of
everything is the understanding as to whence life, the
soul of man, comes.
(e) Many texts have not abrov.
(f) I am what I told you about in the beginning -I
am the light and the comprehension, or, I am what I tell
you; I am my teaching, I am the way and the truth, as
it says farther down.
There follows Verse 26: I have many things to say,
and to judge of you; but he that sent me is true; and
I speak to the world those things which I have heard of
him. This verse has no clear meaning.


This is what the church has to say about it (Gospel of
John, p. 297):

I hare many things to say, etc : The utterance of the preceding
verse is called forth by the question of the Jews, which inter-
rupted the Lord's speech. Immediately after the answer to the
proposed question, the Lord continues his discourse from Verses
21-24. He expressed to the people the bitter truth about their
sad moral condition and proclivities, telling them what all that
would bring them to, and now he continues that speech, telling
them that he has much to tell them about the moral condition
of the people, and to judge of them, to disclose before their eyes
the whole abyss of their moral degradation, the whole weight
of their responsibility before the judgment of God. But, con-
tinues the Lord, no matter how hard it is for you to hear all this,
and for me to accuse you, and still more to rouse you against me,
I must do so and will tell you everything, for he who has sent
me is the truth itself, and I must tell the truth which I heard
from him.
They understood not, etc.: The evangelist's remark as to the
relation of the hearers to the meaning of Jesus' discourse. This
lack of comprehension seems terrible after what the Lord has
been saying all the time about him who sent him, for formerly
they seem to have understood similar utterances of his. No
doubt those who frequently heard the Lord, even his enemies,
now understood his utterances, though only in an external
manner, but the crowd which surrounded him did not under-
stand him, and it is of this crowd that the evangelist speaks.
This is the reason why the Lord goes on to speak directly of the
Father as having sent him.

This is what Reuss has to say (Vol. VI., pp. 212 and

On ne saisit pas bien, a premiere vue, 1'enchalnement logique
des quelques phrases mises dans la bouche de Jdsus en r6ponse a
cette nouvelle question des Juifs. Aussi les interpretes ont-ils
essay des combinaisons trhs-vari6es et qui n'arrivent guhre h
&carter toute espece d'obscuritd. Voici comment nous compre-
nons la liaison des 1eements r6unis dans les v. 25 et 26. A la
question: Qui es-tu? J6sus r6pond seulement par ces mots: Je
suis ce que je vous dis ; en d'autres terms: je n'ai pas besoin
de le dire de nouveau, je l'ait dit suffisamment. L'adverbe tout


d'abord, n'est pas 1'6quivalent de la phrase: "depuis le com-
mencement," car il ne se lie pas avec la fin, comme on le prend
ordinairement (" je suis ce que je vous ai dit des l'abord "), mais il
est plac4 en tete, de maniere a dire: La premiere et seule r4ponse
a donner, c'est, etc. C'est une espece de fin de non recevoir, un
refus de revenir a des explications d6sormais superflues, une
espece de question pr4alable. Puis il ajoute par antithese : C'est
de vous que j'ai a parler ; ce serait 16, pour vous, une preoccupa-
tion plus important. La thdorie a 6tW ktablie, il serait temps
que vous en fissiez l'application; car ce que j'ai a dire de vous,
c'est en meme temps un jugement, une critique, un avertissement
s6rieux et severe. Cela est d'autant plus n6cessaire que vous
n'en tenez pas compete, vous le n6gligez, comme si cela ne vous
regardait pas: et pourtant je ne suis que l'interprete de 1'autorit6
la plus 6levBe, du juge supreme (Chap. v. 30; viii. 15, 16), et
je ne dis que ce qui est salutaire au monde. Nous ne traduisons
pas: J'aurais beaucoup de choses h dire sur vous, mais je me
borne a ce que le Pore me dicte.

This verse adds absolutely nothing to what has been
said before, and it not only breaks the connection of the
thought of Verse 25 with that of Verse 27, but even
destroys the meaning of the latter. If Verse 27, They
understood not that he spake to them of the Father,
stands after the words, Even the same that I said unto
you, then it is clear that the same is the Father. But
after Verse 26, where reference is made to him who sent,
that is, to the Father, Verse 27 has no sense. And so
this verse must be omitted. In the preceding verse it
says the same as what is given later, I and the Father
are one. He said, I am what I tell you. What he
speaks, the Father speaks, consequently they are one.

28. Eirev otr abro^s John viii. 28. Then 28. And Jesus said to
IT 7o0-, ',Orav said Jesus unto them, them, When you have
Oa When ye have lifted up lifted up the son of man,
ro')T TrY vlv TOU7 aOpib- the Son of man, then then you will know what
7rov, T6re TYYvds cfe 8Tr shall ye know that I am I am. I do nothing of
?yC5 i al Ka r' jav- he, and that I do noth- myself; but as my Fa-
in g of myself but as their has taught me, so I
TOO roic osIbd. dXX& my Father hath taught speak.
KaOMs dl1ad /Ac 6 rera5p me, 1 speak these things.
piov, TauTa XaXc.


29. Kal 6 rdI'gas rF e
/ecT IploG Tdv- o06x
&,jKC JE gJ6vop 6 rari7p,
6Ti dyt Tr& dpeFrTA akrQ
raot TdvrTOTe.
30. TarOa abroO Xa-
XovrTos ro~Xo I rleTrv-
aev ecs aer6v.
31. 'EX.eyevot v 'Ib-
ormF irpcs eobs rertTerev-
K6ras aeir 'lovsalovu,
'Ea &jv t4es ic e1re v rI7
X6byy, rT /14A dX?0s
aO.leral AOv d rdT
32. KaZl yvPTeU ~E 7e
adXeLav, eKal L dXe0ia
dXevuepdeic viLas.
33. 'ArEKplrOl av aib-
r7, Zrdp/a Afpaduc
depiev KaI oCM8evl GS8ou-
Xe'KaEe 7r7rOTE' itiOS
obr Xedyet, "OTC Xerj'cpoi
yev4nraeO e;
34. 'ArEKpl07i aroes
6 'Iirco0s, 'AMv djpiv
Xmyw ICyqfv, tCn ra-s 6
TrotSv rjTv LapcTlav 60Uo-
X6s Idert r7r daprlar.
35. '0 8 So0Xor oa
1divet dv r oilK es Trbv
alt&va 6 vubs P1dvE deS
r7y alVea.
36. 'Eav oDv 6 vlbs
LtV1a dhEX vp(Edbu, dlerW
dietlepot 'e660e.
37. Olia 61i irtapeu
'Appadi, dare- dXX& tr-
Teirvd e diroKrTevat, dTir
6 X6yos 6 dpAr ob XtwpE

38. 'Ey& 6 diparKa
rapid Tri 7rarpi gov,
XaX.' eal jieis oev 6
ewpdKaTe rap l Tr Wa-
Tpl btAzv, arotere.
39. 'ArexptlOr~av Kal
drov a6rY", '0 raTr p
i.pjv 'Afpadyc ivot.
XdyeI atrois 6 'I71oDsr,

29. And he that sent
me is with me : the
Father hath not left me
alone; for I do always
those things that please
30. As he spake these
words, many believed on
31. Then said Jesus to
those Jews which be-
lieved on him, If ye con-
tinue in my word, then
are ye my disciples in-

32. And ye shall know
the truth, and the truth
shall make you free.
33. They answered
him,a We be Abraham's
seed and were never in
bondage to any man:
how sayest thou, Ye
shall be made free?

34. Jesus answered
them, Verily, verily, I
say unto you, Whoso-
ever committeth sin is
the servant of sin.b

35. And the servant
abideth not in the house
for ever: but the Son
abideth ever.

29. And he who sent
me is with me. The
Father has not left me
alone; for I do always
and everywhere what
pleases him.
30. And when he said
this, many believed in
his teaching.
31. Then Jesus said to
those who believed in
him, If you are firm in
my comprehension, you
will be taught by me,

32. And you will know
the truth, and the truth
will make you free.
33. They answered
him, We are of Abra-
ham's nation, aud were
never anybody's slaves.
How, then, dost thou
say that thou wilt make
us free?
34. And Jesus an-
swered them, You know
yourselves that every
man who makes mis-
takes becomes the slave
of mistakes.
35. But the slave does
not always remain in
the family, but the son

36. If the Son there- 36. If therefore, the
foreshallmake you free, son will free you, you
ye shall be free indeed., will be free indeed.

37. I know that ye are
Abraham's seed; but ye
seek to kill me, because
my word hath no place
in you.

38. I speak that which
I have seen with my
Father: and ye do that
which ye have seen with
your father.

39. They answered and
said unto him, Abraham
is our father. Jesus
saith unto them, If ye
were Abraham's chil-

37. I know that you
are of Abraham's tribe;
but you want to kill me,
because my comprehen-
sion has no place in you.

38. I speak what I
have comprehended of
my Father; and you do
what you have compre-
hended of your father.

39. And they said to
him, Abraham is our
father. Jesus said to
them, If you were Abra-
ham's children, you


El rdKva rTO 'Appadu dren, ye would do the
-re, TO Epya 70r works of Abraham.
'AfpadI dhroiesrTe dv.
40. NGVr 5 iireTT 40. But now ye seek to
pE drOKTreva, dvpw- kill me, a man that hath
S- told you the truth, which
rov Sr Thv dXi 5Lav I have heard of God:
bvZv XEXdX)rKa, 4v iKov- this did not Abraham.
fa 7rapa 70T OCeoD
roero 'AppadM OK rOel-

41. 'Tpdes rotere r 41. Ye do the deeds of
Epya roe raerpbs Ubv. your father. Then said
they to him, We be not
eiror oiv avrtc, J'1pes born of fornication; we
IK ropvelas oi6 yeyeppw- have one father, even
pea"- tva TrarTpa o- God.
Cev, Thv Ge6v.
42. Erev or abiroTs 42. Jesus said unto
b'I7ooDs, El 6 Oebs ra- them, If God were your
Father, ye would love
Trp OtPV ji, jTarare me: for" I proceeded
&v ?4- yd y y7p K roO forth and came from
Go0 DC eXOov Kai Kw" God; neither came I of
o avo myself, but he sent me.
ot)U yap aw' lavTrov
XfXuv0sa, dAX' Kcei6S pEC
43. AzarT Trv XaXt a 43. Why do ye not
riv deAv oe06 -Y1vTKTE understand my speech?
06 o 7 KT;, ; even because ye cannot
6TI o6 UOvaasre rKOUiG hear my word.
TY X&yoV TOVb uP6v.
44. 'T ets eK rarp6r 44. Ye are of your
To7 &aB lXouv r~, Ka father the devil,andthe
lusts of your father ye
rTis ir uOvlasr70U rarp&t will do: he was a mur-
b~Gv OiXcre roeiv. sKEt- derer from the begin-
ost dvOpwTroKrOr v Duing, and abode not in
o ,, ,v0pr the truth, because there
air apxS, KIal Tv Tr is no truth in him.
dXrcGl9 oXy FT7rKe v When he speaketh a lie,
rTL o06K CrrK dX4iza ev he speaketh of his own:
for he is a liar, and the
atiry. irTar Xhak Tb father of it.
eSBos, 1K T2V iSllw X\a-
Xti- SrI Wcri-Ts dirl
Kal 6 rarTp aTroD.
45. 'Eyd 8S 67S 7T r 45. And because I tell
dXi0Mecv Xdyw, ou rt- you thetruth, ye believe
de~rme not.
40. Tis 1~ Opiv eAIy- 46. Which of you con-
Xget e repl ALaprias ; El vinceth me of sin? And
if I say the truth, why
6S dMIesav Xdyw, 6tarl do ye not believe me?d
blcZs oU TarTEc6rT pol ;
47. '0 Ov IK rTO 0 eo 47. He that is of God
Ti plaera 7ro0 eo dKO heareth God's words:
ye therefore hear them

would serve God l.,ke

40. But now you deli'.
erate how 3..u .J di kill
me, a man ulit. hr: h: c[l.
you the truth, habi,' I
have heard (. G;....
Abraham did not ao

41. You serve '.:',r
father. They said to
him, We are not born of
fornication: we have
one Father,-God.

42. Jesus said to them,
If God were your Father,
you would love me: for
I proceeded from God
and go to him. I did not
come of myself, but he
sent me.

43. You do not under-
stand my words of the
comprehension, because
you cannot understand
my discussion.
44. You are of the
devil, and you will do
the lust of your father:
he was a murderer in
the beginning, and did
not live in the truth,
because there is no
truth in him. When he
speaks, he speaks his
own lie, and there is no
truth in him, for he is a
liar, and the father of

45. But when I speak
the truth, you do not
believe me.
46. Who of you will
accuse me that I am in
error? If I say the
truth, why do you not
believe me?
47. lie who is of God
understands the works
of God. You do not


ec69 65a T70o70 6e S OUK
&Kodcre, r874 iK TO7 Oco
OK 1tTr.
48. 'ATreCplof av o0v
o 'lov6aioE Kal edrov at-
r( O6 KaXUos Xt-yoYev
iLpetS, 67r LYatapeirrls t
c0,, Kal 8aiAcYpov XEIs ;
49. 'AreKplfB'I710ois,
'Eyc 6attfvtov oy K WXJw,
dXXa& t 7n rv T rarTpa
pAOU, Kat bAei' dTrcgdteT
50. 'Ey- 6k o6 rQT
T7r 664av povt vcr7tv 6
ts1r7v Kal KpIvwv.
51. 'A ~v dAv Xtywc
OCFv, Mdv 7ts rTy Xyov
rbv 4 p Tr)pOy, Odva-
ToP o0i Jt OeWPfr ed 6s
T6y aliva.
52. Elrov ovy a6r4
of 'louvats, NOv tyvd~-
xaJ.EPv T&rI BarLyov
iess' 'Appa&p/ dwrave
Kat of rpo)Trat, Kait O
Xycc s, 'Edv Trs r&v
X6yov pov Tpiou Opy, ob
/A ye6berara Oavdrov els
r76 altOa.
53. Mt 0l b pel~wv ey
T70o arpbs i1ct v Afipa-
A&p, deaes drd0ave; Kai
oZ mrpoafraz drdOavovr
riva ueavrbv oS rrotesr;
54. ATreKplOt'I~7rogs,
'E&v hyc 6otdtw Jpav-
TO, if 665a puov o064v
ulytv urTf V 6 mraTrjp
pou 6 6o drwov pe, 6S
S /tes Xy 4er 67r Ocbs
OpSdv Su7T,
55. Kal o0K yvx5KarT
a0rbv, y7, 6U oi6a ab-
rTV' Kai I v eftr &r
odK ol2a ar7bv, uropac
,pocos vP.Iv, TfWe6urns'.
XA' eia airbv, Kal rov
X6yov akroO Trp65.

not, because ye are not hear, because you are
of God. not of God.

48. Then answered
the Jews, and said unto
him, Say we not well
that thou art a Samari-
tan, and hast a devil?

49. Jesus answered, I
have not a devil; but I
honour my Father, and
ye do dishonour me.

50. And I seek not
mine own glory: there
is one that seeketh and
51. Verily, verily, I
say unto you, If a man
keep my saying, he shall
never see death.

52. Then said the Jews
unto him, Now we know
that thou hast a devil.
Abraham is dead, and
the prophets; and thou
sayest, If a man keep
my saying, he shall
never taste of death.

53. Art thou greater
than our father Abra-
ham, which is dead ?
and the prophets are
dead: whom makest
thou thyself?
54. Jesus answered, If
I honour myself, my
honour is nothing: it is
my Father that honour-
eth me; of whom ye say,
that he is your God:

55. Yet ye have not
known him; but I know
him:f and if I should
say, I know him not,
I shall be a liar like unto
you: but I know him,
and keep his saying.

48. And the Jews re-
plied to him, Did we not
say right that thou art
a mad Samaritan ?

49. Jesus answered, I
am not mad; but I hon-
our my Father, and you
dishonour me.

50. I do not discuss
what seems good to me:
there is one who dis-
cusses and punishes.
51. Verily I tell you,
If a man understands
my comprehension and
fulfils it, he will never
see death.

52. The Jews said to
him, Now we see that
thou art mad. Abra-
ham died, and the proph-
ets; and thou sayest, If
a man fulfils my compre-
hension, he will never
see death.

53. If thou art greater
than our father Abra-
ham,-and he died, and
so did the prophets,-
whom makest thou thy-
54. Jesus answered, If
I acknowledged it my-
self, what seems good
to me would have no
meaning; but there is
one who acknowledges
me, he whom you call
your God.

55. You have not
known him, but I know
him; and if I should say
that I do not know him,
I would be a liar like
yourselves. But I know
im, and keep his com-


50. 'Appad& 6 Tra76p
bgqv fyaXXtdcaTro I'va
M[6 Trv iMiIpav T4iv
4nUhv Kal el6e Kai 6(Xdp'.
57. Eixro oav ot 'Iou-
6afio Trpbs abrrb, fens J-
xovra rT1e oerw gXecs,
Ka? 'AfpaAjp 6paKas;
58. E7rev abros 6
'Iioos, 'Ait v dS v
X-yw btZv, IIpiv 'Appa-
&IL 7yeldaOa, yd elsit.
59. 'Hpav oiv Al0ovs
i'a fidXwarv Ir' a6rr6v.
I~iOsG 6T6 cKpfri7, Kal
iX46ev IK 0ro lepoO, 61-
cAXiv 6rtd pleaov a67,r v
Kai rap$iyev 0oic7T.

56. Your father Abra-
ham rejoiced to see my
day : and he saw it, and
was glad.
57. Then said the Jews
unto him, Thou art not
vet fifty years old, and
hast thou seen Abra-
58. Jesus said unto
them, Verily, verily, I
say unto you, Before
Abraham was, I am.
59. Then took they up
stones to cast at him:
but Jesus hid himself,
and went out of the
temple, going through
the midst of them, and
so passed by.

56. Your father Abra
ham loved my: ,u i, and
he saw it and -,. glad.

57. The Jews said to
him, Thou art not yet
fifty years old, and hast
thou seen Abraham?
58. And Jesus said to
them, Verily I tell i.i.
Before Abraham .:, I
59. Then they took up
stones to throw them at
him; but Jesus hid him-
self, and weut out of the

(a) Not those who believed, but those who wanted to
dispute with him.
(b) In many texts Trij, aapriav is wanting.
(c) This passage is obscure. From the first part of the
comparison, that the slave is not always in the house, but
the son always, we should expect it to say, Try not to be
slaves, but sons, and instead it says that the son will set
free. The church explains it by saying that the son of
God, the second person, will set free. But if Jesus wanted
to say that, it would be superfluous to say that every man
who commits a sin is the slave of sin, and that the slave
is not always in the house, but the son is. To take the
slave to be the sinner whom the Christ-God sets free,
destroys the whole meaning of the comparison. Man,
from his knowledge, is a son of God; but from his
error he is the slave of his error. The son is always
in the family of the father, the slave not always. A
man who commits a sin becomes for a time a slave.
A man who turns to the father becomes a son and is
set free and becomes eternal. It is possible to live in the
house either as a son or as a slave. Only he who lives
as a son is free. Consequently, the truth which makes


you free is the knowledge of our filial relation to God.
(Germ of the parable of the hired shepherd.)
(d) Verses 41-46 continue the same thought which
was expressed in the beginning, that the law of Moses is
false, and that, by not understanding the law of Moses,
they do not do the law of God. Jesus announces to
them that their whole law is a lie, that they serve the
devil, the lusts, and not God, and that, therefore, they
cannot and will not comprehend his manner of serving
(e) The words are not clear, but from the next verse it
follows that what they mean is, that he who deliberates
and punishes is death.
(f) A clear denial of the external God. It is the same
idea as in the Introduction and in John's epistle, that no
one has ever known God.
(g) 3e'Wpa must here be translated in the sense of the
light of day. In many texts we read 86'av.

Jesus says that he is that which he says; but what he
says is that he knows from the Father. He who will lift
up in himself the son of God the comprehension will
receive life and will not die, because this comprehen-
sion is God, and there is no other, and he cannot conceal
it, even if he wants to do so. When they say, How can
one help dying ? he says that the comprehension is one,
that it is and was before Abraham, that it is outside time.
The discourses with the Pharisees, who demand proofs
of the truth of the teaching according to the synoptics,
and these two chapters of John (Chapters VII. and VIII.),
constitute one discourse, in which Jesus, in reply to the
questions of the Jews as to how he will prove his teach-
ing, answers that there are no proofs of his teaching and
can be none, because his teaching is the teaching about
life, the serving of God the spirit, whom a man is con-
scious of in himself, but cannot see or show.


This chapter is placed between Chapters VIII. and X.
and is an exposition of the same thought, and an answer
to the same question, What are the proofs of the falseness
of the law of Moses and of the truth of the teaching cf
Christ ?
In analyzing this chapter, it is impossible to assume
that the writer wanted to speak of the carnal healing :of
the blind man. Even if we admit that the reference iz
to the actual restoring of the sight, it is incomprehensible
why Jesus, after curing him, should say that he is the
light of the world, and that it is necessary to walk while
there is the light. It is not clear why the blind mnn
should speak of Jesus as the prophet; it is not clear why
the Pharisees should say to him, Thou art his disciple.
It is not clear why Jesus should again meet the blind
man, and say to him, Thou hast seen the son of God, and
thou seest him. And, above all, incomprehensible and
quite superfluous are the words of Verses 39-41, in w:hih
Jesus says:
39. And Jesus said, For judgment I am come into this world;
that they which see not might see, and that they which see,
might be made blind.
40. And some of the Pharisees which were with him he.ir'l
these words, and said unto him, Are we blind also?
41. Jesus said unto them, If ye were blind, ye should have no
sin: but now ye say, We see; therefore your sin remaineth.

If this is only a miracle, like the one in Mark viii. 2',
then the whole didactic part of the passage falls away.
If it is a didactic passage, then all that has to be dropped
is the making of the clay and anointing of the eyes. I
choose the latter: this is the more natural in this ca'e,
since the only incomprehensible and superfluous words
are, He made clay of the spittle and anointed the eyes
with it.

~E~iub 'pY~CC iirii





1. Kal rapdSywv delev
dvPpw7rov rwT Xbv dx
2. Kal ipOsbrT7av ab-
Tfb ol /iaOlTrat arTog'
XSyovpes, 'Paf fi, ri
ifpTaprev, oeros ol 'yo-
Pets atrod, iva Trv4bs
3. 'ArsKptls b'Ifrovrs,
O0re oDroS if aprTP o0re
ol yovets aoi-ro- dXX'
vra pavspwOf r7A pya
Tro ceou dv ar4T.
4. 'E~e B Se pydpeaOat
r& ipya roG rdvfavrfs
pte 1ws judpa denrivo
pyserat vb(, dTe o66eir
Sdvarat dpydSGeOaL.
5. "Orav dv Tr K6-
a~yp c, i5s spuC Tro

John zx. 1. And as
Jesus passed by, he saw
a man which was blind
from his birth.a
2. And his disciples
asked him, saying, Mas-
ter, whob did sin, this
man, or his parents,
that- he was born blind?

3. Jesus answered,,Nei-
ther hath this man
sinned, nor his parents :-
but that the works of
God should be made
manifest in him.
4. I must work the
works of him that sent
me while it is day: the
night cometh, when no
man can work.

1. And as Jesus passed
by, he saw a man who
was blind by his nature.
2. And his disciples
asked him, Teacher, in
what way did this man
or his parents sin that
he was born blind?

3. Jesus answered, Nei-
ther has this man
sinned, nor his parents,
but that the serving of
God should be made
manifest in him.
4. We must serve him
who has sent us, while
it is day; when the night
comes, nobody can do

5. As long as I am in 5. When I am in the
the world, 1 am the light world, I am the light of
of the world, the world.

(a) The words TrvAXb dec yevereq occur but once in the
New Testament; e'c 7EVETj9 does not mean from birth,
but something like it; I translate it by from nature.
(b) Many texts have T', and this meaning is fuller.
(c) Here is another use of 'va for i(bre.
(d) There ought to be a period here; otherwise the fol-
lowing sentence makes no sense, or that coarse sense that
he was blind that the works of God might be made mani-
fest in him. Jesus' answer is the same as his words to
the Jews, Do not discuss whether I am guilty or not, but
follow me. He says, Do not discuss who is to blame,
but we must serve God while we are alive.
(e) Many texts have s}iFq, both here and after sent.

The comprehension is the light of the world. But how
if a man has not seen the light from his birth ? Is it his
fault, or not ? the disciples ask. Jesus answers, Nobody
is to blame. When we see a blind man, we must not
ask who is to blame for it, but we must do the works of


. God, the same works which would not be made manifest
to us, if there were no blind; we must give light to
the blind; not because God purposely blinded men, but
because the whole manifestation of God consists in the
enlightenment of the darkness, in the restoring of sight to
the blind. While it is day, we must work for the illumi-
nation of the darkness. While we are in the world, we are
the light of the world, and in this our true life consists.

7. Ka2 eTrev aur ,
'Trayr, vlac elys Tri
KoXviBd5pav roD ZiX70 Chp
(6 dpgjvelierai, 'Are-
aTaXedvos). arjXOev oDv
Kal deliaro, Kal Xse
8. 01 oey y7eroves,
Kal ol OewpovYTrer wrbv
rb rpbrepov 67TL Trv bs
jv, Atcyov, Obx or76s
erTIn 6 KCaOfiegCo Kxa
irpocraary v;
9. 'AXXot hXeyov,"On0
oeb6s deTIr-' dXXoi U,
'OTr S oLto alr4 drntV.
cKE vOS ?C.EcYc, "On dyci

10. 'EXoyov oCi a.-
Tr, IIOs dpvecX~0ix dv
aov o! 600a pol ;
11. 'ArespltOY dKEi'Vo
Kal elrev, AvOpwross
XEY6ievos 'I17rio S 7r7XYb
drrolV E, Kail drdxpio
piov Trobs &P6aOXAos, KXa
ebrd eIot, "Traye els 7rv
KOXvtgi9Opav roO ZMIA-
h,U, Kal pflal dreX6Lvy
5U Kal vidpitevos dyve-
12. Ehroe oiy aIr,
eo6 10 r dKEr ios; Xdyec,
06K olfa.
13. 'Ayovewt aTrbv
rpbs Tors $Papctaiovs,
76rY rore rTX6v.

John ix. 7. And said
unto him, Go, wash in
the pool of Siloam,
(which is by interpreta-
tion, Sent.) He went
his way therefore, and
washed, and came see-

8. The neighbours
therefore, and they
which before had seen
him that he was blind,
said, Is not this he that
sat and begged?b

9. Some said, This is
he: others said, He is
like him: but he said,
I am he.

7. And said to him
Go, wash in the pool of
him who is sent. He
cleansed himself, and
began to see.

8. The neighbours and
those who had seen him
before, that he was a
beggar, said, Is not this
he who sat and begged?

9. Some said, This is
the same. Others said,
He is like him. But he
said, I am he.

10. Therefore said they 10. And they said to
unto him, How were him, How were thy eyes
thine eyes opened? opened?

11. IIe answered and
said, A man that is
called Jesus made clay,-
and anointed mine eyes,
and said unto me, Go to
the pool of Siloam, and
wash: and I went and
washed, and I received

11. And he replied to
them, A man called
Jesus taught me how to
cleanse myself with the
cleansing of him who is
sent, and I cleansed my-
self, and now I see.

12. Then said they un- 12. Then they said to
to him Where is he? him, Where is he? He
He said, I know not. said, I do not know.
13. They brought to 13. Then they brought
the Pharisees him that to the Pharisees him
aforetime was blind, who had been blind.


14. 'Hv 6r v4fParov,
STC TrV Tr7bv drrola-ev
6 'ICroas, Kal dvtwEcv
avroO rTos 6paXJLo6ds.
15. IIdMXr ody hplj-
T7o atrbv Kal oa iapt-
raiob, riTrs dv&pgXeev.
o 5a efrE aTrozs, nlX7vt
drrieK6v Tri TroS 60-
OaXeots gaOV, Kal ?vsPd-

16. 'EXeyov oir &d
T7-v IapuralwPi Trt
OTroo 6 avOpswros O6K
eiart rap& Tov etov, 6ri
T7b odfiarov oa Ti7pet.
dXXoS Aeyeov, IIRIa 83tva-
Trat avpwros datapTrw6s
Toitara alAet'a roetv;
Kal rxlaiLa Tv dv arros.
17. Adevowtri r7Tv XAS
rdtXv, i) T7i Mdyes irepi
abroa, 6-7i i~POt TO T0ras
6 aXiobts; b 8 eThrev,
'On 7rpopTsrs 0rTiv.
18. OxK ir0UrevL av
odi ol 'Iouv6ato reply at-
r70o, 8TL 7VOh6s P Kai
dvXP e i v, wAs i6rov u c-
vijrav TobS yovts aTire
T70t vaafiX avTro,
19. Kal ippiTrrcav at-
rois, XIovrTE, ObrTs
ieCTL 6 vla b jiPv), 8v
t~is X'yere Ti-L rvoXbT
tyCvvl40 ; rrGo oDP dprt

20. 'AreKxpiToav as6-
rots oi yoVeit arTov Kal
drou, Oftalev tri oir6s
0rTy 6 vibs iipsSv, Kal
rTi Ti UX6tbs -yvvCr0-
21. nfIs U POPv 3Xt-
irs, O0K o fLSa/e. 4 r1s
Pvottev arro6 tro0iTs 6OaX-
/po0s, iFIets obK oftSajLev
adTb il tXKav 9X"c aiTtbv
tpwrTrare, arrbs repl
aburo XaXaest.

14. And it was the
sabbath day when Jesus
made the clay, and
opened his eyes.

15. Then again the
Pharisees also asked
him howhe had received
his sight. He said unto
them, He put clay upon
mine eyes, and I washed,
and do see.

16. Therefore said
some of the Pharisees,
This man is not of God,
because he keepeth not
the sabbath day. Others
said, How can a man
that is a sinner do such
miracles? And there
was a division among

17. They say unto the
blind man again, What
sayestthou of him, that
he hath opened thine
eyes? IHe said, He is a
18. But the Jews did
not believe concerning
him, that he had been
blind, and received his
sight, until they called
the parents of him that
had received his sight.
19. And they asked
them, saying, Is this
your son, who ye say
was born blind? how
then doth he now see?

20. His parents an-
swered them and said,
We know that this is
our son, and that he was
born blind:

21. But by what means
he now seeth, we know
not; or who hath opened
his eyes, we know not:
he isof age; ask him: he
shall speak for himself.

14. It was the SabbathI
when Jesus opened the
eyes of the blind man.

15. And again the
Pharisees asked him
how he received the
sight. He said to them
I cleansed myself, and
now I see.

16. And some of the
Pharisees said, This man
is not in a covenant with
God, for he does not
keep the Sabbath. Others
said, How can a sinner
show such examples?
And there was a dissen-
sion among them.

17. And again they
said to him who had
been blind, What dost
thou say about this, that
he has opened thy eyes?
And he said, I suppose
that he is a prophet.
18. And the Jews did
not believe that be had
been blind and received
his sight, until they
called his parents.

19. And they asked
them, Is this your son,
who you say was born
blind? How, then, does
he see now?

20. And the parents
replied to them, We
know that this is our
son, and that he was
born blind.

21. But how he sees
now, and who has opened
his eyes, we do not
know. He is of age;
ask him: he will speak
for himself.


22. Tagra ldrov ol 22. These words spake 22. His parents spoke
"over? ai'-ro, &rt lo- his parents, because so, because they were
yo they feared the Jews: afraid of the Jews; for
fiDvro Tre0 'Iot aloUs" for the Jews had agreed the Jews had agreed
467 yCp evverd eLvro ol already, that if any man already that if any man
'Iovaot, fva dv T did confess that he was took him to be Christ
SChrist, he should be put he would be put out of
afr6v 6/ oXoeylg XpL- out of the synagogue. the assembly.
-rTv, d&rocuvdywyos y.-
23. Al rorro ol0yoves 23. Therefore said his 23. Therefore his par-
aiTroO droyv, 'O -iXtIlav parents, He is of age; ents said, He is of age;
ask him. ask him.
f~tr, au6Tv 1PWTharaT(.

(a) I leave out the stupid, useless detail of Verse 6, and
in Verse 7, I put, instead of the words eLT rV v IoXvU/34-
Opav r70T MIX at (05 epjiveverat, 'ATreo-TaXxevov), in the
pool of him who is sent. With such a translation I do
not leave out anything.
The sight is restored by means of the purification by
the spirit through him who is sent. And one cannot help
observing that in Verse 4 it said that it is necessary to
do the work of him who has sent. The blind man is
cleansed and regenerated in the pool of him who is sent,
that is, of him who does the works of him who has sent.
(b) In confirmation of the statement that the discourse
is not about a blind man, we must notice that it does not
say that the neighbours knew him as a blind man, but as
a beggar.
IIporaarelv to beg persistently, demand.
(c) The unnecessary detail about the clay is omitted as
(d) rrep' asroD is generally translated by of him. This
translation is faulty; if it meant of him, it would be &w,
and not OTI. I translate it by of this.

The interpreters and translators take this whole chap-
ter to be a description of a miracle and generally explain
it in this way, that the Jews do not believe that a miracle
was wrought and question the blind man and his parents
about it.


But we need only read what is written, to see that the
Pharisees have not even in mind such a testimony.
They ask (v. 10), How were thy eyes opened? that is,
What dost thou see? How didst thou receive sight?
(v. 15.)
Again they ask him, How didst thou come to see? In
neither question is there any testimony, but an interest
in how this was accomplished. Then (v. 16): they do'
not discuss about whether he has been blind or not, but
about his not being from God. In Verse 17 they ask,
What dost thou think of him who has opened thy eyes?
Then (v. 19) they call up his parents, and they do not
ask them whether he had been blind, as they ought to
have done, but say, Here is your son, whom you call
blind; how did he come to see? Either the Pharisees
do not know how to talk and think, or they are not
inquiring about a blind man, but wish to know what
it is the man sees who was blind in intellect. And
they call up the parents, to find out where this man has
picked up these free thoughts. If this is a testimony
about blindness, then all the verses are without sense.
But if the Pharisees want to know what the blind man
sees and where he has picked up these thoughts, they
are clear.

24. 'E0dvnarav o5v Ir
&evrpov rbv dvSpwarov
Ss tv 7rvXb Kal dTrov
akr4, Abs 866ar rS
0Ge~ 4itELC or6aev S7r 6
dvOpcores obros a japrw-
Xbs darLv.
25. 'ArKpl0J otv
&KevOS Kal lrev, El
&MaprwXbs rnv, o6K
o?6a- v" oefa, 6ir Trvq b
se, Sprit fiXrw.
26. Efrov 6S abrT
irdXvn, TI reolt ro ao;
iras ivod av Trobs
iOaXpow is;

John ix. 24. Then again
called they the man that
was blind and said un-
to him, Give God the
praise:4 we know that
this man is a sinner.

25. He answered and
said, Whether he be a
sinner or no, I know
not: one thing I know,
that, whereas I was
blind, now I see.
26. Then said they to
him again, What did he
to thee ? how opened he
thine eyes?

24. Then they again
called up the one who
had been blind, and said
to him, Confess God: we
know that this man is a

25. And he answered
them, Whether he is a
sinner or not, I do not
know. One thing I
know, that I was blind,
and now I see.
26. Again they said to
him, What did he do to
thee? How did he open
thy eyes?


27. 'ArEKpipr7 adroTs,
EirOv V6fv S], Kal o1K
hKod6earC- r TrdXiv Oe-
TE aKOiELYi; I. Kail u6,E
OAETE alrTOO parOTral
yevpial ;
28. 'EXeos6pToav oev
abrbv, Kal ETrov, i6 El
a=671rTs IKEIvov5 flESr
5 700r Mwe-wSs teiv
29. 'II/pe olfSa/lev cr
3lco X \cXdX'Kev 6 Qe6s-
r70oro 8U o06 oIracer
7r68Ev iariv.
30. 'ATrrKplOTI 6 dV-
Opwcros Kal eirEv abro's,
'Ev yap rorfT Oaveua-
orr6y &erT, STIr bueis
o)K oe1are 7r6Bv 10r-,
Kal dv&{4 JeouV Tros
31. OtSapev t 874
a6paprwXp v 6 e6E o06K
dKeoKef dXX' dyv Trs 0eo-
CEp/f 7, Kai Ti Of/X7-
Ia aiTro wore, ro6Tro
32. 'EK TOO alOvos
OiK 2KO~ocr 68-C ]voel
TrT 60aX/Avnj ) Trv0Xo
yeyvcivlov. Gro
33.. El 1 i vP o5Vros
7rapa OrOD, ofK I756varo
rotrei ovCSv.
34. 'AIrexplKn7aPV Kal
ebrov avrw, Ev ciaprl-
ace ib f/yvvzr4ls SXos,
Kai L1 iLItOKEC(F icaT;
Kai f/faXov anr-bv St.
35. "HKOerEv 6 '172-
aoGr -ric ifCaXov afr.r
f/Ea Kal EbpcV at/bv
ElrTE air), 2I 7TrTrTlTets
esI rib vlbv Tro eEoV ;
30. 'AareKpl6t IKEivOS
Kal Elre, Tis &aMT, KipcLE,
rYa iarTa7ECE El air6v;
idrE UI a6rcT 6 'I7oiEs,

27. He answered them,
I have told you already,
and ye did not hear:5
wherefore would ye hear
it again? will ye also be
his disciples?

28. Then they reviled
him, and said, Thou art
his disciple; but we are
Moses' disciples.

29. We know that God
spake unto Moses: as
for this fellow, we know
not from whence he is.

30. The man answered
and said unto them,
Why herein is a marvel-
lous thing, that ye know
not from whence he is,-
antd yet he hath opened
mine eyes.

31. Now wed know that
God heareth not sinners:
but if any man be a wor-
shipper of God, and
doeth his will, him he

32. Since the world
began was it not heard
that any man opened
the eyes of one that was
born blind.
33. If this man were
not of God, he could do
34. They answered and
said unto him, Thou
wast altogether born in
sins, and dost thou teach
us? And they cast him
35. Jesus heard that
they had cast him out;
and when he had found
him, he said unto him,
Dost thou believe on the
Son of God?
3*. Ite answered and
said, Who is he, Lord,
that I might believe on

27. And he replied to
them, 1 have told you
already, but you do not
believe. Why do you
want to hear it again?
Do you want to become
his disciples?
28. And they reviled
him, and said, Thou art
his disciple, but we are
Moses' disciples.

29. We know that God
spoke to Moses: but we
do not know this man,
nor whence he comes.

30. And he answered
them, and said, This is
the marvel that you do
not know whence he is,
and yet he has opened
my eyes.

31. We know that God
does not hear sinners;
but he hears those who
are godly and do the
will of God.

32. Since the world
began it was not heard
that any man opened the
eyes of one born blind.

33. If this man were
not of God, he could do
34. And they answered
him, Thou wast all born
in sins, and yet thou
teaches us. And they
drove him away.

35. Jesus heard that
they had driven him
away; and when he met
him, he said, Does thou
trust in the son of God ?

36. And he replied,
Who is he, that I should
trust in him?


37. Kal 5bpaKas ai- 37. And Jesus said un- 37. And Jesus said to
rbv, Kie 6 Xav /,er to him, Thou hast both him, Thou hast seen him
seen him, and it is he and seest him, and he
aoe KEiLv6s &rTiv. that talketh with thee. talks with thee.
38. '0 5J ic7, IIta- 38. And he said, Lord, 38. And he said, I trust
reto Kipl- a po I believe. And he wor- in him, sir; and he
7i6W, KPLE Kal rpoexsiu- shipped him. bowed to him.
v77oEY aerw.

(a) S6v 8doav T i OBE cannot mean give God the praise.
In my opinion this means nothing but that the Pharisees
demand that he should recognize their God. Only by
understanding it thus, all the previous conversations and
especially Verses 28 and 29, where they say that they
are disciples of Moses with whom God himself spoke, and
not disciples of Jesus, and the subsequent verses, become
(b) In many texts we read believe.
(c) Ye know not from whence he is, is a repetition
of the words of the discourse in the temple.
(d) We shows clearly that it is not the beggar alone
who speaks, but he who understands the teaching of

The man born blind tells the Pharisees what he
experiences and can tell them nothing else: he did
not see the true life and did not understand it. Jesus
opened his eyes, and he can say nothing for or against
Moses. He sees life, and he says that he sees, and can
say nothing else. But when the Pharisees excommuni-
cate him, Jesus finds him, and says to him, Dost thou
trust in the son of God? The blind man at first does
not understand what the son of God is. Jesus explains
to him, the son of God is that which thou knowest speaks
with thee in thy soul,- thyself (the same was said in
the discourse with Nicodemus); thou hearest and under-
standest his voice.

30. Kal erev 6 'Ih- Johnix. 39. AndJesus 39. And Jesus said, I
aot, Elt Kpi^ta e-lZ eIS said, For judgment I am came into this world for
come into this world, the division: that they
TbP K6o-erov70uov0Xov, that they which see not who do not see might


rva oi IBX t3rovT es B4-
rwcrL, Kal oi fX),Trovre
TvXNol fI'vwuTaG.
40. Kal ixKoveav tK
TVP W4apualwv Trara ol
rTes uer' abroO, Kai
dTrov a~ri, Mi Kal
i;y)perr rvu ol oitev;
41. Eirev arro i
'IOE09s, El 7vXotl tre,
0oK &v etxere a apriav
vOv U Xtyere, l OT PXad-
TrofeV 7] Ov 04 apTia
6'u(p Wi'$pE.

might see; and that they see; and those who see
which see might be might be made blind.
made blind.

40. And some of the
Pharisees which were
with him heard these
words, and said unto
him, Are we blind also?

41. Jesus said unto
them, If ye were blind,
ye should have no sin:
but now ye say, We see;
therefore your sin re-

40. And the Pharisees
and others with tnem
heard this, and said.
Dost thou consider "'
blind also?

41. Jesus said to them.
If you were blind, there
would he no error ,n
you; but now you con-
sider yourselves seeing,
and so there is error to

(a) Kpilpa division.

In response to the question why there are men who.
are deprived of the understanding of the true good, and
whether they or their parents are to blame for it, Jesus
replies that the human question why? and the human
comprehension of justice are not applicable here. Neither
he who does not see, nor his parents, are to blame; we
must not discuss this, but must live by the light of the
comprehension. He was blind, and he began to see
The son of man, the son of God, came into the world,
only to separate those who see from those who do not
see. And only he who sees and does not go to the light
is sinful.

19. ZX/le4aaov rdXiv
dytIveo iv roTs 'Iovualois
&d Tros s 7yovrs Torovs.
20. 'EXeyor ) roXXol
t a&r(yP, Aaitb6top 4'Xet
Kal paimeTar' T arToO
dKoieTe ;
21. "AXXot X-yov,
TaD a T& ~iyara o0b
(TiL rsazai/wo'ot6iyoU 3ut
aei6 viaov 5varTai T60Xr v
6d@OaXasos dvoiyetV;

John z. 19. There
was a division therefore
again among the Jews
for these sayings.
20. And many of them
said, He hath a devil,
and is mad; why hear
ye him?

21. Others said, These
are not the words of
him that hath a devil.
Can a devil open the
eyes of the blind?

19. And there was dis-
cord among the Jews ou
account of these words
20. Many of them said.
He is stubborn and madl:
why do you listen it

21. Others said, Yc(.,
will not hear such word.J
from a madman. A ma-l.
man cannot open the

In the two preceding chapters Jesus said that thc
whole worship of the Jews is false, that the law of Mose:


is full of contradictions and is a lie, and that they do not
know God and serve the lust of the devil, calling him
God, while he gives them the teaching of the true service
of God by deeds.
In response to their question as to the proofs of the
truth of his teaching, he says that his teaching is not his
own, but his from whom we all come, -the teaching of
life. And, in order to find out whether this teaching
is true, we must live according to it. His teaching con-
sists in living as he teaches. He who will live in this
manner will learn that he has become free, that for him
there will be no terror, no evil, no death. He who will
live will feel that he is a participant in the principle
of life with God. He who lives for his flesh lives con-
trary to the principle of life God, just as the labourer
lives in the house of the master, without caring for the
master's will. But we must live as in the house of
the Father, unite with the will of the Father, and then
we shall always live with the Father. For the life in
God there is no death. It has always been and will
always be, it is before the beginning of the world. He
who does not live in God does not know God, and you
cannot tell about him. To comprehend him, it is neces-
sary to live in God.
Thus Jesus could not give them the proofs of the truth
of his teaching, such as the Jews demanded. And to
show them more clearly the impossibility of such proofs,
he tells them the parable of the healing of the blind man.
He who understands with his heart sees, and he who does
not understand does not see, unless his eyes are opened.
It is impossible to prove the truth of the teaching to
another man; he who has comprehended the chief mean-
ing of life can no longer stop before any considerations:
he knows that he was blind and now sees; that hereto-
fore everything was darkness, and now everything is
light. He does not know why he did not see before,


and whether he who on the Sabbath opened his eyes
is right or not; and he cannot think of it: he was blind,
and now he sees. There are no other proofs.


1. 'AIyv djit4n XV-yw
u61~s, "0 lri eloepXy6evos
i6t 7rij Oipas els T i-
adXis TrSv irpofdrwv,
dXX& daf3alrwv dXXa-
X6Oev, eKCtvos KX4rT57S
0rTI Kae Xci-OaTs'
2. '0 5 deiepX6~UePo
Sit rTjs Gipas 7rotijn
(e rT Trv rpOedrWV.
3. Toiry 6 Ovpwphs
divoltyE, Kai r& rp6bara
7rs Owpvs arosD dKoiiei,
Kai TA friMa rp6fara
KaXc Kar' Svopia, Kal
dc-iye ai'rd.
4. Kal rTav r& f1Sa
Trp6fgaTa eKfdXg, nurpo-
ersev airdj' vroperTa"r
Kal Tra rp6fara a6rT
dKoXov0e Sri ofaae rhTv
OWVjlv aTroB.
6. 'AXXOTply 64 o0
ji dcKoXoi4wWOzt, &'XX&
p6cfovrat vr' a6TorJ' rTt
o0K otfao l TJdV dXXorpiw
Trtv pwnIt .
6. Ta6irlv 7r v rapop-
plav ISret atsro7s 6 'I7-
cav ripa pv d& XdXec
a rTots.

John x. 1. Verily,
verily, I say unto you,
He that entereth not by
the door into the sheep-
fold, but climbeth up
some other way, the
same is a thief and a

2. But he that entereth
in by the door is the
shepherd of the sheep.
3. To him the porter
openeth; and the sheep
hear his voice: and he
calleth his own sheep by
name, and leadeth them

4. And when he put-
teth forth his own sheep,
be goeth before them,
and the sheep follow
him: for they know his

5. And a stranger will
they not follow, but will
flee from him; for they
know not the voice of

6. This parable spake
Jesus .unto them; but
they understood not
what things they were
which he spake unto

1. Verily, I tell you,
He who does not enter
into the sheepfold by
the door, but climbs in
somewhere, is a thief
and a robber.

2. He who enters by
the door is the shepherd
of the sheep.
3. To him the watch-
man opens, and the
sheep hear his voice.
And he calls each sheep
by name, and lets them
out into the field.

4. And when he lets
out his own sheep, he
goes before them; and
the sheep follow him,
for they know his voice.

5. And a stranger they
will not follow, but will
run away from him, for
they do not know the
voice of strangers.

6. This parable Jesus
spoke to them; but they
did not understand what
he said.

The discourse is still about the proofs of the falseness
of the Jewish faith and the truth of Jesus' teaching.
After the parable of the restored sight, the discourse is
about this, that this restoration will always take place,
because the teaching of Jesus consists in this, that all
men know that he only reminds them of, enlightens
them in, something they knew before, something which


lies in the hearts of men; that his teaching is in com-
parison with the false teachings what the appearance
of the true shepherd in the sheepfold is in comparison
with the thief who climbs into the sheepfold. All rec-
ognize him at once, as the sheep recognize their shepherd.
They know that he will feed them and will give them
life, but at the false teaching men shy as the sheep shy
at a robber who climbs over the fence. They do not
recognize him, and are afraid, fearing evil. If Jesus said
something unusual and improper to men, they might be
afraid of him, as the sheep shy at him who climbs over
the enclosure; but what he says to them is what they
know in themselves, he speaks of the way which alone
leads to life, he enters by the door which alone leads
into the pasture, -into life. And what he tells them
is known to them, as the voice of the shepherd is known
to the sheep, and so they will follow him and receive life.

7. EliTer ov irdlXv
auros 6 'ITcos, 'Adv
dgiapv slyw 6i3?v, &TCd yB6
cirj i O6ipa TrPv rpo-
8. IdvrTes drot rpb
/eo0 jo\ov, KXdrrTat
dell Ka Xu~al' dXX'
OdK jKOUfatv aGIrCOY T
9. 'Eyc( elipt OBpa-
6' dpeoS div Trs eilofOy,
awOhafTrat, Kal elffXd-
reTal, Kait eXe66cerTat,
Kai vopljv edrpset.
10. '0 KXirrT)) OdK
pX Ta& iC1 vLa KXe6/
KalM x r?.7 Kai d&we-Le
1yi Xfov eva wi v
iXWot, Kal rveptcrbv

John x. 7. Then said
Jesus unto them again,
Verily, verily, I say unto
you, Iam the door of the

8. All that ever came
before me are thieves
and robbers:- but the
sheep did not hear

9. I am the door: by
me if any man enter in,
he shall be saved, and
shall go in and out, and
find pasture.

10. The thief cometh
not, but for to steal, and
to kill, and to destroy:
I am come that they
might have life, and
that they might have
it more abundantly.

7. And again Jesus
said to them, Verily,
1 tell you, my teaching
is the door for the

8. All those who ever
came before me are
thieves and robbers:
but the sheep did not
obey them.

9. I am the door. If
any man enters through
me, he will be safe: he
will go in and out, and
will find pasture.

10. The thief goes only
to steal, and to kill, and
to destroy. I came as
the door, that they
might have life more

(a) One would think that it is quite clear. All those
who came to teach as I teach are thieves and robbers,


that is, it is clear that Moses and the prophets are false
teachers. The words, Moses' law and the prophets were
before John, the law was given by Moses, but truth and
joy by Jesus Christ, mean the same. More clearly, it
seems, the denial of the law of Moses could not have
been expressed. And what does the church do?
This is what it says (Gospel of John, p. 351):

Verily, verily (assurance of the incontestable truth of his
words), I say: Since the Pharisees do not understand the alle-
gorical speech of the Lord, he explains its essence to them.
I am the door of the sheep: The door which leads to the sheep.
through which the shepherd passes into the sheepfold. IIe is
the only true mediator between God and the people, the chosen
people of the Old Testament, the only path for the shepherds and
the sheep.
All that ever came, etc. : The Lord has above called thieves
and robbers those who do not enter by the door, but climb
in elsewhere, consequently, if he here calls by the same name all
those who came in before him, as many as ever came, he does not
mean those who came in through the door, but those who climbed
in, that is, he does not mean the true God-given leaders of the
nation, the prophets and the hierarchy, who acted in the true
spirit, but all the false leaders of the nation, whoever they may
be : false prophets, false Messiases, but in particular the Phari-
sees, the enemies of Christ and of his spirit, who none the less
regarded themselves as leaders of the people. They are said to
have come before the Lord, since they had been active before
The sheep did not hear them: That is, the true members of the
God-chosen people, those who formed the kernel of the kingdom
of Messias, whom, as he expresses himself, the Father gave him,
and in general all the true members of the kingdom of God.
They did not hear the voice of the false leaders, for those who
listened to them and followed them did not belong to the true
members of the kingdom of God, but only externally deemed
themselves to belong to it.
I am the door: The repetition strengthens the speech.
By me if any man enter in : The discourse, from the connection
with what precedes, refers to the shepherds who pass through the
door into the sheepfold ; but, as it seems, at the end of this alle-
gory the picture is taken in a broader sense: since not only the


shepherds, but also the sheep pass through the door, both the
shepherd and the sheep are to be understood by those who come
in and out. But with such a conception of the sheepfold the
Messianic kingdom, the church of Christ, is meant, for which
reason the expression shall be saved is used about those who enter
in, an expression which really designates the salvation in the
kingdom of Messias.
By me if any man enter in, he shall be saved: The whole expres-
sion points to the entering, the condition of reconciliation with
God through faith, to the participation in the salvation in the
church of Christ. The subsequent expressions, And shall go in
and out, and find pasture, point to the gratification in the king-
dom of Christ of all true spiritual needs of those who enter in, in
the form of the gratification of the needs of the sheep.
The word shall go in designates the gratification of the need of
assurance of safety, of a true defence and protection, where one
can find the spirit and peace in God, as the sheep find their
defence, protection, and rest in the sheepfold; by the words
go out and find pasture is designated the gratification of the
needs of the spiritual nutrition with the food of truth, goodness,
beauty, in the Messianic kingdom, where for the gratification of
all the needs of the spirit there is an abundance of all kinds
of objects, -an ample pasture, where all men may feed as
much as they please; in the kingdom of Christ there is every-
thing for the gratification of all spiritual needs.
The thief cometh not,-I am come, etc.: The first allegorical
representation, in which the Lord pictures himself under the
guise of a door leading into the sheepfold, is ended, and the
Lord, continuing in general the same metaphorical discourse,
changes the particular figures of speech, for the clearer enun-
ciation of his thoughts, and represents himself, no longer under
the form of a door, but under that of the true good shepherd,
and the false shepherds under the form of hirelings. The
transition to this change in the particular figures of speech
forms a direct contrast of the Lord, as the true leader of the
people, with the false ones, designated by him under the name
of the thieves. The thief, who climbeth up some other way
into the sheepfold, has selfish aims which, at that, are dis-
astrous to the sheep : he steals, kills, and destroys; even so
the false shepherds and leaders of the people, who are not
sent by Christ, and who do not act in his name, for example,
the Pharisees, are guided by selfish aims alone, and their activity
is connected with the ruin of the sheep: they kill them spirit-
ually, for by their perverse doctrine and activity they abstract


them from the true life in God and Christ, in the communion
with whom alone there is life, -the life of the spirit, ]li .c:.u.
tradistinction with this, the true shepherd Christ gives litfe inm
not death, life with an abundance. The spiritual life ii .ci:, -
munion with Christ in his kingdom is meant, as in nu.!nini,:
other parallel passages, where life is promised to the meml.ei r of
the kingdom of Christ.
More abundantly: The figure of speech is taken from tihe
abundance of the pasture, which contains more than is nes::.sary
for the gratification of the needs of nutrition. The thought ii
the same as that expressed in the words, From his fulnes_ lI ,-i
we received grace, that is, a superabundant gratification in the
kingdom of Christ of all the true needs of the human spirit.

Reuss (Vol. VI., pp. 234 and 235):

Les Pharisiens n'ayant pas compris ou n'ayant pas voul'i .:,:.m-
prendre, Jesus reprend et son allegorie et sa pol6mique. F.:.: re-
une fois il se nomme la porte, mais cette fois-ci, il l'est '.oir I-
troupeau lui-meme. Heureuses les brebis qui savent trfT.rer
cette porte pour se mettre en sfiret4 dans le bercail, qui chip'p
pent ainsi anx voleurs r6dant au dehors! Voilk en deux ns.:.ti eI
sens de ce petit tableau, don't nous nous garderons bien I';:,lu-
cher tons les 6elments. Si nous insistions par example sur ',- qo.Ie
le bercail doit Etre le royaume de Dieu, comment explique, ,.:n-
nous que les brebis en sortiront pour trouver leur pil .I'e?
Evidemment le mot sortir n'est la que pour les besoins de 1'n ig.e.
le paturage n'6tant pas dans le bercail. Par la meme raisoi. n ILI3
disons sauf, et non sauve, parce qu'il est encore question d':ali-
maux qui s'abritent (voyez le verset suivant). Si l'auteur a
mis quelqu'un, il, etc., c'est qu'il a m e16 a l'image une interpr6-
tation pratique parfaitement just, mais qui brouille un ie.- 1.i
couleurs du tableau. Mais il va sans dire que la patur. -iuw-i
a son sens spiritual trbs-facile a trouver.
La phrase relative aux voleurs a derout6 les thbolo.gl-Is.
On s'en est effrayb, come si l'auteur avait voulu fair due
J Jesus que tous les conducteurs ant4rieurs du people d'l:raIl,
les prophetes compris, avaient ete de faux bergers. Les Gn.s;-
tiques en ont profit pour justifier leur rejet de l'Ancien T:.t:a-
ment. Les copistes intimid6s ont raye ces deux mots : avowi r.i.
come si cela changeait le sens. Le fait est que le troupe-.i et
la g6enration contemporaine (v. 16), par consequent les role-rs
sont ceux qui, s cette 4poque-lk, avaient pr4tendu s'emparc r ~.1 Ii
direction spirituelle de la nation juive et contre les att.aqi:-s


desquels J4sus 4tait venu ouvrir aux siens (Chap. vi. 45) la porte
de refuge, en les recevant dans son sein ou dans ses bras. Comme
il fait ici allusion t un fait, le noyau de son troupeau 6tant ddjh
form, il pouvait dire: les brebis ne les ont pas 6cout6s. Par
cette tournure, le discours quite le terrain de la theorie ou de
l'id4al et s'engage pour un moment dans celui de l'histoire.
(Nous avons fait voir dans 1'Introduction, p. 82, que 1'expression
du v. 8 d6passe le but prochain auquel nous nous sommes arret6

I refer shall be saved and shall go in and out, and find
pasture to the sheep, for without this the whole meaning
of the comparison is lost, and the significance of door is
spoiled. I understand it like this: Jesus Christ compares
himself as a living man with a shepherd. But, besides
this, he compares himself, his divine consciousness, with
a door. And so he goes on and says, A thief comes only
to steal, kill, and destroy. I came by the door, that men
might have life, and might have it abundantly. And
giving up the comparison of himself with the shepherd,
he says:

11. 'Ey6 elpt 6 rot-
pJv 6 KaX6s. 6 rTOtvP 6
KaXbs 7rV PvXhV aebroO
Ti6~rt)av birrp rTv Trpofid-
12. '0 p lOrwbs 8r ,
Kal o0SK &P rTOLAV, oS
OVK ete r7& rp6gara fSta,
OewpeZ Tbv d6Kov IpXee--
vov, exal &pLrOT 7 r 7rp6-
pfara, Kait (~eyE Kai 6
XdKOS aaprdae a r&, Kai
O'Kopirtl"( Tr& rp6ar7a.
13. '0 UU ptulwrbs
eduyet, Srt peeLOwr6s
rITT, Kai o P AEL adrlT
rept rTv rrpoedrTv.
14. 'Eycd dp/i 6 rot-
.tv 6 KaXb6s Kat 7Vyt,-
JKI Td& jlI, Kai ytvaxKO--
lat birb Tr(V u(Bv,

John x. 11. I am the
good shepherd:a the
good shepherd giveth
is life for the sheep.

12. But he that is a
hireling, and not the
shepherd, whose own
the sheep are not, seeth
the wolf coming, and
leaveth the sheep, and
fleet; and the wolf
catcheth them, and
scattereth the sheep.

13. The hireling fleet,
because he is a hireling,
and careth not for the

11. I am the good
shepherd: the good
shepherd gives his life
for the sheep.

12. A hireling is not a
shepherd: the sheep are
not his own; he sees the
wolf coming, and leaves
the sheep, and runs
away; and the wolf
catches and scatters the

13. The hireling flees,
because he is a hireling,
and does not care for
the sheep.

14. I am the good 14. I am the good
shepherd, and know my shepherd: I know my
sheep, and am known of sheep, and they know
mine. me.


15. Ka0,bs yrieib L
pe 65 rarjp, K .yi yitLW-
OKW 76bV irTrpa' Kal
rTv %pvXf' Iov rlO-1/I
bTrtp -rGv rpofdTwv.
16. Kal dXXa irpS-
faTa yXw, a OiK ('rT6L
dK Ts7 avXfjs rakTa7'
KdKviivd ie 5e? dyay- cv,
Kai TjsE gWi rs j ov deKO6-
fouver Ka2 yvjiecreTal fla
roiv1i, esr rotMeiL .
17. Aid T~o~o 6 ra-
rTp Ie dYwIar, 7Sri yib
rijp1i Tr Pv bvvv pWov,
va irdXiv Xd ~w ar rv.
18. O ~c s afpti am-
TrV d7r' Ipo, dXX &y C
ri6p7u abrTjv dir' 4Iav-
TO7. I(ovla.v tXw et?-
Pai arivP, KatI eovUIaiv
XOw rdXiv Xafplv aOdA'v.
Ta6rv rv TV vroXpV tXa-
Blo irap&h oTO rarp6s ptov.

15. As the Father
knoweth me, even so
know I the Father: and
I lay down my life for
the sheep.

16. And other sheep 1
have, which are not of
this fold: them also I
must bring, and they
shall hear my voice; and
there shall be one fold,
and one shepherd.

17. Therefore doth my
Father love me, because
1 lay down my life, that
I might take it again.
18. No man taketh it
from me, but I lay it
down of myself. I have
power to lay it down,
and I have power to
take it again. This com-
mandments have I re-
ceived of my Father.

15. As the Faih.r
knows me, even 8s' I
know the Father .and
1 lay down my life for
the sheep.

16. And I have oiter
sheep, which are not .f
this fold: I must Il.ca
them out, and they III
hear my voice; -rn.l
there will be one 1--il.
and one shepherd.

17. Therefore my
Father loves me, i e
cause 1 lay down my
life that I may receive
it again.
18. No man takes it
from me, but I lay it
down of my own will,
and 1 can receive it.
This commandment I
received from my Fa-

(a) The good shepherd, as the master himself, or the
son of the master.
(b) The commandment of the Father to give the carnal
life for the life in God.

This parable of the sheep and the shepherd, which
presented itself to Jesus Christ before, when the people
appeared to him like sheep scattered without a shepherd,
is now explained by Jesus Christ from three sides:
(1) He says that lie said before more than once that
there are many roads, but only one entrance. He says
that one door leads into the sheepfold, and one exit leads
from the sheepfold into the pasture, that is, out to feed, -
to live. And so there is only one way out for men, the
comprehension of life, that which it teaches. Every teach-
ing which is not based on the comprehension of life is
false, and all men know this, as the sheep know when a
thief climbs over the enclosure.


(2) He says that he entered by this door, and he calls
men to follow him through this door, in order to receive
life. And as the sheep follow the shepherd who comes
in by the door and calls them with a familiar voice, so
men follow him, and not only those to whom he is speak-
ing now, but all men, so that, as when all the sheep are
brought together into one fold one shepherd leads them,
his teaching will unite all men.
(3) He says, Not only do the sheep in the sheepfold
recognize the true shepherd and tell him from a thief, but
also in the field, in the pasture, is the true shepherd easily
told from the hireling. Here Jesus Christ compares
the hireling with the master's son who is herding his
father's flock. The hireling flees from the wolf: he
does not care for the sheep; but the master's son does
not spare himself for the sake of the sheep, for they are
his father's. He does not leave them, for they are his,
and he is their shepherd and master. Even so the
teaching of Moses was false, for from his law there
followed thieving, plundering, and advantages for those
who preached, while according to Jesus' teaching there
is no thieving, no plundering, and not only no advantage
to him who preaches, but, on the contrary, his whole
teaching consists in giving one's life for others, in order
to receive the true life. In this consists the command-
ment of the Father, which he preaches to men.
24. 'EKiK.XwOav o0v Johnx. 24. Then came 24. Then the Jews sur-
aTrb6 o "'IovaibO KaG the Jews round about rounded him, and said
him, and said unto him, to him, How long wilt
Aey7ov arry, Ews r6re How long dost thou thou torment us? If
7rv P'vXhPv l.pv atpe s; make us to doubt? If thou art Christ, tell us
el tb el 6 Xperba ebr1 thou be the Christ, tell so.
o6c 7raAAXprba. rus plainly.-
i/lxuv rabPpata.
25. 'AireKpl87 aOeTZO 25. Jesus answered 25. Jesus answered
S'Ivt o rs, EK'ov T them, I told you, and ye them, I have told you
S, E i, believed not: the works already, but you do not
Kal o 6 ireaCre. rt that I do in my Father's believe. The way I live
pya & 67'& eroet ev name, they bear witness accordingtomyFather's
r dv6paart 70r rarp6s of me. teaching shows you who
pov, raOra papTrvpeLl
repi Jpo*-


26. 'AXX' 6eps o6
irteruerTe o06 ydp d dK TotV pofierZ T TVr
d^AOVY, KaO(s CiroV tIqv,
27. T& irp6iara r&

ei, Kd'ytij (fV,(btKW at'rd,
Kai dxKOiov6o Io It,
28. Kdfyi j Pwh alo'-
nwov 8Iwpjt ad&roTi? Kal
o6d 1 dr6Xwvrrat els rbp
alOYa, Kai o6X &aprdo-et
TiS adr&A 4K T2S xCw6S
29. '0 rarnip pou, 6s
sdwKd {pot, JLdLV mdYv-
Trv duTTl Kai ObSets vi-
varaTi pridetCv Ix TiS
xeipbs r70 Trarp6s iov.
30. Eyd, Kal 6 raTip
I9 g-Afp.

26. But ye believe not,
because ye are not of
my sheep, as I said unto

26. But you do not he-
lieve, because you .ar
not of my sheep, a, [
told you.

27. My sheep hear my 27. My sheep know imy
voice, and I know them, voice, and I r-:C...cr.:.
and they follow me: them, and in..) 1.:.n...'

28. And I give unto
them eternal life; and
they shall never perish,
neither shall any man
pluck them out of my

29. My Father, which
gave them me, is greater
than all; and no man is
able to pluck them out
of my Father's baud.

28. And I give th,:i
non-temporal life; anu
they will never perish,
and no one will take
them from me.

20. My Father, who
entrusted them to me
is greater than all, and
no one can take them
from my Father.

30. I and my Father 30. I and my Father
are one. are one.

(a) Verses 22 and 23, which speak of a feast in the
winter, which took place two months later, introduce a
useless detail, the more so since the discourse on this
occasion is a continuation of what was said before.

The Jews implore Jesus to reveal to them whether he
is Christ. Apparently they suffer as much as many have
suffered since, doubting that Christ is the second person
of the Trinity and at the same time fearing to deny what
millions believe and confess as a truth of religion, without
which it is impossible to be saved and to recognize the lie
as a truth. They implore Jesus to take the burden from
their souls, to lead them out of their agonizing doubt.
And what does he answer them ? He continues the say-
ing about the sheep, and says that he and the Father are
one; but he does not answer their question one way or
another,-he does not solve their agonizing doubt, nor
the doubt of us billions of people who have lived since
his time. If he was God, how could an almighty, omnis-
cient, all-good God help knowing all the sufferings which


would befall those Jews and us and the billions of people
who have been tormented by doubt and have been de-
prived of salvation. He could not have helped pitying
them and us. All he had to say was, Yes, I am God,
and the Jews and we would have been blessed.
But he did not have to be God, if he was only a
saintly man; and he did not have to be even a saintly
man. Even if he had been an evil deceiver, he, knowing
all the abyss of evil which would result from this doubt,
could not have helped saying, Yes, or No: Yes, I am
Christ, the Messiah; No, I am not the Messiah. But he
said neither of these things. And all the evangelists
made a note of it, yes, made a note of this cruelty of his,
if he were a God, as the church understands him to be;
of this begging of the question, if he was a man, as the
historians understand it. He said neither the one, nor
the other, but only repeated more clearly and more
strongly what he had said before.
In explaining who he was, what he was, in the name
of whom he was teaching, and in what sense he was
Christ, he said, I and the Father are one. He answered
everything he could; he could not have answered other-
wise, for he acknowledged himself to be Christ, the
chosen one of God, but not in the sense in which
the Jews understood the word Christ, Messiah. If he
had told them that he was Christ, they would have
understood him to be a prophet, a king, but in no way
would they have understood what he professed himself to
be, a man who had exalted in himself the comprehen-
sion of life, in order to sanctify this comprehension in
everybody else. If he had told them that he was not
Christ, they would have been deprived of the only good
which he was preaching to men, and that would have
been an untruth, for he felt himself to be Christ, the
chosen one of God. He had told them before that
he had come from the Father who had sent him; that he


only did the will of this Father; that he was only a
shepherd who showed the door to the sheep; that he
gave eternal life to those who believed him; that
the Father of men, God, led them to him, and that he
and the Father were one, that is, that he was the com-

31. 'EjdOrTao-av ovy
TrdXv XlMov ol 'IovBaiot,
rva M0tdawuv abr6v.
32. 'ATceKp[7] aurois
6 'Iyroos, HoXX& KraX
:pya -e65&a b6Zv 1K To0
rarp6s lov" 5it voiov
ad6re v cpyov XcOderT Ape;
33. 'AreKplOWcaav at-
Tri ol 'Iou6aFo Xdyoores,
ICepZ KaXoD ipyov o6
Xiodroepv ere, dXX& repi
pfXacOrjaS, Ka 6TrL ob
&vOpworos 3v rotsis acau-
r+v ee6v.
34. 'Ar cKp[Oi alrTis
6 'IlovoOs, OUK (rTTL ye-
7paglqIvov Iv rT vibp i
i)pAv, "''Ey eTra, 0eoi

35. El dKelvovU er e
0cobs, rpbs oNs 6 X6yos
ro70 0eo0 yIetro, (Kat
o6 6UvaraT X\vvOa ry
36. "Ov 6 rarlPp "fyla-
Te Kal drirlTTUXt v eIs Tr
K6opjYo, Opeis Xe7yC6,
"Or 07 PXaopes, n 87
dirov, 'Y1s roD70 eo

37. El ou 7rot rd
epya ro70 arp6s pou, til
7rWrsrfeuT /AO1'
38. El U1 ro(S, KOV
Ipo l uO ierae6n7e, ro70
Ipyots rTTcreclTare' fVa
yvrTe Kxal 7rtrcrelere,
nt7L Iv Cpol 6 rariJp,
Kd67i iv aTmiT.

John x. 31. Then the 31. Then the Jews took
Jews took up stones up stones again to stone
again to stone him, him.

32. Jesus answered
them, Many good works
have I shewed you from
my Father; for which of
those works do ye stone
33. The Jews answered
him, saying, For a good
work we stone thee not,
but for blasphemy; and
because that thou, being
a man, makest thyself

34. Jesus answered
them, Is it not written
in your law, I said, Ye
are gods?

35. If he called them
gods, unto whom the
word of God came, and
the Scripture cannot be

36. Say ye of him,
whom the Father hath
sanctified," and sent in-
to the world, Thou blas-
phemest; because Isaid,
I am the Son of God?

32. Jesus said to them,
I have showed you many
good works of my
Father; for which of
those works do you want
to stone me?
33. And the Jews re-
plied to him, We will
not stone thee for a
good work, but for
blasphemy, because be-
ing a man, thou makest
thyself a God.

34. And Jesus an-
swered them, Is it not
written in your law, I,
God, said, You are gods?

35. If he called those
gods, to whom he spoke,
and the Scripture can-
not be broken;

36. How, then, do you
say to me, whom God
has loved and sent into
the world, that I blas-
pheme, because I said
that I was the son of

37. If I do not the 37. If I do not do as
works of my Father, be- my Father, do not be-
lieve me not. lieve me.

38. But if I do, though
ye believe not me, be-
lieve the works; that ye
may know, and believe,
that the Father is in me,
and I in him.

38. But if I do as my
Father, do not believe
me; believe the work,
then you will under-
stand that the Father is
in me, and I am in him.


(a) Many texts have 6 TraTrsp 75'la-e, the same thought
which is given in the discourse with Nicodemus (iii. 16),
where obviously the words refer to the spirit of God,
which is to be found in every man.

Jesus says that he is Christ in this sense, that he has
within him the comprehension of the one God, whom we
know, and so he and God are one.
The Jews want to kill him. He says, Has the com-
prehension produced anything bad ? The works of this
comprehension, the works of the Father, cannot have
been bad, so why stone me? They say, Thou blasphem-
est, calling thyself God. And he says to them, Where is
here the blasphemy ? In your Scripture it says, You are
gods; this is said in Psalm LXXXII., where God reproves
the mighty of the world who do injustice. It says there,
They know not, neither will they understand: they walk
on in darkness. I have said, Ye are gods; and children
of Jehovah the Most High. If unrighteous men and
oppressors are called gods in the Scripture, in which you
believe, why, then, do you say of me, who am doing the
will of God, that I blaspheme when I say that I am
the son of God. If my works are bad, condemn them,
but if the works of God proceed from me, believe that
they are from the Father. Since I do the works of God,
I am in the Father, and the Father is in me.
25. Elrer ar5 6 'In- Johnxi. 25. Jesus said 25. And Jesus said to
coas, 'EEy7 eipt j i"d- unto her,I am theresur- her, My teaching is the
s, reaction, and thp life: he teaching of the awaken-
ara'ct Kal i) PWi. 6 that believeth in me, ing and of life. He who
irtiretdw efls dU, K&P though he were dead, believes in my teaching,
drroSdvt, hceraLr yet shall he live: though he died, will he
26. Kal rr s 6 ptv 26. And whosoever liv- 26. And he who be-
Kal 7rtrrTdiwV el ie~ o eth and believeth in me' lives in my teaching
shall never die. Believ- will not die.
Pi aroOdvy els rbv est thou this?
30. 'Efraovv o0v ,rd- John x. 39. Therefore 39. And the Jews de-
X\V atrbv ritdiat Kat they sought again to liberated again how to
take him; but he es- overthrow him. But he
ttOVer K Tr XephS caped out of their hand, couldn't e vanquished.


40. Kal &rTX8e rd-
XYv srpav r7o 'IopSdvov,
elh rbv rv&rov Stro J
'Iwdvvr rb rprTov flar-
r71WYv Kal ECtv cv dKe-.
41. Kal ,roXXol XSaov
irp6s ar6Y, Kal E'yov,
"OrI 'Iwdiv)is P4 v s-
pEsov tsro017 60 o0lMv"
srirva 8 SI a elrev
'IwdtYYIs rept roerov,
&\dlij jv.
42. Kal irdrrevway
roXXol Idne? es a6r6v.
13. 'EXr9iv 6 'I 1-
crobs ci r& Iepip Kaiaa-
pelas T7s 'Iilsirrov, 5pi-
ra robs La6lrAT& afro0,
Xdywv, Tlva Ee XdyovuCv
ol dvOpwroo clvra, 7rb
vlbv o70 avopirrov;
14. 01 64 derov, 01
ipv 'Iwdivvv Tb6V paTrrt-
acrT-' XXot 5U 'HXla.
Crepoc 6d 'lepeplav, I evai
TrVG rpoq5TprCiV.
15. Ad17e adro^s,
'TYier 5 7riva te Xdecre
clat ;
16. 'Aroicptces 51
Zlpwv IIdrpor irrc, I2
el 6 Xptirbs, 6 vlbs r70
Oco0 700 roviTOs.
68. 'P7ljara rwis
alwvlov Excls
17. Kat d roKpIecs 6
'IiroOs clTrc a,71 Ma-
Kdpios ec, Sit9wv Bap
'Iwvb, 6r7 adpE K a aFta
o6K drIeK ikt Id ao, dXX
6 r-ar4p tov 6 dv rocs
18. K&d- 63 o o X-
yw, S17 a0i el Hdrpos, Kal
drrl -ai6S 7j riTrpg olKo-
0op5Jw poWv r7c dKKeXs-
iiav, Kal ir6Xat jSov o6
KaTlrrXdOUwtV oa&rs.

40. And went away
again beyond Jordan
into the place where
John at first baptized;
and there he abode.

41. And many resorted
unto him, and said, John
did no miracle: but all
things that John spake
of this man were true.

42. And many believed
on him there.
AMatt. zvi. 13. When
Jesus came into the
coasts of Cesarea Phil-
ippi, he asked his disci-
ples, saying, Whom do
men say that I, the Son
of man, am?

14. And they said,
Some say that thou art
John the Baptist; some,
Elias; and others, Jere-
mias, or one of the
15. He saith unto them,
But whom say ye that I

16. And Simon Peter
answered and said, Thou
art the Christ, the Son
of the living God.

John i. 68. Thouhast
the words of eternal life.

Matt.xvi. 17. And Je-
sus answered and said
unto him, Blessed art
thou, Simon Bar-jona:
for flesh and blood hath
not revealed it unto
thee, hut my Father
which is in heaven.

18. And I say also un-
to thee, That thou art
Peter,and upon this rock
I will build my church;
and the gates of hell
shall not prevail against

40. And he went acin
beyond the Jord..a. i.)
the place when Joi.u
the Baptist userl to Ihl'.
tize. Aud he lto'pred
41. And many i:,ok up
his teachili,. iindI ,,
that John rh.b-J I grin n1.
proofs, bur th.i eiery-
thing he L, *-a. of this
man was truo

42. And many I.,-lrred
in his teaching:here
13. And Jesur went
into the villas'; 1fo
Cesarea, into Pi.l.rl-,
and asked his ci-ciplre,
saying, How d.. I-ople
understand thi-, lthi. I
am the son of G: d;'

14. They said. Some
take you to he J.rhr, ti.i
Baptist; some, El.i.h;
others, Jeremiab,or ono
of the prophets

15. And he a id t.)
them, And how d y. u
judge of me?

16. And Simon, named
the Rock, replie.l L.. h 1n,.
Thou art Christ. sne -.n
of the living Gcd

68. Thou hI t the
words of the eternal
17. And Jesus rfr.lied
to them,Happy rit ih...
Simon,son of Jc r.il, f'.r
no mortal has rov% l..d
this to you, but 0-ld my

18. And I tell tLe ltht
thou art a rock. ands n
this rock will I I.uil. 1my
assembly of miin, .it
death will not Overtr.: m
this assembly of men


(a) In many texts the word 4ze', which gives a more
private meaning to this verse, is wanting. 'Eue' is inter-
polated so that the words of the preceding verse may
refer to the resurrection of Lazarus. Without this word
the verse only strengthens the meaning of the first.
(b) Flesh and blood in Hebrew means mortal.
(c) The words of Verse 19, Whatever thou shalt loose
on earth, etc., have evidently been transferred here through
a misunderstanding and for church purposes; they have
here no meaning, nor connection, for the address refers
first to one, and then to all.

Simon understood well what Jesus Christ was saying
of himself, and he gave a correct answer. He said, Thou
art what thou sayest: in thee is the word of life,--thou
art the son of life; thy teaching is life.
And Jesus said to him, Thou art blessed, for thou hast
comprehended, not from me, who am mortal, but from the
spirit of God. Now, since thy foundation is the immor-
tal one, not my words, not my prophecy, but the compre-
hension of God, thou art firm, and on this comprehension
alone will the true union of men be based.

20. T6re 8LecredXaro Matt. xvi. 20. Then 20. Then he explained
r trals. aoD, I ea charged" he his disci- to the disciples that
7ro0?s jwarais abroa, fa ples that they should they should tell no man
~l evl etrwLav Srt ar6Tb tell no man that he was that he was Christ.
i ty 'Ipor 6 Xpaorbs. Jesus the Christ.

(a) S&ao-Te'XX means to divide, distinguish, explain.
On what ground it is translated by to command we can
understand only by considering that the meaning of this
most important verse was lost, as we shall later see.
Jesus said to Peter that he correctly understood him
to be Christ in the sense of the living God, and added,
Thou art right in looking for my rights, not in me, the
mortal Jesus, but in the spirit of God; and he went on
to say that only on such a comprehension could an


assembly of men be founded. Then it says that he
explained to his disciples in what sense he was Christ,
so that they should not again fall into the error of
saying that he, the mortal Jesus out of Nazareth, was
the Christ.
This verse is repeated in all the synoptics with the
change of the word &tao-rXXw, for which we there have
e7rtrLUdwa, that is, commanded, and the meaning is some-
what weakened.
Here is the delirium of the church (Gospel of Matt.,
p. 299):
Then he charged his disciples, etc.: The cause of this charge
could have been, on the one hand, the desire not to kindle the
passions too early in the people, with their false conceptions of
the Messiah ; on the other, not to rouse in the Pharisees and the
rulers, who were ill-disposed toward him, premature and violent
anger, which would subject his life to danger, while his time had
not yet come ; finally also this, that they would not have under-
stood him then, since they had a false conception about him, by
taking him to be, not the Messiah himself, but his forerunner.
Time was needed for his teaching and for the activity of his
person to clear up everything for those who could comprehend.
Why did he charge them not to tell? In order that, after the
removal of the tempters, after the accomplishment of the exploit
on the cross, and after the cessation of all his sufferings, when
there would not be any one to interfere with the belief of men in
him and to harm them, the correct conception of him should be
clearly and firmly impressed on the minds of those who heard
him. So long as his mightiness was not yet made very mani-
fest, he wanted the apostles to begin to preach only when the
obvious truth of the preacher and the force of the events would
confirm their words. For it was one thing to see him do
miracles in Palestine and to be subject to insults and persecu-
tions, especially when after the miracles the cross was to follow;
and another thing to see the whole universe bow to him and
believe in him, when he no longer had to bear those sufferings
through which he had passed. And so he charged them not to
tell any man.
If those who had seen many miracles and had heard so many
unuttered secrets were sorely tried at the very rumour about his
sufferings, and among them not only all the other apostles, but


the chief of them, Peter, you can imagine to what trial the
people would have been subjected, if they had known that Jesus
Christ was the son of God, and then had seen him crucified and
spat upon, while they did not yet comprehend what was con-
cealed in these mysteries, had not yet received the holy spirit I
And so he justly charged them not to tell the people before the
crucifixion, since before the crucifixion he was afraid to tell it
even to those who were to be the teachers.

Here is Reuss's view (Vol. I., pp. 395 and 396):

La reponse de Simon, diversement formul6e dans les trois
textes, mais revenant partout au meme sens, est la preuve que
nmme sans la declaration positive de Jesus, il s'6tait form dans
l'esprit des disciples, spectateurs journaliers des miracles de leur
maitre et auditeurs permanents de son enseignement, la convic-
tion arretee qu'il 6tait le Christ, 1'Oint de Dieu, le Messie promise,
le fils de Dieu, formulas partout identiques pour le sens et qui ne
disent rien sur la nature de la personnel, mais qui experiment la
notion de la dignity de 1'envoy6. Tu es celui que les prophhtes
ont annonc6, que le people attend, qui doit fonder le royaume de
Dieu et restaurer Israel." La spirituality relative de la notion
n'est pas d6terminee par cette declaration et nous allons en voir
la preuve.
Tous les trois narrateurs ajoutent que Jesus interdit aux dis-
ciples de parler de cette conviction & d'autres personnel. Pour-
quoi cela ? Il n'y a qu'uue seule r6ponse a donner a cette ques-
tion : c'est que la notion qu'ils avaient du Christ n'6tait pas
encore celle que Jesus voulait leur faire adopter et qu'il voulait
faire pr6valoir dans le monde. Leur education apostolique
n'6tait pas termin6e. Ils auraient r6pandu on corrobor6 des
erreurs en combinant, avec leur attachment h sa personnel, les
esperances populaires qu'ils partageaient.

This is terrible Jesus in every imaginable way makes
statements about his being a man, like everybody else,
and all men being like himself; at the same time he
preaches the teaching about the spirit and the filial rela-
tion to the living God, a teaching which cannot be ex-
pressed in any other way than by the words of Jesus.
He preaches this doctrine, and all understand it topsy-
turvy, saying that he makes himself out a God. He


labours hard, and says, I am not God, but all of you are
gods; I am a man, I am saved by God who is within me;
this God in every man is the only Christ; there will
never be any other. And no one wants to understand
him. Some cry, He is the son of David; and recognize
him only as God, and worship him; others recognize him
only as man and want to crucify him for calling himself
God. Finally his disciple, Simon Peter, understands him,
and he explains to his disciples that he is not to be
regarded as Jesus Christ.
This same phrase is copied with a slight change, and it
turns out that he charges them for some reason not to tell
that he is Jesus Christ.
They do not hear with their ears, and do not see with
their eyes.
After transferring the parable of the man born blind to
the end of the chapter, there follows the so-called resur-
rection of Lazarus.
This is what the church has to say (pp. 391 and 398);
lie groaned in the spirit and was troubled: The Greek word
which is translated by groaned includes the idea of provocation,
anger, and disgust, caused by the provoking act, and the word
which is rendered by troubled includes the idea of agitation, con-
vulsion: consequently the whole expression could more correctly
be translated by was agitated and convulsed.
What was it that at that moment so agitated the Lord's soul?
A little later, when the Jews, who were present, clearly expressed
their hostile relation to him, he was again agitated, which gives
us reason for supposing that the Lord was at that moment
agitated from the same cause, that is, on account of the Jews,
on account of their conduct at that time. The evangelist says
that the Lord was troubled when he saw Mary weeping and the
Jews, who came with her, weeping, that is, when he saw, on
the one hand, the sincere tears of the deeply mourning sister
of the deceased man, and on the other, side by side with her, the
weeping of these men (or of some of them), whose tears, it
seems, were as sincere as the tears of Mary, but who harboured
a hostile feeling toward him, the beloved friend of the grieving
sisters. The Lord was profoundly troubled by the crocodile tears


of his enemies. Besides, the Lord saw that this enmity toward
him would lead to death, and the organs of this hostility
toward him were there, in the presence of the greatest miracle,
which was soon to take place. This miracle would be the
greatest token and proof of his Messianic worth, and ought to
wipe out the hatred; but instead of this, he knew it would serve
as a decisive cause for sentencing him to death.
The greatest miracle will be made by Satan the signal for the
fatal capital punishment, and a few of the organs of this dark
force are present, weeping crocodile tears. The Lord groaned in
the spirit. This groaning was so great that it produced an exter-
nal bodily agitation; according to the meaning of the Greek
word, this agitation was not entirely involuntary, but expressed
a certain effort of the Lord himself to subdue this spiritual
Many believed on him, but some went their ways to the Pharisees,
etc.: Again a usual division of the Jews, to which John generally
points; this division is now deeper than it was before. Those
who were less blinded, who were struck by the grandeur of the
unquestionable miracle which was wrought in their presence,
believed on the miracle-worker, as the Messiah; but those
who were more blinded became, so to speak, completely blind
and grew furious in their unbelief. They went to the Lord's
worst enemies, to the Pharisees, and told them what Jesus had
said to them. Judging from the fact that the council of the
Sanhedrim was called immediately after their denunciation was
in, and that it was decided there to kill the Lord, we must
assume beyond a doubt that their report was evil, with a mali-
cious purpose. They, no doubt, denounced him to the Pharisees
with the intention of maligning him, as though he had done
some unlawful thing, when he had ordered the dead man to be
disinterred. How remarkable such malicious unbelief and blind-
ness are in view of the greatest unquestionable miracle 1 The
evangelist himself marvels at such unbqlief and blindness. No
doubt they misinterpreted even this miracle, as they misinter-
preted other miracles, either by saying that he wrought them
with the aid of an unholy agency, or suspecting some trickery,
and so forth. What limits will be reached by the blindness of
man, whose heart is filled with malice, envy, and prejudices I

This is what Reuss says (Vol. VI., pp. 250 and 251):

La priere prononc~e par Jesus ne pr6sente rien qui puisse
m4riter les reproches qu'on lui a faits quelquefois de nos jours,


dBs qu'on s'en tient au texte qui declare que c'6tait une pribre
d'action de graces. Jesus n'a pas demanded en ce moment le
pouvoir exceptionnel de ressusciter un mort; tonjours uni a son
pare, il ne peut pas etre question entire eux d'une d6elgation de
faveur pour une circonstance special. S'il a parle & haute voix,
c'est pour bien convaincre le monde que son pouvoir vient de
Dieu, et que ses ouvres sont accomplies a la gloire de Dieu
(Chap. v. 36 suiv.; xvii. 4, etc.). S'il remercie Dieu d'avance,
c'est une preuve d'autant plus irrefragable qu'il n'est pas un
thaumaturge d'occasion, mais le d6positaire des forces divines,
d'une manikre permanent (Chap. i. 52).- On remarquera encore
qu'il rappelle a Marthe (v. 40) qu'il lui avait pr6dit qu'elle verrait
la gloire de Dieu, si elle avait la foi. Or, cette phrase est com-
posse d'6lements des versets 4, 23 et 26, et prouve encore que la
redaction est faite pour le lecteur du livre, et non inspire par les
preoccupations d'une exactitude diplomatique. Pr6tendre que
Jesus avait fait dire a Marthe, par quelque niessager, ce que nous
lisons au v. 4, c'est retomber dans l'orniere du rationalisme vul-
gaire, qui s'obstine a ne voir partout dans cet 4vangile qu'une
narration a fleur de terre.
Quant au fond de l'histoire, et au fait mnme de la resurrection
de Lazare, il faut reconnaitre que tous les essais d'dcarter le
miracle sont arbitraires, et reviennent en fin de compete nier
purement et simplement la cr6dibilit6 de 1'auteur. Aucune
explication, de toutes celles qu'on a proposes, ne porte en elle-
mame un caracthre de vraisemblance et de simplicity tel qu'on
serait tent6 de la substituer sans plus ni moins a la forme tradi-
tionnelle du r6cit. L'argument negatif le plus grave est tire du
silence des Synoptiques; mais il peut atre neutralism par la con-
siddration des nombreuses lacunes que pr6sentent leurs recits,
pris individuellement. La tradition ayant conserve le souvenir
de plusieurs faits analogues (Hist. dv., sect. 31, 37), la presence
de celui-ci ne compromet pas plus particulibrement l'autorite de
notre auteur. Cependant il convient de faire remarquer ici,
qu'apres le rationalisme l'orthodoxie a 6prouvd, son tour, le
besoin d'amoindrir le miracle. Si elle ne parle plus d'une simple
16thargie, elle pretend cependant que l'assertion de Marthe, au
v. 39, repose sur une pr6somption erron6e. Elle aussi ne peut se
decider a admettre le retour de la vie dans tn corps don't la de-
composition aurait commence d'une inanisre sensible. La ques-
tion physiologique n'est pas de notre competence, mais nous
soutenons qu'elle n'a pas arrat6 le narrateur. II ne fait pas dire
a J6sus que Marthe se trompe, mais il oppose directpment la
gloire de Dieu la desolation ddsesp6ree de I'homme, la rdalit6


de la vie nouvelle a 1'absolue destruction de la vie premiere. En
meconnaissant ce fait, non seulement on marchande le miracle
en lui-meme, mais on efface aussi ce qu'il est destiny a mettre en
relief, dans 'econonie de cet ouvrage, savoir, ]'antithese radical
entire la vie physique et la vie spirituelle. A ce point de vue,
nous osons affirmer que l'odeur cadavereuse 6mande du tombeau,
meme avant la levee de la pierre, est un trait essential dans le

Reuss's point of view is the so-called scientific one.
Though the absurdity of the miracles is very clear, we
have been brought to such a point by the obfuscation of
a thousand years, wrought upon us by the church, that
we are not at once struck by such absurdities, and so I do
not consider it superfluous to explain how I now under-
stand such stories of miracles.
Lazarus, of whose life nothing is said, is dead. Jesus
arrives. Lazarus is in the grave, stinking. Jesus says
certain words, and the dead man rises. This is to prove
the truth of this, that Jesus was the son of God, God
himself, and that he came to save us and to give us the
teaching of truth.

First of all, what is meant by raising the dead? If
a man is dead and smells, that means that his whole
body has begun to decompose, and the life of the flesh
has come to an end. The man has again come back to
life: what does this mean ? Either that the man was not
dead, that is, has not accomplished the process of death;
or that something took place which destroys the concept
of life and death, that for me there does no longer exist
the difference between death and life. In either case
there is nothing remarkable. If he did not die, nothing
is to be said; but if my conceptions of death and of the
carnal life are incorrect, there is again no cause for
But let us say that we shall forget this reflection,
and shall say that the resurrection is a manifestation of


the mightiness of God. If so, we not only think of his
mightiness, but involuntarily also of his wisdom, and
ask ourselves, Why did he raise Lazarus, and not John or
Peter? And why did he raise Lazarus, since he could
have made wings or two heads grow out of him ? And
we are obliged to confess that in this action of God his
wisdom was not expressed with his mightiness.
It says that Jesus raised Lazarus, because he pitied his
sisters: this is something undivine. But suppose we
shall forget that, too. God's mightiness was manifested
in order to prove his truth. Even if we suppose this to
be so, we cannot help asking what the connection is be-
tween the truth of God and the resurrection of Lazarus.
I am in doubt whether the coin which is given to me is
genuine gold. I am shown that this coin has the
property, say, of emitting sounds. Yes; very well, he
raised Lazarus, and the coin emits sounds, but how does
this prove to me that Jesus is God, and that the coin is
of gold ? There is no causal connection between them.
But let us assume that we shall forget even this, and that
we admit that the miracles assure us of the truth of the
divinity. Very well, Jesus proved his divinity by raising
a dead man. Even if he did so, this is a poor proof of his
divinity, because the magicians did the same, and the
spiritualists materialized Katie King. The apostles raised
from the dead, and so did relics. If God wanted at all
to prove his mightiness by some extraordinary act, he
would have chosen something unusual, something which
men could not imitate him in: he would have done
something more marvellous, say, he would have made a
square star. But let us forget this too, and let us sup-
pose that God forgot that men would do such miracles,
or would say that they did them, and let us admit that
this miracle is one and unrepeated. To prove his truth
to men, God raised Lazarus from the dead. Very well,
he raised him to prove his own truth.


I am a man, so what use is there after eighteen hundred
years of proving to me that eighteen hundred years ago God
in the presence of a dozen people raised a man. I should
have been glad to believe it, if I had seen it; but I did
not see it. It would have been an easy matter for God to
have raised a man and let him live until now; or to have
caused a tree to grow on the leaves, with the roots in the
air; or to make a star as long as a stick, standing all the
time in one spot, and then there would be no doubt. But
as it is, I have not seen anything. I see such tricks per-
formed by magicians and spiritualists, and this, too, not
eighteen hundred years ago, but now, in our day, and they
write in books about them, and adduce witnesses. Why,
then, should I believe that more? And so there is noth-
ing to lay hands on, and it turns out in every way that
God has disgraced himself, that he undertook to prove
his truth, without proving it. More than that: by his
very method of bad proofs he has acknowledged that he
has no good proofs, that his coin is not genuine, and that
a spurious coin is being foisted upon me.
Reuss's point of view, the so-called scientific one, as
was said before, is not even a point of view, but un faux
fuyant, a begging of the question. I have no need of
knowing what the author had in mind, when he wrote it;
what I want to know is what I am to think of it, and
this Reuss does not say. If the author actually thought
that Jesus raised Lazarus from the dead, and thus proved
his divinity, I cannot help observing that the author
knows nothing of the teaching of Christ. And yet I
draw from that very book the true meaning of Christ's
teaching, and even in this passage do I find the words
of Verse 25, which directly contradict the story of the
material resurrection of the dead man, He that believeth
in me, though he were dead, yet shall he live,-which
means that, as is said in the whole teaching, the true life
is not in time, and does not depend on the will of man;


from the story, however, it turns out that the resurrection
of Lazarus took place at the will of Jesus: if he had not
come and had not been told of it, as he has not been
informed of millions who died believing in him, Lazarus
would not have been raised. This inner contradiction
has to be explained; but the quasi-scientific tone about
what a putative author thought can be of no interest
to any one. So also it is impossible to accept the whole
chapter about the raising of Lazarus, if one understands
and believes in the resurrection of Jesus. This and sim-
ilar chapters could have been accepted only by church
people, who never understood the teaching of Christ. But
for all others, who are seeking the teaching, there cannot
even be a question as to what the story of the resurrec-
tion means: it means nothing, just like all the other
miracles. It has to be cleaned out and rejected, and all
there will be left will be the words of Verses 25 and 26:

25. Jesus said unto her, I am the resurrection, and the life:
he that believeth in me, though he were dead, yet shall he live:
26. And whosoever liveth and believeth in me shall never die.
Believest thou this?

To receive the true life one must give up the carnal
life. The carnal life is the food for the true life. The
teaching of Jesus consists in giving up the carnal life for
the true life.
The Pharisees and learned men began to ask Jesus,
Thou sayest that it is necessary to give up the carnal life
and all its pleasures in order to receive the true life, but
how dost thou prove this ?
And Jesus groaned from pity for these men. Their
asking for proofs showed him that they did not under-
stand him. And he said, Men want proofs, and proofs
cannot be given to them.


And he said to them, What carnal proofs do you want
for a non-carnal life ? Have you no proofs for everything
which you know? Looking at the beautiful evening
glow you assume that next day there will be fair weather,
and when it looks gloomy in the morning, you assume
that it will rain. You have no proofs, but you judge of
this from the appearance of the sky, and you are able
to draw your conclusions. Why, then, do you not draw
the same correct conclusions in regard to yourselves ? If
you judged just as correctly about yourselves as you do
about the signs of the weather, you would know that just
as certainly as the west wind brings rain, death follows
after the temporal life.
And so there is no other proof, and there can be none,
for the proof of my teaching, except the teaching itself.
There can be no proofs of the comprehension.
The southern queen went to see Solomon, not to ask
for proofs, but to listen to his wisdom. The Ninevites
did not ask Jonah for proofs, but listened to his teaching,
and were converted; even so you must do, and must not
ask for any proofs.
After this the Jews tried to sentence Jesus to death,
and Jesus went into Galilee, and there lived with his
There came the Jewish feast of the tabernacles.
The brothers of Jesus got ready to go to the feast, and
asked Jesus to go with them. They did not believe in
his teaching, and said to him, Thou sayest that the
Jewish way of serving God is not right, and that thou
knowest the right way of serving him with deeds. If
thou truly believes that none but thee know the true
service of God, go with us to the feast, for a large multi-
tude will be there. There thou canst announce in the
presence of the whole people that the teaching of Moses
is false. If all of them will believe thee, all thy disciples
will see that thou art right. What is the sense in con-


cealing thyself? Thou sayest that our sorvi:e is wrung,
that thou knowest the true way )i s.ri, G;il.:, ho show
it to all.
And Jesus said to them, For you th.re is a S.:ecial tiine
and place for serving God; but I han'.- :nii such s-l.e;:i'l
time and place. I always and eve-rrywher, work for Go:d.
It is this that I show people: I show them that their
service of God is false, and for this they hate me. Go
yourselves to the feast, and I will go whenever I wish.
And the brothers went away, but he remained at
home; later he went to the feast when it was half over.
The Jews were troubled, because he did not honour
their holiday and did not come. And they disputed a
great deal about his teaching: some said that he was
telling the truth; and others said that he only agitated
the people.
In the middle of the holiday Jesus entered the temple
and began to teach the people, saying that their worship
was false, and that God must be worshipped not in
the temple and with sacrifices, but in the spirit and
with works. All listened to him and marvelled at his
And Jesus, hearing that they marvelled at his wisdom,
said to them, My wisdom consists in this, that I teach
what I know from my Father. My teaching consists in
doing the will of the spirit, which gives me life. He
who does this will know that it is the truth, for he will
not do what seems good to him, but what seems good to
the spirit which lives within him. Your law of Moses
is not the eternal law, and so those who follow it do
not execute the eternal law, and do wrong and what
is untrue. I teach you to do the one will, and in my
teaching there can be no contradiction, but your written
law of Moses is all filled with contradictions. I give you
a teaching, with which man stands higher than all decrees
and finds the law within himself.


And many said, They have said that he is a false
prophet, and he has been condemning the law, and yet
no one says anything to him. Maybe he is indeed real,
and maybe the rulers have acknowledged him. There is
one thing, however, which does not fit: it is said that
when he who is sent by God shall come, no one will
know whence he comes, but we know whence he comes,
and we know his whole family.
The people did not understand his teaching, and kept
looking for external proofs.
Then Jesus said to them, You know whence I come in
a carnal way, but you do not know whence I come in the
spirit. You do not know him from whom I come in
the spirit, and it is only him that you ought to know.
If I said that I am Christ, you would believe me as a
man, but you would not believe God who is in me and in
you. You must believe in the one God. I am here
among you for a brief space of time: I show you the
way of salvation, the return to that source of life from
which I came. And you ask me for proofs and want to
condemn me. If you do not know the way, you will
certainly not find me when I am gone. You must not
condemn me, but follow me. He who will do what I
say will find out whether what I say is true or not. He
for whom the life of the flesh has not become the food of
the spirit, who does not seek the truth, as the thirsty
person seeks water, cannot understand me. But he who
thirsts for water may follow me and drink. And he
who will believe in my teaching will receive the true
life. He will receive the life of the spirit.
And many believed in his teaching, and said, What he
says is true and from God. Others did not understand
him, and kept looking in the prophecies for proofs of his
being sent by God. And many disputed with him, but
could not prevail against him. The Pharisees and learned
men sent their assistants to contend with him. But their


assistants returned to them, saying, We can do nothing
with him.
And the high priests said, Why did you not accuse
him ?
And they replied, Never has a man spoken like him.
Then the Pharisees said, It does not mean anything,
that you cannot prevail against him, and that the people
believe in his teaching. We do not believe, and none of
the rulers believe, but the accursed people are always
stupid and ignorant.
And Jesus said to the Pharisees, There can be no
proofs of the truth of my teaching, just as there can
be no illumination of the light. My teaching is the true
light, that light when men see what is good and what
bad, and so it is impossible to prove my teaching: it
proves everything else. He who will follow me will not
be in the dark, but with him life and light is the same.
But the Pharisees still demanded proofs of the truth
of his teaching, and said, Thou art the only one who
says this.
And he replied to them, If I am the only one who says
this, I am still in the right, for I know whence I come
and whither I go. Besides, not I alone teach this, but
the Father, my spirit, teaches it also. But you do not
know him, and so this proves the falseness of your teach-
ing. You do not know whence you come and whither
you go. I am leading you, but, instead of following
me, you discuss who I am; and so you cannot come to
salvation and to life, to which I lead you. And you will
perish, if you abide in this error and do not follow me.
And the Jews asked, Who art thou ?
He said, I am not any special man; as a man I am
nothing; but, above all, I am what I tell you: I am the
way and the truth, I am the comprehension. And
when you make the spirit of the son of man your God,
you will know what I am, because what I do and say


is not from me, as a man, but what my Father has
taught me.
Only he who keeps the comprehension, who does the
will of the Father, can be taught by me. To comprehend
the truth, it is necessary to do good. He who does evil
loves the darkness and goes toward it; he who does
good goes toward the light. And so, in order to under-
stand my teaching, it is necessary to do good. He who
will do good will know the truth, and he who will know
the truth will be free from evil and from death; for
every man who errs becomes the slave of his error.
And as the slave does not always live in the house
of his master, while the master's son is always there,
even so a man, who errs in life and becomes the slave
of his error, does not live for ever, but dies. Only he
who is in the truth lives for ever. But the truth con-
sists in being a son, and not a slave. And so, if you err,
you will be slaves, and you will die; but if you abide in
the truth, you will be free sons, and will live.
You say of yourselves that you are the children of
Abraham, and that you know the truth; and yet you
want to kill me, because I tell you the truth. Abraham
did not do so. If you wish to do this, -to kill a man,
you are not the sons of God the Father, and you do not
serve him, but serve your father. You are not with me
the sons of the same Father: you are the slaves of error,
and its sons. If you had the same Father with me, you
would love me, for I, too, come from God. I was not
born of myself, but am also from God. For this reason
you do not understand my words, and the comprehension
has no place in you. If I am from the Father, and you
are from the same Father, you cannot wish to kill me.
But since you wish to kill me, we are not of one Father.
I am from God, but you are from the devil. You want
to do the will of your father: he has always been a mur-
derer and liar, and there is no truth in him. If he, the


devil, says anything, he says hi ,. own per ,u il mitters,
and not what is common to all, nutl hre i- the tjtier :.f
lying and error; and so you are the slaves of error, mnd
his children.
You see how easy it is to ac,:ue y:,n u o:f t -rt:r. If I ern,
accuse me; but if there is nu, errir, why di: yo':u n'-t,
believe me?
And the Jews began to scold him, and said that he
was mad.
He said, I am not mad, but honour my Father, and
you want to kill me, the son of the Father; conse-
quently you are not my brothers, but children of another
father. Not I affirm that I am right, but the truth speaks
for me. And so I repeat to you, He who will grasp and
execute my teaching will not see death.
And the Jews said, Do we not tell the truth, when we
say that he is a mad Samaritan ? Thou accusest thyself.
The prophets are dead; Abraham is dead, and thou sayest
that he who will execute thy teaching will not see death.
Abraham is dead, and thou wilt not die! Or art thou
greater than Abraham ?
The Jews kept discussing whether he, Jesus of Galilee,
was an important prophet or not, and forgot everything
which he had said, and that he said nothing of himself
as a man, but spoke of the spirit of God which was
within him.
And Jesus said, I make nothing of myself. If I spoke
of what seems good to me, everything I say would be
without meaning; but there is a beginning of all things,
which you call God, and of him I speak. You have not
known the true God, but I know him. I cannot help
saying that I know him. I should be a liar, such as you
are, if I said that I did not know him. I know him, and
I know his will, and do it. Your father Abraham is holy
for this reason only, that he saw my comprehension and
rejoiced in it.


The Jews said, Thou art thirty years old; how could
you have lived in the days of Abraham ?
He said, Before Abraham was, I was, that I, of whom
I have told you, the comprehension.
The Jews picked up stones, to stone him, but he went
away from them.
I am the light of the world. He who will follow me
will not walk in darkness, but will have the light of life.
If a man does not see the light, neither his parents, nor
he, are to blame; but if he has light, it is his duty to
shine for others. While we are in the world, we are the
light of the world. If we see men who are deprived
of light, we reveal the light to them from the principle
which has produced us. And if a man sees the light, he
will all be changed so that no one can tell him. A man
remains the same man ; but there is this difference that,
having learned that he is a son of God, he receives the
light and sees what he never saw before.
A man who did not see the light and has come to see
it can say nothing as to whether it is true that he has
regained his sight; all he can say is, I am regenerated;
I am different from what I was; before this I was blind
and did not see the true good, but now I see it. I do
not know how I came to see, but I think that he who
revealed the light to me is a man from God.
And no matter how much they may say to a man who
has seen the light, that it is not the true light; that he
must pray to another God, the one he does not see; that
he who gave him the light is mistaken, the man will not
believe it. He will say, I know nothing about your God,
nor whether the man who opened my eyes was mistaken,
or not; but I know that formerly I did not see, and now
I see.
And no matter how much you may ask such a man
how his eyes were opened, he will tell you the same.
They were opened in this way, that I found out that the


beginning of my life is the spirit, and, having learned this,
I was regenerated. No matter how much you may say
that the law of Moses is the true law of God; that God
himself revealed it to Moses; that God communes with
the saints, and that he who opened his eyes is a sinner, the
man will repeat the one answer, I know nothing about
all that, but I know that I was blind, and now I see.
And I know that he who opened my eyes is from God.
For, if he were not from God, he could not do it.
Such a man trusts only in the spirit of the son of God,
which is in him, and that is all he needs.
And Jesus said, The teaching separates men: the
blind receive their sight, and those who think that
they see become blind. If men do not see the light
from their birth, they are not to blame, and they may
receive their sight. Only those who affirm that they
see, when they see nothing, are to blame indeed.
And the Jews began to dispute. Some said, He is
simply mad; and others said, A madman cannot open
men's eyes.
Men abandon themselves to my teaching, not because
I prove it to them: it is impossible to prove the truth,
but the truth proves everything else. But people abandon
themselves to my teaching, because it is one, and familiar
to people, and promises them life. My teaching is for
people what the familiar voice of the shepherd is for the
sheep, when he enters to them by the door, and gathers
them, to drive them into the pasture. But nobody be-
lieves your teaching, because it is foreign to men, and
men see in it your lusts. It is for men what for the
sheep is the sight of a man who does not enter by
the door, but climbs over the enclosure: the sheep do
not know him, and they feel that he is a robber.
My teaching is the only true one, as one door is for
the sheep. All your teachings of the law of Moses are
a lie, as the thieves and robbers are lies for the sheep.


He who abandons himself to my teaching will find the
true life, just as the sheep will go out and find food,
if they follow the shepherd. For a thief comes only
to steal, rob, and destroy, while a shepherd comes to
feed and give life. And it is only my teaching which
promises the true life.
The shepherds are masters, whose lives are formed by
the sheep and who give their lives for the sheep; they
are true shepherds. But there are hirelings, who do not
trouble themselves about the sheep, because they are hire-
lings, and the sheep are not their own, such as, when a
wolf comes, forsake their sheep, and these are not true
shepherds. Even so there are untrue teachers, such as
have no thought for the life of men, and true teachers,
such as give their souls for the life of men. I am such
a teacher.
My teaching consists in giving the life for other men.
No one takes it from me, but I of my own will give it
for men, in order that I may receive the true life. This
commandment I received from my Father. And as the
Father knows me, so I know the Father, and so I lay
my life down for the sake of men. And so the Father
loves me, for I fulfil his commandments.
And all men, not only here and now, but all men, will
understand my voice and will all come together, and
will be one, and the teaching will be one.
And the Jews surrounded him, and said, Everything
which thou sayest is hard to understand and does not
agree with our Scripture. Do not torment us, but tell
us outright, Art thou that Messiah who according to our
books is to come into the world ?
And Jesus replied to them, I have already told you
who I am. I am what I have told you; but you do
not believe my words. Believe my works,- the life
in God, which I lead,- you will understand by them
who I am, and wherefore I have come. But you do not


believe, for you do not follow w,.. He wh': walk. in my
path and does what I say understands mwe. And he who
understands my teaching and fultils it will ri:cive the
true life. My Father united them with mii and nobody
can sever them. I and the Fatb..r -ir.. i:n:.
And the Jews were offended by this, and laid hold
of stones to stone him.
But he said to them, I have shown you much good
through my Father, so for what deed do you want to
stone me ?
They said, Not for a good deed do we wish to stone
thee, but because thou, a man, makest thyself a God.
And Jesus answered them, But the same is said in
your Scripture: it says that God himself said to the bad
rulers, You are gods. If vicious people were called gods,
why should you consider it a blasphemy to call God that
which God, loving it, sent into the world ? Every man
according to the spirit is a son of God. If I do not live
in godly fashion, do not believe that I am a son of God;
but if I do, believe according to my life that I am in
God. And then you will understand that God is in me,
and I am in God, that I and the Father are one.
And Jesus said, My teaching is the awakening of life.
He who believes in my teaching retains his life, though
he dies carnally. He who lives does not die.
And the Jews did not know what to do with him, and
were not able to sentence him.
And he went once more beyond the Jordan, and
remained there. And many believed in his teaching,
and said that it was as true as John's teaching. And
so many believed in his teaching.
And Jesus once asked his disciples, and said, Tell me
how people understand my teaching about the son of God
and the son of man.
They said, Some understand it like John's teaching;
others, like the prophecy of Elijah; others again say that


it resembles the teaching of Jeremiah, and take you to be
a prophet.
He said, And how do you understand my teaching?
And Simon Peter said to him, In my opinion thy teach-
ing consists in this, that thou art the chosen son of God,
of life. Thou teaches that God is the life in man.
And Jesus said to him, Happy thou art, Simon, to
have understood this. No man could have revealed this
to thee, for God within thee has revealed it to thee. Not
carnal reflection and not I with my words, but God, my
Father, has directly revealed it to thee.
And on this comprehension is based the assembly of
men, for whom there is no death.



37. '0 ttX\v rardfpa
V prTpa bnrp p ?p, obK
CoTL POV dZos.' Kai 6
tXaw v nibs OvGyard-pa
brdp 40, ob k 'rT pov

38. Kal 6s o6 Xappid-
veL Tbpi ravpbv abroO
Kai daKoXOv6eU Trlffos wOu,
OsK 0TL AOL'ov &Eos.
39. '0 eUpc 'v rr 'u-
X'v abreoT d7roIVe ab--
7-v- Kai 6 diroeXdras
Triy bvXIv arb7oG SvfKee
4euO eupscses a6r,/v.
27. T6Tr drroKcpels
6 IItrpog eTdre abT,
'I1So, ip^s &~L i KfKav
rdvra, Kal icKOXov0fta-
piv roce rl apa t'rac
ir ;
29. Kal rria s ds j-
KEY alK[aS, e e(poins,
jl aE(XarT, TraTCpa, 4
ir Tpa, yuvvaKa, j
T Kva, i &dypobs, SveKEP
roO dv6p6ar6s uov, dKa-
Troparchaleova Xhferat,
Kat csty alc6idw KXipo-

30. 'E&vp4Xdf d7Ka-
TovTarrkalovea iV d
T r Katp TO7 r t, olKlas
Kai d58be oss Kai dBeX-

Matt. x. 37. He that
loveth father or mother
more than me, is not
worthy of me: and he
that loveth son or daugh-
ter more than me, is not
worthy of me.
38. And he that taketh
not his cross, and fol-
loweth after me, is not
worthy of me.

39. He that flndeth his
life shall lose it: and he
that loseth his life for
my sake, shall find it.

Matt. xix. 27. Then
answered Peter and said
unto him, Behold, we
have forsaken all, and
followed thee; what
shall we have therefore?

29. And every one that
hath forsaken houses,
or brethren, or sisters,
or father, or mother, or
wife, or children, or
lands, for my name's
sake, shall receive a
hundredfold, and shall
inherit everlasting life.

30. But he shall receive
a hundredfold now in
this time, houses, and
brethren, and sisters,
and mothers, and chil-

37. He who loves fa-
ther or mother more
than me, does not agree
with me : and he who
loves son or daughter
more than me, does not
agree with me.
38. And he who is not
prepared for carnal pri-
vations and does not
follow me, does not
agree with me.
39. He who acquires
(carnal) life will lose it;
and he who loses his
carnal life according to
my teaching, will re-
ceive life.
27. Then Simon Peter
said to him, Behold, we
have forsaken all, and
followed thee; what
shall we have for it?

29. And Jesus an-
swered them, You know
yourselves that every
one who forsakes his
family, his brothers and
sisters, or father, or
mother, or wife and
children, and fields for
the sake of my teaching,
-the true good,

30. Will receive a hun-
dred times more here,
in this life, amidst
persecutions, families,
brothers, sisters, chil-


ds Kal p7IT-pas Kal dren, and lands, with dren, and fields, and
rTkva Kdal 'd-po, pc7! persecutions; and in the eternal life in the pass-
Kva K O world to come- eternal ing world.
Srwyfppv, Kal TV rT life.
alivL r4 Jp pXoftvq; Zv
31. HoXXol Ut taov- 31. But many that are 31. And many who are
tra irproc 'rTOt Kal first shall be last; and first will be last, and
at, the last first, who were last will be
ol cry'aTo TrpCrot. first.

(a) epXopat means to go, to pass.

Peter's question as to what reward we shall receive is
understood by Christ in two ways: first, as a reward in
general for the execution of the law; and secondly, What
reward will they receive, a reward which should cor-
respond to the sacrifices which they are making?
To the first part of the question as to the thrones in
heaven, Jesus replies that they know themselves what
the "reward will be. The reward here, in this life, is a
hundred times greater than the human joys which they
have left, it is the life outside of time.
In response to the second part of the question, Jesus
says that in the kingdom of God there is no first and no
last; that the first are last, and the last first; that the
conception of the kingdom of God is not connected with
the idea of rewards, which correspond to the deserts, -
which was said in the parable of the talents. And he
goes on to explain these words of the parables.
Peter's next question and Jesus' answer stand in Mat-
thew directly after the conclusion of the discourse with
the rich young man, which is, that no one can be saved,
except he be a mendicant. These cruel words startle the
disciples. It is these sacrifices of the carnal life which
call forth Peter's question. According to my harmoniza-
tion of the chapters, this question follows after all the
examples and indications as to how we must give up the
carnal life for the life of the spirit. To this Peter asks,
What shall we have?


I omit Ver-e 2' fromir Matthew, as it han nu definite
meaning. It speaks of their sitting :on twelve thrones
and judging the twelve tribes of Israel. Either it
is entirely iu.Liarprehensible and weans nothing. -,r It is
meant for an iro:nuy, in resjpouIsie t he qu?;tio:n what th,-y
will receive, what reward. The next passage points
directly to an irony.


1. 'O/ola ydp nTrv
h Pa oheia r70 oi'pavQv
dv0pdnrq otloSesrer6ry,
dTats lE4tXev &pa irpwt
a6OudcraOat dpydriras ei
T7V dJnrTTeXijva irTOr.
2. Zvir wvri as t
B(7& 7jY dpyamrCv iK
Trvaplou riv pyipav,
drioretXev akroes els
Trv dtiireXOva abroe.
3. Kal 1eeX(vp reply
r7 rplTriv Opay, ei6ev
dXXous ierrras v r&
dyopy dppyods-
4. KdKEIVOts efrsv
'Trdyere Kal bteiS els
i-bv dp/reX~ pa, Kal 6 iAv
V imKaiOV 8faLw tLPsV.
5. 01 5t d XriXov.
rdXCi 1ieXOwv reptl -K-
rTpv Kal swdryPv OpaV,
iroleaiev uaairrws.

6. lept St 7Tv iSe-
Kdrjs p pavY efCXiv,
eSper dXXous deorras
dpyoes, Kal X&yet asrols,
TI M6e i rrmKare SX\v
rTV higLpar dpyol;
7. Aiyovaiv amrc,
"OTI oi4Sels htas dti-
8dcaTarT. Xtyct aifrors,
'Trd-yeTE Kal Ofse Ci;
rTb deArcXisva, Kal 6 Iav
a SlKacOpv XhcfOe.

Matt. xx. 1. For the
kingdom of heaven is
like unto a man that
is a householder, which
went out early in the
morning to hire labour-
ers into his vineyard.
2. And when he had
agreed with the labour-
ers for a penny a day,
he sent them into his

3. And he went out
about the third hour,
and saw others standing
idle in the market-place,

4. And said unto them;
Go ye also into the vine-
yard, and whatsoever is
right I will give you.
And they went their
5. Again he went out
about the sixth and
ninth hour, and did

6. And about the elev-
enth hour he went out,
and found others stand-
ing idle, and saith unto
them, Why stand ye
here all the day idle?

7. They say unto him,
Because no man bath
hired us. He saith unto
them, Go yo also into
the vineyard; and what-
soever is right, that
shall ye receive.

1. For the kingdom of
God is like this: a mas-
ter went out in the
morning to hire labour-

2. When he had agreed
with the labourers for a
penny a day, he sent
them into his garden.

3. Then he went out at
breakfast time to look
around, and found other
labourers, who were not
4. And he said to them,
Go you also to work in
my garden, and I will
pay you what is right.
And they went.
5. And again the mas.
ter went out to the mar-
ket-place at the sixth
and at the ninth hour,
and he found other
labourers who were not
occupied, and he did the
same with them.
6. At noon the master
went again to the mar-
ket-place, and saw la-
bourers standing idle;
and he said to them,
Why do you stand here
the whole day idle?
7. They said, Because
no man has hired us.
And he said to them, Go
you also into the garden,
and you will receive
what is right.


8. 'Of as 6 yev*oy-
qsT, Xy7ei 6 Kp40S 7e00
dpreX(rvos r T rvrp6r7
airoG, KdXerov Trbs
dpydras, Kal d6r6or aS-
7ors TbI gwitbv, dped-
Aevor dirb r7Tv XiXdr
IwT rcTv rpdrTWv.
9. Kai AO6vres of
repl 7i Tv veKXri7rLv Lpav,
halPoiv de& 6?Pdptov.

10. 'EX06vrPs 6 of
irptrost Iv6tcav 6&, rXcfl-
ova Xfi/ovrTat

11. Aafi6res *y6y-
'yvUOV Kar& ro OlKoXe-
12. A4yor-et "On,
oiro ol fOxaTro play
&pav 4drol~oav, xal forov
-ihSY ai)ro)s trol()oas,
roTs fiaovrdsart rb dpoas
Tr7j ihtpaT Kal rbv Ka6-

13. '0 & diroKp dts
ed7re vi ai^r'Tv, 'Eva pe,
oK diSKC eC o0XI2 &7ra-
plov uvrerb7veo-ds poL ;
14. Apov Tb oby Kat
iraye. 62w 3U ro7dry
-r4 JcXdry SoGrvatl Kal
15. "H ove gecri poA(
roet4Oat 6 0*Aw ,v 7TOs
Ipots; 4 6 d6f0ahx6s cov
rroviyp6 Tirv, Srt 1dy7
dya06s elp ;
16. OBrws iroerat ol
Ea-aroet sprpro t, xal o
rpZroe ~oXarTcv roXXol
ydp el(r KxXqvTo, 6dXyo
8 dKXeCKTOl.

8. So when even was
come, the lord of the
vineyard saith unto his
steward, Call the la-
bourers, and give them
their hire, beginning
from the last unto the

9. And when they
came that were hired
about the eleventh hour,
they received every man
a penny.
10. But when the first
came, they supposed
that they should have
received more; and they
likewise received every
man a penny.
11. And when they had
received it, they mur-
mured against the good-
man of the house,
12. Saying, These last
have wrought but one
hour, and thou hast
made them equal unto
us, which have borne
the burden and heat of
the day.

13. But he answered
one of them, and said,
Friend, I do thee no
wrong: didst not thou
agree with me for a
14. Take that thine is,
and go thy way: I will
give unto this last, even
as unto thee.

15. Is it not lawful for
me to do what I will
with mine own? Is
thine eye evil, because
I am good?

16. So the last shall be
first, and the first last:
for many be called, but
few chosen.

8. When evening came,
the master said to his
steward, Call the labour-
ers, and give them their
wages; first to the last,
and then to the first.

9. And those that came
at noon received a

10. And those who
came first supposed that
they would receive
more; but they received
only a penny each.
11. They took it, but
they began to murmur
against the master.
12. How is this? they
said. They have done
but one hour's work,
and thou hast made
them equal with us. We
have worked hard and
sweated all day.

13. But the master an-
swered one of them,
Friend, I do thee no
wrong; did we notagree
for a penny?
14. Take what is thine,
friend, and go thy way.
I want to give the last as
much as to thee.

15. Have I no right
over what is mine? Or
dost thou see that I am
good, and so thy eye has
become envious?

16. So the last shall be
like the first, and the
first like the last.

The final words, For many be called, but few chosen,
are apparently a useless addition. In many texts these
words are wanting, and they are not in Tischendorf. In


Luke the disciples say these words to Jesus immediately
after the elucidation that brothers are to be forgiven, not
seven times, but seventy times seven times. Obviously
these words, like Peter's words, refer to all the cruel words
of the demand for the renunciation of the iarnal life. The
possibility of the true life is given to all men. He who
wants takes it; he who does not want it does not take
it. He who receives the true life has it and it cannot
be said that it is equal for all, for to it cannot be applied
the conceptions of more and less, of sooner and later. It
is outside the category of space, time, and causality, as
they would say in philosophical language.
But we are so accustomed to the retribution of the
terrestrial life, that we cannot rid ourselves of the idea
that he who does everything which is regarded as good
and pleasing to a God, whom we represent as being out-
side us (while Jesus never stops expatiating on this, that
no man has ever known God, except that the son has
declared him) and that we want to establish our relations
to God like those which exist between the peasants and
their master. We want to please some one and do what
we do not understand and do not wish to do, in order to
please the master's will; but, while we admit that we
ought to be punished for not pleasing the master, as we
ourselves are fond of punishing the slaves for not doing
so, we want to be rewarded for doing the will of a stran-
ger. And although the whole teaching of Jesus denies
this view, the disciples and all of us ask what we shall
get for forsaking our children and house, and our life, in
order to follow his teaching. What is it we ask about?
We ask what we shall get for going to the feast to which
we are invited; what we shall get for creeping into that
boat of salvation which is ready to receive us; what we
shall get for having forsaken our wives and children,
and having followed him. That is, what we shall get for
having exchanged sorrow for joy, fetters for freedom,


death for life. And he replies, In the first place, you do
not sacrifice anything: when you forsake in this life your
families, children, possessions. and all that, you will have
a hundred times more, even amidst persecutions; in the
second place, you will receive the true life. What other
reward do you wish? Do you want to sit on thrones,
like kings, and judge the nations ?
In this world of death I teach you the one possible
life, the one plank of salvation. And thou, getting ready to
clutch this plank, ask, What will the reward be for this?


35. Kal rpocropeopv-
rat arTi 'IdKwos K&aI
'Iwdvvis, ol viol Zeqe-
Salov, Xydovres, At6d-
aKaXe, O\oe 0ev Iva 6 A&v
aiTrljcfwpev 7roeu) s i*vr.
36. 'O dreaiva5rTor,
TI OBAere routral p~

37. Oi1 ebrova a6r,
Ais rpi, lIa ets & Ceft-
VP 0ovU Kal CT 1 edwvi-
AV TovU KaB WIMV iv4 Tr
86bV rKov.
38. '0 at 'I70oG0
erev abro's, O0K ol6are
7r atrIca0c. b5vaaOe sri-
e ivb r or-4ptoav 8 yd
7rlvw, Kal r BPrrcsLaa
6 yd 1airr7iiopat fair-
TrtO-0jvat ;
22. Atyouutv atrq,
23. Kal Xtyet aTrots,
Tb Op orTrOlpt6v pou
7rle6e, Kal Tb fSdrrt-
cpa 6 tydi, arrTiopeat
farrT6s4ce0 S e T6 Ua
KaOffcat K eftLPa fvO
Kal n euvuipwav lowv, 05K
erTty dTpv BoWvat, dXX'
ole 7roleaarat 67rb ro7
rarpr6 pav.

Afarkx. 35. And James
and John, the sons of
Zebedee, come unto
him, saying, Master, we
would that thou should-
est do for us whatsoever
we shall desire.
36. And he said unto
them, What would ye
that I should do for
37. They said unto him,
Grant unto us that we
may sit, one on thy right
hand, and the other on
thy left hand, in thy
38. But Jesus said
unto them, Ye know not
what ye ask: can ye
drink of the cup' that I
drink of? and be bap-
tized with the baptism
that I am baptized with?

Matt. xx. 22. Theysay
unto him, We are able.
23. And he saith unto
them, Ye shall drink in-
deed of my cup, and be
baptized with the bap-
tism that I am baptized
with: but to sit on my
right hand, and on my
left, is not mine to give,
but it shall be given to
them for whom it is pre-
pared of my father.d

35. And James and
John, the sons of Zebe-
dee, came to Jesus, say-
ing, Teacher, we wish
thou wouldst do for us
what we shall ask thee.

36. And he said to
them, What do you want
me to do for you?
37. And they said to
him, Make us both equal
to thee in thy teaching.

38. And Jesus replied
to them, You do not
know what you ask. On
earth you can do the
same as I am doing, and
you may be regenerated
in the spirit, just I am

22. They said to him,
We can.
23. And he said to
them, You can live and
be regenerated the same
as I; but to make you
such as I am is not in
my power, but in the
power of my Father.

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