Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Half Title
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Fables for children 1869-1872
 Stories for children 1869-1872
 Natural science stories 1869-1...
 The Decembrists: fragments of a...
 On popular education 1875
 What men live by 1881
 The three hermits 1884
 Neglect the fire and you cannot...
 The candle 1885
 The two old men 1885
 Where love is, there God is also...
 Texts for Chapbook illustrations...
 A fairy-tale about Ivan the fool...
 Back Matter
 Back Cover

Group Title: The Complete Works of Count Tolstoy
Title: The complete works of Count Tolstoy
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00094187/00012
 Material Information
Title: The complete works of Count Tolstoy
Uniform Title: Works ( 1904 )
Physical Description: 24 v. : fronts., plates, ports., facsims. ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Tolstoy, Leo, 1828-1910
Wiener, Leo, 1862-1939 ( ed. and tr )
Publisher: D. Estes & Co.
Place of Publication: Boston
Publication Date: 1904-05
Edition: Limited ed. Translated from the original Russian and edited by Leo Wiener.
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
festschrift   ( marcgt )
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
General Note: Half-title.
General Note: "Édition de luxe, limited to one thousand copies." This set not numbered.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00094187
Volume ID: VID00012
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 02116920
lccn - 04024594


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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
        Front Matter 3
        Front Matter 4
    Half Title
        Half Title 1
        Half Title 2
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
    List of Illustrations
        List of Illustrations 1
        List of Illustrations 2
    Fables for children 1869-1872
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
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    Stories for children 1869-1872
        Page 37
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    Natural science stories 1869-1872
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    The Decembrists: fragments of a novel 1863-1878
        Page 179
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    On popular education 1875
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
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    What men live by 1881
        Page 325
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    The three hermits 1884
        Page 361
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    Neglect the fire and you cannot put it out 1885
        Page 373
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    The candle 1885
        Page 393
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    The two old men 1885
        Page 407
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    Where love is, there God is also 1885
        Page 443
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    Texts for Chapbook illustrations 1885
        Page 461
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    A fairy-tale about Ivan the fool 1885
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    Back Matter
        Page 520
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    Back Cover
        Page 525
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Full Text

Chinsegut Hill

University of Florida






Translated from the Original Russian
Assistant Professor of Slavic Languages at

and Edited by
Harvard University



Limited to One Thousand Copies,

of which this is

No. 411

Copyright, 1904

Entered at Stationers' Hall

Colonial Press: Electrotyped and Printed by
C. H. Simonds & Co., Boston, Mass., U. S. A.


.Es,,p'V F. rirE .

'Inr PE.\9.\NT AND TOE CUCLI EP.S . 4)
T H : F . 41
11.,w I LE; rINED T:O RIDE . 1
Tnr WILLOW . 4f,
BUL0 %. l
BitI. \ \1 ND T 1 \- Ii[LD B .1 . . . *
PnEa N .
Nill T,,N AND 1'iL . . .
ELEii.A AND THE \\'"OLF ...
W n \T II OPENED TO, L!iiL, ; IN PV'.-TII'.1.;IK . t
Ril0 LKE%'- %ND MILTON'- E i . . 1?
ERMxK 124












CAME (The Candle, see page 397)



1869 -1872



AN Ant came down to the brook: he wanted to drink.
A wave washed him down and almost drowned him. A
Dove was carrying a branch; she saw the Ant was drown-
ing, so she cast the branch down to him in the brook.
The Ant got up on the branch and was saved. Then a
hunter placed a snare for the Dove, and was on the point
of drawing it in. The Ant crawled up to the hunter and
bit him on the leg; the hunter groaned and dropped the
snare. The Dove fluttered upwards and flew away.

A Turtle asked an Eagle to teach her how to fly. The
Eagle advised her not to try, as she was not fit for it;
but she insisted. The Eagle took her in his claws, raised
her up, and dropped her: she fell on stones and broke to
A Polecat entered a smithy and began to lick the fil-
ings. Blood began to flow from the Polecat's mouth, but
he was glad and continued to lick; he thought that the


blood was coming from the iron, and lost his whole
A Lion was sleeping. A Mouse ran over his body.
He awoke and caught her. The Mouse besought him ;
she said:
Let me go, and I will do you a favour !"
The Lion laughed at the Mouse for promising him a
favour, and let her go.
Then the hunters caught the Lion and tied him with a
rope to a tree. The Mouse heard the Lion's roar, ran up,
gnawed the rope through, and said :
Do you remember? You laughed, not thinking that
I could repay, but now you see that a favour may come
also from a Mouse."
A Boy was watching the sheep and, pretending that he
saw a wolf, he began to cry:
Help A wolf A wolf!"
The peasants came running up and saw that it was not
so. After doing this for a second and a third time, it
happened that a wolf came indeed. The Boy began to
Come, come, quickly, a wolf!"
The peasants thought that he was deceiving them as
usual, and paid no attention to him. The wolf saw
there was no reason to be afraid: he leisurely killed the
whole flock.
A man had an Ass and a Horse. They were walking
on the road; the Ass said to the Horse:
"It is heavy for me, I shall not be able to carry it
all; take at least a part of my load."


The Ho:.ise p-.ail no. attention to him. The Ass fell
down froui overstraniing hitmself, and died. When the
rma-str transferred the A.is' load on the: H:,l ie, and added
the As,'s hide, the H trse began t... ci.:mtlaiu:
*h, ie,.c to t', poo ':In, woe to n'e, unfortunate
H.i..se! I did not want t.:. help himi even a little, and
now I have to carry everythin-, andi his hide, too."

A Jack.law saw that the D[:Jves were wEll fed,-so
she paiLnt'd herielf white and tiew int,: the dove-cot.
The )Dove.s thought at tirs-t that she was a dove like
them, and let her in. But the Jackdaw forgot herself
and croaked in jackdaw lfshion. Then the Doves began
to pick at her and dr,:ve her away. The Jackdaw flew
_,back to her friends,. 1.'ut the jackdaws were Irightened at
her, seeing her white, and themiiielve\ drove her away.

A Hen laid an egg eac-h day. The Mlistress thought
that if she gave hei more to:I eat, she would lay twice as
much. So she did. The Hen grew fat and stopped lay-
A Lion and a Bear procured some meat and began to
fight for it. The Bear did not want to give in, nor did
the Lion yield. They fought for so long a time that they
both grew feeble and lay down. A Fox saw the meat
between them; she grabbed it and ran away with it.

A Dog and a Cock went to travel together. At night
the Cock fell asleep in a tree, and the Dog fixed a place


for himself between the roots of that tree. When the
time came, the Cock began to crow. A Fox heard the
Cock, ran up to the tree, and began to beg the Cock to
come down, as she wanted to give him her respects for
such a fine voice.
The Cock said:
You must first wake up the janitor, he is sleeping
between the roots. Let him open up, and I will come
The Fox began to look for the janitor, and started
yelping. The Dog sprang out at once and killed the
A Groom stole the Horse's oats, and sold them, but
he cleaned the Horse each day. Said the Horse:
If you really wish me to be in good condition, do not
sell my oats."
A Lion heard a Frog croaking, and thought it was a
large beast that was calling so loud. He walked up,
and saw a Frog coming out of the swamp. The Lion
crushed her with his paw and said:
There is nothing to look at, and yet I was fright-
In the fall the wheat of the Ants got wet; they were
drying it. A hungry Grasshopper asked them for some-
thing to eat. The Ants said:
Why did you not gather food during the summer ?"
She said:
"I had no time: I sang songs."
They laughed, and said:
"If you sang in the summer, dance in the winter!"



A master had a Hen which laid golden eggs. He
wanted more gold at once, and so killed the Hen (he
thought that inside of her there was a large lump of gold ,
but she was just like any other hen.


An Ass put ou a lion's skin, and all thought it was a
lion. Men and i animals rn away from hi. A vwiuJ
.sprang up, and the skin was lloi:u :ide, and the Ass
could be seen. People ran up and beat the Ass.


A Hen found soii,-, snake's e-ggs :an beguau to sit on
them. A Swallow Saw it. and said:
"Stupid one! You will hat'.h them out, and, when
they LCtOW up, you %%ill be the first one to stilfer frou

A Fawn once said to a Stag:
-- Father, you are larger .nd fleeter than the dogs, and.
besides:, you have huge antlers for dtefence ; why, then, are
you so afraid of the dogs ?"
The Stag laughed, and said:
"You speak the truth, my child. The trouble is,-
the moment I hear the dogs bark, I run before I have
time to think."

A Fox saw some ripe bunches of grapes hanging high,
and tried to get at them, in order to eat them.


She tried hard, but could not get them. To drown her
annoyance she said:
"They are still sour."

A mistress used to wake the Maids at night and, a:
soon as the cocks crowed, put them to work. The Maids
found that hard, and decided to kill the Cock, so that the
mistress should not be wakened. They killed him, but
now they suffered more than ever: the mistress was
afraid that she would sleep past the time and so began
to wake the Maids earlier.

A Fisherman caught a Fish. Said the Fish:
Fisherman, let me go into the water; you see I am
small: you will have little profit of me. If you let me
go, I shall grow up, and then you will catch me when it
will be worth while."
But the Fisherman said:
A fool would be he who should wait for greater profit,
and let the lesser slip out of his hands."

A Goat wanted to drink. He went down the incline
to the well, drank his fill, and gained in weight. He
started to get out, but could not do so. He began to
bleat. A Fox saw him and said:
"That's it, stupid one If you had as much sense in
your head as there are hairs in your beard, you would
have thought of how to get out before you climbed down."

A Dog was crossing the river over a plank, carrying a
piece of meat in her teeth. She saw herself in the water


and thought that aLuothlr d.-., was carrying a piece of
nlmat. She dropped: d hIer F-iece and dashed forward to take
iaway, wu hat the oth'r dog had : the other meat was gone,
aud he'r ow'.v was carried away by the stream.
And thus the Dog. was let without anything.

A peasant put 'lit hiq nets to catch the Cranes for
tramping. d,:wn his tield. In the nets were caught the
Cranu:c, andl with thllu one Stork.
The Stork i;said to the peasantt:
Let me go! I am no:t a Crane, but a Stork; we are
mo:,t hln,:,ured birds, I live ,:n your father's house. You
can see :tv my featthers that I am not a Crane."
The e,-asant said :
W '\With the Cranes I have caught you, and with them
will I kill y,:u."

A Gardener wanted his Sons to get used to gardening.
As he was dying, he called them up and said to them:
Children, when I am dead, look for what is hidden in
the vineyard."
The Sons thought that it was a treasure, and when
their father died, they began to dig there, and dug up the
whole ground. They did not find the treasure, but they
ploughed the vineyard up so well that it brought forth
more fruit than ever.

A Wolf had a bone stuck in his throat, and could not
cough it up. He called the Crane, and said to him:
Crane, you have a long neck. Thrust your head into
my throat and draw out the bone! I will reward you."


The Crane stuck his head in, plllled out the bone, and
Give me my reward "
The Wolf gnashed his teeth aod said:
"Is it not enough reward for you that I did
not bite off your head when it was between my

The Hares once got together, and began to complain
about their life:
We perish from men, and from dogs, and from eagles,
and from all the other beasts. It would be better to die
at once than to live in fright and suffer. Come, let us
drown ourselves!"
And the Hares raced away to drown themselves in a
lake. The Frogs heard the Hares and plumped into the
water. So one of the Hares said:
Wait, boys! Let us put off the drowning I Evidently
the Frogs are having a harder life than we: they are
afraid even of us."

A Father told his Sons to live in peace: they paid no
attention to him. So he told them to bring the bath
broom, and said:
"Break it!"
No matter how much they tried, they could not
break it. Then the Father unclosed the broom,
and told them to break the rods singly. They
broke it.
The Father said:
"So it is with you: if you live in peace, no one will
overcome you; but if you quarrel, and are divided, any
one will easily ruin you."


A Fox got caught in a trap. She tore off her tail, and
got away. She began to contrive how to cover up her
shaa-e. She called together the Foxes, and begged them
to :i t, off their tails.
A tail," she said, "is a useless thing. In vain do we
drag along a dead weight."
Orne of the Foxes said:
S: You would not be speaking thus, if you were not tail-
Il?.? I "
The tailless Fox grew silent and went away.

A Wild Ass saw a Tame Ass. The Wild Ass went up
to himi and began to praise his life, saying how smooth his
body was, and what sweet feed he received. Later, when
the Tame Ass was loaded down, and a driver began to
guad him with a stick, the Wild Ass said:
No, brother, I do not envy you: I see that your life
ig going hard with you."

A Stag went to the brook to quench his thirst. He
saw himself in the water, and began to admire his horns,
seeing how large and branching they were; and he looked
at his feet, and said: "But my feet are unseemly and
Suddenly a Lion sprang out and made for the Stag.
The Stag started to run over the open plain. He was get-
ting away, but there came a forest, and his horns caught
in the branches, and the lion caught him. As the Stag
was dying, he said:
"How foolish I am! That which I thought to be
unseemly and thin was saving me, and what I gloried in
has been my ruin."


A Dog fell asleep back of the yard. A Wolf ran up and
wanted to eat him.
Said the Dog:
"Wolf, don't eat me yet: now I am lean and bony. Wait
a little, -my master is going to celebrate a wedding;
then I shall have plenty to eat; I shall grow fat. It will
be better to eat me then."
The Wolf believed her, and went away. Then he came
a second time, and saw the Dog lying on the roof. The
Wolf said to her:
Well, have they had the wedding?"
The Dog replied:
Listen, Wolf! If you catch me again asleep in front
of the yard, do not wait for the wedding."

A Gnat came to a Lion, and said:
"Do you think that you have more strength than I?
You are mistaken! What does your strength consist in ?
Is it that you scratch with your claws, and gnaw with
your teeth ? That is the way the women quarrel with
their husbands. I am stronger than you: if you wish
let us fight!"
And the Gnat sounded his horn, and began to bite the
Lion on his bare cheeks and his nose. The Lion struck
his face with his paws and scratched it with his
claws. He tore his face until the blood came, and
gave up.
The Gnat trumpeted for joy, and flew away. Then he
became entangled in a spider's web, and the spider began
to suck him up. The Gnat said:
I have vanquished the strong beast, the Lion, and
now I perish from this nasty spider."


TIIF II):RSE A.id' il? MA .\;i ri5
A gardener hail a Horse. She haid muiich to 1io. but
little to eat; s she l..egan to:i pi y t.. God to: getL another
imas;ter AnI .o it ha-ippe'luc The ga.lener sold tlh
Horse, to a lpo:tter. The H,:,r', wa gplII:l, buat the p"tter
h ,id evuj o:re work fo hr he:r t I:.. AulI agaiu the Horse
tomlnplaiued of her lot, anu began to., pray that she ni g ht
get a letter master. And l thts pr r,o wa) I filtilled.
The potter sold the Horse to a tanner W\heu the Horse
Caw the skius of hi:riss in the tanner'q yardi, she began to
,:Ay :
*Voe t:o me. wretched ione! It would be better if I
coull stay with muy 1o1 mna.terC. It i.; evident the-y have
soil me now not for work, I-ut for my skin's sake."

An Old lMan cut some .wcoii., whi:h lie carried away.
11e lad t:o catrr it far. He grew tired,. so he put down
his btanle, and zaiIl -
SOh, if )De.ah would ouly come!"
Death .iame, and sail :
Here I am, what do you want /"
The Old Man was frightened, and said:
Lift up my bundle !"

A Lion, growing old, was unable to catch the animals,
and so intended to live by cunning. He went into a den,
lay down there, and pretended that he was sick. The an-
imals came to see him, and he ate up those that went into
his den. The Fox guessed the trick. She stood at the
entrance of the den, and said:
"Well, Lion, how are you feeling?"
The Lion answered:


"Poorly. Why don't you come in ?"
The Fox replied:
"I do not come in because I s'w by the tracks that
many have entered, but n:wu'- have come out."

A Stag hid himself from the hunters in a vineyard.
When the hunters missed him, the Stag began to nibble
at the grape-vine leaves.
The hunters noticed that the leaves were moving, and
so they thought, "There must be an animal under those
leaves," and fired their guns, and wounded the Stag.
The Stag said, dying:
It serves me right for wanting to eat the leaves that
saved me."
A house was overrun with Mice. A Cat found his
way into the house, and began to catch them. The Mice
saw that matters were bad, and said:
Mice, let us not come down from the ceiling! The
Cat cannot get up there."
When the Mice stopped coming down, the Cat decided
that he must catch them by a trick. He grasped the ceil-
ing with one leg, hung down from it, and made believe
that he was dead.
A Mouse looked out at him, but said :
No, my friend I Even if you should turn into a bag,
I would not go up to you."

A Wolf saw a Goat browsing on a rocky mountain, and
he could not get at her; so he said to her:
Come down lower! The place is more even, and the
grass is much sweeter to feed on."


But the Goat answered :
You ar nLot calliung m down for that, Wolf: you are
troubling yourselff nut abtut, myn food, but about yours."

The (Olive-tree and the I:-eds quarrelled about who was
stronger and sounder. The Olive-tree laughed at the
I:R-eds because they bent in every wind. The Reeds kept
silence. A storm came: the Reeds swayed, tossed, bowed
to the ground, and remained unharmed. The Olive-tree
strained her branches against the wind, and broke.

Two Companions were walking through the forest
when a Bear jumped out on them. One started to run,
climbed a tree, and hid himself, but the other remained
in the road. He had nothing to do, so he fell down on
the ground and pretended that he was dead.
The Bear went up to him, and sniffed at him ; but he
had stopped breathing.
The Bear sniffed at his face; he thought that he was
dead, and so went away.
When the Bear was gone, the Companion climbed down
from the tree and, laughing, said: "What did the Bear
whisper in your ear ?"
He told me that those who in danger run away from
their companions are bad people."

A Wolf saw a Lamb drinking at a river. The Wolf
wanted to eat the Lamb, and so he began to annoy him.
He said:
"You are muddling my water and do not let me


The Lamb sail:
"How can I n,,dle I, y:-ii writer:' I 1am -t.ntlng, doi'n-
stream from you; besides, I drink with the tips of my
And the Wolf said:
Well, why did you call my father names last sum-
mer ?"
The Lamb said:
But, Wolf, I was not yet born last summer."
The Wolf got angry, and said :
"It is hard to get the best of you. Besides, my stom-
ach is empty, so I will devour you."

An old, sick Lion was lying in his den. All the ani-
mals came to see the king, but the Fox kept away. So
the Wolf was glad of the chance, and began to slander the
Fox before the Lion.
"She does not esteem you in the least," he said, she
has not come once to see the king."
The Fox happened to run by as he was saying these
words. She heard what the Wolf had said, and thought:
Wait, Wolf, I will get my revenge on you."
So the Lion began to roar at the Fox, but she said:
Do not have me killed, but let me say a word I did
not come to see you because I had no time. And I had
no time because I ran over the whole world to ask the
doctors for a remedy for you. I have just got it, and so I
have come to see you."
The Lion said:
"What is the remedy ? "
It is this: if you flay a live Wolf, and put his warm
hide on you -"
When the Lion stretched out the Wolf, the Fox laughed,
and said:


SThat's it., my friend: masters ought to be led to do
good, not ev il"

The Lion, the Ass, anud the Fox wt- et out to hunt. They
c Oliht a large number i:4 aunnals, and the Lion told the
Ass t:o ':liv\'ie them up. The A. dl\ided them into three
equal parts and said: "Now, take them !"
The Lion grew angry, ate up the Ass, and told the Fox
to divil them up anew. The Fox collected them all into
one heap, and left a small bit for herself. The Lion
looked at it and said:
Clever Fox Who taught you to divide so well ?"
She said:
What about that Ass ? "

A Peasant lost his axe in the river; he sat down on the
bank in grief, and began to weep.
The Water-sprite heard the Peasant and took pity on
him. He brought a gold axe out of the river, and said:
"Is this your axe?"
The Peasant said: No, it is not mine."
The Water-sprite brought another, a silver axe.
Again the Peasant said: "It is not my axe."
Then the Water-sprite brought out the real axe.
The Peasant said: Now this is my axe."
The Water-sprite made the Peasant a present of all three
axes, for having told the truth.
At home the Peasant showed his axes to his friends,
and told them what had happened to him.
One of the peasants made up his mind to do the same:
he went to the river, purposely threw his axe into the
water, sat down on the bank, and began to weep.


The Water-sprite bi-'uhlit o'Ut gOl e, ack,, .and a i : "- Is
this your axe ? "
The Peasant was glad, and called out: "It is mine,
mine !"
The Water-sprite did not give him the gold axe, and did
not bring him back his own either, because he had told an
A Raven got himself a piece of meat, and sat down on
a tree. The Fox wanted to get it from him. She went
up to him, and said:
Oh, Raven, as I look at you, -from your size and
beauty, you ought to be a king! And you would
certainly be a king, if you had a good voice."
The Raven opened his mouth wide, and began to croak
with all his might and main. The meat fell down. The
Fox caught it and said:
Oh, Raven I If you had also sense, you would cer-
tainly be a king."


THE Suake:-' Tail had .1a .uairel with the iSnk,'- Heal
al ilut Xh, was t':' wall: in frint. Thl H ,ail said:
. You ,:anj:'t walk in front, b,'-:cauiii you ba\e 1h1:1 eyeI .
a.n' no':' ,-ar."
The Tail said:
S'- es, but I .iv-e streugth, I move young; if I want ti.o, I
c rai Winil myW elf arq1ukl1 .1 tr.-ie and y.-u _-aurio.t ,( ,iff ti'
Thle Hea-d s'iid :
.. L't 11s s-'paiate !"
Anil thi:- Tail trit- hirisi-lf lu,:ise frDmi the HI-al, arid
,Ir44t o'n, but the mor:ruent hL- igot awvay from the- Head, he
fell int: a h le- an'd w.,i lo.t.

A Man i-ordered z-,m.f hoiU thread fr'i:n a Spinner. Thb
Spinner spun it, for him, but the Man said that the tlhiad
was not good, and that he wanted the finest thread he
could get. The Spinner said:
If this is not fine enough, take this !" and she pointed
to an empty space.
He said that he did not see any. The Spinner said:
You do not see it, because it is so fine. I do not see
it myself."
The Fool was glad, and ordered some more thread of
this kind, and paid her for what he got.


A Father had two Sons. He said to them: "When I
die, divide everything into two equal parts."
When the Father died, the Sons could not divide with-
out quarrelling. They went to a Neighbour to have him
settle the matter. The Neighbour asked them how their
Father had told them to divide. They said:
He ordered us to divide everything into two equal
The Neighbour said:
If so, tear all your garments into two halves, break
your dishes into two halves, and cut all your cattle into
two halves!"
The Brothers obeyed their Neighbour, and lost every-

A Man went into the woods, cut down a tree, and
began to saw it. He raised the end of the tree on a
stump, sat astride over it, and began to saw. Then he
drove a wedge into the split that he had sawed, and went
on sawing; then he took out the wedge and drove it in
farther down.
A Monkey was sitting on a tree and watching him.
When the Man lay down to sleep, the Monkey seated
herself astride the tree, and wanted to do the same; but
when she took out the wedge, the tree sprang back and
caught her tail. She began to tug and to cry. The Man
woke up, beat the Monkey, and tied a rope to her.

A Monkey was carrying both her hands full of pease.
A pea dropped on the ground; the Monkey wanted to
pick it up, and dropped twenty peas. She rushed to pick


thew upo and lost all the rest Then she flew into a rage,
swept away all the pease and ran off.

A Man had a (ow she *ga i- e',:h :day a pot full of
milk. The MI.u mu\it,?d a imUl.ber of gruests. To have as
much milk as possible, he did not milk the Cow for ten
days. He thought that on the tenth day the Cow would
ginu- him ten pitchers of milk.
But the Cow's milk went back, and she gave less milk
th:tn befl:re.
A Duck was swimming in the pond, trying to find
some fish, but she did not find one in a whole day.
When night came, she saw the Moon in the water; she
thought that it was a fish, and plunged in to catch the
Moon. The other ducks saw her do it and laughed at
That made the Duck feel so ashamed and bashful that
when she saw a fish under the water, she did not try to
catch it, and so died of hunger.

A Wolf wanted to pick a sheep out of a flock, and
stepped into the wind, so that the dust of the flock might
blow on him.
The Sheep Dog saw him, and said:
"There is no sense, Wolf, in your walking in the dust:
it will make your eyes ache."
But the Wolf said:
"The trouble is, Doggy, that my eyes have been aching
for quite awhile, and I have been told that the dust from
a flock of sheep will cure the eyes."


A M:iu-ne waus lviung under th gt.-neir.y. In the dl.''r
of the- granair L there a.- i Little ho:l'., anu the rain tell
down though it. The Mouse had an easy lirt of it, but
she wanted to brag of her ease: she gnawed a lIrg:r lihol
in the floor, and invited other mice.
Come to a feast with me," said she; there will be
plenty to eat for everybody."
When she brought the mice, she saw there was no
hole. The peasant had noticed the big hole in the floor,
and had stopped it up.

A master sent his Servant to buy the best-tasting pears.
The Servant came to the shop and asked for pears. The
dealer gave him some; but the Servant said:
No, give me the best !"
The dealer said:
Try one; you will see that they taste good."
How shall I know," said the Servant, that they all
taste good, if I try one only ?"
He bit off a piece from each pear, and brought them
to his master. Then his master sent him away.

The Falcon was used to the master, and came to his
hand when he was called; the Cock ran away from his
master and cried when people went up to him. So the
Falcon said to the Cock:
In you Cocks there is no gratitude; one can see that
you are of a common breed. You go to your masters
only when you are hungry. It is different with us wild
birds. We have much strength, and we can fly faster
than anybody; still we do not fly away from people, but


of our own accord go- to tlihir hand- when we are called.
\V,' r,:im: lnilr that they fet-.. I us."
Th,-n the i'o:lk di.I :
'You :do not run a way irot: pe-'iople because you have
n'-.tver e,,n a rlatt F:akO:n, hbt wr, you know, see roast

The Jackals had eaten up all the carrion in the woods,
an1 had nothing to eat. So an old Jackal was thinking
liow to find something to feed on. He went to an Ele-
phant, and said:
We had a king, but he became overweening: he told
us to do things that nobody could do; we want to choose
another king, and my people have sent me to ask you to
be our king. You will have an easy life with us. What-
ever you will order us to do, we will do, and we will
honour you in everything. Come to our kingdom !"
The Elephant consented, and followed the Jackal.
The Jackal brought him to a swamp. When the Ele-
phant stuck fast in it, the Jackal said:
"Now command! Whatever you command, we will
The Elephant said:
I command you to pull me out from here."
The Jackal began to laugh, and said:
Take hold of my tail with your trunk, and I will
pull you out at once."
The Elephant said:
Can I be pulled out by a tail ?"
But the Jackal said to him:
Why, then, do you command us to do what is impos-
sible ? Did we not drive away our first king for tell-
ing us to do what'could not be done ?"
When the Elephant died in the swamp the Jackals
came and ate him up.


A Heron was living near a pond. She grew old, and
had no strength left with which to catch the fish. She
began to contrive how to live by cunning. So she said
to the Fishes:
You Fishes do not know that a calamity is in store
for you: I have heard the people say that they are going
to let off the pond, and catch every one of you. I know
of a nice little pond back of the mountain. I should
like to help you, but I am old, and it is hard for me to
The Fishes begged the Heron to help them. So the
Heron said:
"All right, I will do what I can for you, and will
carry you over: only I cannot do it at once, I will
take you there one after another."
And the Fishes were happy; they kept begging her:
Carry me over! Carry me over!"
And the Heron started carrying them. She would
take one up, would carry her into the field, and would eat
her up. And thus she ate a large number of Fishes.
I-' In the pond there lived an old Crab. When the Heron
began to take out the Fishes, he saw what was up, and
Now, Heron, take me to the new abode !"
The Heron took the Crab and carried him off. When
she flew out on the field, she wanted to throw the Crab
down. But the Crab saw the fish-bones on the ground,
and so squeezed the Heron's neck with his claws, and
choked her to death. Then he crawled back to the pond,
and told the Fishes.

A Man was rowing in a boat, and dropped a costly
pearl into the sea. The Man returned to the shore, took


a pail, and legan to draw up the water and to pour it out
on the land. Hle drew the water arid poured it out for
thTee days without st,:lppiug.
IOI tile fourth day the Water-sprite came out of the sea,
a!,.I :atl:ed -
\h'\ are y.ou drawing the water "
The Mau said.
I am drawing it because I have dropped a pearl into it."
The Water-sprite asked him:
Will you stop soon ?"
The Man said :
I will stop when I dry up the sea."
Then the Water-sprite returned to the sea, brought back
that pearl, and gave it to the Man.

A Man born blind asked a Seeing Man:
(f what colour is milk ?"
The Seeing Man said: The colour of milk is the same
as that of white paper."
The Blind Man asked: "Well, does that colour rustle
in your hands like paper ?"
The Seeing Man said: No, it is as white as white
The Blind Man asked: "Well, is it as soft and as
powdery as flour ? "
The Seeing Man said: "No, it is simply as white as a
white hare."
The Blind Man asked: "Well, is it as fluffy and soft
as a hare ?"
The Seeing Man said : "No, it is as white as snow."
The Blind Man asked: "Well, is it as cold as snow ?"
And no matter how many examples the Seeing Man
gave, the Blind Man was unable to understand what the
white colour of milk was like.



A hunter went i-.t t.:. hunt ,.-ith I:,ow and arr:.w-. He
killed a -oat. He threw ber on h i sli.'Iildlers an,.I carried
ho.r al:nug. On his way lie saw a l.bo:'ar. He threw. down
tlih 2c.,at, and il':h't at the .. l..ar and.l w.iunied him. The
l.i..ar rlitled .t aiuwst tihe hunter and tbltt-d him ti death.
and hiiitelf died i.n the 'po.,t. A \V\'lt c.,uted the l.i"-.]d,
an t.' .are l t.h l-:.e where l.ay the ':',nt, (ihe l.b:oar, the
n. u, i hi i '.,w. The .:.'lf .-ns lad. auti said:
Now I hall ihave renu,.uh l:t eat for I ion-n time,
:.'nly I -will [,.I.t eait e-verythling at i'n[ie, .,ut httlle I.v
little, .' thliat n.,thiin ma. t I....- lo. t: Hirt I w ill ett th.:
(t.,ugher thingi and then I will lunibh :u what is s':ft
andi *, :.'.t."
The W\'lo: suil:ed at the g...t, the l..r..r, un. tihe unu.
anud sa'i :
-" This is ll soft' food. ;,s I will .iat it Int,.r let ile lirst.
t.iart :,' .hie1 e Sinewe ,.f tht- I.: a."
Anl he l.".:.an tc, uuiaw the tuews of the Iow. Wheu
he bit thrte the string the lo.,":w ra.ui l.ick andIl hit m
o: his belly. l e died on the spot and .. their wolves atte
up tile uau, the ,., at, the- l r, a.ud tht.l Wolf.

THE Bi[;r I IN IHE ::Er

A Huuter set ':1t a u eti near a llake anid -tilJ.ht a um-
ber -. I birds. The I.ird- wiere, lirce, and thI.\ rii,-ed the
net and 'A',w aw., with it. The. Hunter ran after them.
A Pe..ant. si'aw tie Hunter ritutiuii, nu.l aid .
W "'here are v ..u running: Iiow .:au v ...i c:atc-h up
with the bird.l, while you are on f'iit '
The Hiunter -idl :
t If it were '..e bird, I should not e 'nt:-h it, but now I
And s.:. it haPl'.ent.l. WVhEn evening came. the. iir<1s


began to: pull foi the uight e-,c:h in a different direction:
,:.tL t,:. the wn.,ll'-. auo:thr to the swamp, a third to the
t'eli.; and :ill tell with the uet to the ground, and the
-Hunter caughtt th:im.

A certain King let his favourite Falcon loose on a
hare, and galloped after him.
The Falcon caught the hare. The King took him away,
and began to look for some water to drink. The King
found it on a knoll, but it came only drop by drop. The
King fetched his cup from the saddle, and placed it under
the water. The water flowed in drops, and when the
cup was filled, the King raised it to his mouth and
wanted to drink it. Suddenly the Falcon fluttered on the
King's arm and spilled the water. The King placed
the ,:up once more under the drops. He waited for
a long time for the cup to be filled even with the brim,
and again, as he carried it to his mouth, the Falcon
flapped his wings and spilled the water.
When the King filled his cup for the third time and
began to carry it to his mouth, the Falcon again spilled
it. The King flew into a rage and killed him by fling-
ing him against a stone with all his force. Just then the
King's servants rode up, and one of them ran up-hill to
the spring, to find as much water as possible, and to fill
the cup. But the servant did not bring the water; he
returned with the empty cup, and said:
You cannot drink that water; there is a snake in the
spring, and she has let her venom into the water. It is
fortunate that the Falcon has spilled the water. If you
had drunk it, you would have died."
The King said:
"How badly I have repaid the Falcon! He has saved
my life, and I killed him."


An Indian King ordered all the Blind People to be as-
sembled, and when they came, he ordered that all the
Elephants be shown to them. The Blind Men went to
the stable and began to feel the Elephants. One felt a
leg, another a tail, a third the stump of a tail, a fourth a
belly, a fifth a back, a sixth the ears, a seventh the tusks,
and an eighth a trunk.
Then the King called the Blind Men, and asked them:
"What are my Elephants like?"
One Blind Man said: Your Elephants are like posts."
He had felt the legs.
Another Blind Man said: They are like bath brooms."
He had felt the end of the tail.
A third said: They are like branches." He had felt
the tail stump.
The one who had touched a belly said: The Elephants
are like a clod of earth."
The one who had touched the sides said: They are
like a walL"
The one who had touched a back said: "They are like
a mound."
The one who had touched the ears said: "They are
like a mortar."
The one who had touched the tusks said: They are
like horns."
The one who had touched the trunk said that they
were like a stout rope.
And all the Blind Men began to dispute and to quarrel.

A Hermit was living in the forest, and the animals
were not afraid of him. He and the animals talked to-
gether and understood each other.
Once the Hermit lay down under a tree, and a Raven


A D:ve, Ia St n aI SI1al:e gathered in the same place,
to pis the night. The aniimalh began to discuss why
there wai et\l in the world.
Th., ra; n .aLdl :
All thl: '-il in th,: world tow:tes from hunger. When
I eat, my fill, I sit down on a branch and croak a little,
and it is all jolly and good, and everything gives me
pleasure; but let me just go without eating a day or two,
and everything palls on me so that I do not feel like
looking at God's world. And something draws me on,
and I fly from place to place, and have no rest. When I
catch a glimpse of some meat, it makes me only feel
sicker than ever, and I make for it without much think-
ing. At times they throw sticks and stones at me, and
the wolves and dogs grab me, but I do not give in. Oh,
how many of my brothers are perishing through hunger!
All evil comes from hunger."
The Dove said:
"According to my opinion, the evil does not come from
hunger, but from love. If we lived singly, the trouble
would not be so bad. One head is not poor, and if it is,
it is only one. But here we live in pairs. And you
come to like your mate so much that you have no rest:
you keep thinking of her all the time, wondering whether
she has had enough to eat, and whether she is warm.
And when your mate flies away from you, you feel en-
tirely lost, and you keep thinking that a hawk may have
carried her off, or men may have caught her; and you
start out to find her, and fly to your ruin, -either into
the hawk's claws, or into a snare. And when your mate
is lost, nothing gives you any joy. You do not eat or
drink, and all the time search and weep. Oh, so many
of us perish in this way! All the evil is not from hun-
ger, but from love."
The Snake said:
No, the evil is not from hunger, nor from love, but


from rage. If wve liveui ce,:tiuly, v.ithl:,ut etitinr' o into 1
rage, everything \oiiul Ie nil:e for us. But, as it is,
whenever a thijLg il-es n:ot g': ecx.:tly right. we get rin.-ry.
and then nothing ile. -.- u. All we:- think :;lli:'it i ho:.w
to revenge oursel-l,'e n ;']in<: ':.nu. Then we fru,:t o1r-
selves, and only hiq, alnd :e-p, aiu1 try to tinid o ii:e one
to bite. And we do not spare a soul, -we even bite
our own father and mother. We feel as though we could
eat ourselves up. And we rage until we perish. All the
evil in the world comes from rage."
The Stag said:
No, not from rage, or from love, or from hunger does
all the evil in the world come, but from terror. If it
were possible not to be afraid, everything would be well.
We have swift feet and much strength: against a small
animal we defend ourselves with our horns, and from a
large one we flee. But how can I help becoming fright-
ened ? Let a branch crackle in the forest, or a leaf rustle,
and I am all atremble with fear, and my heart flutters as
though it wanted to jump out, and I fly as fast as I can.
Again, let a hare run by, or a bird flap its wings, or a dry
twig break off, and you think that it is a beast, and you
run straight up against him. Or you run away from a
dog and run into the hands of a man. Frequently you
get frightened and run, not knowing whither, and at full
speed rush down a steep hill, and get killed. We have
no rest. All the evil comes from terror."
Then the Hermit said:
"Not from hunger, not from love, not from rage, not
from terror are all our sufferings, but from our bodies
comes all the evil in the world. From them come hun-
ger, and love, and rage, and terror."
A Wolf devoured a sheep. The Hunters caught the
Wolf and began to beat him. The Wolf said:


In \aiin .,_ y,'u ltn:t m, I it i u ,[l. my fault that I am
gray. -(..I hb- m:k. m,:re --i."
Dut the: HuterlS sai.l:
.. \W: I.d n.it liat thLi- WXolf t'-ir I.eg gray, but for eat-
ing the sheet "

On':': ujipn .1 tilni t\ i -' Pri:ants ilr.Le toward each
,c-th.r .-irnl i.aucht im AaIhii :,tl-r'c s.-ii,_'i One cried:
"Get out of my way, I am hurrying to town."
But the other said:
"Get out of my way, I am hurrying home."
They quarrelled for some time. A third Peasant saw
them and said:
"If you are in a hurry, back up !"

A Peasant went to town to fetch some oats for his
Horse. He had barely left the village, when the Horse
began to turn around, toward the house. The Peasant
struck the Horse with his whip. She went on, and kept
thinking about the Peasant:
"Whither is that fool driving me ? He had better go
Before reaching town, the Peasant saw that the Horse
trudged along through the mud with difficulty, so he
turned her on the pavement; but the Horse began to turn
back from the street. The Peasant gave the Horse the
whip, and jerked at the reins; she went on the pavement,
and thought:
Why has he turned me on the pavement ? It will
only break my hoofs. It is rough underfoot."
The Peasant went to the shop, bought the oats, and
drove home. When he came home, he gave the Horse
some oats. The Horse ate them and thought:


"How stupid men are! They are fond -A ex.er':idi g
their wits on us, but they have less sense th;iu we. What
did he trouble himself about? He drove ue- s:uLomwhere.
No matter how far we went, we came hou t in the cnd.
So it would have been better if we had rejmarinti at ho:uie
from the start: he could have been sitting ou tlhe :v,-n,
and I eating oats."
Two Horses were drawing their carts. The Front
Horse pulled well, but the Hind Horse kept stopping all
the time. The load of the Hind Horse was transferred
to the front cart; when all was transferred, the Hind
Horse went along with ease, and said to the Front Horse:
Work hard and sweat The more you try, the harder
they will make you work."
When they arrived at the tavern, their master said:
"Why should I feed two Horses, and haul with one
only ? I shall do better to give one plenty to eat, and to
kill the other: I shall at least have her hide."
So he did.
Two Peasants went to the forest to cut wood. One of
them had an axe, and the other a saw. They picked out
a tree, and began to dispute. One said that the tree had
to be chopped, while the other said that it had to be sawed
A third Peasant said:
I will easily make peace between you: if the axe is
sharp, you had better chop it; but if the saw is sharp you
had better saw it."
He took the axe, and began to chop it; but the axe
was so dull that it was not possible to cut with it. Then
he took the saw; the saw was worthless, and did not
saw. So he said:


Stop quarrelling awhile ; the axe dire not chop, and
the saw d,-oe not raws. First g ind y:ur axe and h-le your
saw, and the u qial r-el."
But the r'Pasauts grew "angrie-r still at ,n-e another, be-
ca-.use one hill a lull axn.ild tie otherr a dull saw. And
thi:y came ti:. blows.

A Cook was preparing a dinner. The Dogs were lying
at the kitchen door. The Cook killed a calf and threw
the puts out into the yard. The Dogs picked them up
and ate them, and said:
He is a good Cook: he cooks well."
After awhile the Cook began to clean pease, turnips,
and onions, and threw out the refuse. The Dogs made
for it; but they turned their noses up, and said:
Our Cook has grown worse: he used to cook well,
but now he is no longer any good."
But the Cook paid no attention to the Dogs, and con-
tinued to fix the dinner in his own way. The family,
and not the Dogs, ate the dinner, and praised it.

A Hare once said to a Harrier:
"Why do you bark when you run after us? You
would catch us easier, if you ran after us in silence.
With your bark you only drive us against the hunter:
he hears where we are running; and he rushes out with
his gun and kills us, and does not give you anything."
The Harrier said:
"That is not the reason why I bark. I bark because,
when I scent your odour, I am angry, and happy because
I am about to catch you; I do not know why, but I can-
not keep from barking."


An old Oak dropped an acorn under a Hazelbush. The
Hazelbush said to the Oak:
Have you not enough space under your own branches ?
Drop your acorns in an open space. Here I am myself
crowded by my shoots, and I do not drop my nuts to the
ground, but give them to men."
I have lived for two hundred years," said the Oak,
"and the Oakling which will sprout from that acorn will
live just as long."
Then the Hazelbush flew into a rage, and said:
If so, I will choke your Oakling, and he will not live
for three days."
The Oak made no reply, but told his son to sprout out
of that acorn. The acorn got wet and burst, and clung
to the ground with his crooked rootlet, and sent up a
The Hazelbush tried to choke him, and gave him no
sun. But the Oakling spread upwards and grew stronger
in the shade of the Hazelbush. A hundred years passed.
The Hazelbush had long ago dried up, but the Oak from
that acorn towered to the sky and spread his tent in all
A Hen hatched some Chicks, but did not know how to
take care of them. So she said to them:
"Creep back into your shells 1 When you are inside
your shells, I will sit on you as before, and will take care
of you."
The Chicks did as they were ordered and tried to creep
into their shells, but were unable to do so, and only
crushed their wings. Then one of the Chicks said to his
"If we are to stay all the time in our shells, you ought
never to have hatched us."


A Corn-crake hatl i.ade a nest in the meadow late in
Lhe year, ..in at mowing tiime his Mate. was still sitting
':Lu hr eggs. Early in the :rniring the peasants came to
thI: mead:low, took on' thl,:ir co.ats., wh.tted their scythes,
r.1l stirteld oue afterr another co wnow down the grass and
Lo puL it down in rows. The Corn-crake flew up to see
what the mowers were doing. When he saw a peasant
swing his scythe and cut a snake in two, he rejoiced and
flew back to his Mate and said:
Don't fear the peasants! They have come to cut the
snakes to pieces; they have given us no rest for quite
But his Mate said:
The peasants are cutting the grass, and with the grass
they are cutting everything which is in their way, the
snakes, and the Corn-crake's nest, and the Corn-crake's
head. My heart forebodes nothing good: but I cannot
carry away the eggs, nor fly from the nest, for fear of
chilling them."
When the mowers came to the nest of the Corn-crake,
one of the peasants swung his scythe and cut of the head
of the Corn-crake's Mate, and put the eggs in his bosom
and gave them to his children to play with.

An old woman had a Cow and a Billy Goat. The two
pastured together. At milking the Cow was restless.
The old woman brought out some bread and salt, and
gave it to the Cow, and said :
"Stand still, motherkin; take it, take it! I will bring
you some more, only stand still."
On the next evening the Goat came home from the
field before the Cow, and spread his legs, and stood in
front of the old woman. The old woman wanted to strike


him with the towel, but he stood still, and did not stir.
He remembered that the woman had promised the Cow
some bread if she would stand still. When the woman
saw that he would not budge, she picked up a stick, and
beat him with it.
When the Goat went away, the woman began once
more to feed the Cow with bread, and to talk to her.
"There is no honesty in men," thought the Goat. "I
stood still better than the Cow, and was beaten for it."
He stepped aside, took a run, hit against the milk-pail,
spilled the milk, and hurt the old woman.

A Man caught a Fox, and asked her:
Who has taught you Foxes to cheat the dogs with
your tails ?"
The Fox asked: "How do you mean, to cheat? We
do not cheat the dogs, but simply run from them as fast
as we can."
The Man said:
"Yes, you do cheat them with your tails. When the
dogs catch up with you and are about to clutch you, you
turn your tails to one side; the dogs turn sharply after
the tail, and then you run in the opposite direction."
The Fox laughed, and said:
"We do not do so in order to cheat the dogs, but in
order to turn around; when a dog is after us, and we see
that we cannot get away straight ahead, we turn to one
side, and in order to do that suddenly, we have to swing
the tail to the other side, just as you do with your arms,
when you have to turn around. That is not our inven-
tion; God himself invented it when He created us, so that
the dogs might not be able to catch all the Foxes."



1869- 1872


A POOR woman had a daughter by the name of Masha.
Masha went in the morning to fetch water, and saw at the
door something wrapped in rags. When she touched
the rags, there came from it the sound of Ooah, ooah,
ooah!" Masha bent down and saw that it was a tiny, red-
skinned baby. It was crying aloud: Ooah, ooah!"
MAsha took it into her arms and carried it into the
house, and gave it milk with a spoon. Her mother said:
"What have you brought ?"
A baby. I found it at our door."
The mother said:
We are poor as it is; we have nothing to feed the
baby with; I will go to the chief and tell him to take
the baby."
Masha began to cry, and said:
Mother, the child will not eat much; leave it here!
See what red, wrinkled little hands and fingers it has !"
Her mother looked at them, and she felt pity for the
child. She did not take the baby away. Mdsha fed and
swathed the child, and sang songs to it, when it went to

A PEASANT once went to the gardener's, to steal cucum-
bers. He crept up to the cucumbers, and thought:
I will carry off a bag of cucumbers, which I will sell;
with the money I will buy a hen. The hen will lay eggs,
hatch them, and raise a lot of chicks. I will feed the
chicks and sell them; then I will buy me a young sow,
and she will bear a lot of pigs. I will sell the pigs, and
buy me a mare; the mare will foal me some colts. I
will raise the colts, and sell them. I will buy me a house,
and start a garden. In the garden I will sow cucumbers,
and will not let them be stolen, but will keep a sharp
watch on them. I will hire watchmen, and put them in
the cucumber patch, while I myself will come on them,
unawares, and shout: Oh, there, keep a sharp lookout "
And this he shouted as loud as he could. The watch-
men heard it, and they rushed out and beat the peasant.

DURLNG harvest-time the men and women went out to
work. In the village were left only the old and the very
you rig. In one hut there remained a grandmother with
helr tlir:ei grandchildren.
TLh- grandmother made a fire in the oven, and lay down
tur i-t herself. Flies kept alighting on her and biting
Ihr. She covered her head with a towel and fell asleep.
Oi.e -.t the grandchildren, M6sha (she was three years
olA), :op.ined the oven, scraped some coals into a potsherd,
and went into the vestibule. In the vestibule lay sheaves:
the women were getting them bound.
Misha brought the coals, put them under the sheaves,
and began to blow. When the straw caught fire, she was
glad; she went into the hut and took her brother Kir-
ydsha by the arm (he was a year and a half old, and had
just learned to walk), and brought him out, and said to
him :
See, Kilyuska, what a fire I have kindled."
The sheaves were already burning and crackling. When
the vestibule was filled with smoke, Mdsha became fright-
ened and ran back into the house. Kirydsha fell over
the threshold, hurt his nose, and began to cry; Mdsha
pulled him into the house, and both hid under a bench.
The grandmother heard nothing, and did not wake.
The elder boy, V6nya (he was eight years old), was in the
street. When he saw the smoke rolling out of the vesti-
bule, he ran to the door, made his way through the smoke
into the house, and began to waken his grandmother;
but she was dazed from her sleep, and, forgetting the


children, rushed out and ran to the farmyards to call the
In the meantime M6sha was sitting under the bench
and keeping quiet; but the little boy cried, because he had
hurt his nose badly. Vanya heard his cry, looked under
the bench, and called out to Masha:
Run, you will burn !"
Masha ran to the vestibule, but could not pass for the
smoke and fire. She turned back. Then VYnya raised a
window and told her to climb through it. When she got
through, Vanya picked up his brother and dragged him
along. But the child was heavy and did not let his
brother take him. He cried and pushed VYnya. Vanya
fell down twice, and when he dragged him up to the win-
dow, the door of the hut was already burning. Vanya
thrust the child's head through the window and wanted to
push him through; but the child took hold of him with
both his hands (he was very much frightened) and would
not let them take him out. Then V6nya cried to Mdsha:
Pull him by the head !" while he himself pushed him
And thus they pulled him through the window and
into the street.

IN our village there was an old, old man, Pimen Timo-
ffich. He was ninety years old. He was living at the
house of his grandson, doing no work. His back was
1.iet : he walked with a cane and moved his feet
He had no teeth at all, and his face was wrinkled. His
nether lip trembled; when he walked and when he talked,
his lips smacked, and one could not understand what he
was saying.
We were four brothers, and we were fond of riding.
But we had no gentle riding-horses. We were allowed to
ride only on one horse, the name of that horse was
One day mamma allowed us to ride, and all of us went
with the valet to the stable. The coachman saddled Ra-
ven for us, and my eldest brother was the first to take a
ride. He rode for a long time; he rode to the threshing-
floor and around the garden, and when he came back, we
Now gallop past us!"
My elder brother began to strike Raven with his feet
and with the whip, and Raven galloped past us.
After him, my second brother mounted the horse. He,
too, rode for quite awhile, and he, too, urged Raven on
with the whip and galloped up the hill. He wanted to
ride longer, but my third brother begged him to let him
ride at once.
My third brother rode to the threshing-floor, and around
the garden, and down the village, and raced up-hill to the


stable. When he rode up to us Raven was panting, and
his neck and shoulders were dark from sweat.
When my turn came, I wanted to surprise my brothers
and to show them how well I could ride, so I began to
drive Raven with all my might, but he did not want to
get away from the stable. And no matter how much I
beat him, he would not run, but only shied and turned
back. I grew angry at the horse, and struck him as hard
as I could with my feet and with the whip. I tried to
strike him in places where it would hurt most; I broke
the whip and began to strike his head with what was left
of the whip. But Raven would not run. Then I turned
back, rode up to the valet, and asked him for a stout
switch. But the valet said to me:
Don't ride any more, sir Get down What use is
there in torturing the horse ?"
I felt offended, and said:
"But I have not had a ride yet. Just watch me gal-
lop! Please, give me a good-sized switch! I will heat
him up."
Then the valet shook his head, and said:
"Oh, sir, you have no pity; why should you heat him
up ? He is twenty years old. The horse is worn out;
he can barely breathe, and is old. He is so very old!
Just like Pimen Timoffich. You might just as well sit
down on Timof4ich's back and urge him on with a switch.
Well, would you not pity him ?"
I thought of Pimen, and listened to the valet's words.
I climbed down from the horse and, when I saw how his
sweaty sides hung down, how he breathed heavily through
his nostrils, and how he switched his bald tail, I under-
stood that it was hard for the horse. Before that I
used to think that it was as much fun for him as
for me. I felt so sorry for Raven that I began to kiss
his sweaty neck and to beg his forgiveness for having
beaten him.


Since then I ihive grown t,, b1e a big man, and I always
amn careful with the horses, and always think of Raven
and of Pinieni Tim:rnofitch whenever I see anybody torture
a horie.

WHEN I was a little fellow, we used to study every day,
and only on Sundays and holidays went out and played
with our brothers. Once my father said:
The children must learn to ride. Send them to the
riding-school !"
I was the youngest of the brothers, and I asked:
May I, too, learn to ride ?"
My father said:
You will fall down."
I began to beg him to let me learn, and almost cried.
My father said :
All right, you may go, too. Only look out! Don't
cry when you fall off. He who does not once fall down
from a horse will not learn to ride."
When Wednesday came, all three of us were taken to
the riding-school. We entered by a large porch, and from
the large porch went to a smaller one. Beyond the porch
was a very large room: instead of a floor it had sand.
And in this room were gentlemen and ladies and just such
boys as we. That was the riding-school. The riding-
school was not very light, and there was a smell of horses,
and you could hear them snap whips and call to the
horses, and the horses strike their hoofs against the
wooden walls. At first I was frightened and could not
see things well. Then our valet called the riding-master,
and said:
Give these boys some horses: they are going to learn
how to ride."
The master said:


A ll ri-It !"
I lI h" I ...> L -It it -, and s.ii' :
." H. i v,-ry -ui ll yet."
But tiLe valet s ili :
l*e pr- r,,mikedl no:t to cry when hre alls down."
The master laughed and went away.
Then they brought three saddled horses, and we took off
our cloaks and walked down a staircase to the riding-
school. The master was holding a horse by a cord, and
my brothers rode around him. At first they rode at a
slow pace, and later at a trot. Then they brought
a pony. It was a red horse, and his tail was cut off.
He was called Ruddy. The master laughed, and said
to me:
Well, young gentleman, get on your horse!"
I was both happy and afraid, and tried to act in such
a manner as not to be noticed by anybody. For a long
time I tried to get my foot into the stirrup, but could not
do it because I was too small. Then the master raised
me up in his hands and put me on the saddle. He said:
"The young master is not heavy, about two pounds
in weight, that is all."
At first he held me by my hand, but I saw that my
brothers were not held, and so I begged him to let go of
me. He said:
"Are you not afraid ?"
I was very much afraid, but I said that I was not. I
was so much afraid because Ruddy kept dropping his
ears. I thought he was angry at me. The master said:
"Look out, don't fall down!" and let go of me. At
first Ruddy went at a slow pace, and I sat up straight.
But the saddle was sleek, and I was afraid I would slip
off. The master asked me:
Well, are you fast in the saddle ?"
I said:
Yes, I am."


"If so, go at a slow trot!" and the master clicked his
Ruddy started at a slow trot, and began to jog me.
But I kept silent, and tried not to slip to one side. The
master praised me:
"Oh, a fine young gentleman, indeed !"
I was very glad to hear it.
Just then the master's friend went up to him and
began to talk with him, and the master stopped looking
at me.
Suddenly I felt that I had slipped a little to one side
on my saddle. I wanted to straighten myself up, but
was unable to do so. I wanted to call out to the master
to stop the horse, but I thought it would be a disgrace if
I did it, and so kept silence. The master was not looking
at me and Ruddy ran at a trot, and I slipped still more to
one side. I looked at the master and thought that he
would help me, but he was still talking with his friend,
and without looking at me kept repeating:
Well done, young gentleman !"
I was now altogether to one side, and was very much
frightened. I thought that I was lost; but I felt
ashamed to cry. Ruddy shook me up once more, and I
slipped off entirely and fell to the ground. Then Ruddy
stopped, and the master looked at the horse and saw that
I was not on him. He said:
"I declare, my young gentleman has dropped off !" and
walked over to me.
When I told him that I was not hurt, he laughed and
A child's body is soft."
I felt like crying. I asked him to put me again on
the horse, and I was lifted on the horse. After that I
did not fall down again.
Thus we rode twice a week in the riding-school, and I
soon learned to ride well, and was not afraid of anything.

DURING Easter week a peasant went out to see whether
the ground was all thawed out.
He went into the garden and touched the soil with a
stick. The earth was soft. The peasant went into the
woods; here the catkins were already swelling on the
willows. The peasant thought:
"I will fence my garden with willows; they will grow
up and will make a good hedge !"
He took his axe, cut down a dozen willows, sharpened
them at the end, and stuck them in the ground.
All the willows sent up sprouts with leaves, and under-
ground let out just such sprouts for roots; and some of
them took hold of the ground and grew, and others did
not hold well to the ground with their roots, and died
and fell down.
In the fall the peasant was glad at the sight of his
willows: six of them had taken root. The following
spring the sheep killed two willows by gnawing at them,
and only two were left. Next spring the sheep nibbled
at these also. One of them was completely ruined, and
the other came to, took root, and grew to be a tree. In
the spring the bees just buzzed in the willow. In swarm-
ing time the swarms were often put out on the willow,
and the peasants brushed them in. The men and women
frequently ate and slept under the willow, and the chil-
dren climbed on it and broke off rods from it.
The peasant that had set out the willow was long dead,
and still it grew. His eldest son twice cut down its
branches and used them for fire-wood. The willow kept


growing. They trimmed it all around, and cut it down
to a stump, but in the spring it again sent out twigs,
thinner ones than before, but twice as many as ever, as is
the case with a colt's forelock.
And the eldest son quit farming, and the village was
given up, but the willow grew in the open field. Other
peasants came there, and chopped the willow, but still it
grew. The lightning struck it; but it sent forth side
branches, and it grew and blossomed. A peasant wanted
to cut it down for a block, but he gave it up, it was too
rotten. It leaned sidewise, and held on with one side
only; and still it grew, and every year the bees came
there to gather the pollen.
One day, early in the spring, the boys gathered under
the willow, to watch the horses. They felt cold, so they
started a fire. They gathered stubbles, wormwood, and
sticks. One of them climbed on the willow and broke
off a lot of twigs. They put it all in the hollow of the
willow and set fire to it. The tree began to hiss and its
sap to boil, and the smoke rose and the tree burned; its
whole inside was smudged. The young shoots dried up,
the blossoms withered.
The children drove the horses home. The scorched
willow was left all alone in the field. A black raven
flew by, and he sat down on it, and cried:
"So you are dead, old smudge! You ought to have
died long ago !"

I HAD a small bulldog. He was called Bilka. He
was black; only the tips of his front feet were white.
All bulldogs have their lower jaws longer than the upper,
and the upper teeth come down behind the nether teeth,
but Bdlka's lower jaw protruded so much that I could
put my finger between the two rows of teeth. His face
was broad, his eyes large, black, and sparkling; and his
teeth and incisors stood out prominently. He was as
black as a negro. He was gentle and did not bite, but
he was strong and stubborn. If he took hold of a thing,
he clenched his teeth and clung to it like a rag, and it
was not possible to tear him off, any more than as though
he were a lobster.
Once he was let loose on a bear, and he got hold of the
bear's ear and stuck to him like a leech. The bear struck
him with his paws and squeezed him, and shook him
from side to side, but could not tear himself loose from
him, and so he fell down on his head, in order to crush
Bdlka; but Builka held on to him until they poured cold
water over him.
I got him as a puppy, and raised him myself. When
I went to the Caucasus, I did not want to take him along,
and so went away from him quietly, ordering him to be
shut up. At the first station I was about to change the
relay, when suddenly I saw something black and shining
coming down the road. It was Biilka in his brass collar.
He was flying at full speed toward the station. He
rushed up to me, licked my hand, and stretched himself
out in the shade under the cart. His tongue stuck out a


whole hand's length. He now drew it in to swallow the
spittle, and now stuck it out again a whole hand's length.
He tried to breathe fast, but could not do so, and his
sides just shook. He turned from one side to the other,
and struck his tail against the ground.
I learned later that after I had left he had broken a
pane, jumped out of the window, and followed my track
along the road, and thus raced twenty versts through the
greatest heat.

ONCE we went into the Caucasus to hunt the wild boar,
and Bulka went with me. The moment the hounds
started, Bilka rushed after them, following their sound,
and disappeared in the forest. That was in the month of
November; the boars and sows are then very fat.
In the Caucasus there are many edible fruits in the
forests where the boars live: wild grapes, cones, apples,
pears, blackberries, acorns, wild plums. And when all
these fruits get ripe and are touched by the frost, the
boars eat them and grow fat.
At that time a boar gets so fat that he cannot run from
the dogs. When they chase him for about two hours, he
makes for the thicket and there stops. Then the hunters
run up to the place where he stands, and shoot him.
They can tell by the bark of the hounds whether the boar
has stopped, or is running. If he is running, the hounds
yelp, as though they were beaten; but when he stops,
they bark as though at a man, with a howling sound.
During that chase I ran for a long time through the
forest, but not once did I cross a boar track. Finally I
heard the long-drawn bark and howl of the hounds, and
ran up to that place. I was already near the boar. I
could hear the crashing in the thicket. The boar was
turning around on the dogs, but I could not tell by the
bark that they were not catching him, but only circling
around him. Suddenly I heard something rustle behind
me, and I saw that it was Bdlka. He had evidently
strayed from the hounds in the forest and had lost his
way, and now was hearing their barking and making for


them, like me, as' fast as he could. He ran across a
clearing through the high grass, and all I could see of
him was his black head and his tongue clinched between
his white teeth. I called him back, but he did not look
around, and ran past me and disappeared in the thicket.
I ran after him, but the farther I went, the more and
more dense did the forest grow. The branches kept
knocking off my cap and struck me in the face, and the
thorns caught in my garments. I was near to the bark-
ing, but could not see anything.
Suddenly I heard the dogs bark louder, and something
crashed loudly, and the boar began to puff and snort. I
immediately made up my mind that Bdlka had got up
to him and was busy with him. I ran with all my might
through the thicket to that place. In the densest part of
the thicket I saw a dappled hound. She was barking and
howling in one spot, and within three steps from her
something black could be seen moving around.
When I came nearer, I could make out the boar, and I
heard Bdlka whining shrilly. The boar grunted and made
for the hound; the hound took her tail between her legs
and leaped away. I could see the boar's side and head.
I aimed at his side and fired. I saw that I had hit him.
The boar grunted and crashed through the thicket away
from me. The dogs whimpered and barked in his track;
I tried to follow them through the undergrowth. Sud-
denly I saw and heard something almost under my feet.
It was Bdlka. He was lying on his side and whining.
Under him there was a puddle of blood. I thought the
dog was lost; but I had no time to look after him, I con-
tinued to make my way through the thicket. Soon I saw
the boar. The dogs were trying to catch him from be-
hind, and he kept turning, now to one side, and now to
another. When the boar saw me, he moved toward me.
I fired a second time, almost resting the barrel against
him, so that his bristles caught fire, and the boar groaned


an.1 t.:'ttu:red, and with hii whli.le cidavr dropped heavily
,:n the gro:'und,
\'hun I cai:-n up, thib.l l.:r was deadl, aud only here and
there did his body jerk and twitch. Some of the dogs,
with bristling hair, were tearing his belly and legs, while
the others were lapping the blood from his wound.
Then I thought of Builka, and went back to find him.
He was crawling toward me and groaning. I went up to
him and looked at his wound. His belly was ripped
open, and a whole piece of his guts was sticking out of
his body and dragging on the dry leaves. When my com-
panions came up to me, we put the guts back and sewed
up his belly. While we were sewing him up and sticking
the needle through his skin, he kept licking my hand.
The boar was tied up to the horse's tail, to pull him out
of the forest, and Bulka was put on the horse, and thus
taken home. Builka was sick for about six weeks, and
got well again.

WILD fowls are called pheasants in the Caucasus. There
are so many of them that they are cheaper there than
tame chickens. Pheasants are hunted with the "hobby',
by scaring up, and from under dogs. This is the way
they are hunted with the "hobby." They take a piece of
canvas and stretch it over a frame, and in the middle of
the frame they make a cross piece. They cut a hole in the
canvas. This frame with the canvas is called a hobby.
With this hobby and with the gun they start out at dawn
to the forest. The hobby is carried in front, and through
the hole they look out for the pheasants. The pheasants
feed at daybreak in the clearings. At times it is a whole
brood, a hen with all her chicks, and at others a cock
with his hen, or several cocks together.
The pheasants do not see the man, and they are not
afraid of the canvas and let the hunter come close to
them. Then the hunter puts down the hobby, sticks his
gun through the rent, and shoots at whichever bird he
This is the way they hunt by scaring up. They let a
watch-dog into the forest and follow him. When the dog
finds a pheasant, he rushes for it. The pheasant flies on
a tree, and then the dog begins to bark at it. The hunter
follows up the barking and shoots the pheasant in the
tree. This chase would be easy, if the pheasant alighted
on a tree in an open place, or if it sat still, so that it
might be seen. But they always alight on dense trees,
in the thicket, and when they see the hunter they hide
themselves in the branches. And it is hard to make one's


way through the thicket to the tree on which a pheasant
is sitting, and hard to see it. So long as the dog alone
barks at it, it is not afraid : it sits on a branch and preens
and flaps its wings at the dog. But the moment it sees a
man, it immediately stretches itself out along a bough, so
that only an experienced hunter can tell it, while an inex-
perienced one will stand near by and see nothing.
When the Cossacks steal up to the pheasants, they pull
their caps over their faces and do not look up, because a
pheasant is afraid of a man with his gun, but more still
of his eyes.
This is the way they hunt from under dogs. They take
a setter and follow him to the forest. The dog scents the
place where the pheasants have been feeding at daybreak,
and begins to make out their tracks. No matter how the
pheasants may have mixed them up, a good dog will
always find the last track, that takes them out from the
spot where they have been feeding. The farther the dog
follows the track, the stronger will the scent be, and thus
he will reach the place where the pheasant sits or walks
about in the grass in the daytime. When he comes near
to where the bird is, he thinks that it is right before him,
and starts walking more cautiously so as not to frighten
it, and will stop now and then, ready to jump and catch it.
When the dog comes up very near to the pheasant, it flies
up, and the hunter shoots it.

I BOUGHT me a setter to hunt pheasants with. The
name of the dog was Milton. He was a big, thin, gray,
spotted dog, with long lips and ears, and he was very
strong and intelligent. He did not fight with Bdlka. No
dog ever tried to get into a fight with Bdlka. He needed
only to show his teeth, and the dogs would take their
tails between their legs and slink away.
Once I went with Milton to hunt pheasants. Sud-
denly BRilka ran after me to the forest. I wanted to drive
him back, but could not do so; and it was too far for me
to take him home. I thought he would not be in my
way, and so walked on; but the moment Milton scented
a pheasant in the grass and began to search for it, Builka
rushed forward and tossed from side to side. He tried
to scare up the pheasant before Milton. He heard some-
thing in the grass, and jumped and whirled around; but
he had a poor scent and could not find the track himself,
but watched Milton, to see where he was running. The
moment Milton started on the trail, Builka ran ahead of
him. I called Builka back and beat him, but could not
do a thing with him. The moment Milton began to search,
he darted forward and interfered with him.
I was already on the point of going home, because I
thought that the chase was spoiled; but Milton found a
better way of cheating Builka. This is what he did: the
moment Bdlka rushed ahead of him, he gave up the trail
and turned in another direction, pretending that he was
searching there. Bdlka rushed there where Milton was,
and Milton looked at me and wagged his tail and went


back to the right trail. Bdlka again ran up to Milton and
rushed past him, and again Milton took some ten steps to
one side and cheated Bdlka, and again led me straight;
and so he cheated Bilka all the way and did not let him
spoil the chase.

ONCE I went with Milton to the chase. Near the forest
he began to search. He straightened out his tail, pricked
his ears, and began to sniff. I fixed the gun and followed
him. I thought that he was looking for a partridge, hare,
or pheasant. But Milton did not make for the forest, but
for the field. I followed him and looked ahead of me.
Suddenly I saw what he was searching for. In front of
him was running a small turtle, of the size of a cap. Its
bare, dark gray head on a long neck was stretched out like
a pestle; the turtle in walking stretched its bare legs far
out, and its back was all covered with bark.
When it saw the dog, it hid its legs and head and let
itself down on the grass so that only its shell could be
seen. Milton grabbed it and began to bite at it, but could
not bite through it, because the turtle has just such a shell
on its belly as it has on its back, and has only openings
in front, at the back, and at the sides, where it puts forth
its head, its legs, and its tail.
I took the turtle away from Milton, and tried to see how
its back was painted, and what kind of a shell it had, and
how it hid itself. When you hold it in your hands
and look between the shell, you can see something black
and alive inside, as though in a cellar. I threw away the
turtle, and walked on, but Milton would not leave it, and
carried it in his teeth behind me. Suddenly Milton
whimpered and dropped it. The turtle had put forth its
foot inside of his mouth, and had scratched it. That
made him so angry that he began to bark ; he grasped it
once more and carried it behind me. I ordered Milton to


throw it away, but he paid no attention to me. Then I
took the turtle from him and threw it away. But he did
not leave it. He hurriedly dug a hole near it; when the
hole was dug, he threw the turtle into it and covered it
up with dirt.
The turtles live on land and in the water, like snakes
and frogs. They breed their young from eggs. These
eggs they lay on the ground, and they do not hatch them,
but the eggs burst themselves, like fish spawn, and the
turtles crawl out of them. There are small turtles, not
larger than a saucer, and large ones, seven feet in length
and weighing seven hundredweights. The large turtles
live in the sea.
One turtle lays in the spring hundreds of eggs. The
turtle's shells are its ribs. Men and other animals have
each rib separate, while the turtle's ribs are all grown to-
gether into a shell. But the main thing is that with all
the animals the ribs are inside the flesh, while the turtle
has the ribs on the outside, and the flesh beneath them.

WHEN I left the Caucasus, they were still fighting there,
and in the night it was dangerous to travel without a
I wanted to leave as early as possible, and so did not
lie down to sleep.
My friend came to see me off, and we sat the whole
evening and night in the village street, in front of my
It was a moonlit night with a mist, and so bright that
one could read, though the moon was not to be seen.
In the middle of the night we suddenly heard a pig
squealing in the yard across the street. One of us cried:
"A wolf is choking the pig !"
I ran into the house, grasped a loaded gun, and ran
into the street. They were all standing at the gate of
the yard where the pig was squealing, and cried to me:
"Here Milton rushed after me, no doubt he thought
that I was going out to hunt with the gun ; but Builka
pricked his short ears, and tossed from side to side, as
though to ask me whom he was to clutch. When I ran
up to the wicker fence, I saw a beast running straight
toward me from the other side of the yard. That was
the wolf. He ran up to the fence and jumped on it. I
stepped aside and fixed my gun. The moment the wolf
jumped down from the fence to my side, I aimed, almost
touching him with the gun, and pulled the trigger; but
my gun made Click" and did not go off. The wolf did
not stop, but ran across the street.


Milt.n and Bdlka 1n:.: for him. Milton was near to
the wolf, but was afraid to take hold of him; and no
matter how fast Bdlka ran on his short legs, he could
not keep up with him. We ran as fast as we could after
the wolf, but both the wolf and the dogs disappeared from
sight. Only at the ditch, at the end of the village, did
we hear a low barking and whimpering, and saw the dust
rise in the mist of the moon and the dogs busy with the
wolf. When we ran up to the ditch, the wolf was no
longer there, and both dogs returned to us with raised tails
and angry faces. Bdlka snarled and pushed me with his
head: evidently he wanted to tell me something, but did
not know how.
We examined the dogs, and found a small wound on
Bdlka's head. He had evidently caught up with the
wolf before he got to the ditch, but had not had a chance
to get hold of him, while the wolf snapped at him and
ran away. It was a small wound, so there was no danger.
We returned to the cabin, and sat down and talked
about what had happened. I was angry because the gun
had missed fire, and thought of how the wolf would have
remained on the spot, if the gun had shot. My friend
wondered how the wolf could have crept into the yard.
An old Cossack said that there was nothing remarkable
about it, because that was not a wolf, but a witch who
had charmed my gun. Thus we sat and kept talking.
Suddenly the dogs darted off, and we saw the same wolf
in the middle of the street; but this time he ran so fast
when he heard our shout that the dogs could not catch
up with him.
After that the old Cossack was fully convinced that it
was not a wolf, but a witch; but I thought that it was
a mad wolf, because I had never seen or heard of such
a thing as a wolf's coming back toward the people, after it
had been driven away.
In any case I poured some powder on Bdlka's wound,


and set it on fire. The powder flashed up and burne-l cult
the sore spot.
I burned out the sore with powder, in order to': hu u
away the poisonous saliva, if it had not yet enterTel the
blood. But if the saliva had already entered the bI.Id, I
knew that the blood would carry it through the x h.l:
body, and then it would not be possible to cure him.

FROM the Cossack village I did not travel directly to
Russia, but first to Pyatigorsk, where I stayed two
months. Milton I gave away to a Cossack hunter, and
Builka I took along with me to Pyatig6rsk.
Pyatig6rsk [in English, Five-Mountains] is called so
because it is situated on Mount Besh-tau. And besh
means in Tartar "five," and tau mountain." From
this mountain flows a hot sulphur stream. It is as hot as
boiling water, and over the spot where the water flows
from the mountain there is always a steam as from a
The whole place, on which the city stands, is very
cheerful. From the mountain flow the hot springs, and
at the foot of the mountain is the river Podkiimok. On
the slopes of the mountain are forests; all around the city
are fields, and in the distance are seen the mountains of
the Caucasus. On these the snow never melts, and they
are always as white as sugar. One large mountain,
Elbrus, is like a white loaf of sugar; it can be seen from
everywhere when the weather is clear. People come to
the hot springs to be cured, and over them there are ar-
bours and awnings, and all around them are gardens with
walks. In the morning the music plays, and people
drink the water, or bathe, or stroll about.
The city itself is on the mountain, but at the foot of it
there is a suburb. I lived in that suburb in a small
house. The house stood in a yard, and before the win-
dows was a small garden, and in the garden stood the
landlord's beehives, not in hollow stems, as in Russia, but


in round, plaited baskets. The bees are there so gentle
that in the morning I used to sit with Bdlka in that
garden, amongst the beehives.
Bulka walked about between the hives, and sniffed, and
listened to the bees' buzzing; he walked so softly among
them that he did not interfere with them, and they did
not bother him.
One morning I returned home from the waters, and sat
down in the garden to drink coffee. Bilka began to
scratch himself behind his ears, and made a grating noise
with his collar. The noise worried the bees, and so I
took the collar off. A little while later I heard a strange
and terrible noise coming from the city. The dogs
barked, howled, and whimpered, people shouted, and the
noise descended lower from the mountain and came
nearer and nearer to our suburb.
Bilka stopped scratching himself, put his broad head
with its white teeth between his fore legs, stuck out his
tongue as he wished, and lay quietly by my side. When
he heard the noise he seemed to understand what it was.
He pricked his ears, showed his teeth, jumped up, and
began to snarl. The noise came nearer. It sounded as
though all the dogs of the city were howling, whimpering,
and barking. I went to the gate to see what it was, and
my landlady came out, too. I asked her:
What is this ?"
She said:
"The prisoners of the jail are coming down to kill the
dogs. The dogs have been breeding so much that the
city authorities have ordered all the dogs in the city to
be killed."
So they would kill Bulka, too, if they caught him ?"
No, they are not allowed to kill dogs with collars."
Just as I was speaking, the prisoners were coming up
to our house. In front walked the soldiers, and behind
them four prisoners in chains. Two of the prisoners had


in their hands long iron hooks, and two had clubs. In
front of our house, one of the prisoners caught a watch-
dog with his hook and pulled it up to the middle of the
street, and another began to strike it with the club.
The little dog whined dreadfully, but the prisoners
shouted and laughed. The prisoner with the hook turned
over the dog, and when he saw that it was dead, he
pulled out the hook and looked around for other dogs.
Just then Bdlka rushed headlong at that prisoner, as
though he were a bear. I happened to think that he was
without his collar, so I shouted: "Bdlka, back!" and
told the prisoners not to strike the dog. But the pris-
oner laughed when he saw Builka, and with his hook
nimbly struck him and caught him by his thigh. Btilka
tried to get away; but the prisoner pulled him up toward
him and told the other prisoner to strike him. The other
raised his club, and Bulka would have been killed, but he
jerked, and broke the skin at the thigh and, taking his
tail between his legs, flew, with the red sore on his body,
through the gate and into the house, and hid himself
under my bed.
He was saved because the skin had broken in the spot
where the hook was.

BtLKA and Milton died at the same time. The old
Cossack did not know how to get along with Milton.
Instead of taking him out only for birds, he went with
him to hunt wild boars. And that same fall a tusky boar
ripped him open. Nobody knew how to sew him up, and
so he died.
BiBlka, too, did not live long after the prisoners had
caught him. Soon after his salvation from the prisoners
he began to feel unhappy, and started to lick everything
that he saw. He licked my hands, but not as formerly
when he fawned. He licked for a long time, and pressed
his tongue against me, and then began to snap. Evi-
dently he felt like biting my hand, but did not want to
do so. I did not give him my hand. Then he licked my
boot and the foot of a table, and then he began to snap at
these things. That lasted about two days, and on the
third he disappeared, and no one saw him or heard of
He could not have been stolen or run away from me.
This happened six weeks after the wolf had bitten him.
Evidently the wolf had been mad. Builka had gone mad,
and so went away. He had what hunters call the rabies.
They say that this madness consists in this, that the mad
animal gets cramps in its throat. It wants to drink and
cannot, because the water makes the cramps worse. And
so it gets beside itself from pain and thirst, and begins to
bite. Evidently Bulka was beginning to have these
cramps when he started to lick and then to bite my
hand and the foot of the table.


I went everywhere in the neighbourhood and asked
about Bdlka, but could not find out what had become of
him, or how he had died. If he had been running about
and biting, as mad dogs do, I should have heard of him.
No doubt he ran somewhere into a thicket and there died
by himself.
The hunters say that when an intelligent dog gets the
rabies, he runs to the fields and forests, and there tries to
find the herb which he needs, and rolls in the dew, and
gets cured. Evidently Bdlka never got cured. He never
came back.

A GRAY hare was living in the winter near the village.
When night came, he pricked one ear and listened; then
he pricked his second ear, moved his whiskers, sniffed,
and sat down on his hind legs. Then he took a leap or
two over the deep snow, and again sat down on his hind
legs, and looked around him. Nothing could be seen but
snow. The snow lay in waves and glistened like sugar.
Over the hare's head hovered a frost vapour, and through
this vapour could be seen the large, bright stars.
The hare had to cross the highway, in order to come to
a threshing-floor he knew of. On the highway the run-
ners could be heard squeaking, and the horses snorting,
and seats creaking in the sleighs.
The hare again stopped near the road. Peasants were
walking beside the sleighs, and the collars of their caf-
tans were raised. Their faces were scarcely visible.
Their beards, moustaches, and eyelashes were white.
Steam rose from their mouths and noses. Their horses
were sweaty, and the hoarfrost clung to the sweat.
The horses jostled under their arches, and dived in and
out of snow-drifts. The peasants ran behind the horses
and in front of them, and beat them with their whips.
Two peasants walked beside each other, and one of them
told the other how a horse of his had once been stolen.
When the carts passed by, the hare leaped across the
road and softly made for the threshing-floor. A dog saw
the hare from a cart. He began to bark and darted after
the hare. The hare leaped toward the threshing-floor
over the snow-drifts, which held him back; but the dog


stuck fast in the snow after the tenth leap, and stopped.
Then the hare, too, stopped and sat up on his hind legs,
and then softly went on to the threshing-floor.
On his way he met two other hares on the sowed win-
ter field. They were feeding and playing. The hare
played awhile with his companions, dug away the frosty
snow with them, ate the wintergreen, and went on.
In the village everything was quiet; the fires were out.
All one could hear was a baby's cry in a hut and the
crackling of the frost in the logs of the cabins. The
hare went to the threshing-floor, and there found some
companions. He played awhile with them on the
cleared floor, ate some oats from the open granary,
climbed on the kiln over the snow-covered roof, and
across the wicker fence started back to his ravine.
The dawn was glimmering in the east; the stars grew
less, and the frost vapours rose more densely from the
earth. In the near-by village the women got up, and
went to fetch water; the peasants brought the feed from
the barn; the children shouted and cried. There were
still more carts going down the road, and the peasants
talked aloud to each other.
The hare leaped across the road, went up to his old
lair, picked out a high place, dug away the snow, lay with
his back in his new lair, dropped his ears on his back, and
fell asleep with open eyes.

IN the city of Vladimir there lived a young merchant,
Aks6nov by name. He had two shops and a house.
Aksenov was a light-complexioned, curly-headed, fine-
looking man and a very jolly fellow and good singer. In
his youth Aksenov had drunk much, and when he was
drunk he used to become riotous, but when he married
he gave up drinking, and that now happened very rarely
with him.
One day in the summer Aks4nov went to the Nizhni-
Ndvgorod fair. As he bade his family good-bye, his wife
said to him:
Ivin Dmitrievich, do not start to-day I have had a
bad dream about you."
Aks6nov laughed, and said:
"Are you afraid that I might go on a spree at the
fair ?"
His wife said:
"I do not know what I am afraid of, but I had a bad
dream: I dreamed that you came to town, and when you
took off your cap I saw that your head was all gray."
Aks4nov laughed.
"That means that I shall make some profit. If I
strike a good bargain, you will see me bring you some
costly presents."
And he bade his family farewell, and started.
In the middle of his journey he met a merchant whom
he knew, and they stopped together in a hostelry for the
night. They drank their tea together, and lay down to


sle Ip l two adj:.iniiig ri,,uLsi Ak-,cuv did n't lieJ:
t sl.:-:p l':,g Lh awok:. in the middle : n f tlhei night and,
as it was easier to travel when it was cool, wakened his
driver and told him to hitch the horses. Then he went
to the black hut, paid his bill, and went away.
When he had gone about forty versts, he again stopped
to feed the horses and to rest in the vestibule of a hos-
telry. At dinner-time he came out on the porch, and
ordered the samovar to be prepared for him. He took
out his guitar and began to play. Suddenly a tr6yka
with bells drove up to the hostelry, and from the cart
leaped an officer with two soldiers, and he went up to
Aksenov, and asked him who he was and where he came
Aksdnov told him everything as it was, and said:
Would you not like to drink tea with me ?"
But the officer kept asking him questions:
Where did you stay last night? Were you alone, or
with a merchant? Did you see the merchant in the
morning ? Why did you leave so early in the morning ?"
Aksenov wondered why they asked him about all that;
he told them everything as it was, and said:
"Why do you ask me this? I am not a thief, nor a
robber. I am travelling on business of my own, and you
have nothing to ask me about."
Then the officer called the soldiers, and said:
"I am the chief of the rural police, and I ask you this,
because the merchant with whom you passed last night
has been found with his throat cut. Show me your
things, and you look through them !"
They entered the house, took his valise and bag, and
opened them and began to look through them. Suddenly
the chief took a knife out of the bag, and cried out:
Whose knife is this? "
Aksenov looked, and saw that they had taken out a
blood-stained knife from his bag, and he was frightened.


How did the blood get on the knife ?"
Aksdnov wanted to answer, but could not pronounce
a word.
"I-I do not know- I -the knife-is not min !"
Then the chief said:
"In the morning the merchant was found in hi, tb.-d
with his throat cut. No one but you could have 1:eu:-
it. The house was locked from within, and there v.as nu':
one in the house but you. Here is the bloody knit, in
your bag, and your face shows your guilt. Tell l'.,
how did you kill him, and how much money did you r-,lb
him of ?"
Aks6nov swore that he had not done it; that hb- hadl
not seen the merchant after drinking tea with him thlit
he had with him his own eight thousand; that the knif-i
was not his. But his voice faltered, his face was .-ale,
and he trembled from fear, as though he were guilty.
The chief called in the soldiers, told them to bind hin
and to take him to the cart. When he was rolled inut:
the cart with his legs tied, he made the sign of the cro:i
and began to cry. They took away his money md
things, and sent him to jail to the nearest town. Thb y
sent to Vladimir to find out what kind of a man Ak-,u:,v
was, and all the merchants and inhabitants of Vladiu.ir
testified to the fact that Aks4nov had drunk and caro:u .-l
when he was young, but that he was a good man. Th'--n
they began to try him. He was tried for having kill. ,l
the Ryaz6n merchant and having robbed him of tw.-uty
thousand roubles.
The wife was grieving for her husband and did1 n.,t
know what to think. Her children were still youn.-, .:nd
one was still at the breast. She took them all and w\.-t
with them to the town where her husband was kept in
prison. At first she was not admitted, but later she itm-
plored the authorities, and she was taken to her hu-l.ind.
When she saw him in prison garb and in chains, tog-:thl.-r


with murderers, she fell to the ground and could not
come to for a long time. Then she placed her children
about her, sat down beside him, and began to tell him
about house matters, and to ask him about everything
which had happened. He told her everything. She said:
"What shall I do ?"
He said:
We must petition the Tsar. An innocent man cannot
be allowed to perish."
His wife said that she had already petitioned the Tsar,
but that the petition had not reached him. Aks4nov said
nothing, and only lowered his head. Then his wife said:
You remember the dream I had about your getting
gray. Indeed, you have grown gray from sorrow. If you
had only not started then !"
And she looked over his hair, and said:
Ivin, my darling, tell your wife the truth: did you
not do it?"
AksBnov said, "And you, too, suspect me!" and covered
his face with his hands, and began to weep.
Then a soldier came, and told his wife that she must
leave with her children. And Aksenov for the last time
bade his family farewell.
When his wife had left, Aks4nov thought about what
they had been talking of. When he recalled that his
wife had also suspected him and had asked him whether
he had killed the merchant, he said to himself: Evi-
dently none but God can know the truth, and He alone
must be asked, and from Him alone can I expect mercy."
And from that time on Aksenov no longer handed in peti-
tions and stopped hoping, but only prayed to God.
Aks6nov was sentenced to be beaten with the knout,
and to be sent to hard labour. And it was done.
He was beaten with the knout, and later, when the
knout sores healed over, he was driven with other con-
victs to Siberia.


In Siberia, Aks6nov passed twenty-six years at hard
labour. His hair turned white like snow, and his ben.iil
grew long, narrow, and gray. All his mirth went aw. y.
He stooped, began to walk softly, spoke little, ne' tr
laughed, and frequently prayed to God.
In the prison Aks6nov learned to make boots, and with
the money which he earned he bought himself t h,
" Legends of the Holy Martyrs," and read them while it
was light in the prison; on holidays he went to the pris.:Qn
church and read the Epistles, and sang in the choir,- hi-
voice was still good. The authorities were fond .f4
Aksenov for his gentleness, and his prison comradil
respected him and called him "grandfather" and "Gc.l'.
man." When there were any requests to be made of t he
authorities, his comrades always sent him to speak i.'i
them, and when the convicts had any disputes betwecu
themselves, they came to Aksenov to settle them.
No one wrote Aksenov letters from his home, and he dil.1
not know whether his wife and children were alive, or nL.t.
Once they brought some new prisoners to the prisi.u.
In the evening the old prisoners gathered around the new
men, and asked them from what town they came, or fr, ml
what village, and for what acts they had been sent up.
Aksenov, too, sat down on the bed-boards near the n,-w
prisoners and, lowering his head, listened to what thL.
were saying. One of the new prisoners was a tall, soun.,i-
looking old man of about sixty years of age, with a gr., .
clipped beard. He was telling them what he had be-,ii
sent up for:
"Yes, brothers, I have come here for no crime at all.
I had unhitched a driver's horse from the sleigh. I wa.,
caught. They said, You stole it.' And I said, I only
wanted to get home quickly, for I let the horse go. Be-
sides, the driver is a friend of mine. I am telling you th.!
truth.'-' No,' they said, 'you have stolen it.' But thv-y
did not know what I had seen stealing, or where I h;d


been stealing. There were crimes for which I ought to
have been sent up long ago, but they could not convict
me, and now I am here contrary to the law. You are
lying,- you have been in Siberia, but you did not make
a long visit there -'"
"Where do you come from ? asked one of the prisoners.
I am from the city of Vladimir, a burgher of that
place. My name is Makar, and by my father Sem6-
Aksenov raised his head, and asked:
Semenovich, have you not heard in Vladimir about
the family of Merchant Aksenov ? Are they alive ?"
Yes, I have heard about them They are rich mer-
chants, even though their father is in Siberia. He is as
much a sinner as I, I think. And you, grandfather, what
are you here for ?"
Aks4nov did not like to talk of his misfortune. He
sighed, and said:
"For my sins have I passed twenty-six years at hard
Makdr Semenovich said:
For what sins? "
Aks4nov said, No doubt, I deserved it," and did not
wish to tell him any more; but the other prison people
told the new man how Aksenov had come to be in
Siberia. They told him how on the road some one had
killed a merchant and had put the knife into his bag, and
he thus was sentenced though he was innocent.
When Makar Sem4novich heard that, he looked at
Aksdnov, clapped his knees with his hands, and said:
What a marvel! What a marvel! But you have grown
old, grandfather !"
He was asked what he was marvelling at, and where
he had seen Aks4nov, but Makir SemEnovich made no
reply, and only said:
"It is wonderful, boys, where we were fated to meet!"


And these words made Aksenov think that this man
might know something about who had killed the mer-
chant. He said:
"Sem6novich, have you heard before this about that
matter, or have we met before ?"
Of course I have heard. The earth is full of rumours.
That happened a long time ago: I have forgotten what I
heard," said Makar Semenovich.
Maybe you have heard who killed the merchant ?"
asked Aks6nov.
Makar Sem6novich laughed and said:
I suppose he was killed by the man in whose bag the
knife was found. Even if somebody stuck that knife into
that bag, he was not caught, so he is no thief. And how
could the knife have been put in? Was not the bag
under your head? You would have heard him."
The moment Aks6nov heard these words, he thought
that that was the man who had killed the merchant. He
got up and walked away. All that night Aksenov could
not fall asleep. He felt sad, and had visions: now he saw
his wife such as she had been when she bade him farewell
for the last time, as he went to the fair. He saw her, as
though she was alive, and he saw her face and eyes, and
heard her speak to him and laugh. Then he saw his
children such as they had been then, just as little, -
one of them in a fur coat, the other at the breast. And
he thought of himself, such as he had been then, gay
and young; he recalled how he had been sitting on the
porch of the hostelry, where he was arrested, and had
been playing the guitar, and how light his heart had been
then. And he recalled the pillory, where he had been
whipped, and the executioner, and the people all around,
and the chains, and the prisoners, and his prison life of
the last twenty-six years, and his old age. And such
gloom came over him that he felt like laying hands on


And all that on account of that evil-doer!" thought

And sich li rage fell upon him against Makdr Sem4no-
vitl, tl:hat he wanted to have his revenge upon him, even
if h hlin i-,llf w i-r to be ruined by it. He said his prayers
all night long, but could not calm himself. In the day-
time he did not walk over to Makar Semenovich, and did
not look at him.
Thus two weeks passed. At night Aks6nov could not
sleep, and he felt so sad that he did not know what to do
with himself.
Once, in the night, he walked all over the prison, and
saw dirt falling from underneath one bedplace. He stopped
to see what it was. Suddenly Makir Sem6novich jumped
up from under the bed and looked at Aksdnov with a
frightened face. Aksenov wanted to pass on, so as not to
see him; but Makir took him by his arm, and told him
that he had dug a passage way under the wall, and that
he each day carried the dirt away in his boot-legs and
poured it out in the open, whenever they took the con-
victs out to work. He said:
"Keep quiet, old man,- I will take you out, too.
And if you tell, they will whip me, and I will not forgive
you, I will kill you."
When Aksdnov saw the one who had done him evil, he
trembled in his rage, and pulled away his arm, and said:
I have no reason to get away from here, and there is
no sense in killing me, you killed me long ago. And
whether I will tell on you or not depends on what God will
put into my soul."
On the following day, when the convicts were taken
out to work, the soldiers noticed that MakAr Semenovich
was pouring out the dirt, and so they began to search in
the prison, and found the hole. The chief came to the
prison and began to ask all who had dug the hole. Every-
body denied it. Those who knew had not seen Makdr


Semenovich, because they knew that fir thLi a:t hr w\.,uld
be whipped half-dead. Then the chief turn.:-:l to AkIn:',.
He knew that Aksenov was a just m.-a ,n,. ?.id.l:
Old man, you are a truthful man, tell me before God
who has done that."
Mak6r Semenovich stood as though nothing had hap-
pened and looked at the chief, and did not glance at
Aksenov. Aks6nov's arms and lips trembled, and he could
not utter a word for a long time. He thought: "If I
protect him, why should I forgive him, since he has ruined
me? Let him suffer for my torments And if I tell on
him, they will indeed whip him to death. And suppose
that I have a wrong suspicion against him. Will that
make it easier for me ?"
The chief said once more:
Well, old man, speak, tell the truth Who has been
digging it?"
Aksenov looked at Makdr Semenovich, and said:
I cannot tell, your Honour. God orders me not to
tell. And I will not tell. Do with me as you please,-
you have the power."
No matter how much the chief tried, Aks4nov would
not say anything more. And so they did not find out
who had done the digging.
On the following night, as Aks6nov lay down on the
bed-boards and was just falling asleep, he heard somebody
come up to him and sit down at his feet. He looked in
the darkness and recognized Makir. Aksenov said:
"What more do you want of me? What are you
doing here?"
Makar Sem4novich was silent. Aksenov raised him-
self, and said:
"What do you want? Go away, or I will call the
Makar bent down close to Aksenov, and said to him in
a whisper:


Ivan Dmitrievich, forgive me !"
Aksenov said:
"For what shall I forgive you ?"
"It was I who killed the merchant and put the knife
into your bag. I wanted to kill you, too, but they made
a noise in the yard, so I put the knife into your bag and
climbed through the window."
Aks6nov was silent and did not know what to say.
Makar Semenovich slipped down from the bed, made a
low obeisance, and said:
"Ivan Dmitrievich, forgive me, forgive me for God's
sake! I will declare that it was I who killed the mer-
chant, you will be forgiven. You will return home."
Aksenov said:
"It is easy for you to speak so, but see how I have
suffered! Where shall I go now? My wife has died,
my children have forgotten me. I have no place to go
Makar Semenovich did not get up from the floor. He
struck his head against the earth, and said:
Ivan Dmitrievich, forgive me When they whipped
me with the knout I felt better than now that I am look-
ing at you. You pitied me, and did not tell on me.
Forgive me, for Christ's sake Forgive me, the accursed
evil-doer!" And he burst out into tears.
When Aks4nov heard Makar Sem6novich crying, he
began to weep himself, and said:
God will forgive you. Maybe I am a hundred times
worse than you!"
And suddenly a load fell off from his soul. And he no
longer pined for his home, and did not wish to leave the
prison, but only thought of his last hour.
Mak6r Semenovich did not listen to Aks4nov, but de-
clared his guilt. When the decision came for Aksdnov
to leave, he was dead.

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