Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Half Title
 Title Page
 List of Illustrations
 War and peace
 Part IX
 Part X
 Part XI
 Back Matter
 Back Cover

Group Title: The Complete Works of Count Tolstoy
Title: The complete works of Count Tolstoy
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00094187/00007
 Material Information
Title: The complete works of Count Tolstoy
Uniform Title: Works ( 1904 )
Physical Description: 24 v. : fronts., plates, ports., facsims. ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Tolstoy, Leo, 1828-1910
Wiener, Leo, 1862-1939 ( ed. and tr )
Publisher: D. Estes & Co.
Place of Publication: Boston
Publication Date: 1904-05
Edition: Limited ed. Translated from the original Russian and edited by Leo Wiener.
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
festschrift   ( marcgt )
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
General Note: Half-title.
General Note: "Édition de luxe, limited to one thousand copies." This set not numbered.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00094187
Volume ID: VID00007
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 02116920
lccn - 04024594


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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
        Front Matter 3
        Front Matter 4
    Half Title
        Half Title 1
        Half Title 2
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    List of Illustrations
        List of Illustrations 1
        List of Illustrations 2
    War and peace
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Part IX
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
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    Part X
        Page 139
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    Part XI
        Page 377
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Full Text

Chinsegut Hill

University of Florida






Translated In l .i le rl(riainr l r.u, ain <-,nl Edle'd L.\
2, l in I r.-.lr 1 :. I a11 _. :. L ari .'Uj L : 31 H i d-.' L.' i -rlrI:.

B (- N Sr N\
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L I S I- L f S


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of which thi, i,

No. .41 1

Copyright, po04

Entered at Stationers' Hall

Colonial Press : Electrotyped and Printed by
C. H. Simonds & Co., Boston, Mass., U. S. A.


FIRST VIEW OF Moscow 463

Parts IX., X., and XI.




TOWARD the end of the year 1811 the Powers of Western
Europe began a more active armament and concentration
of their forces, and in 1812 these forces, consisting of
millions of people (including those who transported and
fed the army), moved from the West to the East, toward
the boundaries of Russia, where, since the same year
1811, the Russian forces had been concentrating. On
the 12th of June the forces of Western Europe crossed
the boundaries of Russia, and the war began, that is,
there took place an event which was contrary to human
reason and to all human nature. Millions of people com-
mitted against each other an endless number of evil acts,
deceits, reasons, thefts, forgery and the putting into cir-
culation of spurious assignats, assaults, incendiarism, and
murders, such as the chronicles of all the courts of the
world will not record in ages, and yet such as at that
time were not looked upon as crimes by the people who
committed them.
What was it that had caused this extraordinary event ?
What were its causes ? The historians say, with naive
conviction, that the causes of this event were the insult


offered to the Duke of Oldenburg, the non-observance of
the continental system, Napoleon's ambition, Alexander's
firmness, the mistakes of the diplomats, etc.
Consequently, it would have sufficed for Metternich,
Rumyrntsev, or Talleyrand, between the appearance of
the emperors at court and the receptions, to have made
an effort and written a clever note, or for Napoleon to
have written to Alexander, Monsieur monfrere,je consens
c rendre le duchi au Duc d'Oldenbourg," and there would
have been no war.
Naturally, the matter so appeared to the contlmpora-
ries. Naturally, it seemed to Napoleon that the cause of
the war lay in the intrigues of England (as he expressed
himself on the island of St. Helena). Naturally, it seemed
to the members of the English Parliament that Napoleon's
ambition was the cause of the war; to the Duke of Olden-
burg that the cause of war lay in the insult to which he
had been subjected; to the merchants, that the cause of
war lay in the continental system which was ruining
Europe; to the old soldiers and generals, that the chief
cause was to give them employment; to the legitimists
of that time, that it was necessary to reestablish les bons
principles; and to the diplomatists of that time, that
everything was due to the fact that Russia's alliance with
Austria in the year 1809 had not been kept sufficiently
secret from Napoleon, and that the memorandum No. 178
had been awkwardly composed. Naturally, these causes
and an endless, inexhaustible number of other causes,
which number depends on the endless variety of stand-
points, presented themselves to the contemporaries; but
to us, the descendants, who contemplate the grandeur of
the event in all its volume, and who try to comprehend
its simple and terrible meaning, these causes appear insuf-
ficient. It is incomprehensible to us that millions of
Christians should have'killed each other because Napoleon
was ambitious, Alexander firm, the diplomacy of England


insili:ou, and the Duk? o:f COldenburg insulted. It is
im possible to Co'uprhet-ndi whajt : m:u section these circum-
St.nceL ? could h .ae ha. with th,- fact of murder and
violernc, itself ; why, because tlhe duke had been insulted,
thlouauds of people from the other end of Europe should
have killed and ruined the pe-ople of the Governments of
Smolhnsk and Moscow, and should have been killed by
To us, the descendants, the non-historians, who are not
carried away by the mere process of investigation, and
who therefore contemplate the event with undimmed,
healthy reason, the causes seem to be numberless. The
more we devote ourselves to the investigation of the
causes, the more of them are revealed to us, and all of
them, taken singly, or a whole series of causes, appear to
us equally just in themselves, and equally false on account
of their insignificance in comparison with the grandeur of
the event, and equally false on account of the impossi-
bility of their having produced the event, without the
participation of all other coincident causes. Napoleon's
refusal to take his army across the Vistula and to restore
the dukedom of Oldenburg appears to us as no more a
cause than the desire or reluctance of any French cor-
poral to enlist for a second term, for, if he had refused to
enter the service, and a second, third, and thousandth
corporal and soldier had acted likewise, there would have
been so many men less in Napoleon's army, and there
could have been no war.
If Napoleon had not been offended by the request to
retreat beyond the Vistula and had not commanded his
troops to advance, there would have been no war; but,
at the same time, if all the sergeants had been unwilling
to reUnlist, there could have been no war. Similarly
there could have been no war, if there had been no Eng-
lish intrigues, and no Prince of Oldenburg, and no feeling of
offence on the part of Alexander, and no autocratic power


in Russia, and no French Revolution with the resulting
dictatorship and empire, and all that which led up to the
French Revolution, and so forth. Nothing could have
happened in the absence of one of these causes. Conse-
quently, all these causes, a billion causes, coincided in
order to produce that which happened. Consequently,
too, nothing was the exclusive cause of the event, and the
event had to take place, because it had to. It was neces-
sary for millions of people to renounce their human feel-
ings and reason, and to march from the West to the Eist
in order to kill their like, just as several centuries before
throngs had come from the East to the West killing their
The actions of Napoleon and Alexander, on whose
words it seemed to depend whether the event was to take
place or not, were as little arbitrary as the action of any
soldier who went into the campaign by lot or by recruit-
ment. It could not have been otherwise because, in
order that the will of Napoleon and Alexander (of those
people on whom the event seemed to have depended)
should be fulfilled, there was needed the coincidence of
an endless number of circumstances, without one of which
the event could not have occurred. It was necessary for
millions of people, in the hands of whom was the real
power, for the soldiers who fired, and who transported
the provisions and the guns, to agree to do the will of a
few weak individuals, and to be brought to do this by an
endless number of complicated, complex causes.
Fatalism in history is necessary for the explanation of
unreasonable events, that is, of such as we do not compre-
hend the reason. The more reasonably we attempt to
explain these phenomena in history, the more unreason-
able and unintelligible they become to us.
Every man lives for himself, enjoys liberty of action in
striving after his personal ainrs, and feels in his whole
being that he may, or may not, do such and such an act


at will; but the niolieut he has done it, this action, com-
mitted at a given moment of time, becomes irretrievable
and the property of history, in which it has not a free,
but a preordained, meaning.
There are two sides in the life of each man: his per-
sonal life, which is free in proportion as its interests are
in the abstract, and his elemental, beehive life, where a
man unavoidably executes certain prescribed laws.
Man lives consciously for himself, but serves as an un-
conscious weapon for the working out of historical, uni-
versal ends. An accomplished deed is irretrievable, and
its action, coinciding in time with millions of actions of
other men, assumes an historic importance. The higher
a man stands in the social scale, the more numerous his
relations are with other men, the greater is the power
which he exercises over other men, and the more manifest
is the preordination and inevitableness of his deed.
The hearts of kings are in the hands of God."
A king is a slave of history.
History, that is, the unconscious, general, beehive life
of humanity, makes use of every minute of the lives of
kings for itself, as a weapon for its own ends.

Though now, in the year 1812, it seemed to Napoleon
that it more than ever depended upon him whether he
would verser or ne pas verser le sang de ses peuples "
(as Alexander had written to him in his last letter), he
never before had been so subjected to the inevitable laws
which compelled him, though in respect to himself he
thought he was acting at will, to do for the common
course of events, for history, that which had to happen.
The men of the West moved toward the East to kill
and be killed; and, by the law of coincident causes, thou-
sands of petty causes adapted themselves and coincided
with this incident for the purpose of the movement and of
the war: such were the dissatisfaction with the non-ob-


servance of the continental system; and the Duke of Old-
enburg; and the movement of the armies into Prussia,
undertaken, as Napoleon thought, simply in order to
obtain armed peace; and the love and bias of the French
emperor for war, which coincided with the mood of his
nation; and the enthusiasm for the magnificence of the
preparation; and the expenses incurred for this prepara-
tion; and the necessity of gaining such advantages as
would recoup these expenses; and the intoxicating
honours which he had received in Dresden; and the dip-
lomatic negotiations which, in the opinion of the contem-
poraries, had been introduced with the sincere desire to
obtain peace and which only wounded the self-love of
both parties; and a million millions of other causes, which
adapted themselves and coincided with the event about to
When an apple is ripe and falls,- what is it that
makes it fall ? Is it because it gravitates toward the
earth, because the stem has dried up, because the sun
withers it, because it is too heavy, because the wind
knocks it down, because the boy who is standing under-
neath it wants to eat it ?
Nothing is the cause of it. All is only the coincidence
of conditions under which every vital, organic, elemental
event takes place. The botanist who finds that the apple
falls because the cellular tissue is decomposing, and so
forth, is as much right as the little boy who, standing
under the tree, will say that it fell because he wanted to
eat it and because he had prayed for it. He who will say
that Napoleon went to Moscow because he wanted to, and
that he perished because Alexander had wished for his
destruction, will be as right or as wrong as he who will
say that an undermined mountain weighing a million puds
was made to crumble by the stroke of the last labourer's
sledge-hammer. In historical events, so called great men
are the tags which label them, and have as little to do


with the events therms.lves, as real tags have to do with
the substance which they label.
E\~r n.t ti.:*n :of theirs, whiti -seems to them dependent
Oiu their *:'~wn fr,.-. will, is, in the historical sense, not free,
but stands in relation to the whole tiourse of history and
has b,:en predetermined from eternity.

ON the 29th of May, Napoleon left Dresden, where he
had passed three weeks, surrounded by a court of princes,
dukes, kings, and even one emperor. Before his depar-
ture, Napoleon showed his favour to the princes, kings, and
the emperor, who had deserved it, scolded the kings and
princes with whom he was dissatisfied, presented to the
Queen of Austria his personal pearls and diamonds, that
is, such as he had taken away from other kings, and, ten-
derly embracing Empress Maria Theresa, as his historian
says, left her disconsolate at this parting, which she,
Maria Theresa, who regarded herself as his wife, although
another wife was living in Paris, seemed to be unable to
Although the diplomatists were still firmly convinced
of the possibility of peace and zealously worked for it,
although Emperor Napoleon himself wrote a letter to
Emperor Alexander, calling him Monsieur monfrere and
assuring him sincerely that he did not wish any war,
and that he would always love and respect him, -he de-
parted for the army and gave at each station new orders,
the purpose of which was to hasten the movement of the
army from the West to the East. He travelled in a road-
carriage drawn by six horses, surrounded by pages, adju-
tants, and a convoy, on the highway toward Posen, Thorn,
Dantzic, and KRnigsberg. In each of these cities thousands
of people met him with trepidation and with enthusiasm.
The army was moving from the West to the East, and
relays of six-spans carried him, too, thither. On the 10th


of June hie Iaughbt up with the army and stayed over-
night in the f'ore*it :.f \Wilk:-.wiski, in quarters especially
prepared for him in the estate of a Polish count.
On the next-day, Napoleon, outdistancing the army,
reached the Nydman in a small carriage. He dressed
himself in a Polish uniform and drove out to the bank of
the river to examine the place of fording.
Upon seeing on the other side les Cosaques and the
expanse of the steppes, in the midst of which was Mos-
cou, la ville sainte," the capital of the empire which
resembled the Scythian empire whither Alexander of
Macedon had gone, Napoleon suddenly ordered an advance,
contrary to all strategic and diplomatic considerations,
and, on the following day, his troops began to cross the
On the 12th, early in the morning, he left the tent
which on that day had been pitched on the steep left bank
of the Nyeman, and looked through the spy-glass at the
streams of his troops issuing from the forest of Wilkowi-
ski, and pouring over three bridges thrown across the
river. The troops knew of the presence of the emperor,
sought for him with their eyes, and when they discovered
on the hill, in front of the tent, the figure in the long coat
and the hat, which distinguished him from his suite, they
threw up their hats and shouted, Vive l'Empereur !" and
one after the other, without cessation, kept pouring forth
from the immense wood which had concealed them here-
tofore, and, scattering, crossed to the other side over the
three bridges.
On fera du chemin eette fois-ci. Oh quand il s'en
mtle lui-mmne, pa chauffe Nom de Dieu c voile -
Vive l'Empereur Les voila done, les steppes de l'Asie !
Vilain pays tout de meme. Au revoir, Beauchd, je te
reserve le plus beau palais de Moscou. Au revoir, bonne
chance L'as tu vu, l'Empereur ? Vive l'Empereur -
preur Si on me fait gouverneur aux Indes, GCrard, je


te fais ministry du Cachemire, c'est arretd. Vive I'Em-
pereur Vive Vive Vive Les gridins de cosaques,
comme ilsfilent. Vive l'Empereur Le voil Le vois-tu ?
Je l'ai vu fois comme je te vois. Le petit caporal. Je l'ai
vu donner la croix & l'un des vieux Vive I'Empereur "
were heard the voices of old and young men, of all kinds
of characters and positions in society. On all the faces of
these people there was one common expression of joy
at the beginning of the long expected campaign, and of
enthusiasm and loyalty to the man in the gray coat, who
was standing on the hill.
On the 13th of June, Napoleon was given a small,
thoroughbred Arabian horse, and he mounted it and gal-
loped up to one of the bridges, continually deafened by
the shouts of transport, which he apparently bore only
because it was impossible to forbid the soldiers to express
their love of him by shouting; still, these cries, which
accompanied him everywhere, vexed him and distracted
his attention from the military cares that had taken pos-
session of him ever since he had joined the army. He
rode across one of the bridges which swayed on boats,
turned sharply to the left, and galloped away in the direc-
tion of K6vno, preceded by the chasseurs of the Guard,
who, trembling with happiness and carried away by en-
thusiasm, cleared the road for him through the troops
which were riding in front of him. Upon reaching the
broad river Vistula, he stopped near a Polish regiment of
uhlans, which was stationed on its bank.
Vivat !" the Poles cried just as enthusiastically,
breaking ranks and crushing each other in their desire to
see him. Napoleon examined the river, dismounted from
his horse, and sat down on a log which lay on the shore.
At a speechless sign of his, he was given a spy-glass,
which he placed on the back of a happy page, who had
run up to him, and through which he began to survey the
opposite side. Then he was absorbed in the study of a


map which had been spread hbtv.teen logs. Without
raising his head, he said o.:,.me-thing, and t\wo: of his
adjutants i.'alloped up to the IPolsh uhlan-.
What ? What did he say ? were heard the questions
iu the rauks of the Polish uhlarns, as one oft thi: adjutants
r,..Je ulop to tLum.
The order w's given to tindm a fi.rd and cross the liver.
The 1-':lioh colonel .:.t uhlans, a hands'':me old man. bilush-
iig aud mLu:ingu up his words from eTxcite Dent, asked the
ad.ljutat \ hetiher h e \o:uld b- permitted t,: swim with
his uhlans across the river, without loo::okun for a fio.rd.
With apparent fear lest he should be refused, like a boy
who anks pFernlmision to ge-t On a horse, he begged to be
permitted to swim acr,.iss in the preen':.e of the emperor.
Tlie adjutant said that, no doubt, the emIperor wuuld not
le dissatisried with this superfluous zeal.
The moment the adjutant had said this, the old mus-
tachioed officer with a happy face and sparkling eyes
raised his sword, shouted Vivat!" gave the command
to his uhlans to follow him, put spurs to the horse,
and galloped up to the river. He gave an angry kick to
the startled horse and splashed into the water, heading
toward the deep current. Hundreds of uhlans galloped
after him. In the middle of the stream and in the cur-
rent the water was cold. The uhlans fell from their
horses and clung to each other. Some of the horses were
drowned, and so were some men; the others tried to
swim by holding on to the saddle or to the mane. They
tried to swim straight ahead of them and, although there
was a ford not more than half a verst away, were proud
of swimming and drowning in the sight of the man who
was sitting on a log and not even watching them. When
the adjutant, upon returning, chose an appropriate moment
in which to direct the emperor's attention to the loyalty
of the Poles to his person, the little man in the gray coat
rose and, calling up Berthier, began to walk up and down


along the shore, giving him orders, and now and then
looking with dissatisfaction at the drowning uhlans, who
diverted his attention.
It was not a new conviction for him that his presence
in all the ends of the world, from Africa to the steppes of
Muscovy, both startled people and threw them into a
madness of self-forgetfulness. He ordered up his horse
and rode back to his camp.
About forty uhlans were drowned in the river, despite
the assistance sent them by boat. The majority retreated
to the shore from which they had started. The colonel
and a few men swam the river and with difficulty climbed
on the other shore. But the moment they got out, with
the water streaming from their clothes, they shouted
SVivat! looking in ecstasy at the place where Napoleon
had stood, but where he was no longer, and feeling them-
selves happy at that moment.
In the evening Napoleon, between two orders,-the
one about furnishing immediately the counterfeit Russian
assignats, to be taken into Russia, and the other, about
shooting a Saxon, upon whose person had been found a
letter containing information in regard to the movements
of the French army, made a third order, which was
that the Polish colonel who had uselessly rushed into the
river should be added to the Legion of Honour, of which
Napoleon himself was the head.
Quos vult perdere, dementat.

THE Russian emperor had in the meantime been living
in Vilna for more than a month, passing his time in
reviews and manoeuvres. Nothing was ready for the war,
which all were expecting, and for which the emperor had
left St. Petersburg to prepare himself. There was no
general plan of action. The hesitation about which plan
of all those which were proposed should be accepted had
only increased during the month that the emperor
had been at the headquarters. There was a separate com-
mander-in-chief to each of the three armies, but there was
no common head to all the armies, and the emperor did
not assume that appellation.
The longer the emperor lived in Vilna the less zealously
were preparations made for the war, for the emperor had
become tired waiting so long. All the efforts of the men
who surrounded the emperor seem to have been directed
toward making the emperor pass the time pleasantly, so
that he might forget the impending war.
After many balls and fetes given by the Polish mag-
nates, the courtiers, and the emperor himself, it occurred
in June to one of the adjutants-general of the emperor
to give the Tsar a ball in the name of his adjutants-
general. This idea was cheerfully received by all. The
emperor expressed his consent. The adjutants-general
collected money by subscription. The lady who more
than anybody else might be agreeable to the emperor was
invited to be the hostess of the ball. Count Bdnigsen,
a landed proprietor of the Government of Vilna, offered


his suburban mansion for the celebration, and on the
13th of June there were to be a ball, a dinner, boating, and
fireworks in Zakret, Count B4nigsen's suburban estate.
On the very day when the order was given by Napoleon
to cross the Nyeman, and the van of his army, driving
away the Cossacks, crossed the Russian boundary, Alex-
ander was passing his evening at B4nigsen's summer resi-
dence, attending the ball given by his adjutants-general.
It was a jolly and brilliant fete; connoisseurs said that
there had rarely been gathered so many beauties in one
spot. Countess Bezikhi, who had followed the emperor
from St. Petersburg to Vilna, among a number of other
Russian ladies, was at the ball, where she, with her heavy,
so-called Russian beauty, overshadowed the refined Polish
ladies. She was observed, and the emperor honoured her
with a dance.
Boris Drubetsk6y, en garfon, as he said, having left his
wife in Moscow, was also at this ball, and, though not an
adjutant-general, took an active interest in it by subscrib-
ing a large sum toward it. Boris was now a rich man,
who had gone very far in the service, who no longer looked
for any protection, and who stood on the same footing as
the highest of his contemporaries. He met H6lene in
Vilna, after a long lapse of time, and had forgotten the
past; but as HQlhne enjoyed the favour of a very impor-
tant person, and Boris had but lately married, they again
met as good, old friends.
At midnight they were still dancing. Hd6lne, who had
no worthy gentleman to dance with, herself proposed a
mazurka to Boris. They were sitting as the third pair.
Boris, coolly surveying the shining, nude shoulders of
HQelne, as they protruded from a dark, gold-embroidered
gauze dress, was telling her about old acquaintances and,
at the same time, imperceptibly to himself and to others,
never stopped for a minute observing the emperor, who
was in the same hall. The emperor was not dancing; he


stood in the door and stopped now one, and now another,
addressing to them those kindly words which he alone
knew how to choose.
In the beginning of the mazurka Boris noticed that
Adjutant-General Balash6v, one of the persons most inti-
mate with the emperor, had walked over to him and had
stationed himself near him in an uncourtly manner, while
he was speaking to a Polish lady. Having finished
his conversation with the lady, the emperor looked in-
terrogatively at him and, apparently considering that
Balash6v could have acted thus only under the stress of
important causes, slightly nodded to the lady and turned
to B:ilaih\v The moment Balash6v began to speak, the
emperor's face expressed surprise.
He took Balash6v's arm and crossed the hall, uncon-
sciously to himself clearing a broad passage of about
twenty feet on both sides of him through the mass of
people who were hastening to get out of his way. Boris
noticed Arakch6ev's agitated face, when the emperor
started to walk with Balash6v. Arakchbev, looking
superciliously at the emperor and snivelling with his red
nose, moved out from the throng, as though waiting for
the emperor to address him. Boris comprehended that
Arakch6ev was jealous of Balash6v and was dissatisfied
because an important piece of news was reaching the
emperor through another source than him.
But the emperor and Balash4v, without noticing
Arakch6ev, passed through the outer door into the illumi-
nated garden. Arakchdev followed them within twenty
steps, holding down his sword and looking angrily about
In the figure in which he had to choose a lady, Boris
whispered to H61Bne that he wanted to take the Countess
Pot6cki, who, he thought, had gone out on the balcony.
Gliding along on the parquetry, he ran out of the rear
door leading into the garden, where he stopped, when he


noticed the emperor walking with Balash4v up to the
terrace. They were moving in the direction of the door.
Boris fluttered, as though he were too late to get out of
the way, and respectfully pressed himself against the door-
post and bent his head.
The emperor, with the agitation of a man who has
received a personal insult, was finishing the following
To enter into Russia without declaring war! I will
make peace only when there is not a single armed man
left on my soil."
It appeared to Boris that it gave the emperor pleasure
to enunciate these words: he was satisfied with the form
in which his thought was clad, but dissatisfied with having
been overheard by Boris.
"Let nobody know it!" the emperor added, with a
Boris saw that this referred to him, and so he shut his
eyes and slightly inclined his head. The emperor again
entered the hall and passed nearly another half-hour at
the ball.
Boris was the first to learn about the passage of the
Ny6man by the French troops. Thanks to this, he had
an opportunity of showing certain important personages
that many things which were hidden from them were
known to him, and thus he rose higher in the opinion of
these persons.

The sudden news of the passage of the Ny6man by the
French was the more sudden since it came after a month
of fruitless waiting, and at the ball. The emperor had,
in the first moment after the receipt of this news and
under the influence of agitation and a feeling of insult,
found that phrase which later became famous, and which
pleased him and fully expressed his sentiment. After his
return from the ball, the emperor sent for his secretary,


Shishk6v, whom he commanded to write an order to the
armies and a rescript to the field-marshal, Prince Saltyk6v,
in which he asked to have included the words that he
would not make peace so long as one armed Frenchman
was left on Russian soil.
On the next day the following letter was sent to

"MONSIEUR MON FRRE : I learned yesterday that,
despite the loyalty with which I have observed my obliga-
tions toward your Majesty, your troops have crossed the
Russian boundary, and only now have I received from
St. Petersburg a note, in which Count Lauriston informs
in, in reference to this aggression, that your Majesty has
reg.irltd yourself as being in a state of war with me ever
since Prince Kurdkin asked for his passports. The mo-
tives on which the Duke of Bassano based his refusal to
deliver them to him could never have made me suppose
that this incident would serve as a pretext for aggression.
In fact, this ambassador had never had my authorization,
as he himself declared; the moment I was informed of
his action, I showed him my disapproval by commanding
him to stay at his post. If your Majesty is not inclined
to shed the blood of our peoples on account of a misun-
derstanding of such a kind, and if your Majesty consents
to withdraw the troops from Russian territory, I will
regard what has happened as though it had not taken
place, and an agreement between us will be possible.
Contrariwise, your Majesty, I shall be forced to ward off
an attack which has not been provoked by anything on
my part. It still depends on your Majesty to save hu-
manity the calamities of a new war.
I am, etc. (Signed) ALEXANDER."

AT two o'clock of the night of the 13th of June, the
emperor sent for Balashev, and, having read the letter to
him, ordered him to take it in person to the French em-
peror. In dismissing Balashev, the emperor again repeated
to him the words that he would not make peace so long
as one armed enemy was left on Russian soil, and ordered
him to transmit these words to Napoleon. He had not
included these words in his letter to Napoleon, because
he felt, with his sense of tact, that they were out of place
at a moment when the last attempt at pacification was
being made; but he insisted that Balashev should person-
ally transmit them to Napoleon.
Balashev left on the night of June 13th, being accom-
panied by a bugler and by two Cossacks. At daybreak
he reached the village of Ryk6nty, on this side of the
Nydman, where stood the French outposts. He was
stopped by French cavalry sentinels.
A French under-officer of hussars, in a crimson uniform
and a shaggy cap, shouted to Balashev to stop. Balashev
did not stop at once, but continued to ride at a pace down
the road.
The under-officer, frowning and uttering a curse, moved
his horse up to Balashdv, put his hand to his sabre, and
angrily asked the Russian general whether he was deaf
and did not hear what he was asked. Balash4v gave him
his name. The under-officer sent a soldier to the officer.
Paying no more attention to Balashev, the under-officer


bc-.in t:, speak with his companions about army matters.
He dilI not a.'ain cast a t.lance at the Rusi;ian general.
It appeared' exciedingly strange to I.alash6v, after his
proximity to the highest power, after the conversation
which h. d had hl three hour bLefore with the emperor,
and after having become accustomed to honours in the
service, to see here, on Russian soil, this hostile and, more
especially, this disrespectful, relation of brutal force
toward himself.
The sun had just begun to come out from the clouds;
the air was fresh and dewy. The herd was just being
driven along the village road. In the fields, the skylarks,
chirping, pirted up, one after another, like bubbles rising
in the water.
A French colonel of hussars, who had apparently just
ri-sn, rode out of the village on a handsome, well-fed gray
horse, accompanied by two hussars. The officers, the sol-
diers, and their horses gave an impression of sufficiency
and foppishness.
It was that first part of the campaign, when the troops
were still in good trim, such as is displayed at reviews and
in peaceful occupations, with but a shade of gala militarism
in their attire, and with the moral shade of that merri-
ment and enterprise which always go with the beginning
of a campaign.
The French colonel with difficulty restrained his yawns,
but was polite and evidently understood the whole signif-
icance of Balashev. He led him past his soldiers and
beyond the cordon, and informed him that his wish to be
brought before the emperor would, no doubt, be fulfilled
at once, since the emperor's quarters, so far as he knew,
were not far off.
They crossed the village of Ryk6nty past the hussar
pickets, sentries, and soldiers, who saluted their colonel
and with curiosity examined the Russian uniform, and
came out on the other side of the village. According to


the colonel's statement, the chief of the division was
within two kilometres, and he would take him to his
The sun had already risen and shone brightly on the
lurid verdure.
Just as they had ridden past a tavern on the summit
of a hill, they noticed advancing toward them a small
throng of riders, at the head of whom, on a black horse
with its caparison gleaming in the sun, rode a tall man in
a feathered hat, with his hair falling in locks down to his
shoulders, and wearing a red mantle; his long legs were
stretched forward, in the manner of French riders. This
man galloped up toward Balash4v, his feathers, precious
stones, and gold lace glistening and waving in the bright
June sun.
Balashev was already within two horses' lengths from
the rider in bracelets, panache, necklace, and gold, who
was racing toward him with a solemn and theatrical
expression on his face, when Julner, the French colonel,
whispered respectfully: Le roi de Naples !"
It was, indeed, Murat, now called the King of Naples.
Though it was quite incomprehensible why he should be
that, he was nevertheless called so, and he himself was
convinced of it, and so he looked much more triumphant
and important than ever. He was so firmly convinced
that he was the King of Naples, that when on the eve of
leaving Naples, during his walk with his wife through the
streets, a few Italians cried, Viva il re !" he with a sad
smile turned to his wife and said, "Les malheureux, ils ne
savent pas que je les quite demain "
Still, though he was quite sure that he was the King of
Naples and that he had compassion for the sorrow of his
subjects, whom he was about to desert, he, after being
ordered to enter active service again, and, especially, after
his meeting with Napoleon at Dantzic, when his august
brother-in-law told him, Je vous ai faith roi pour regner &


a.., ,ir i'r,:. i, ; p'r '; /.' iI/:,-," -:bheerfully took up
tbh, Lisiines which w:-i flaruilir to him, and, like a well-
fed. I.bu, nt f;itt:ncdi hrli:,: whi.'h, fee-lrn itself in the har-
ness, becomes frisky between the shafts, he accoutred him-
self in the loudest and most expensive manner possible
; ud, happy and contented, galloped off on the road to
Poland, not knowing himself whither he was going, or for
what purpose.
When he saw the Russian general, he in right royal,
solemn fashion, threw back his head, with the curls dan-
gling down to his shoulders, and looked questioningly at
the French colonel. The colonel respectfully informed
his Majesty of the meaning of Balashev, whose name he
found it difficult to pronounce.
De Bal-macheve said the king, by his determination
overcoming the difficulty which had presented itself to the
coloneL Charm de fire votre connaissance, gngral !"
he added with a gesture of royal favour.
The moment the king began to speak loud and rapidly,
all his royal dignity suddenly left him, and, without
knowing it himself, he passed over to a tone of good-
natured familiarity. He placed his hand on the withers
of Balashdv's horse.
Et bien, geinral, tout est A la guerre, A ce qu'il parait,"
he said, as though regretting the circumstance which was
beyond his control.
Sire," replied Balash4v, l'empereur mon maitre ne dd-
sire point la guerre, et comme votre Majeste le voit," Bala-
shdv continued, with inevitable affectation multiplying the
use of the title Votre Majeste," as though addressing a
person for whom this title was still a novelty.
Murat's face beamed with stupid contentment as he
listened to lonsicur de Balachof." But royaute oblige":
he felt the necessity of conferring with Alexander's mes-
senger on matters of state, as a king and ally. He dis-
mounted from his horse and, taking Balash6v's arm,


walked away a few steps from the suite, which waited for
him respectfully, and began to walk up and down with
him, trying to assume as significant an aspect as possible.
He mentioned the fact that Emperor Napoleon had been
insulted by the demand that he remove his troops from
Prussia, especially when this demand became known to all
and when the dignity of France suffered from it. Bala-
sh6v said that there was nothing offensive in the demand,
because -
Murat interrupted him:
So you do not regard Emperor Alexander as the in-
stigator ?" he suddenly said, with a good-natured, stupid
Balash6v told him why it was he considered Napoleon
to have taken the initiative.
Eh, mon cher general," Murat again interrupted him,
"je desire de tout mon cceur que les empereurs s'arrangent
entire eux, et que la guerre commence malgre moi se termine
le plus t6t possible."
He spoke in the tone of servants who wish to remain
good friends, in spite of the quarrel of their masters. He
passed over to inquiries about the grand duke and his
health, and recalled the time which he had passed so
pleasantly with him at Naples. Then, as though sud-
denly remembering his royal dignity, Murat solemnly
straightened himself up, took up the attitude in which he
had stood at the coronation, and, shaking his right hand,
he said:
Je ne vous retiens plus, gyenral. Je souhaite le success
de votre mission," and, with a flutter of his red embroidered
mantle and of his plumes, and with a sparkle of his pre-
cious stones, he walked over to his suite, which was waiting
respectfully for him.
Balash6v rode on, hoping, from what Murat had said, to
be presented at once to Napoleon himself. But, instead
of meeting Napoleon, the sentry of Davout's corps of in-


fantry again detained him at the next village, as he had
been detained at the cordon, and an adjutant of the
commander of the corps, who was called out, took him
to the village to Marshal Davout.

DAVOUT was the Arakchiev of Emperor Napoleon, -
not Arakcheev the coward, but the precise, cruel man,
who does not know how to express his loyalty otherwise
than by means of cruelty.
In the mechanism of the state organism these people
are as necessary as are wolves in the organism of Nature,
and they are always present, always make their appearance
and maintain themselves, however inconsistent their
presence and their proximity to the head of the state may
seem. Only this necessity can explain how the unedu-
cated, cruel Arakcheev, who personally pulled out the
moustaches of the grenadiers, who on account of weak
nerves was unable to bear any danger, and who lacked
all courtly graces, could have held his place by the side of
the knightly, noble, and gentle Alexander.
Balashev found Marshal Davout in the barn of a peasant
farm, sitting on a keg and busy writing (he was auditing
some accounts). An adjutant was standing near him. It
was possible to find better quarters, but Marshal Davout
was one of those men who purposely place themselves
under the gloomiest conditions of life, in order to have the
right to be gloomy. For the same reason they are always
hurriedly and stubbornly busy. What time have I to
think of the bright side of human life when, as you see, I
am sitting on a keg in a dirty barn, busy at work ? the
expression of his face seemed to say. The chief pleasure
and necessity of these men consist in opposing their
gloomy, persistent activity to any animation in life,
whenever they come across it. Davout afforded himself


this ple.-asure, wh.le Dalash.Iv was; brought in to him. He
buried bilmself still in:ore m hl- work, when the Russian
general entered, and, glanu:ing al,:ve his spectacles at
Balacbh,'s face, whi:h vwa. animated under the influence
:-f thie be iutiful morning -,nd of his conversation with
Murat. he did no:t ri.e, nor e en stir, but .:'aly frowned
minor than usual anu] snild a. mt liuunant smile.
Upon: A noticing .:. BalilaJbhv'.S face the i.i;agreeable im-
pressio:n pr':,du-ld I.y this r:i.cepti',t:in, Dav, :ut raised his
head and coldly asked him %hat he wanted.
Assuming that he was given such a reception only
because Davout did not know that he was an adjutant-
general of Emperor Alexander and his representative
before Napoleon, Balashev hastened to. mention his
standing and purpose. Contrary to his expectations,
Daiv-:ut, after having listened to Balashev, became even
more stern and rude.
Where is your packet ?" he said. Donnez-le moi, je
l'enverrai & l'empereur."
Balashev said that his orders were to hand the packet
in person to the emperor.
"The commands of your emperor are 'carried out in
your army, and here," said Davout, "'You have to do
what you are ordered to do."
And, as though to make the Russian general feel more
sensitively his dependence on brutal force, Davout sent an
adjutant for the officer of the day.
Balashev took out the packet, which contained the
emperor's letter, and placed it upon the table (this table
was formed by a door, on which the hinges were still left,
placed across two barrels). Davout took the packet and
read the address.
"It is your privilege to show me or not to show me
respect," said Balashdv, but permit me to tell you that I
have the honour of bearing the name of adjutant-general
to his Majesty "


Davout looked at him in silence, and the agitation and
embarrassment which were expressed in Balashdv's face
apparently afforded him pleasure.
You will receive your due," he said. Putting the en-
velope into his pocket, he left the barn.
A minute later Monsieur de Castries, the marshal's
adjutant, entered and took Balashev to quarters set aside
for him.
Balashev dined that day in the barn with the marshal,
on the same board, which was thrown over the barrels.
On the next day, Davout left early in the morning, and,
inviting Balashev to come to see him, he told him that
he begged him to remain, to move with the baggage-train,
whenever the- order for an advance was given, and not to
converse with any one but Monsieur de Castries.
After a four days' solitude, tedium, and consciousness
of submission and insignificance, which were the more
noticeable after that milieu of power, in which he had
been moving; after several marches with the baggage of
the marshal and the French troops which occupied the
whole region, Balashev was brought to Vilna, which now
was in the hands of the French, passing through the same
toll-gate through which he had left four days before.
On the next day the imperial chamberlain, Monsieur
du Turenne, came to see Balashev and informed him of
the emperor's wish to honour him with an audience.
Four days before there had been stationed sentries of
the Preobrazh4nski regiment in front of the house to
which Balash6v was now taken; now there stood there
two French grenadiers in blue uniforms, open at the
breast, and in shaggy hats, a detachment of hussars and
uhlans, a brilliant suite of adjutants, pages, and generals,
waiting for the appearance of Napoleon near his mount,
which was standing at the porch, and his Mameluke
Rustan. Napoleon received Balashev in the same house
in Vilna from which Alexander had despatched him.

TIOUGci Balash4v was used to the solemnity of the
court, he was startled by the luxury and magnificence of
Napoleon's surroundings.
Count Turenne led him to a large waiting-room, where
were waiting many generals, gentlemen of the chamber,
and Polish magnates, many of whom Balashev had seen
at the court of the Russian emperor. Duroc said that
Emperor Napoleon would receive the Russian general
before starting out on his promenade.
After a few moments of waiting, the chamberlain of
the day came out into the large waiting-room and, bowing
politely, invited Balashev to follow him.
Balashev entered a small waiting-room, from which one
door led to a cabinet, from which the Russian emperor
had dispatched him. Balashev stood about two minutes,
waiting to be called in. Behind the door could be heard
hurried steps. Both halves of the door opened, all grew
silent, and in the cabinet were heard firm, determined
steps, those of Napoleon: he had just finished his toilet
for the horseback ride. He wore a blue uniform, which
was open over a white waistcoat that came down to his
rotund abdomen, white elk-leather pantaloons that fitted
tightly on the fat thighs of his short legs, and a pair of
jack-boots. His short hair had evidently just been combed,
but one strand fell down the middle of his broad forehead.
His white, puffy neck stood out sharply from the black
collar of his uniform; there was an odour of eau de
Cologne about him. On his youthful, plump face with


its protruding chin there was an expression of a gracious,
majestic greeting, worthy of an emperor.
He came out with a rapid quiver of his body at every
step he took and throwing his head slightly back. His
whole stout, short figure, with the broad, fat shoulders and
involuntarily protruding abdomen and chest, gave him
that distinguished and reserved aspect which is seen in
people of about forty years of age, who live in ease.
Besides it was apparent that on that day he was in the
best mood possible.
He nodded, in response to Balashdv's low, respectful
bow, and, walking over to him, began to speak at once,
like a man who valued every minute of his time and who
did not condescend to prepare his speeches, but who was
convinced that he would always speak well and would
say what was proper.
Good morning, general!" he said. "I have received
Emperor Alexander's letter which you have brought for
me, and am very glad to see you."
He looked at Balash6v with his large eyes, and imme-
diately glanced past him. Evidently he was not in the
least interested in Balash4v. Apparently only what was
going on in his soul interested him. Everything which
was beyond it had no meaning for him, because every-
thing in the world, he thought, depended only on his
I have not wished and do not wish for war," he said,
"but I have been driven to it. Even now" (he empha-
sized the word), "I am ready to accept all explanations
which you may give me."
He began clearly and briefly to expound the reasons
for his dissatisfaction with the Russian government.
Judging from the moderate and friendly tone with which
the French emperor spoke, Balash6v was firmly con-
vinced that he wished for peace and intended to enter
into negotiations.


Sir:.' L'Empereur, mon maitre," Balashev began the
spe-'c:h which he had prepared long ago, as soon as Napo-
leon hbinhed and looked at him interrogatively; but the
lo:l; of thet emperor's eyes, directed at him, confused him.
" You are confused, regain your composure !" Napoleon
seemed to say, with a barely perceptible smile examining
Balash4v's uniform and sword. Balash4v regained his
composure and began to speak. He said that Emperor
Alexander did not consider Kurdkin's request that he be
given his passports as a sufficient cause for war, that
Kurikin had acted on his own responsibility, without the
consent of the Tsar, that Emperor Alexander did not wish
for war, and that there were no relations with England.
Not yet," Napoleon interposed, and, as though fearing
to submit to his feeling, he frowned and slightly nodded
his head, to let Balash4v know that he might continue.
Having said everything which was contained in his
orders, Balashev added that Emperor Alexander wished for
peace, but would not enter upon any negotiations unless
- Here Balash6v became embarrassed: he recalled the
words which Emperor Alexander had not included in the
letter, but which he had commanded to be put into
the rescript to Saltyk6v, and which he, Balash6v, was to
transmit to Napoleon. Balashev remembered the words,
" So long as one armed enemy was left on Russian soil,"
but some complex feeling kept him from uttering them.
He was unable to say the words, though he wished to do
so. He hesitated and said, "Unless the French troops
retreated beyond the Ny4man."
Napoleon noticed Balash4v's embarrassment, as he was
uttering the last words: his face twitched and the calf of
his left leg began to quiver in even motion. Without stir-
ring from the spot, he began to speak in a louder and
faster voice. Balash6v, who during the ensuing words of
Napoleon frequently cast down his eyes, could not help
observing the twitching of the calf of Napoleon's left leg,


which became more pronounced every time he raised his
"I wish for peace not less than Emperor Alexander,"
he began. "Have I not been doing everything in my
power for the last eighteen months in order to obtain it ?
I have for eighteen months been waiting for explana-
tions. But, what is expected of me, in order to begin the
negotiations ?" he said, frowning and making an energetic,
interrogative gesture with his plump, white little hand.
"The retreat of the troops beyond the Nyeman, em-
peror," said Balashev.
Beyond the Nyeman ?" repeated Napoleon. So now
you want me to retreat beyond the Ny6man, only
beyond the Nyeman ?" repeated Napoleon, looking straight
at Balash4v.
Balash6v respectfully inclined his head.
Four months before, Napoleon had been asked to re-
treat from Pomerania; now he was asked to retreat be-
yond the Ny6man. Napoleon rapidly turned around and
began to pace up and down in the room.
"You say that I am asked to recross the Nyeman
before negotiations are to begin; but two months ago
I was asked in the same manner to retreat beyond the
Oder and Vistula, and yet you are ready to enter upon
He silently crossed the room from one corner to an-
other, and then again stopped opposite Balash6v. Bala-
shev noticed that his left leg trembled faster than ever,
and that his face seemed to be petrified in its stern expres-
sion. Napoleon was conscious of the twitching of his
left calf. "La vibration de mon mollet gauche est un
grand signed chez moi," he used to say afterward.
"Propositions such as the one about clearing the Oder
or Vistula may be made to the Prince of Baden, but not
to me," Napoleon almost shouted, unexpectedly to him-
self. "If you were to give me St. Petersburg and Mos-


cow, I w:il.d nlc.t recCivi these conditions. You say that
I began the war! But who was the first to come to his
army ? Emperor Alexander and not I. You propose ne-
gotiations to me after I have spent millions and while you
are in alliance with England. Now that your condition
is unfavourable, you propose negotiations to me! What is
the aim of your alliance with England? What has it
given you?" he spoke hurriedly, now apparently no
longer addressing his words to him in order to show the
advantages of peace negotiations and to discuss their pos-
sibility, but only in order to prove his righteousness and
power, and the unrighteousness and blunders of Alex-
The introduction to his speech was made evidently for
the purpose of proving the advantage of his situation and
yet of showing that he was willing to hear about negotia-
tions. But once launched out, he was unable to control
his speech.
The whole purpose of his remarks now apparently was
to extol himself and offend Alexander, that is, to do that
which in the beginning of the interview he had been
least of all inclined to do.
"They say that you have made peace with the Turks."
Balash4v replied with an affirmative inclination of his
"The peace is made -" he began. But Napoleon did
not allow him to go on. He evidently had to speak him-
self, and he continued to speak with that eloquence and
incontinence of irritation, to which spoilt people are
"Yes, I know, you have concluded a peace with the
Turks, without having received Moldavia and Wallachia.
I should have given these provinces to your Tsar, just as
I gave him Finland. Yes," he continued, I promised to
give Alexander Moldavia and Wallachia, and I should
have given them to him, but now he will not have those


beautiful provinces. There was, however, nothing in the
way of adding them to his empire, and in one reign he
would have expanded Russia from the Gulf of Bothnia to
the mouth of the Danube. Catherine the Great could not
have done more," said Napoleon, becoming ever more ex-
cited, walking across the room, and repeating to Balashev
almost the same words which he had employed to Alex-
ander in Tilsit. Tout cela il l'aurait du A mon amitid.
Ah quel beau regne, quel beau regne !" he repeated sev-
eral times. He stopped, drew his gold snuff-box out of
his pocket, and with his nose took a pinch from it.
Quel beau re'gne aurait pu 9tre celui de l'Empereur
Alexandre !"
He looked compassionately at Balash4v, and the mo-
ment Balashdv intended to say something, he hastened to
interrupt him:
What could he have desired and looked for, which he
could not find in my friendship ?" he said, shrugging his
shoulders, as though in perplexity. "He found it best to
surround himself with my enemies, and with whom ?"
continued Napoleon. With Stein, Armfeldt, Benigsen,
Wintzingerode. Stein is a traitor who has been driven out
of his country; Armfeldt is a debauch4 and intriguer;
Wintzingerode a fugitive French subject; B4nigsen is
a little more military than the rest, but still incapable;
he was unable to do anything in 1807, and ought to
awaken terrible recollections in Emperor Alexander. If
they were capable soldiers, they could be made use of,"
continued Napoleon, hardly ably to utter his words as fast
as the new combinations arose in his imagination, to prove
his justice or power, which to his mind was one and the
same thing, but that is not the case: they are unfit for
war and for peace! Barclay is said to be a better gen-
eral than they are, but I cannot affirm this, if I am to
judge from his first movements. And what are they
doing, all those courtiers ? Pfuel proposes, Armfeldt dis-


cusses, DiDgsen examer, ie;. au Parclay, who is called to
act, i:does not know whit to: d.), and time passes without
auy resullts. 1;._rati. is th only soldier. He is stupid,
but lie hE. *:x.:rince., sure ey.e, and determination.
What rK'ile dr:.I yo'-r young emll'il:r play in this mon-
strous group ? They are u,:.iLpro:nisiLi' him and throwing
all the rcsl:,r si.ility o:. Li. hl:oullers. Un souverain ne
oLi' itL i l'ar ltnt I at.:' .and l st general," he said,
apparently throwing down the gauntlet to the emperor.
Napoleon knew how much Emperor Alexander wanted
to be a general.
The campaign began a week ago, and you did not
know how to defend Vilna. You are cut in two and
driven out of the Polish provinces. Your army murmurs."
On the contrary, your Majesty," said Balashiv, who
had difficulty in remembering all he heard, and in follow-
ing these fireworks of words, the army burns with the
desire -"
I know everything," Napoleon interrupted him, I
know everything, and I know the number of your bat-
talions as well as I know my own. You have less than
two hundred thousand soldiers, while I have three times
as many: I give you my word of honour," said Napoleon,
forgetting that his word of honour could have no signifi-
cance, I give you ma parole d'honneur que j'ai cinq cent
trente mille homes de ce e6te de la Vistule. The Turks
are of no avail to you: they are good for nothing, and
this they have proved by making peace with you. The
Swedes, -it is their destiny to be ruled by insane kings.
Their king was insane; they changed him and took an-
other Bernadotte, who immediately went insane, for
only a Swede who is insane can conclude an alliance
with Russia."
Napoleon smiled a malicious smile and again raised his
snuff-box to his nose.
Balashev had an answer to every sentence uttered by


Napoleon and was anxious to make a reply; he kept
making the gesture of a man wishing to say something,
but Napoleon kept interrupting him. To the state-
ment that the Swedes were insane, Balash6v wanted to
say that Sweden was an island, if Russia was with her;
but Napoleon shouted again, in order to drown his voice.
Napoleon was in that state of irritation, when a man has
to keep talking all the time, in order to prove to himself
the justice of his case. Balashev began to feel uneasy:
as an ambassador, he was afraid lest he should lose his
dignity, and yet he felt the necessity of replying to Napo-
leon; as a man, he felt morally compressed before that
forgetfulness which comes from causeless anger, and in
which Napoleon obviously was. He knew that the words
now uttered by Napoleon had no meaning, and that he
himself would feel ashamed of them as soon as he regained
his senses. Balash6v stood with downcast eyes, looking
at Napoleon's fat legs in motion, and trying to avoid his
What do I care for your allies ? said Napoleon. "My
allies are the Poles : there are eighty thousand of them,
and they fight like lions. There will be two hundred
thousand of them."
And, apparently excited by having spoken a manifest
untruth and by the fact that Balash4v remained standing
silently before him in the same pose, submitting to fate,
he abruptly turned back, walked over to Balashiv's very
face, and, making energetic, rapid gestures with his white
hands, almost shouted:
"Remember that if you turn Prussia against me, re-
member, I will wipe it off from the map of Europe," he
said, with a pale face which was distorted by anger,
and with an energetic gesture striking one of his small
hands with the other. Yes, I will throw you beyond the
Dvin6 and beyond the Dnieper, and will make for you
that barrier which Europe was criminal and blind to have


permitted to be destroyed. Yes, this is what will happen
to you This is what you have gained by parting from
me," he said, silently pacing up and down in the room,
and shrugging his fat shoulders. He put the snuff-box
into his waistcoat pocket, again took it out, several times
carried it up to his nose, and stopped opposite Balash6v.
He grew silent, looked sarcastically straight into Bala-
sh4v's eyes, and said, in a soft voice: Et cependant quel
beau regne aurait pu avoir votre maitre "
Balash6v, feeling the necessity of retorting to him, said
that from Russia's standpoint matters did not appear in
such a gloomy light. Napoleon was silent, continuing to
look sarcastically at him and evidently not listening to
him. Balashev said that in Russia the best was expected
of the war. Napoleon shook his head condescendingly,
as though to say, I know, your duty tells you so, but you
yourself do not believe it, you are convinced by me."
At the end of Balashdv's speech, Napoleon again took
out his snuff-box, put it to his nose, and, to give a signal,
twice struck the floor with his foot. The door opened; a
chamberlain, bending in a respectful attitude, handed the
emperor a hat and a pair of gloves; another handed him
a handkerchief. Napoleon, without looking at them,
turned to Balash6v:
"Assure Emperor Alexander in my name," he said,
taking his hat, that I am as devoted to him as ever: I
know him well and I very highly value his high qualities.
Je ne vous retiens plus, general; vous recevrez ma lettre
h l'empereur."
Napoleon rapidly moved up to the door. All those
who were in the waiting-room rushed forward and down-

AFTER what Napoleon had said, after those outbursts
of anger, and after the last words uttered in a dry tone,
"je ne vous retiens plus, general; vous recevrez ma lettre,"
Balash4v was convinced that Napoleon would not want
to see him again, and would even try not to see him, the
offended ambassador and, above all, the witness to his
indecorous rage. But, to his surprise, he received through
Duroc an invitation to the emperor's table on that day.
At the dinner were BessiBres, Caulaincourt, and
Napoleon met Balash6v with a merry and kindly
countenance. He did not show the least sign of embar-
rassment or self-rebuke for his morning's outburst; on the
contrary, he tried to put Balashev at his ease. It was
apparent that in Napoleon's conviction there had long ago
ceased to exist the possibility of error on his part and
that in his conception everything he did was good, not
because it coincided with the idea of what was good or
bad, but because he was doing it.
The emperor was very jolly after his ride through Vilna,
during which throngs of people had met and accompanied
him with enthusiasm. In all the windows of the streets
through which he rode there hung rugs, flags, and his
monograms, and Polish ladies received him with the
waving of their handkerchiefs.
At dinner he placed Balashev by his side. He treated
him not only kindly, but as though he regarded Balashev
as one of his courtiers, among the men who sympathized


with his pl.an; aUn wh\.: er toL rej..,ice in his successes.
Am':ug ,:cther things le ,.:,ke ':',f Mol\ :ow, asking Balashdv
alb.ut the 1ru-u i-imn Lai.it:l, noi:t .:.uly a, a curious traveller
a;l.:s about a niew p:la:.ie -which he intends to visit, but also
w\ithi the- c:,:.u,:t ,ciu tihalt 1;:lahlbi\. a Russian, would be
tlatteretd by lhis I:c ri':Sity.
S. Ho.w tiuriuv iihaibitaut tiwe there in Moscow, and how
many houses ? Is it true Lhat, Miscou is called Moscou la
sainte ? How many churches are there in Moscou ?" he
To the reply that there were more than two hundred
churches, he said:
Why such a mass of churches ? "
The Russians are very pious," replied Balashev.
"But a large quantity of monasteries and churches is
always a sign of the backwardness of a nation," said
Napoleon, looking at Caulaincourt for appreciation of his
Balash6v begged respectfully to differ from the French
"Each country has its customs," he said.
"But nowhere else in Europe are such things to be
found," said Napoleon.
I beg your Majesty's pardon," said Balashev, outside
of Russia, there is Spain, where there are as many churches
and monasteries."
This response of Balashdv, which hinted at the late
defeat of the French in Spain, was highly appreciated at
the court of Emperor Alexander, when Balashdv told it
there, but here, at Napoleon's dinner, it was not appreci-
ated at all, and passed by unnoticed.
It was evident, from the indifferent and perplexed looks
of the marshals, that they were not sure wherein lay the
sarcasm to which the intonation of Balash6v's voice seemed
to point. If there was any, we did not understand it, or
there was nothing clever about it," said the expressions


of the marshals' faces. His reply was so little arpre.:iated,
that Napoleon positively did not notice it, but. pr,'ic:ed.ld
to ask Balashev through what cities the straight r,:ad to
Moscow went. Balash6v, who was cautious (duIring the
whole time of the dinner, answered that come to ,lt in i n
mene h Rome, tout chcmin mine & Moscou, so there were
many roads, and that, among these many roads, there was
one which led to Poltava, which Charles XII. had chosen.
As he said this, Balashev's face was suddenly flushed with
joy at the success of his reply. He had not finished
saying the last words, when Caulaincourt started to speak
of the inconveniences of the road from St. Petersburg to
Moscow, and of his reminiscences of St. Petersburg.
After dinner they passed for the coffee into Napoleon's
cabinet, which four days before had been the cabinet of
Emperor Alexander. Napoleon sat down, stirring the
coffee in a SAvres cup, and indicated to Balashdv a chair
near him.
There is in man a certain postprandial mood, which
more than all sensible reasons causes him to be satisfied
with himself and to regard everybody as his friend.
Napoleon was in that mood. It seemed to him that he
was surrounded by men who adored him. He was con-
vinced that even Balash6v, after having partaken of his
dinner, was his friend and admirer. Napoleon turned to
him with an agreeable and slightly sarcastic smile.
This is the same room, I am told, in which Emperor
Alexander lived. It is strange, general, is it not ?" he
said, apparently without the slightest doubt that this
remark must be agreeable to his interlocutor, since it
proved his, Napoleon's, superiority over Alexander.
Balash6v could make no reply to this and silently bent
his head.
"Yes, in this room Wintzingerode and Stein had their
consultations four days ago," Napoleon proceeded, with
the same sarcastic, self-satisfied smile. What I cannot


uidert:tlud," he -aid, i- that Empe.ror Alexander has
-utiroulvld-d himjlllt with all my p.er:un Il enemies. I do
uiot uundc-rtauid it. Did it u:t itlccui tL. him that I
might dlo lilwkei ;" he turund luistil:,Liiuly to Balashev.
App:ar'.nutly this r.:.,:'llc:tiou again push,'d him into the
tr:t:k ,-i his morn inug's iritatiou, which was still fresh
in Lhim.
And he o:ught to know that I will do4: s,:," said Napo-
le.ori, rsiiug .td .push i. the i.cui:t :'waL y wiith his hand. "I
will driven all his \W'rtemwlrg, baideu, W\imar relatives
Ojilt ,:f G(,:rm.-ny yesi, I will. Let hlnI p.rtepare an asylum
fi.r tham iu Ru;-i.- !"
Balashev inclined his head, showing by his look that he
would have preferred to take his leave, and that he was
hltcning only because he could not help listening to what
w.l bl:i.ing said. Napoleon took no notice of this expres-
sion; he addressed Balashev, not as the ambassador of his
enemy, but as a man who was now quite devoted to him,
and who must take pleasure in hearing his former master
"Why did Emperor Alexander take the command of
the Russian troops ? Why ? War is my business, but
his is to rule, and not to command an army. Why did
he take such a responsibility upon himself ?"
Napoleon again took the snuff-box, silently crossed the
room several times, then suddenly walked over to Balashev
and with a slight smile, confidently, rapidly, and simply
raised his hand to the face of the Russian general of forty
years of age, as though he were doing not only an im-
portant piece of business, but something agreeable to
Balash6v, and taking hold of his ear, gave it a light jerk,
while smiling with his lips only.
Avoir l'oreille tir par l'empereur was regarded as the
greatest honour and favour at the court of France.
Eh bien, vous ne dites rien, admirateur et courtisan de
l'Empereur Alexandre," he said, as though it was too


funny to be the courtisan et admirateur of some n>ne
other than Napoleon's in his own presence. "Are thie
horses ready for the general?" he added, with a slight
inclination of his head in response to Balash6v's bow.
Give him mine, he has to travel a long distance -
The letter which Balash6v took back was the last wbhi:
passed from Napoleon to Alexander. All the details '.i
the conversation were transmitted to the Russian empir'i, ,
and the war began.


AFTER his meeting with Pierre in Moscow, Prince An-
drdy went back to St. Petersburg to attend to business, as
he told his relatives, but in reality to meet there Prince
Anat1l Kuragin, whom he regarded it as necessary to
meet. Upon his arrival he learned that KurAgin was no
longer in St. Petersburg. Pierre informed his brother-in-
law that Prince Andrey was coming to see him. Anat61
Kurigin immediately received an appointment from the
minister of war and left for the Moldavian army. At the
same time, Prince Andrey met in St. Petersburg Kutuizov,
his old general, who had always been favourably inclined
toward him, and Kutdzov proposed to him to go to the
Moldavian army, of which the old general was appointed
field-marshal. Prince Andrey was attached to the staff
of the headquarters and left for Turkey.
Prince Andrey thought it improper to write to Kurigin
and to challenge him. Unless he had some new cause
for a duel, he regarded a challenge sent by him as com-
promising Countess Rostov, and so he was anxious to
meet Kuragin in person, so as to get a chance of finding
such a new cause. But he was just as unsuccessful in
finding Kuragin in the Turkish army, for Kuragin went
back to Russia the moment Prince Andr6y reached
Prince Andr6y found life easier in the new country and
under new conditions. After his fiance's treason, which
affected him the more forcibly the more carefully he tried
to conceal the effect from all, the conditions of life under


which he had been happy were burdensome to hi m, anl
still more oppressive were to him that freedom audl inl.-
pendence which he had valued so much before. He ni:t
only did not think his old thoughts, which hatl :.o:me t:
him for the first time as he had been looking at the sky
while lying on the field of Austerlitz, which he had liked
to develop with Pierre, and which had filled hi- .-.:litude
at BoguchArovo, and later in Switzerland and fR:omr-; but
he was even afraid to recall those ideas whi.:h r.-v':.l'.d
to him bright, endless horizons. He was now iutereted:
only in the nearest, practical affairs, which were u.1 t O..n-
nected with his former life, and of which he a;-iili.ed him-
self the more eagerly, the more concealed the fo:rmn,-r
affairs were from him. It was as though that immeasur-
able receding vault of heaven, which formerly had stood
above him, had suddenly changed into a low, definite,
oppressive vault, on which everything was clear, and
nothing eternal and mysterious.
Of the several activities open to him, the military serv-
ice was the simplest and most familiar. In his capacity
as general of the day on Kuttizov's staff, he worked per-
sistently and zealously, surprising Kutizov by his readi-
ness to work and by his accuracy. When he did not find
Kuragin in Turkey, he did not consider it necessary to
gallop back to Russia for him; at the same time he knew
that, no matter how much time should pass, no matter
what contempt he felt for him, in spite of all the argu-
ments which he adduced to himself to prove that it was
not worth while for him to lower himself by a personal
conflict with Kur6gin, he knew that, upon meeting him,
he should be unable to keep from challenging him, just
as a hungry man cannot keep from throwing himself upon
food. This consciousness that the offence was not yet
avenged, that his venom had not yet been exhausted, but
was lying in his heart, poisoned that artificial calm of his,
which he was trying to find in Turkey in the shape of


an assidu'u-sly busy and somewhat t ambitious and vain
In the year 1812, when the news of a war with Napo-
len: ra.n:hed L'uchirei t, v.here Kutu'zov had been for two
mo:rnt, p singD his days and night. with his Wallachian
w.jiian, Prii':e Andrt.y aSked the co:mmander-in-chief to
be transferred to the army of the West. Kutrizov, who
was getting tired of Bolk6nski and his activity, which
served as a rebuke to indolence, readily permitted him to
go, giving him orders for Barclay de Tolly.
Before going to the army, which in May was camping
at the Drissa, 'Prince Andrdy visited Lysyya G6ry, which
was on his road, being within three versts of the Smolensk
highway. In the last three years of Prince Andrey's life
there had been so many transformations and he had
th.:ught, felt, and seen so much (having travelled both in
the West and the East), that he was suddenly strangely
affected, at his arrival at Lysyya G6ry, by the stream of
life which, down to the minutest details, had remained
the same it had always been. He drove through the
avenue and the stone gate of the Lysyya G6ry mansion
as though he were entering an enchanted castle where
all was asleep. Within there was the same austerity, the
same cleanliness, the same quiet, the same furniture,
the same walls, the same sounds, the same odour, and the
same timid faces, only grown a little old. Princess MArya
was the same timid, plain, aging old maid, who was pass-
ing the best years of her life uselessly and joylessly, in
terror and eternal moral sufferings. Mlle. Bourienne was
the same self-satisfied, coquettish girl, who was merrily
making use of every moment of her life and was filled
with the most joyous hopes. Prince Andr4y thought she
had become more self-satisfied. Tutor Desalles, whom he
had brought with him from Switzerland, wore a coat of a
Russian cut and spoke a Russian brogue with the servants,
but otherwise was the same narrow-minded, cultured, vir-


tuous, pedantic educator. The old prince had changed
physically in that he had lost a tooth at the sidi. .:.t lI
mouth ; morally he was the same as ever, except that he:
looked with greater rage and incredulity upon tl it wh ilh
was actually taking place inthe world. Little Niki:.iy
was the only one who had grown and chan'Il; hlir ,.a;z
ruddy and had a head of curly black hair, an.l. ll.t L.:.vw-
ing it himself, every time when he laughed aanl a.dle
merry, raised the upper lip of his pretty mi'uth iu pre-
cisely the same manner that the deceased little p~ilu :-L
used to raise hers. He was the only one \whi li.ld Dt.
comply with the law of unchangeability in thi ,n.:ri bu t I,
sleeping palace. Yet, though outwardly ev; ythiinL re-
mained as of old, the inner relations of all thliec Fpetplc
had changed since Prince Andrey had seen them last.
The household was divided into two camps, foreign and
hostile to each other, which only now, on his account,
met and changed their customary manner of life. To the
one belonged the old prince, Mile. Bourienne, and the
architect; to the other, Princess M6rya, Desalles, NikolAy,
and all the nurses.
During his stay at Lysyya G6ry, all the people of the
house dined together, but all felt awkward, and Prince
Andr6y saw that he was a guest for whom an exception
was made, and that he embarrassed all by his presence.
At the dinner of the first day, Prince Andrdy, who in-
stinctively felt that to be the case, was silent, and the old
prince, who observed the unnaturalness of his condition,
himself grew silent and immediately after dinner went to
his room. When Prince Andrdy went to him in the even-
ing and, trying to cheer him up, began to tell him about
the campaign of the young Count KAmenski, the old prince
suddenly changed the subject and spoke of Princess MArya,
censuring her for her superstition and for her hostility to
Mile. Bourienne, who, according to his words, was the only
one who was sincerely devoted to him.


The old prince said that if he was ill, Princess M rya
was to blame for it; that she purposely irritated and
tormented him; that she was ruining the young Prince
NikolAy with indulgence and foolish talk. He knew full
well that he was tormenting his daughter and that she
had a hard life with him; but he also knew that he could
not help tormenting her and that she deserved it. "Why
does Prince Andrdy, who sees this, say nothing to me
about his sister ?" thought the old prince. Does he think
that I am a brute or an old fool, and that I have without
cause separated myself from my daughter and cultivated
the acquaintance of the Frenchwoman ? He does not un-
derstand it, and so I must explain it to him, and he shall
listen to me," thought the old man. And so he began to
give the reasons why he could not endure his daughter's
senseless character.
Since you ask me," said Prince Andr6y, without look-
ing at his father (this was the first time in his life that he
had censured his father), "I had no intention of telling
you, but since you ask me, I will tell you frankly my
opinion about the whole matter. If there are misunder-
standings and discord between you and Marya, I can in no
way accuse her, I know how she loves and respects you.
Since you ask me," continued Prince Andrdy, becoming
irritated, for of late he had always been prone to irrita-
tion, I can only tell you that, if there are any misunder-
standings, the cause of them is that miserable woman who
ought not to be the companion of my sister."
The old man at first looked at his son with an arrested
glance, and smiling revealed the new lacuna between his
teeth, to which Prince Andrey was not able to get used.
"What companion, my dear? Elh? You have already
had a talk with her! Eh ?"
Father, I did not wish to be a judge," Prince Andrey
said, in a bilious and harsh voice, but you have provoked
me, and I have told you and will always tell you that


Princess Marya is not to blame, but that the French-
woman is "
"Ah, you have passed judgment, you have the old
man said, in a soft voice and, as Prince Andrdy thought,
with some embarrassment, but then he suddenly lea.pedt up
and shouted: "Out! Out with you! Let me not see
your face again !"

Prince Andrdy wanted to go at once, but Piincivs
Marya begged him to stay overnight. The rest of tIhit
day Prince Andrey did not see his father, wh: d id n-t,
come out and who admitted no one but llle. I':urieDpnj
and Tikhon, and kept asking whether his son hbt.i Io,:,e
yet. On the next day, before his departure, Print-
Andrdy went to the apartments of his son. The sturdy
little fellow, whose hair was as curly as his mother's, sat
down on his knees. Prince Andrey began to tell him the
fairy-tale about Bluebeard, but, before finishing it, he fell
to musing. He was not thinking of the pretty boy whom
he was holding upon his knees, but of himself. To his
terror, he was unable to discover any repentance in himself
for having irritated his father, or any regret because now
for the first time in his life he was about to leave him
after a quarrel. Worse than all was the thought that he
was unable to discover his former tenderness toward his
son, which he had hoped to rouse in himself by fondling
him and taking him on his knee.
Well, go on," said his son.
Prince Andr6y, without answering him, put him down
from his knees, and left the room. The moment Prince
Andrey left his every-day occupations and entered into the
old conditions of life, in which he had been when he was
happy, the tedium of life took possession of him with its
former strength, and he hastened away from these recol-
lections and tried as soon as possible to find some work
to do.


So you are positively going away, Andr6 ?" his sister
asked him.
Thank God I can leave," said Prince Andrey. I am
very sorry that you can't."
Why do you say this ? asked Princess Marya. Why
do you say this just as you are about to leave for that ter-
rible war, and when he is so old ? Mile. Bourienne says
that he has been asking about you "
The moment she began to say this, her lips quivered
and tears began to drop. Prince Andrdy turned away
from her and walked up and down in the room.
O Lord, O Lord !" he said. Just to think what and
who, what insignificant little thing, may be the cause of
men's misfortune!" he said, with a malice which fright-
ened Princess Marya.
She understood that, speaking of people whom he called
" insignificant little thing," he meant not only Mile. Bou-
rienne, who was causing his misfortune, but also that man
who had ruined his happiness.
Andr4, there is one thing which I beg and implore of
you," she said, touching his elbow and looking at him with
eyes shining through tears. "I understand you (Princess
Mdrya lowered her eyes). Do not think that people
have caused your grief. People are His tools." She
looked a little above Prince Andr6y's head, with the con-
fident, habitual glance with which one looks at the
customary place of a portrait. Grief is sent by Him,
and not by men. Men are His tools, and they are not to
blame. If anybody seems to be blameworthy, forget and
forgive. We have no right to punish. You will under-
stand the happiness of forgiveness."
"If I were a woman, I would do so, Marie. It is a
woman's virtue. But a man must not and cannot forget
and forgive," he said, and, although he had not been think-
ing of Kurigin, all the unavenged fury suddenly rose in
his heart. If Princess Marya is trying to persuade me


that I should forgive, it means that I ought to have pun-
ished long ago," he thought. And, without saying any-
thing else to Princess MArya, he began to think of that
joyful, evil moment when he should meet Kurigin, who,
he knew, was in the army.
Princess Mdrya implored her brother to wait another
day and told him that she was sure that his father would
be unhappy if Andrey left without having made up with
him; but Prince Andrdy replied that he, no doubt, would
soon return from the army, that he would certainly write
to his father, and that the longer he remained, the more the
discord would grow.
Adieu, Andre. Rappelez-vous que les malheurs vien-
nent de Dieu, et que les hommes ne sont jamais coupables,"
were the last words which he heard from his sister, as he
parted from her.
"No doubt it must be!" thought Prince Andr6y, as he
drove out of the avenue of Lysyya Gory mansion. She,
a pitiful, innocent creature, is left to be devoured by the
doting old man. The old man feels that he is wrong, but
cannot change himself. My boy is growing and enjoying
life, in which he will be like the rest, the deceiver or
the deceived. I am going to the army, -why I do not
know myself, and I wish to meet the man whom I despise,
in order to give him a chance to kill me and laugh at me "
The same conditions of life had existed before, but for-
merly everything was connected, and now it all fell to
pieces. Nothing but senseless phenomena, without any
connection, passed one after the other through Prince
Andr6y's mind.

PRINCE ANDRtY arrived at the headquarters of the army
at the end of June. The troops of the first army, with
which the emperor was, were stationed in the fortified
camp at the Drissa; the troops of the second army were
retreating, trying to unite with the first army, from which,
it was said, they were cut off by large French forces.
Everybody was dissatisfied with the general course of
military affairs in the Russian army; however, nobody
believed that there was even danger of an incursion into
the Russian Governments, nobody surmised that the war
would be carried farther than the western Polish prov-
Prince Andr4y found Barclay de Tolly, to whom he
was attached, on the shore of the Drfssa. As there was
not one large village or town in the neighbourhood of the
camp, the whole immense mass of generals and courtiers,
who were with the army, were stationed in a radius of ten
versts, in the best houses of the hamlets, on either side of
the river. Barclay de Tolly was within four versts of the
emperor. He received Bolk6nski coldly and dryly, and
told him in his German brogue that he would report to
the emperor for his definite appointment, but that in the
meantime he asked him to be on his staff.
Anat61 KurAgin, whom Prince Andrey had hoped to
find in the army, was not there: he was in St. Petersburg,
and this news was agreeable to Bolk6nski. The interest
of the centre of the impending great war held the atten-
tion of Prince Andrey, and he was glad to be relieved for


a time from the irritation which the thought of KurAdpi
produced upon him.
During the first four days, when he was not yet cocn-
manded to any place, Prince Andr4y rode around the
whole fortified camp, trying, by means of his knowledge
and through conversations with experts, to form a definite
idea about it; but the question whether the camp Na
advantageous or not remained unanswered by Prini
Andrdy. He had had enough military experience tl:
arrive at the conviction that in matters of war the b:-st
laid plans were of no value (he had found that out in thi
Austerlitz campaign), that everything depended on h,:,%
the sudden and unforeseen actions of the enemy were dalt
with, and that all depended on how and by whom the
matter was handled. In order to make the latter quest i'n
clear to himself, Prince Andr4y, making use of his posit io:u
and acquaintanceship, tried to get at the facts as to how
the army was managed and at the character of the person-
and parties that took part in it, and arrived at the follow-
ing conception about the state of affairs.
While the emperor was still at Vilna, the army was
divided into three: the first army was under the command
of Barclay de Tolly, the second under that of Bagrati6n,
and the third under TormAsov. The emperor was with the
first army, but not in the capacity of commander-in-chief.
In the order it did not say that the emperor would be
commanding, but only that he would be with the army.
Besides, with the emperor in person was not the staff of
the commander-in-chief, but the staff of the imperial head-
quarters. With him were the chief of the imperial staff,
Quartermaster-General Prince Volk6nski, generals, aids-
de-camp, diplomatic officials, and a large number of for-
eigners, but not the staff of the army. In addition to
these, there were with him men without any definite
duties, such as Arakcheev, the ex-minister of war, Count
B4nigsen, the oldest general in rank, Grand Duke Tsesa-


r4vich Konstantin PAvlovich, Count RumyAntsev, the
c.:ha.ellk..r, Stein, the ex-minister of Prussia, Armfeldt, the
Swedlih general, Pfuel, the chief author of the plan of
the campaign, Paulucci, the adjutant-general, a Sardinian
emigrant, Wolzogen, and many others. Although these
persons had no military posts in the army, they had an in-
fluence upon it by dint of their positions, and frequently
a chief of a corps, and even the commander-in-chief did
not know in what capacity B4nigsen, or the grand duke,
or Arakcheev, or Prince Volk6nski, asked or advised this
or that, and whether a given order in the form of advice
originated in such a person or in the emperor, and whether
it was necessary to obey it, or not. But that was only an
external arrangement; the essential meaning of the pres-
ence of the emperor and of all these persons from the
standpoint of the court (in the presence of the emperor
all became courtiers) was clear to all. It was this: the
emperor did not assume the appellation of commander-in-
chief, but took charge of all the armies, while all the peo-
ple who surrounded him were his assistants. Arakch6ev
was the trusty executor and guardian of order and
body-guard of the emperor; B4nigsen was a landed pro-
prietor of the Government of Vilna, who apparently was
doing the honours of the country, but in reality he was
a good general, useful in the council and ready at any time
to take the place of Barclay de Tolly. The grand duke
was there because it pleased him to be there. Ex-minis-
ter Stein was there because he was useful in the council,
and because Emperor Alexander highly valued his personal
Armfeldt, the hateful enemy of Napoleon, was a self-
confident general, and this always had an influence on
Alexander. Paulucci was there because he was bold and
decided in his speeches. The adjutants-general were
there because they were everywhere where the Tsar was,
and, above all, Pfuel was there because he had composed


the plan of the war against Napoleon, and, because having
gained Alexander's confidence in the correctness of his
judgment, he managed the whole war. With Pfuel was
Wolzogen, who transmitted Pfuel's ideas in a more acces-
sible form than Pfuel himself gave them in, an abrupt
man, self-confident to the point of contempt, and a cabinet
In addition to the above-mentioned persons, Russians
and strangers (especially strangers, who, with a boldness
which is characteristic of people acting in a strange milieu,
each day proposed new, unexpected ideas), there were also
a large number of men of secondary importance, who were
with the army because their chiefs were there.
Among the many ideas and voices current in this im-
mense, restless, brilliant, and proud world, Prince Andrdy
saw the following more clearly defined subdivisions of
tendencies and parties.
The first party consisted of Pfuel and his followers, the
theorists of the war, who believed in the existence of a
science of war, and that in this science there were invari-
able laws of oblique movements, of flanking, and so forth.
Pfuel and his followers demanded a retreat into the in-
terior of the country, according to exact laws prescribed
by the assumed theory of war, and in every deflection
from this theory they saw only barbarism, ignorance, or
evil-mindedness. To this party belonged the German
princes, Wolzogen, Wintzingerode and others, chiefly
The second party was diametrically opposed to the
first. As is always the case, to one extreme were opposed
the representatives of another. The men of this party
were those who demanded the advance into Poland from
Vilna, and a full freedom of action, unhampered by any
plans. Not only were the representatives of this party
in favour of bold actions, but they also represented strict
nationalism, which made them only more one-sided in


their disputes. The party consisted of the Russians, Ba-
grati6n, rising Erm6lov, and others. During this time
there was current the famous joke of Erm6lov, who was
said to have begged the emperor to promote him to the
rank of German. The men of this party recalled Suv6rov,
and said that it was necessary not to think, not to punc-
ture a map, but to fight, to strike the enemy, not to let
them get into Russia, and not to allow the army to lose
To the third party, in which the Tsar had most confi-
dence, belonged the courtiers who acted as trimmers be-
tween the two parties. These men, among whom also was
Arakch6ev, were not military people, and they thought
and said what is generally said by men who have no con-
victions, but wish to appear as though they had them.
They maintained that no doubt the war, especially with
such a genius as Bonaparte (he was again called Bona-
parte), demanded profound considerations and deep scien-
tific knowledge, and that Pfuel was a brilliant man in
this respect; but that, at the same time, it should not be
forgotten that theorists were frequently one-sided, and
that, therefore, they could not be fully trusted, that atten-
tion ought to be paid to what Pfuel's antagonists were
saying and to what practical people, who were experienced
in military affairs, were saying, and that the mean of all
ought to be taken. The men of this party maintained
that the camp at the Drfssa should be kept, but that the
movements of all the other armies be changed. They
thought that it was better so, although neither the one
nor the other end was attained by it.
The fourth tendency was the one of which the most
prominent representative was the grand duke, the heir
apparent, who could not forget his disenchantment at
Austerlitz, where he had ridden out in front of the Guard
in helmet and collet, hoping in a dashing manner to crush
the French, and, accidentally getting into the first line,


had with difficulty saved himself from the g-ir.-ral :onfiu-
sion. The men of this party had in their judg.l'-nt, bl:,th
the quality and the defect of sincerity. They w'-r-' afraid
of Napoleon, saw strength in him and weakri.st, in them-U
selves, and frankly confessed their fears. ITh.y ahl:
"Nothing but grief, shame, and ruin will come- o: all this!
We have abandoned Vilna and Vitebsk, and w- shall als-,
abandon the Drissa. The only sensible thing that Lhu-re
is left for us to do, is to conclude a peace, and that, too,
as quickly as possible, before we are driven out of St.
Petersburg !"
This view, which was wide-spread in the higher spheres
of the army, had its support in St. Petersburg and in
Chancellor Rumyantsev, who was for peace for other state
The fifth were the partisans of Barclay de Tolly, not
only as a man, but also as minister of war and com-
mander-in-chief. They said: "Whatever he be" (they
always began thus), "he is an honest, active man, and
there is no better man than he. Give him real power, for
the war cannot be successful without a uniform command,
and he will show what he can do, as he has in Finland.
If our army is well organized and strong and has retreated
to the Drissa, without having suffered any defeat, we
owe this to Barclay de Tolly. If now Barclay is to be
supplanted by B4nigsen, all will be ruined, because BE-
nigsen showed his incapacity in the year 1807."
The sixth, the adherents of B4nigsen, on the contrary,
said that, in spite of all, there was no one who was more
active and more experienced than B4nigsen, and that,
twist as you may, you will have to come back to him.
" Let them now make blunders," and the men of this party
proved that our retreat to the Drissa was a most disgrace-
ful defeat and a continuous series of blunders, the more
such blunders they make, the better, at least they will
soon come to understand that it is not possible to proceed


in this ninuucr." they\ said. What is needed is not a
Barcrlay, Ar s:, omc suc.h l.u, but one of BNnigsen's type,
w'ih hald ilr-y;dv hlowu lhiu-elf in 1807, to whom Na-
piolc.:u had donnr justice and to whom the power would
readily be conceded, in short, no other than Bdnigsen."
The seventh consisted of persons who are generally to
be found about a young emperor and of whom there was
an especially large number about Emperor Alexander,
generals and aids-de-camp, who were passionately de-
voted to the Tsar, worshipping him sincerely and disinter-
estedly, not as the emperor, but as a man, just as Rostdv
had worshipped him in 1805, and who saw in him, not
only all human virtues, but also all human qualities.
Though these persons admired the modesty of the emperor,
who had refused the command of the armies, they censured
his excessive modesty, and wished and insisted that the
emperor should abandon his excessive diffidence and
should openly announce that he stationed himself at the
head of the army, that he should form the staff head-
quarters of the commander-in-chief, and, taking counsel,
where necessary, with experienced theorists and practical
men, should himself lead his troops, which would be thus
brought to the highest degree of exaltation !
The eighth was the largest group of men, which by its
enormous numbers stood to the others in the relation of
ninety-nine to one, and consisted of men who wanted
neither peace nor war, nor offensive movements, nor a
defensive camp at the Drissa, nor anywhere else, nor
Barclay, nor the emperor, nor Pfuel, nor B6nigsen;
they cared only for one essential thing,--to obtain as
many personal advantages and pleasures as possible. In
that turbid water of conflicting and tangled intrigues,
which swarmed at the headquarters of the emperor, one
could succeed in many things, which at any other time
would have been impossible. One, not wishing to lose
the comfortable position which he was occupying, to-day


agreed with Pfuel, to-morrow with his opponent, and on
the next day affirmed that he had no opinion on a certain
subject, only that he might avoid responsibility and please
the emperor. Another, wishing to gain some advantage,
directed the emperor's attention to himself, loudly pro-
claiming that which the emperor had hinted on the
previous day, disputing and shouting in the council,
striking his breast, and challenging his opponents to a
duel, by which he gave satisfactory proof that he was
prepared to sacrifice himself for the common good. A
third, in the interval between two councils and in the
absence of his enemies, simply begged for some stipend in
recognition of his faithful service, knowing full well that
there was no time to refuse his request. A fourth kept
accidentally getting into the emperor's way and appearing
overwhelmed by work. A fifth, to obtain a long desired
invitation to the emperor's dinner, furiously defended or
attacked a newly expressed opinion, and for this purpose
adduced more or less strong and just proofs.
All the men of this party caught roubles, crosses, and
ranks, and in this hunt followed only the direction of the
weather-vane of the imperial favour. The moment they
noticed that the weather-vane had turned to one side, all
this drone population of the army began to blow in the
same direction, so that it became difficult for the emperor
to turn it around. Amidst the indefiniteness of the situa-
tion and the imminent and serious danger, which gave to
everything a peculiarly agitated character, amidst this
whirl of intrigues, self-love, conflicts, varied views and
feelings, amidst the heterogeneity of nations composing
this class, the eighth, the largest of all parties, which was
occupied with its personal interests, made the course of
the whole matter more complicated and more confused.
No matter what question arose, the swarm of these drones,
without having finished their trumpeting on the previous
theme, flew over to the new, and with their buzzing


dro:wr.ed and more and m:or., confused the voices of those
who, vwe:I-ri discussing matters sincerely.
Just as Prince Andr4y reached the army, there arose
out of these parties another, the ninth, which was be-
ginning to make itself heard. It was the party of old,
sensible, statesmanlike men who, without sharing any of
the conflicting views, knew how to look in the abstract at
everything which was taking place at the staff of the
headquarters, and to consider means for coming out of
this indefiniteness, indecision, entanglement, and weak-
The men of this party said and believed that everything
bad was mainly due to the presence of the emperor with
his military court, and that the indefinite, conventional,
and wavering frailness of relations, which was convenient
at court, but harmful to the army, had been transferred
there; that the emperor ought to rule, but not direct the
troops; that the only issue from this situation was the
departure of the emperor with his court; that the pres-
ence of the emperor paralyzed the action of fifty thousand
soldiers who were necessary to secure his personal safety;
that the worst independent commander-in-chief would be
better than the best, who was embarrassed by the presence
and power of the emperor.
While Prince Andrey was living unattached at the
Drissa camp, Shishk6v, the secretary of state, who was
one of the representatives of this party, wrote the emperor
a letter, which Balash4v and Arakcheev agreed to sign.
Having been granted permission by the Tsar to discuss
the general course of the war, he respectfully proposed to
the emperor that he leave the army, under the pretext
that he was needed in the capital, in order to animate its
population to the war.
To stir the people and to invite them to defend the
country, to cause the outburst of enthusiasm (such as
had been produced in Moscow by the presence of the


Tsar), which was to become the chief cause of Russia's
triumph, was a duty which was left to the emperor and
which he accepted as his excuse for departing from the

THIs letter had not yet been handed to the Tsar, when
Barclay at dinner informed Bolk6nski that the emperor
wished to see him, in order to ask him some questions
about Turkey, and that Prince Andrey was to appear at
BWnigsen's quarters at six o'clock in the evening.
On that same day news was received at the Tsar's
headquarters about a new movement of Napoleon, which
might be perilous to the army, news which later proved
to be unfounded. On the same morning, Colonel Michaud
examined with the emperor the fortifications at the Drissa,
proving to him that this fortified camp, which had been
constructed by Pfuel and which until then had been re-
garded as the chef-d'ceuvre of tactical science and which
was to ruin Napoleon, that this camp was a piece of
stupidity and would be the ruin of the Russian army.
Prince Andrey arrived at the quarters of General B&-
nigsen, who was occupying a small house of a landed pro-
prietor on the very bank of the river. Neither B4nigsen
nor the emperor was there; but Chernysh6v, the Tsar's
aid-de-camp, received Bolk6nski and informed him that
the emperor had gone out, for the second time that day,
with General B4nigsen and Marquis Paulucci, in order to
examine the fortifications of the Drissa camp, about the
utility of which they were beginning to have serious
Chernyshev was sitting with a French novel at a win-
dow of the first room. This room had, no doubt, once been
a parlour; in it still stood an organ, over which were


thrown some rugs, and in one corner of it was the folding
bed of B4nigsen's adjutant. The adjutant was there. He
was apparently tired out from the effects of a banquet or
of work, was sitting on the folded bedclothes, and dozing.
Two doors led out of the parlour: one opened into that
which once had been a drawing-room, while the other, on
the right, led to the cabinet. Through the first door could
be heard voices of men speaking in German and now and
then in French. There, in the former drawing-room, were
gathered, at the emperor's request, not a council of war
(the Tsar was fond of indefiniteness), but a few persons
whose opinion, in the impending trouble, he wished to
know. It was not a council of war, but, as it were, a
council of men chosen to explain certain questions person-
ally to the emperor. To this informal council had been
invited the Swedish General Armfeldt, Adjutant-General
Wolzogen, Wintzingerode, whom Napoleon had called a
fugitive French subject, Michaud, Toll, Count Stein, who
was not at all a military man, and, finally, Pfuel himself,
who, as Prince Andrey had heard, was le cheville ouvrire "
of the whole affair. Prince Andrey had a good chance to
study him because Pfuel arrived soon after him, and, hav-
ing talked a minute with Chernyshdv, passed to the draw-
At first sight, Pfuel, in his badly made uniform of a
Russian general, which sat loosely on him as though he
were in disguise, appeared familiar to Prince Andr4y,
though he had never seen him. There was in him some-
thing of Weyrother, and Mack, and Schmidt, and many
other German theoretical generals, whom Prince Andrdy
had seen in the year 1805; but he was more typical than
they. He had never before seen such a German theorist,
who united in his person all that was in those other
Pfuel was not tall, and was very lean, but broad-boned,
of a coarse, sound, bodily structure, with a broad pelvis


.and bnuy shoulders. His f.ac- was very wrinkled and had
d.&ep-~et t-e.. His h;nr had apparently been hastily
combed in front, over the temples, with a brush, but in
the back it naively towered in tufts. Upon entering, he
looked restlessly and angrily about him, as though he were
afraid for everything in the large room where he was.
Holding his sword, he, with an awkward motion, turned
to Chernyshev, asking him in German where the emperor
was. Evidently he wanted to pass through the rooms as
quickly as possible, to get done with the bowing and
greeting, and to sit down to work over the map, where he
felt himself in his place. He hurriedly shook his head in
response to Chernyshev's words and smiled sarcastically,
as he listened to his words about the emperor's examining
the fortifications which he, Pfuel, had constructed accord-
ing to his theory. He muttered something in a bass,
abrupt voice, such as self-confident Germans speak in; it
was something like, Dummkopf" or "Zu Grunde die
ganze Geschichte or "'S wird was Gescheites draus wer-
den." Prince Andr4y did not make out what he said, and
wanted to pass by him, but Chernyshev introduced Prince
Andr6y to Pfuel, remarking that Prince Andrey was just
back from Turkey where the war had been ended so suc-
cessfully. Pfuel barely looked up, not so much at Prince
Andrey, as past him, and said, laughing: Da muss cin
sch'ner taktishcer Krieg gewesen sein Laughing a con-
temptuous laugh, he walked into the room whence the
voices were heard.
It was evident that Pfuel, who was always ready to
become ironically irritated, was now particularly excited
because they had taken the liberty of examining the camp
without him, and of censuring him. Prince Andrey,
thanks to his Austerlitz recollections, from this one short
meeting with Pfuel formed a clear conception of the
man's character. Pfuel was hopelessly, unchangeably, to
the point of martyrdom, self-conscious, one of those men


who are found only among the Germans, for the reason
that only the Germans are self-conscious on the basis of
an abstract idea, of science, that is, of a supposed knowl-
edge of the complete truth. A Frenchman is self-cou-
scious because he reveres his mind and his body, which
he regards as invincibly enchanting both to men and
women. An Englishman is self-conscious on the ground
of his being a citizen of the best regulated government in
the world, and because, as an Englishman, he always
knows what has to be done, and that all which he, as an
Englishman, is doing, is good. An Italian is self-conscious
because he is agitated and easily forgets himself and
others. A Russian is self-conscious for the very reason
that he does not know anything and does not wish to
know anything, and because he does not believe that it is
possible to know anything. A German is self-confident in
a worse, firmer, and more disgusting manner than the rest,
because he imagines that he knows the truth, the sci-
ence, which he has himself invented, but which to him is
the absolute truth. Such apparently was Pfuel. He had
a science, the theory of oblique movement, which he
had deduced from the wars of Frederick the Great, and
everything which he found in modern military history
appeared to him as insipidity, barbarism, a monstrous con-
flict, in which so many mistakes were made on both sides
that these wars could not be called wars: they did not
fit in with the theory, and could not serve as subjects of
In the year 1806, Pfuel had been one of the authors
of the plan of the war which ended with Jena and Auer-
stidt; but in the result of it he did not see the least
proof of the irregularity of his theory. On the contrary,
the departures from his theory, according to his idea,
were the only cause of the whole failure, and he said,
with his characteristic merry irony, Ich sagte ja, dass
die ganze Geschichte zum Teufel gehen were !" Pfuel


wa- :uoe of th:ise the.:irigt who so love their theory that
they forget ith aim, itz application to practice ; out of
love for the theory he despised all practice, and did not
want to hear a word about it. He really took delight
in a failure, because such a failure, due to departures in
practice from the theory, only proved to him the justice
of his theory.
He had said a few words to Prince Andrey and Cher-
nysh6v about the impending war, with the expression of
a man who knows in advance that everything will be
bad, and who is not even dissatisfied with it. The
uncombed tufts of hair which towered on the back of his
head and the hastily brushed locks proved this most
He passed to the other room, from which came imme-
diately the grumbling bass sounds of his voice.

PRINCE ANDREY was still following Pfuel with lus
eyes, when Count B4nigsen hastily entered the r':i:'
and, merely nodding to Bolk6nski and without it-'(ping.
walked into the cabinet, where he gave his adjut:at .:mrnt-
orders. The Tsar was coming after him, and BHuis,'n
had hastened ahead in order to prepare a few thinr- :uiid
be ready to receive the emperor. Chernyshiv anil Prhbi.
Andrdy went out on the porch. The emperor looked
tired as he dismounted from his horse. Marquis Paulucci
was speaking to him. The emperor, bending his head to
the left, was listening with a dissatisfied look to Paulucci,
who was speaking with great animation. The Tsar
moved forward, evidently wishing to end the conversa-
tion; but the Italian, red with excitement and forgetting
all propriety, followed him and kept saying:
Quant & celui qui a conseille ce camp, le camp de
Drissa," said Paulucci, just as the emperor ascended the
steps and, noticing Prince Andrey, began to gaze at the
unfamiliar face.
Quant & celui, Sire," continued Paulucci, in a tone of
despair, as though unable to contain himself any longer,
"qui a conseille le camp de Drissa, je ie vois pas d'autre
alternative que la maison jaune ou le gibet."
Without waiting to hear all the Italian had to say, the
emperor, who had in the meantime recognized Bolkdnski,
graciously turned to him:
"I am very glad to see you. Go where they are all
gathered, and wait for me !"


The- 'frumpror went ti:. the: cabinet. He was followed
by Priuie I'-et-r 1MikhiYl<:.vich Volk6nski and Baron
Stein, and the door was closed after him. Prince Andrdy,
taking advantage of the permission granted him by the
Tsar, went with Paulucci, whom he had known in Tur-
key, to the drawing-room, where the council was meeting.
Prince Peter MikhAylovich Volk6nski occupied a posi-
tion which might be called that of chief of the emperor's
staff. He came out of the cabinet and, taking some maps
to the drawing-room and spreading them out there, put
the questions to which he wished to hear the opinion of
the gentlemen assembled; in the night there had been
received the news (which later proved false) that the
French were advancing in order to surround the Drissa
The first one to speak was General Armfeldt, who, to
escape the impending difficulty, suddenly proposed an
entirely new, inexplicable position, to one side of the St.
Petersburg and Moscow roads, where, in his opinion, the
army should unite and wait for the enemy. This plan
could not be explained on any other ground than by his
desire to show that he, too, had an opinion. It was
evident that it had been made long before by Armfeldt,
and that he was now expounding it not so much for the
purpose of answering the questions which had been put,
with which the plan had nothing to do, as for the purpose
of using the opportunity for expressing his view. It was
one of a million propositions which could have been made
with just as much reason, without having the least idea
what character the war would assume. A few opposed
his view, others defended it. The young Colonel Toll
disputed the opinion of the Swedish general more excit-
edly than the rest and, during the discussion, took a well-
filled manuscript out of his side pocket, and asked per-
mission to read it. In this elaborate exposition, Toll
proposed another plan, which was diametrically opposed


to Armfeldt's and Pfuel's plans of the campaign. Paulucci,
retorting to Toll, proposed a plan of a forward movement
and attack, which alone, so he said, could take us out of
uncertainty and out of the trap, as he called the Drissa
camp, in which we then were.
Pfuel and his interpreter Wolzogen, who acted as a
kind of a bridge in his relations with the court, were
silent during the discussion. Pfuel only snorted disdain-
fully and turned his face away to show that he would
never lower himself so far as to reply to all the nonsense
which he was hearing. But when Prince Volk6nski, who
guided the discussion, invited him to express his opinion,
he only said:
Why ask me? General Armfeldt has proposed a su-
perb position with an open rear, or you have the attack
von diesel italienischen Herrn. Sehr sch6n. Or a retreat.
Auch gut. Why ask me, then ? You know everything
better than I do."
But when Volk6nski, frowning, said that he was asking
for his opinion in the name of the emperor, Pfuel rose
and suddenly said, with animation:
"They have spoiled everything and mixed everything
up, and wanted to know everything better than I do, and
now they come to me to ask me how to mend matters.
There is nothing to mend. All that is necessary is to
execute orders precisely on the lines indicated by me," he
said, knocking the table with his bony fingers. Where
is the difficulty? Nonsense, Kinderspiel !"
He went up to a map and began to speak rapidly,
pointing with his lean finger on the map, and proving
that no accident could change the usefulness of the Drissa
camp, that everything had been foreseen, and that, if the
enemy really meant to surround the camp, they would
certainly be destroyed.
Paulucci, who did not understand German, began to put
questions to him in French. Wolzogen came to the assist-


ance of his chief, who spoke French badly, and began to
translate his words, with difficulty following Pfuel, who
spoke hurriedly as he explained that everything, everything,
not only everything which had happened, but which might
happen, everything had been provided for in his plan, and
that, if there were any difficulties, the fault was that his
orders had not been carried out with precision. He kept
smiling ironically, and proved, and finally ceased proving,
with a contemptuous look, just as a mathematician gives
up verifying by different methods the once proved cor-
rectness of a problem. Wolzogen was his representative,
expounding his ideas in French and now and then saying
to Pfuel: "Nicht wahr, Excellenz ? Pfuel, like a man
who gets excited in a battle and strikes his own people,
kept shouting angrily at his own Wolzogen:
Nun ja, was soil denn da noch expliziert werden ?"
Paulucci and Michaud together attacked Wolzogen in
French. Armfeldt addressed Pfuel in German. Toll ex-
plained things to Prince Volk6nski in Russian. Prince
Andrdy listened silently and made his observations.
Of all these persons, the most sympathetic to Prince
Andr6y was the irascible, determined, and senselessly self-
confident Pfuel. He was apparently the only one of all
the persons present who did not wish anything for him-
self and who had no personal enmities, but only wished
for one thing, the materialization of his plan, based on
a theory which had been deduced by years of labour. He
was ridiculous and disagreeable with his irony, but, at the
same time, he inspired one with involuntary respect on
account of his boundless devotion to an idea. Besides,
in the speeches of all those who spoke, except in Pfuel's
speech, there was one common feature, which had not
been in the military council of the year 1805: it was an
ill-disguised, panic terror before Napoleon's genius, which
was betrayed in every expression. Everything was re-
garded as possible to Napoleon; he was expected from


all sides, and with his terrible name they annihilated each
other's suppositions. Pfuel seemed to be the only one
who regarded Napoleon as just such a barbarian as all
the opponents of his theory.
But, in addition to the feeling of respect, Pfuel inspired
Prince Andrdy also with a feeling of pity. To judge
from the tone in which the courtiers addressed him, and
from what Paulucci had allowed himself to say to the
emperor, but, above all, from a certain despair percep-
tible in Pfuel's own expressions, it was evident that
the others knew, and he himself felt, that his fall was
near at hand. And so, in spite of his self-confidence
and German grumbling and irony, he was pitiable, with
his well-brushed hair over his forehead and his tow-
ering tufts in the back of his head. Though he, appar-
ently, concealed this under the guise of irritation and
contempt, he was in despair, because the only chance
which he had to verify his theory on a grand scale, and
to prove to the whole world its correctness, was slipping
away from him.
The discussions lasted for a long time, and the longer
they lasted, the more excited the men became, having re-
course to shouting and to personalities, and the less it
became possible to come to any general conclusion from
all that had been said. Prince Andrdy, listening to this
Babel of tongues and to these propositions, plans, refutals,
and shouts, only wondered what it was they were talking
about. The ideas, which had assailed him long ago, dur-
ing his military activity, that there was no such a thing
as a military science, and that there could be none, and
that, consequently, there could not be what is called a
military genius, now appeared to him as manifest truth.
What theory and science can there be in a matter, the
conditions and circumstances of which are unknown and
cannot be defined, and in which the acting forces of the
war are still less definable ? Nobody has known or can


know, in what position our army and that of the enemy
will I.., in a day, and nobody can tell what the strength
of this i:,r that detachment may 1,e. At times, when there
ih no coward in rout, who will shout, 'We are cut off!'
and will run, ,ut when there is, instead, a bold, cheerful
fellow, who will shout, Hurrah!' a detachment of five
thousand will be worth another of thirty thousand, as
was the case at Schingraben ; while at other times
fifty thousand soldiers will run away from eight thousand,
as was the case at Austerlitz. How can there be a sci-
ence in a matter, in which, as in every practical matter,
nothing can be determined, and everything depends on
an endless number of conditions, the significance of which
is determined at a minute, which will arrive no one
knows when? Armfeldt says that our army is cut off,
and Paulucci maintains that we have placed the French
army between two fires; Michaud says that the defect of
the Drissa camp is due to the fact that the river is in
the rear, and Pfuel says that that is its strength. Toll
proposes one plan, and Armfeldt proposes another; and
all are good, and all are bad, and the advantages of any
proposition will become manifest only at the moment
when the event takes place. Why do all say that there
is a military genius? Is the man who knows how to
order in time to have the hardtack supplied, and to
send this one to the right and that one to the left,
a genius, merely because military men are clad in splen-
dour and vested with power, and the masses of the
scoundrels flatter power and improperly attach to it the
qualities of genius ? On the contrary, the best generals
whom I have known are either stupid or absent-minded
men. The best of them is Bagrati6n,- Napoleon him-
self has regarded him as such. And Bonaparte himself ?
I remember the self-satisfied and blunt expression of his
face on the field of Austerlitz. A good general not only
needs no genius, or any other special qualities, but, on the


contrary, he needs an absence of all the highest nd.l b-st
human qualities,--love, poetry, ten-lern,:s, auo:l phili-
sophic and inquisitive doubt. He rtu-t bir n.-rro:w anol
firmly convinced that what he is doing is very inlpr.rtnut
(otherwise his patience will give way), and theu rinly will hi-
be a brave general. God forfend that lie Ah-u. ll- e hu1uan,
and love and pity any one, and think of what ir right or
wrong! Naturally the theory of genius wn:s iu-ventedl ftor
such men in ancient times, because they air ara power.
The success of a military affair does not dipeud o:lu them,
but on the man who in the ranks calls :.ut, We arei lost ''
or, 'Hurrah!' It is only in the rank that onf can -an rve
with the conviction that one is useful "
Thus thought Prince Andr4y, as he li.tened tj- tlhe- I -l-
cussion, and he was roused from his r-eflecti'.,n .,nly wlihen
Paulucci called him, and all began to ditart.
On the following day, at the review, tlln emrpror
asked Prince Andrey where he wislh"-l t:, serve, and
Prince Andrey was for ever lost to the court, m-nc: be
did not ask to be left near the pers.:n ,f the emllpel:.',
but begged permission to serve in the altiuV.


BEFORE the beginning of the campaign, Rost6v had re-
ceived a letter from his parents, in which he was briefly
informed of Nat6sha's illness and of the rupture with
Prince Andr6y (it was explained to him on the ground of
Natssha's refusal), and he was again asked to take his
dismissal and return home. Upon receiving this letter,
Nikoldy did not even make an attempt at getting a fur-
lough or dismissal, but only wrote to his parents that he
was sorry for Natisha's illness and rupture with her
fianc4, and that he would do everything in his power to
fulfil their wish. To S6nya he wrote separately:

ADORED FRIEND OF MY SOUL: Nothing but honour
could keep me from returning to the country; but now,
before the beginning of the campaign, I should consider
myself disgraced, not only in the eyes of my comrades,
but even in my own opinion, if I preferred my happiness
to my duty and love of country. This is our last separa-
tion! Believe me, as soon as the war is over, if I am
alive and still loved by you, I shall throw up everything
and fly to you, in order to press you for ever to my flam-
ing breast."

Indeed, it was only the opening of the campaign
which detained Rost6v and kept him from returning, as
he had promised, and marrying S6nya. The autumn at
OtrAdnoe, with its chase, and the winter, with the Christ-
mas holidays and with S6nya's love, opened to him a per-


spective of quiet country squire pleasures and calm,
which he had not known before, and which now enticed
him. "An excellent wife, children, a good pack of
hounds, ten or twelve leashes of swift greyhounds, neigh-
bours, duties connected with the elections!" he thought.
But now the campaign was on, and he had to remain in
the regiment. And as this was a matter of necessity,
Nikoldy Rost6v, by his natural disposition, was satisfied
with the life which he was leading in the army, and
knew how to make this life agreeable for himself.
After his return from his furlough, Nikol6y had been
received with joy by his comrades, and then he was sent
for remounts. He brought with him from Little-Russia
some very fine horses, which gave him pleasure and
earned him praises from his superiors. During his ab-
sence he was promoted to the rank of captain, and when
the regiment was placed on a war footing, with an in-
creased complement, he again received his old squadron.
The campaign began. The regiment was moved into
Poland; double pay was now given; there arrived new
officers, new men, new horses; and, above all, there was
abroad that joyful animation which always exists in the
beginning of a war. Rost6v, conscious of his advanta-
geous position in the army, abandoned himself entirely to
the pleasures and interests of the military service, though
he knew that sooner or later he would have to give
them up.
The troops retreated from Vilna for various complex,
political, and tactical reasons, and reasons of state.
Every step of the retreat was accompanied by a com-
plicated game of interests, ratiocinations, and passions
at the head staff. But for the hussars of the Pavlogradski
regiment, all this retrogressive campaign, at the best sea-
son of the year, with sufficient supplies, was a very sim-
ple and agreeable matter. It was only at headquarters
that they despaired, were restless, and intrigued; but in


thu: army itself t-hey didi u:.t ask whither they were going,
Or for, what fpurpios... If tlirhy lid feel sorry to retreat,
it was because they hated to leave a comfortable room,
or a pretty Polish lass. If it did occur to this or that
man that affairs were in a bad shape, such a one, as was
proper for a military man, tried to be jolly and not to
think of the general course of events, but only to busy
himself about his immediate affairs.
At first they had been pleasantly located near Vilna,
where they became acquainted with the Polish landed
proprietors, and waited for and went through reviews for
the emperor and other superior commanders. Then came
the order to retreat to Sventsyany and to destroy the pro-
visions which they could not carry with them. Sven-
tsy~ny was memorable to the hussars because it was a
" drunken camp," as the whole army had called the halt
there, and because in Sventsyany there were many com-
plaints against the army because, having received orders
to levy provision, they took away horses, carriages, and
carpets from the Polish proprietors. Rost6v remembered
Sventsyany because, on the first day after entering the
little town, he changed his sergeant-major and could not
get along with the extremely drunken soldiers of the
squadron, who without his knowledge had carried off five
kegs of old beer. From Sventsy6ny they retreated more
and more, to the Drissa, and from the Drissa they again
retreated, toward the Russian border.
On July 13th the Pavlogradski regiment was for the
first time in a serious engagement. On the previous night
there had been a severe storm with rain and hail. The
summer of 1812 was, altogether, remarkable for its
storms. Two squadrons of the Pavlogrddski regiment
were bivouacked in the middle of a field of rye, which
had been standing in full ear, but now was completely
tramped out by the cattle and the horses. The rain
came down in sheets. Rost6v and a young officer, Ilin,


who was under his protection, were sitting in a tent
which had been pitched in a hurry. An officer of their
regiment, with a long moustache, which was continued
from his cheeks, on his way back from the staff and
caught in the rain, went in to see Rost6v.
Count, I am just coming back from the staff. Have
you heard of Ra4vski's exploit?" And the officer pro-
ceeded to tell the details of the battle at Saltanovka, of
which he had heard at the staff.
Rost6v shrugged his shoulders, as the water was running
down his neck, and smoked a pipe. He listened inatten-
tively, and now and then looked at the young officer,
Ilin, who was pressing close to him. This officer, a boy
of sixteen years, who had but lately entered the regiment,
was now to NikolIy what Nikol6y himself had been to
Denisov seven years before. Ilin tried to imitate Rost6v
in everything, and loved him as only women love.
The officer with the double moustache, Zdrzhinski, told
them in pompous language that the dam at Salt6novka
was the Thermopyle of the Russians, because on that dam
General Ra4vski had done an act worthy of antiquity.
Zdrzhinski told them how Ra4vski had taken his two
sons out on the dam, while a terrible fire was poured on
them, and how he went with them to the attack. Rost6v
listened to the story, and not only said nothing to confirm
Zdrzhinski in his enthusiasm, but, on the contrary, had
the aspect of a man who is ashamed of what he is being
told, though he does not intend to make any reply. Rost6v
knew, from personal experience, after his campaigns at
Austerlitz and in the year 1807, that people always lie
when they tell of military events, just as he himself used
to prevaricate; in the second place, he was experienced
enough to know that things did not take place in battles
as we imagine them, or could tell about them. For this
reason he did not like Zdrzhinski's story, just as he did
not like Zdrzhinski himself, who, with his moustache


exteudimg t'- his iheek3, was in the habit of bending low
over the face of the person to whom he was talking, and
was crowding him in his tent. Rost6v looked at him in
"In the first place, there must have been such a tangle
and disorder on the dam which was being attacked that, if
Ra6vski really took out his sons, this could not have had
any effect on any more than ten of the nearest men,"
thought Rost6v, while the others could not even have
seen with whom Radvski was walking over the dam.
And even those who saw them could not have been very
much inspired, because what could they care for the tender
feelings of a father, when their own hides were in danger ?
Then again, whether the dam of Saltanovka was taken or
not, it could have no effect upon the fate of the country,
as was the case with Thermopyle. Consequently, what
sense was there in bringing such a sacrifice ? Then again,
what have one's own children to do in the war ? I myself
not only would not think of taking Petya out, but would
even try to place Iin, this good boy, who is a stranger to
me, somewhere in a protected place," Rost6v continued
to think, as he listened to Zdrzhinski.
He did not utter his thoughts, experience having taught
him the futility of it. He knew that this story had had
the effect of glorifying our arms, and so it was necessary
to look as though one did not doubt the story. And so
he did.
"Really, I can't stand it any longer," said Iln, who had
noticed that Rost6v did not like Zdrzhinski's conversation,
"my stockings and shirt are wet, and the water is running
on my seat. I will go and look for a dry place. It seems
the rain has let up."
Ilin went out, and Zdrzhinski departed.
Five minutes later Ilin, splashing through the mud, ran
up to the tent.
Hurrah! Rost6v, let us go quick! I have found it!


About two hundred steps from here there is a tavern, and
our officers are there already. We shall at least get dry,
and Marya Genrfkhovna is there."
Ma rya Genrikhovna was the wife of the doctor of the
regiment. She was a pretty young German woman, whom
the doctor had married in Poland. The doctor, either
because he had no means, or because during the first of
his married life he did not wish to be separated from his
young wife, took her along with the regiment of hussars,
and his jealousy had become the common subject of jokes
among the officers of hussars.
Rost6v threw a cloak over him, called Lavrdshka,
telling him to take his things along, and went with Ilin,
now tottering in the mud, now splashing in the puddles,
through the darkness of the night, which was occasionally
broken by distant lightning. The rain was letting up.
"Rost6v, where are you ?"
"Here. What a flash of lightning he answered.


IN the tavern, in front of which stood the doctor's cart,
there were already five officers. Marya Genrikhovna, a
plump blond German woman, in dressing-sack and night-
cap, was sitting in the front corner on a broad bench.
Her husband, the doctor, was sleeping back of her. Rostdv
and Ilin entered the room and were received with merry
acclamations and loud laughter.
Oho! You are having a jolly time!" Rost6v said,
"And why are you so gloomy ?"
They look fine! See how the water is running off
them Don't get our drawing-room wet!"
Don't soil Mdrya Genrikhovna's garments!" said
some one else.
Rostov and Ilin hastened to find a corner where, without
offending Marya Genrikhovna's modesty, they might take
off their wet clothes. They went behind a partition ; but
the small store-room was completely filled by three officers
who, with a candle placed on an empty box, were playing
cards, and were unwilling to yield their places on any
conditions. Marya Genrikhovna for a time let them
have her skirt, which was used as a curtain, and behind
it Rost6v and Ilin, with the help of Lavrushka, who had
brought the baggage, took off their wet, and put on dry,
A fire was made in the dilapidated stove. A board
was found, which was firmly placed on two saddles ; this


was covered with a piece of cloth, then a small samovir,
a lunch-basket, and half a bottle of rum were brought ou t,
and Marya Genrikhovna was asked to be the host:-e-.
All crowded around her. One offered her a clean hand-
kerchief with which to wipe her charming little hand ;
another placed his Hungarian coat under her feet, in order
to keep them from getting damp; a third hung his o0m.r-
coat over the window, so as to keep out the draught;
while a fourth kept the flies away from her husbandl,
face, that he might not wake up.
Leave him alone," said Mdrya Genrikhovna, smiling
timidly and with an expression of happiness, "he will
sleep well anyway after a wakeful night."
"I cannot help it, Marya Genrikhovna," replied the
officer, "I must do the doctor a service. Maybe he will
be merciful with me when he has to cut off a hand or foo:
of mine."
There were only three glasses in all; the water was so
dirty that it was impossible to decide whether the tea was
strong or weak, and the samovar held only six glasses;
but it was so much the more pleasant to receive one's
glass in turn, by seniority, from the plump hands of
M6rya Genrikhovna, with her short, not scrupulously
clean, nails. All the officers on that evening really seemed
to be in love with her. Even the officers who were play-
ing cards behind the partition soon gave up the game and
came out to the samovar, falling in with the universal
mood of paying court to Marya Genrikhovna. Seeing
herself surrounded by such brilliant and polite young
men, she beamed with happiness, no matter how much
she tried to conceal it, and no matter how much she ap-
parently felt embarrassed at every motion of her husband
who was sleeping behind her.
" There was but one spoon. There was plenty of sugar,
but as no one stirred it well, it was decided that she
should stir the sugar for each in succession. Having


received his glass, Rost6v added some rum to it and asked
Mdrya Genrikhovna to stir it for him.
"But you have no sugar," she said, smiling all the
time, as though everything which she said and which
the others said were exceedingly funny and had another
meaning, too.
"I do not care so much for the sugar as that you
should stir it with your little hand."
MArya Genrikhovna agreed to do so, and started to look
for the spoon, which somebody else had taken away.
You stir it with your little finger, MArya Genri-
khovna," said Rost6v, "it will be so much the more
It is hot! said Marya Genrikhovna, blushing from
pleasurable excitement.
Ilin took a bucket with water, and, dropping some rum
into it, came to MArya Genrikhovna and asked her to stir
that with her little finger.
This is my cup," he said. "Just put in your little
finger and I will drink it all."
When the samovar was emptied, Rost6v took a pack of
cards and proposed playing "kings with Marya Genri-
khovna. A lot was cast to see who should play with
M rya Genrikhovna. According to Rost6v's proposition,
it was the rule of the game that the king should kiss
her hand, and that he who should be the booby should
prepare a samovar for the doctor, when he awoke.
Well, and if M6rya Genrikhovna is the king ?" asked
She is a queen as it is, and her commands are law."
The game had just begun, when back of MArya Genri-
khovna suddenly rose the dishevelled head of the doctor.
He had not been sleeping for some time, and had been.
listening to what was being said, and apparently found
nothing jolly, funny, or entertaining in anything that was
being done or said. His face was sad and gloomy. He


did not greet the officers, but only scratched himself and
asked permission to go out, as his way was barred. The
moment he had left, all the officers burst into loud guf-
faws, and MArya Genrikhovna blushed till the tears caiue.
and thus, to the thinking of the officers, became nm:re
attractive than before. After returning ir,:ir the outside,
the doctor informed his wife, who no longer had such a
happy smile, and was looking at him in fright, waiting for
her sentence, that the rain had passed and that it w-as
necessary to go to the cart to sleep, or else everything
would be carried off.
But I will send an orderly there, or even two of
them," said Rost6v. "Don't say that, doctor!"
I will myself stand sentinel !" said Ilin.
No, gentlemen, you have had your sleep, but I h ve
not slept for two nights," said the doctor. He sat down
gloomily by the side of his wife, waiting for the end of
the game.
Looking at the sullen face of the doctor, as he kept
glancing awry at his wife, the officers felt merrier still,
and many of them were unable to keep from laughing,
for which they endeavoured to discover some proper
reasons. When the doctor went out with his wife and
placed her in the cart, the officers lay down in the tavern
and covered themselves with their wet overcoats; but it
was a long time before they fell asleep, for they were re-
calling the doctor's fright and his wife's merriment, or
some one ran out on the porch to find out what was going
on in the cart. Rostdv several times wrapped up his
head and wanted to fall asleep; but again somebody's
remark distracted him, again they started a conversation,
and again there was heard groundless, merry, childish


AT three o'clock nobody was asleep yet, when a
sergeant-major came with an order to move to the town
of Ostr6vna.
Talking and laughing as merrily as before, the officers
began to get ready hurriedly; again the samovar was pre-
pared with dirty water. But Rost6v did not wait for the
tea, and went at once to his squadron. Day was breaking;
the rain had stopped, the clouds were dispersing. It was
damp and cold, and especially so in wet clothes. Leaving
the tavern, Rost6v and Ilin peered in the twilight into the
leather-covered cart which looked shining from the rain,
and out of the boot of which towered the doctor's feet,
while in the middle could be seen his wife's cap resting
on a pillow, and could be heard the even breathing of
"Really, she is very charming!" Rost6v said to Ilin,
who came out with him.
"A superb woman !" Ilin replied, with the seriousness
of a boy of sixteen years.
Half an hour later the squadron was drawn up on the
road. The command was given, and the soldiers made
the sign of the cross and began to mount. Rost6v rode
out in front and commanded, "March!" and the hussars,
forming in rows of four, with a splash of their horses' feet
on the wet road, with the clanking of sabres, and with
quiet conversations, moved along the birch-lined highway,
behind the infantry and battery, which preceded them.
The tattered lilac clouds, crimsoning in the east, were


Rapidly driven by the wind. It was growing lighter and
lighter. One could clearly see the curly grass, whi.:h
always grows on the country roads, and which was st Ul
wet from the rain of the previous day; the pendeut
boughs of the birches, themselves wet, swayed in the
wind and cast bright drops sidewise on the ground. The
faces of the soldiers could be.told more and more dis-
tinctly. Rost6v was riding with Ilin, who did not leave
him, on one side of the road, between two rows of birchcS.
Rost6v took the liberty of riding during the campaign n,
not an army, but a Cossack horse. Being a connoisseur
in horse-flesh, he had succeeded in providing himself with
a spirited, cream-coloured Don horse, on which he could
outride anybody. It was a joy to Rostov to ride this
horse. He was thinking of his mount, of the morning,
and of the doctor's wife, but not once of the impending
Formerly Rostov used to be afraid every time when he
went into action; now he did not experience the least
feeling of terror. Not because he had become accustomed
to the fire (one never gets used to danger) was he without
fear, but because he had learned to control his soul before
the danger. He had accustomed himself, when going
into action, to think of everything, except of what would
seem to be most interesting of all, of the impending
danger. No matter how much he had tried, and had
rebuked himself for his cowardice, he had been unable,
during the first of his service, to overcome it; but as
years went on, control became natural to him. He was
now riding with Ilin between the rows of birches, now
and then tearing off leaves from the branches, which fell
into his hands, and now touching the horse's flanks with
his feet, and now again, without turning back, handing
his unfinished pipe to the hussar behind him, which he
did with a calm and careless look, as though he were out
promenading. He felt sorry for Itin, as he looked at his


disturbed face and heard him talk incessantly; he knew
from experience that vexatious condition of expectancy of
terror and death, in which the ensign was, and he knew
that nothing but time would help him.
The sun had just appeared on a clean strip behind a
cloud, when the wind died down, as though it did not
dare to spoil that superb summer morning after a storm;
drops were still falling, but only obliquely,-and all
grew silent. The sun emerged entirely, showed itself at
the horizon, and disappeared in a narrow, long cloud
which was standing above it. A few minutes later it
appeared brighter still at the upper edge of the cloud,
tearing asunder its edges. Everything began to shine
and glisten. And simultaneously with this light, as
though seconding it, there resounded discharges of guns
far to the front.
Rost6v had not yet had time to make out and deter-
mine how far away these shots were, when an adjutant of
Count Osterman-Tolst6y came galloping along with the
order to advance at a quick trot along the road.
The squadron moved past the infantry and the battery,
which also was hurrying forward, descended a hill, and,
passing a deserted village, again ascended an incline. The
horses were beginning to become lathered, and the men
were heated.
"Halt! Align yourselves!" was heard the command of
the chief of the division in front. "Left shoulder for-
ward, forward, march!" were the commands given in the
van. And the hussars passed down the line of the troops
to the left flank of the position, and stationed themselves
behind our uhlans, who were in the first line. On the
right our infantry stood in a dense column: those were
the reserves; above them, on the hill, our guns, outlined
in the clear, clear air against the horizon, could distinctly
be seen in the bright, oblique illumination of the morning.
In front, the enemy's columns and guns were visible be-


yond a ravine. Our cordon could be heard in the ravine;
it had already entered into action and was merrily ex-
changing a crackling fire with the enemy.
Rost6v felt as happy under these long unaccustomed
sounds as though they were the most cheerful music.
"Trap-ta-ta-tap !" several shots clicked now all together,
and now one after another in rapid succession. Again all
was silent, and again it sounded as though detonating
balls were cracking every time some one walked over
The hussars stood for about an hour in one place.
Then began a cannonade. Count Osterman with his suite
rode down the rear of the squadron ; he stopped to speak
with the commander of the regiment, and rode away in
the direction of the cannons on the hill.
Immediately after the departure of Osterman, one could
hear the command given to the uhlans to form a column
for the attack. The infantry in front of them doubled
their platoons, so as to let the cavalry pass through. The
uhlans moved, swaying the pennons of their lances, and at
a quick trot raced down-hill against the French cavalry,
which had appeared at the foot of the hill, on the left.
The moment the uhlans had descended the hill, the
hussars were ordered to move up to the summit, to pro-
tect the battery. Just as the hussars were taking up the
position of the uhlans, bullets came from the direction of
the cordon, whining and whistling, but not striking
any one.
This long unfamiliar sound had an even more cheerful
and stirring effect upon Rost6v than the former sounds of
the reports. He straightened himself up, surveyed the
field of battle which was opened to him from the hill, and
with his whole soul took part in the movement of the
uhlans. They flew at close range against the French
dragoons; something became entangled in the smoke, and
five minutes later the uhlans rushed back, not to the place


where they had been standing before, but more to the left.
Between the orange-coloured uhlans on chestnut horses
and behind them could be seen a large throng of French
dragoons in blue, mounted on gray horses.

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