Front Cover
 Florida value of agricultural...
 Back Cover

Title: Biennial report - Florida Division of Marketing
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00094067/00022
 Material Information
Title: Biennial report - Florida Division of Marketing
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services. -- Division of Marketing
Publication Date: 1958-1960
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1- 1917-
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00094067
Volume ID: VID00022
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01403025


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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Florida value of agricultural production
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
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        Page 15
        Page 16
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        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
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        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
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        Page 37
        Page 38
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        Page 48
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        Page 52
        Page 53
    Back Cover
        Page 54
        Page 55
Full Text






JULY 1, 1958 TO JUNE 30, 1960


A- '

-%-__ Jt-



Considering employment, investment, value, annual revenue,
and all the related commercial counterparts of agri-business,
agriculture ranks first among the State's enterprises of
industry. Agriculture is the indispensable stimulant of
Florida commercialism and prosperity.

A condensed summary next following of the value of Florida
agricultural production substantiates the importance of the
various lines of farming pursuits and the total of the State's
principal crops. It will be noted that in ranking order
citrus value is first, followed next by truck crops, then
livestock, dairy, field crops, horticultural specialties,
poultry and egg products, forest and miscellaneous products.
The data emphasize no less than the importance of agriculture
itself, the responsibility of official agencies in serving
the many different major segments of food product production.

Every living person of Florida is a consumer of agricul-
tural food products. Every industry of the State benefits
directly or indirectly from its agriculture. Every citizen
of the State should be deeply concerned in its agricultural
welfare. The Twenty-Second Biennial Report of the Florida
State Marketing Bureau reviews services the department has
performed in the last two years in the interest of the welfare
and progress of Florida agriculture.


















$ 2,384,000








8 000,000






$ 1,477,500










Fruit and vegetable values are for the production season August
while other commodity values are for the calendar year.

through July,


A one-sentence summary of the Twenty-Second Report of the Florida State
Marketing Bureau was made in the Letter of Transmittal to the Honorable LeRoy
Collins, Governor of Florida: major projects of the Bureau have been con-
servatively expanded, additional duties prescribed by the 1959 Legislature
have been performed, and important supplementary services were initiated in
the closing biennial period.

The main offices of the Bureau are located in Jacksonville. Branch
offices are maintained full time in Miami, Tampa and Pensacola. Livestock
market news representatives have offices in Wauchula, Pahokee, Tampa and
Marianna the entire year. Federal-State market news offices are open
seasonally in Hastings, Sanford, Pompano, Belle Glade, Plant City and
Lakeland. Part-time or cooperative representatives are stationed in Orlando,
Fort Myers, St. Petersburg, Panama City and Tallahassee for poultry and egg
market news reporting for those areas. The Federal USDA reporter in charge
of Federal-State poultry-egg market news for Jacksonville and Northeast
Florida has headquarters in the Jacksonville Bureau offices. Complete
directory of Bureau personnel is included on the final page of this report.

Employment standards of the Bureau are high. An accredited college
degree, majoring in the agricultural line appropriate to employment applied
for, in addition to practical experience, is now required for all marketing
and market news specialist positions. Applicants for employment are carefully
screened, and every effort is made to secure the best qualified employee for
permanent assignment. Several employees have worked for the Bureau thirty
years and retired, several still with the Bureau have served the department
thirty years or longer. Some receiving experience of business administration
and other administrative responsibilities with the Bureau head other state
departments, as the State Farmers' Markets, Federal-State Inspection Service,
etc. The Assistant Commissioner of the Bureau is also an appointed member of
the Egg Commission. The Tampa poultry-egg market news reporter resigned that
position in January 1960 to work for the Egg Commission.

Referring again to conservative expansion of services longer operating
season for Federal-State vegetable market news field offices at Sanford, Pompano
and Belle Glade was requested by growers, shippers, market managers and others.
The service has been extended in compliance. The reports of the Specialists
for fruits and vegetables, and livestock, will mention the material expansion
and supplementary service in these projects provided during the last two years.

Recently the basic livestock price information being furnished the
United States Department of Agricultural Statistician in computing official
price averages for Florida (mostly tabulated from auction data) was supple-
mented by numbers and prices on "direct" (non-auction) cattle sales, thereby
making possible more accurate averages. The Dairy Products Marketing
Specialist as State Chairman of June Dairy Month Promotion assisted the dairy


industry of Florida in planning a state-wide program which was an outstanding
success and a real help to the industry. June Dairy Month is the nation's
biggest single food merchandising event, and this was a good opportunity to help
promote the State's dairy industry.

Notwithstanding the Legislature of 1959 provided the Bureau with $1,786
less for expenses year ending June 30, 1960, than two years previously
($99,350 in 1958, $97,564 in 1960), and disallowed request for one additional
livestock market news reporter, the Tobacco Act of 1959 provided that it should
be administered in the marketing division of the Department of Agriculture.
Enabling legislation for celery and sweet corn marketing orders passed by the
1959 Legislature also carried provision for administration in the marketing
division of the State Department of Agriculture. Though handicapped by reduced
expense funds, the requirements of the Tobacco Act of 1959 were served by the

After the Legislature of 1959 had adjourned, and there was no chance of
obtaining additional expense funds, the Bureau was requested to initiate a
market news service for gladiolas and chrysanthemums. Through the tireless work
of Mr. Elmo Scarborough, Fruit-Vegetable Market News Specialist of the Bureau,
the cooperation of the U.S.D.A., the transportation agencies and the industry,
the service was started Dec. 10, 1959. Likewise the livestock market news
division has been requested to increase and implement its coverage in the face
of reduced funds and fewer personnel than requested to do the job. By increas-
ing workload beyond reasonable expectation, the extra service has been pro-
vided. Perhaps it is better to do more with less funds than less with more

The most significant recent expansion (January 1960) of Florida Livestock
Market News was supplying radio and TV stations and newspapers with more
complete and timely reports on local livestock auction markets. These reports
are prepared immediately after each sale and relayed to news agencies in the
area covered by each market, which new service requires considerably more time
of our reporters, yet at very little added cost. This improvement is one of
the most important in the history of the service in Florida.

Under such adverse circumstances it was necessary to streamline operations
and re-assign immediate supervisory authority to associate specialists. The
fruit and vegetable, poultry and egg, and livestock market news reporters
were placed under the direct supervision of the chief in charge of each of the
three divisions. The record of results commends the action taken. The
Federal approved the arrangement in these words from the Acting Chief of the
Market News Branch, USDA: "The Federal and Florida State relations have al-
ways been at the highest level and. I believe through this cooperation Florida
has obtained a very competent and highly regarded market news service."

The Chief, Market News Branch, Fruit and Vegetable Division, AMS.,USDA,
upon retiring in 1959 stated in letter to Commissioner Rhodes: "I want you to
know how much I have appreciated the fine cooperation we have enjoyed in con-
ducting what I consider one of the outstanding Federal-State market news
setups in the country..... A very sound program has been developed over the


years and in the case of Florida an extremely high percentage of the credit is
due to your organization. "

The attitude of the Dairy Division AMS, USDA, is expressed in letter from
the Chief, Dairy and Poultry Market News Branch, quoting therefrom: "I would
like to take this opportunity to express our complete satisfaction with the
cooperation which exists between this department and the Florida State Marketing
Bureau. Our Eastern Area Supervisor, on his various visits to your State has
invariably returned with highest praise of the spirit of good will and co-
operation which prevails. It is a pleasure to do business with you folks.o"

What another outside official source thinks of the livestock market news
service of the Bureau is indicated in comment of the livestock market specialist,
North Carolina Department of Agriculture (Source: Tarheel Cattleman, North
Carolina Cattlemen's Association, October 1959): "The Florida State Department
of Agriculture,through its Marketing Bureau, conducts one of the most comprehen-
sive market reporting services on livestock there is to be found in the United

Cooperation with other State agencies has been followed and continued
steadfastly in the last biennial period. Through cooperation of the State De-
partment of Agriculture and the Extension Division, the poultry=egg markets at
Tallahassee, Panama City, St. Petersburg and Ft. Myers and the fruit-vegetable
market at Miami have been quoted. This cooperative arrangement has saved
thousands of dollars annually. The New England States were favorably impress-
ed by the plan and established similar pattern for poultry-egg market news work
in that area,

Communication from Director of Florida Agricultural Extension Service, Dr.
Mo 0. Watkins, speaks of typical Bureau cooperation:

"In discussing the progress of the production testing program for
beef cattle with Jim Pace, I was most pleased to learn of the
splendid cooperation we have received from your department in
carrying out this program. We believe this to be one of the most
important educational programs being carried on with Florida
cattlemen and realize that it could not be successful without
the support of your department. We in Extension appreciate the
immediate response and expert assistance of your inspectors in
helping us to carry out this program. Please pass along our
sincere thanks to other members of your department concerned,
and we are looking forward to continuing close cooperation with
your department in carrying out programs to improve our Florida
livestock industryo"

Commenting further upon Bureau personnel under broader reference to an
unusual, emergency situation, I made this announcement in the January 1, 1960,
issue of the For Sale Want and Exchange Bulletin:

"Fire occurring November 20, 1959 on and practically destroy-
ing the two floors above the premises occupied by the Florida
State Marketing Bureau subjected the Bureau to the most serious
emergency conditions the department has encountered in its entire



existence. Many advised me it was miraculous that so much
of our service to growers and shippers was uninterrupted. It
was possible only by efficient, loyal, coolheaded Bureau
personnel performing night, day and holiday in this emergency.
Some employees indeed approached the stature of heroism.
This token of my deep appreciation for their spirit and
effort can at best only feebly pay the tribute they deserve."

The November fire necessitated our moving the main office to temporary
location 522 West iAdams Street, and the mailing-printing department to
separate, ground floor location at 230 Broad Street. Quarters were leased
and occupied March 1, 1960, at 430 West Monroe Street, requiring another move
from the temporary location. The fire loss by water damage at 505 West Adams
Street location amounted to $18,200.00, covered under the State Fire In-
surance Fund. All equipment refinished and replaced following the Nov. 1959
fire had to be re-inventoried and placed under State Fire Insurance. The
Miami offices were moved in May 1960 to the State Office Building. Despite
the many inconveniences suffered, the Bureau services continued on schedule.

Conservatively and beneficially expanding the normally major projects of
the Bureau; performing the extra duties prescribed by the Legislature of 1959;
and initiating new features of service in the 1958-60 biennial period all
this has been accomplished by faithful, qualified personnel. Resume of their
activities in the two-year period closing June 30, 1960, is made by the
Assistant Conimissioner and the Marketing Specialists, following on page 11.


The 1917 Bureau
office force consist-
ed of the Commissioner,the
Secretary and two market agents,
A Board of Directors with three members
served from 1917 to 1921. The Commissioner of Agri-
culture in 1917, the Marketing Commrissioner, the Secretary,
the Board of Directors and one of the two market agents of the ini-
tial Bureau force are deceased. The market agent surviving is presently Com-
missioner of the Bureau and based upon service time is the "oldest" employee of
the Florida State Delartment of Agriculture, was the "youngest" in the 1917 Bureau fore




Assisted the Egg Commission and the State Poultry Producers in conducting
two March "Egg Month" promotions. One feature was to hold a breakfast for the
Cabinet at which time the Governor proclaimed March as Egg Month. The Governor
and the Commissioner of Agriculture were given a "Good Egg" award by the
Poultry and Egg National Board.

Attended 20 meetings of the Egg Comnission, of which I am a member, repre-
senting the Florida Department of Agriculture. Took part in 25 meetings of
the Counties and State Poultry Producers Associations. Attended two Poultry
short courses conducted by the University of Florida loultry Department at Camp

Represented the State Marketing Bureau at a dozen conferences on marketing
matters, like organizing cooperatives, improving grades and packs, Assisted
in holding 3 schools to train inspectors for poultry and egg grading work; this
was a cooperative project between the Florida Egg Inspection Division and the
U.S.D.A. Poultry Grading Division.

Served on the State Livestock Show Committee that allocates funds to assist
4-H Club members and Future Farmers of America, as well as dairymen, poultry-
men, cattlemen, swine producers and corn and honey producers.

Prepared several editorials for the For Sale Want and Exchange Bulletin,
and 4 articles for the Florida Poultryman. In line of duty wrote more than
1000 letters in regard to requests for marketing assistance.

Held office conferences with 450 visitors in office, and there were at least
4,000 in attendance at meetings I attended.

Served as liaison officer for the Florida Department of Agriculture and
'ISDA on Matching Fund Programs in the promotion of Florida eggs and poultry.
One of these projects helped the Federal Crop and Livestock Service secure
better information on the number of layers in commercial flocks in the State
and the value of eggs produced. For the first time the State was divided into
marketing areas, to show how many eggs are produced in each of the market areas
of the State. This information has very materially helped producers in locating

Was instrumental in securing the cooperation of USDA Poultry and Egg
Grading Division to provide inspections and issue certificates on shipments
going to foreign countries like Central and South America.

Represented the Bureau at two National Marketing Work Shops, one in Purdue
University and one in Springfield, Illinois, home of President Abe Lincoln.

Appeared on the program of the Southeastern States Egg Grading School in
Athens, Georgia, where matters of mutual interest in marketing poultry and eggs
were discussed.



Took part in a panel discussion at the April 1960 meeting of Marketing
Officials in Washington on "What's New in Marketing", also served on Board of
Directors of the National Association of Marketing Officials and attended
their Convention in Asheville, N. C., and Atlrnta, Georgia, at the Farmers'
Market. Was President of the N.A.M.O., and conducted the program for the
meeting held in Phoenix, Arizona, attended by delegates from 40 states. One
of the Aides to President Eisenhower addressed the Convention.

Even helped a rabbit producer find a market for rabbits in unlimited


The Florida
State Marketing
Bureau was establish-
ed by the Legislature of
1917. An annual appropriation
of $15,000 was provided for the 1917-
1919 biennial period. Bureau offices in
Jacksonville were opened on July 1st, 1917.

The For Sale
Want and Exchange
Bulletin, mentioned
frequently by the Market-
ing Specialists in this the Twenty-
Second Biennial Report,entered the mails as
second-class matter August 2, 1919, until which
time full postage rates applied on Bulletin mailing.

market news report-
ing in Florida was initiated
by the Bureau more than 40 years ago.
Fruits and vegetables, and poultry and eggs
were quoted for the Jacksonville market beginning
June 2nd, 1919, in the Florida Times-Union. Quote for
"white eggs" started Oct. 1, 1919. The first mimeographed
miscellaneous vegetable market report of record was dated Nov,5,1923.




Bearing the title of Marketing Specialist Livestock and Field Crops with
the Florida State Marketing Bureau, ever reminds me that the word "Marketing"
means to "sell". I realize that my job is to help farmers and ranchmen --
beekeepers, timber growers -- sell what they produce either more easily, or
for more money. The thought of "selling" is uppermost in mind whether I am
handling office work or field duties.

If I am making a simple talk to a group of Future Farmer boys about the
Marketing Bureau's "For Sale Want and Exchange Bulletin", advising how their
parents may receive the Bulletin free, how they can advertise in the Bulletin
without charge, or locate their needs through farm equipment listings in the
Bulletin, I am hopeful that as a result of my talk some of the young farmers
and their parents, through the facilities of the Marketing Bulletin, will
obtain their requirements reasonably or turn certain of their farm items to
cash and better living from my having brought the Bulletin service to their

The same desire to sell follows me when I sit on one of Florida's Livestock
Auction Markets substituting for one of the Bure.ui's several Livestock Auction
Reporters on vacation or sick leave. I realize when I am marking grades and
prices on these sales that to record eich steer, heifer, calf, cow and bull
with grade and price, that such recording is not affecting the price that
"Bill Jones" will sell his cattle and calves for on that day. But I know that
such previous price quoting has influenced "Bill Jones" as to time and place
for this sale. I know that the prices I record by grade will be totaled and
averaged, and this market news will be given by telephone, telegraph and letter
to several television and radio stations and daily newspapers as soon as the
sale is completed. I know that our Florida cattle and swine growers will be
watching, listening or looking for my report and that such market reports will
influence them in their future marketing.

Several years back I conceived a means of assistance whereby if Florida's
watermelon growers were to receive even one-tenth of one cent or more on each
melon sold, it would amount to something like nineteen thousand, five hundred
dollars -- an amount several times my salary.

Consequently, that year and each year since, through the cooperation of
Florida's county agents, I have collected and assembled data as to watermelon
acreage, variety, and harvesting date by counties. Through the road guard
stations I was also able to obtain the names and mailing addresses of some five
hundred out-of-state watermelon buyers. The data received from the county
agents each year are Irinted and mailed to this list of buyers. The informa-
tion is also mailed out to Florida's larger watermelon brokers, railroad
agricultural agents and others interested. The report was in special demand
in 1959 when due to late freeze the report was several days later than usual.

I have gone into several of Florida's watermelon counties and assisted



the county agents in organizing their watermelon growers into associations,
enabling the growers through organized effort to make selling their melons
easier and at a uniformly higher price.

In 1958 when Florida over-planting resulted in surplus of watermelons,
through the Food Distribution Service, Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA,
I was able to get watermelons featured on the "Plentiful Foods" program. There
is no way of pin-pointing the "extra-farmer-dollars" derived from such effort,
but certainly when a product like watermelons is brought to the attention of
the housewives throughout the Nation through television, radio and newspaper
food-editor columns, it is bound to move in greater volume and at somewhat
higher prices.

Then again when I write an editorial for the Marketing Bulletin on
watermelons or other subjects, I like to sprinkle the article with humor and
human interest so that the story will be read. The purpose behind the lines
is to sell the product. Example: "The Watermelon Smile" -- "Willie and The
Watermelon". Ani on other subjects: "Pass The Honey Sonny", "Horse Power In A
Beef Patty", "The Skill of Correct Beef Buying", "Pecan Tree In the Yard",
"Something About Rabbits", etc.

When I joined the Marketing Bureau staff in 1952, then as now flue-cured
tobacco was one of Florida's cash crops reaching multimillion dollar returns.
Yet the growers themselves, nor anyone representing their interests, had any
control over how or when their tobacco crop would be sold. Out-of-state
interests decided when the market would open and how long it would stay open.

Partly as a result of my work with tobacco, today Florida has a tobacco
law which provides for a Tobacco Advisory Board. As Field Crops Marketing
Specialist oC the State Marketing Bureau of the State Department of Agriculture,
I was made Chairman of this Board.

Today Florida's tobacco farmers through this Board are in position to name
the date that Florida's tobacco market will open. The Tobacco Marketing Board
has also taken leadership in marketing procedures of flue-cured tobacco not
spelled out in our present tobacco law which are'advantageous to the growers.
It is hoped that when our Legislature again convenes it will be possible to
amend the present law, extending to the Board and the Commissioner of Agricul-
ture powers relative to marketing Florida's flue-cured tobacco not provided
in the present law.

I have long felt the need for the State doing something to assist Florida's
purebred livestock breeders in their marketing. Consequently I compiled the
information for a "Purebred Livestock Directory" and was able to get the
bulletin published by the State Department of Agriculture.

As stated in the foreword of the Directory, its purpose is to "promote
sales of Florida purebred livestock -- interstate, intrastate, and inter-
nationally." The publication in part is aimed at the Latin American countries
and copies have been mailed to those countries as well as other foreign
countries, to breeders, and to other State Agricultural Departments throughout
the United States.


The directory bulletin covers every phase of Florida's purebred kinds of
stock, including beef and dairy cattle, horses, milk goats, Shetland ponies,
swine and rabbits. Fifty-two different breeds of all classes of purebreds are
included, entailing 571 individual breeders. Such information as breeder's
name, mailing address, phone number, city and highway location of ranch, number
brood animals in herd, average number of head of males and females for sale
e;.ch year, principal herd family lines, and whether or not the herd is vacci-
nated for blackleg or Bangs is given in the bulletin.

I cooperate and coordinate my work with Florida's other organizations who
work with Florida agriculture such as the Florida State Extension Service, the
State Del artment of Vocational Agriculture, State Forestry Service, all
purebred livestock associations, Florida Federation of Fairs, Florida State
Seedmen Association, Florida State Cattlemen ,Association, Florida State Bee-
keepers Association, Florida Fruit and Vegetable Growers Association, State
Farmers Markets, The Farm Bureau, Florida Beef Cattle Improvement Association,
ana others.

My "Livestock and Field Crops" work reaches into many phases of Florida
agriculture: from Tobacco to Rabbits, to Forestry, Honey, Watermelons, Beef
Cattle, and whatever product 1 find needs servicing. Humbly, 1 am ever mindful
that 1 am a servant of the state, employed to sell and that unless I sell I am
not worthy of my hire.


market news at
Florida shipping point
began in 1923. Celery market
news office was operated at Sanford
Jan. 22-Apr. 19, 1923. Watermelon reports
were issued from Ocala field office May-June 1923.
Potato reports from Hastings station started in the 1924 season.

shipping point
inspection in Florida
by Bureau-USDA began in
season 1922-23, and 162 cars
were inspected for grade and condition.
Transferred from Bureau in 1947 to which season
1,093,544 carlots had been inspected, and by which time
Florida led all States in inspection volume. The service was
conducted from beginning to end on a self-sustaining,non-deficit
basis,closing with $17,297.62 in cash balance and $35,656.71 in total assets.




Served as liaison man between various producer groups and the State Depart-
ment of Agriculture in bringing about a better understanding regarding the
functions and duties of the various agencies, as well as the effect of the
reorganization of the Department of Agriculture. Have continued to gather and
compile statistics on Florida's ever changing dairy industry. These studies
and summaries have been used by Chambers of Commerce and development organiza-
tions all over the State. Have written several articles on dairying for the
For Sale Want and Exchange Bulletin, also contribute regularly to state

Have spoken to various civic groups, and made radio and T.V. appearances
to further the dairy industry.

In an effort to improve and broaden dairy statistics being used by the
United States Department of Agriculture, I called a meeting of a representative
group and discussed the plan with Mr. Townsend of USDA. With cooperation of
the various agencies involved we are now in the process of having far better
coverage than was possible before.

Attended National Marketing Workshop in both 1958 and 1959, and addressed
the Atlantic States Marketing Officials conference in Washington, D. C.

Have attended all Milk Commission hearings and served in advisory capacity
to all segments of the industry.

Served on planning committee, screening committee, and helped judge the
West Florida Dairy Show both years. Assisted in judging annual State 4-H Dairy
Show in Orlando, as well as numerous county shows over the State.

Have helped annually with purebred dairy cattle sales, serving as clerk
for those events.

Was this year named State Chairman of "June is Dairy Month". This was a
new assignment and has been a most rewarding experience. With cooperation from
all segments of the industry, and starting with a Proclamation by the Governor
declaring June as Dairy Month, we conducted a program which has been received
most favorably over the State, and has been given national recognition.

As State Chairman I had a special folder prepared for all Home Demonstration
Agents. These were designed to help them promote milk in their cooking schools
and meetings as well as on their radio and T.V. appearances.

The folders were enthusiastically received and are now in use all over the

In the various milk sheds we have staged milking contests, had dairy



luncheons, barbecues and Princess contests. These have created a great deal of
interest and resulted in the dairy industry receiving a large amount of favor-
able publicity in the newspapers as well as over radio and T.V. We feel this
has done much toward creating a favorable climate which is so vital to the
dairy industry. Improving our public relations is a big and necessary step
toward increasing the sale of dairy products which is, of course, the goal of
all of us connected with the dairy industry.


In the
1924-25 season
the Bureau conducted
a survey of market capacity
in all cities east of the Mississ-
ippi River of 25,000 population or more.

The Cold Storage
Law, sponsored by Governor
Martin and Commissioner L.M.Rhodes,
was enacted by the 1925 Legislature, and
provided any county in Florida could "determine
the problem of storing its products to await favorable
marketing conditions. . and have the right to provide
for the erection and operation in such county of a cold storage
curing and drying plant for the storing of animal and vegetable products."

The Bureau
aided in drafting
and securing passage of
the Standardization Law in 1927,
which measure adopted the U.S. fruit
and vegetable grades as official for Florida.



The past two years have been very interesting and trying with plenty of
activity in the Poultry and Dairy Industry. My work for the Poultry Industry
centers around five phases. (1) Supervising the seven Poultry and Egg Market
News offices; (2) Gathering information and recording prices for use by trade;
(3) Promoting the sale of poultry and dairy products, and cooperating with
other agricultural agencies so dedicated; (4) Working with poultrymen and deal=
ers in securing outlets for poultry and egg products; (5) Writing articles and
editorials for the For Sale Want and Exchange Bulletino

During the past two years the operation and supervision of the area market
news stations has imposed problems for solution by our department. We have
had several reporters resign and accept other employment at salary-advanced
positions. This made it necessary to train new personnel for reporting these
markets since trained reporters were not readily available. Moreover, funds
were unavailable for preliminary training of the replacement in advance.
Extremely low prices of eggs and generally depressed feeling among members of
the industry have been of special concern to us since all reports depend upon
the complete cooperation of all dealers and poultrymen. We have been very
careful,courteous, and diligent in working with farmers and explaining our
methods and procedures in order that they may better understand our duties and
services We know that they must have reliable up-to-date information if they
are to stay in business and keep supplies rolling to markets under good demand

I have spent at least six weeks of each year in covering the markets while
the regular market reporters were on vacation leave. This has provided an
opportunity to study the markets in each area0

This past year we inaugurated a new report This report briefly summarizes
all of the markets, giving the figures or prices in a clear, concise form.
With the increase in various types of statistical information published, it is
advantageous to have a short comprehensive report which can be quickly read and
easily understood. This helps the producers and dealers draw simple, workable
conclusions affecting their business. The many requests received indicate that
this report has been widely accepted

The Bureau main offices keep historical records of all poultry and egg
prices. This series of market prices has been kept current for many years. New
ways of trading and merchandising eggs has called for changes in the methods of
collecting data, and reporting prices, but never have we deviated from the
established policy of "reporting" the market accurately from prices gathered
in contacting the trade. The trade uses the data as a guide to current and
future operations. Graphs of yearly price figures reveal periods of surplus
and low prices, or vice versa. Likewise, product cycles are clearly indicated,
hence many farmers use information in an attempt to bring flocks into full
production during seasons of peak prices. It is surprising the number of calls
we receive requesting this datum.



For the past two years we have done everything possible to promote the sale
of Florida products, and particularly eggs. We have cooperated with the Florida
Egg Commission in the program as planned by that group. This has included
participation in store demonstrations, preparing and arranging displays, con-
ducting surveys, studying plant operations and merchandising programs, and
recommending improvements. We have written numerous articles for magazines and
for the For Sale Want and Exchange Bulletin, promoting the sale of eggs and
poultry products, emphasizing their nutritional value and importance as food.

During times when surplus eggs burden the market, we have assisted producers
and distributors in selling their eggs. We constantly furnish information as
to existing conditions, and supply and demand on various markets to sellers
and buyers so that they can properly and economically distribute these Florida
products. We bring buyer and seller together for trading wherever possible and
trading warrants such a need.

We have acted in advisory capacity to producers and distributors when
requested in making contracts and agreements for purchasing eggs and poultry.

We have helped to improve or encourage the improvement in the quality of
Florida eggs. This was accomplished through a series of egg quality schools
held in various sections of the State. We were happy to cooperate with both
the Extension Service and the Florida Egg Commission, and the United States
Department of Agriculture in conducting these schools. Probably ten or more
such schools were held in Florida, and we have noted a great improvement in the
quality of eggs on the markets for which we feel the schools were partly

In the past two years I have made many talks to local poultry clubs.
Generally, these requests are for information on market conditions, not only in
Florida but in other states as well. In such talks I have tried to foster and
encourage cooperation among the various sections of the industry. Quality
standards, inspection regulations, and improved ways of distributing and
merchandising have been discussed with the poultrymen.

Extensive layer-hen surveys were conducted in the State. This was a co-
operative project with the United States Department of Agriculture, the
Inspection Service, and our department participating. It was the first time,
to my knowledge, that such a detailed and thorough count of hens has been made
in the State. This added extra work to our schedules, but we feel that the
results justified the effort. The survey gave basic information as to the
location and extent of our supply of eggs, size of flocks, etc. Such informa-
tion is invaluable and very useful in properly planning an advertising and
merchandising program.

We are responsible to the editor of the Annual Agricultural Statistical
Summary for certain pertinent information on poultry. It is our duty to work
with him and compile or secure this data for publication. It includes the
following material: Value of all poultry and eggs produced in the State;
number of chickens on farm; turkey production and value; blorida's rank as
compared to other States in value of poultry products; historical summary of



market prices, etc,

The For Sale Want and Exchange Bulletin carries many articles on marketing
farm products and it is an invaluable means of reaching practically every
farmer in Florida. I have prepared several articles for this publication,
emphasizing improved marketing practices and procedures, and giving statistical
information. New developments within our industry, certain trends, buying
and selling techniques have also been included. Quality control programs,
packaging or cartoning and hauling problems have been discussed in the sincerest
effort of helping our industry.

It has been my privilege each year to attend the National Workshop on
Agricultural Marketing Services, the Southeastern Poultry and Egg quality
School, and other marketing conferences. These schools have on their programs
the most outstanding and successful men in their respective fields of work.
The schools have been very helpful because the marketing problems in other
States are very similar to ours, and the cooperative marketing programs in other
States are of great interest.

We have cooperated with other agencies in promoting agriculture in Florida.
Below is a list of the various schools, conferences and meetings which I have
attended to broaden my own information and at the same time extend my full

1. National Marketing Workshop.
2. Annual Poultry Institute.
3. Meeting of Florida Egg Commission.
4. Conference of Vocational Agricultural Teachers at Daytona Beach.
5. Farm Bureau Meeting.
6. Extension Service.
7. Southeastern Poultry and Egg Association Meeting in Atlanta, and
^:ality School at Jackson, Mississippi.
8. Polfry association annual summer and winter meetings.
9. Farmers' Markets and Egg and Poultry distribution centers in other
10. Dairy Association Meetings in Orlando, Tampa and Miami.


The following is a report of the activities in the Pensacola
office for the two-year period of July 1, 1958, through June 30, 1960.

The Pensacola office was in operation only eleven months prior
to July 1958, Much of the credit for the reporting program, which I
have been able to establish during these early months, was due to the
outstanding guidance and assistance of Mr. Joseph Doris and Mr. Guyton
Williams, both specialists in the field of market news reporting. The



training received from these gentlemen as well as guidance and assist-
ance from other personnel in the Bureau has contributed tremendously
toward the continued development and advancement of our program in the
Pensacola market area during the past two years.

The basic principles, procedures and daily work activity for re-
porting the market information has not varied significantly during the
period covered by this report. However, those changes which have been
made through directives, rules or regulations have been effected to
keep the Pensacola office up to date from an administrative point of

Interviewing by telephone and personal contacts the producers,
dealers, retailers and others concerned with the poultry and egg
industry during the past two years has presented challenging opportun-
ities to make them aware of the services which the State Marketing
Bureau has to offer. It is my personal opinion that we have succeeded
in this endeavor as daily information furnished to these industries per-
form a real service. This opinion is based in a large part on (1) the
market and inquiries on market information which stems from these
sources daily, (2) the stability of the poultry and egg market in this
area, and (3) a ready market and fair prices for poultry products
through regular trade channels.

The typical work load in the Pensacola office involves morning
telephone calls and personal contact with fifteen to twenty producers,
dealers and retailers, gathering information from them on prices,
supply and demand; also, answering a number of incoming calls for
information on the New York, Chicago, Jacksonville, and other markets.
This information is then prepared in report form for distribution to
the centra) office in Jacksonville, also a copy to each of the daily
newspapers for publication. The afternoon is spent in the field mak-
ing personal contacts, checking inventories and discussing market
trends and conditions with dealers, retailers and producers. Much
valuable market information is obtained thru such personal contacts.

In addition to the above activities, I have attended various
meetings, such as The Escambia and Okaloosa County Poultrymen's Asso-
ciation meetings, 4-H Club meeting, anl various other meetings closely
related to both the Marketing Bureau and the Florida State Department
of Agriculture as a whole.

My observation as Market News Reporter during the past two years
indicatesthat the sale of Florida products is on the increase.

In conclusion I would like to thank Comnissioner Rhodes,
Assistant Commissioner Risher and the entire Marketing Bureau personnel
for their cooperation, courtesy and consideration.



TAMPA AREA (JULY 1, 1958 JANUARY 11, 1960)

The period covered by this report was a most difficult era for
poultry and egg market reporters everywhere. Burdensome supplies,
nationally, forced prices to record depths. 1he market reporter, aware
that many producers and dealers were operating at a loss, some facing
bankruptcy, was under pressure of being positive beyond doubt that he
fully covered the market each day and that his reports reflected accu-
rate prices and conditions. Like the umpire, the reporter had to"call
'em exactly as he saw 'em", but too frequently he turned on his heel
at the end of the game and walked away with a heavy 1eart.

In general, rapid expansion and increased production was the sig-
nificant factor which inflJenced prices and trends in egg markets dur-
ing the past two years. This was particularly true in the Tampa market.
The following table, better than words, illustrates the rapid growth in
egg production in the Tampa Bay Area from 1956-1959.


Florida Produced Shipped In Total Recpts. Percentage
(wkly av) (wkly av) Produced.
1956 316,184 Cs. (6,080) 123,493 (2,530) 439,677 70.9
1957 372,921 Cs. (7,171) 179,291 (3,448) 522,212 67.5
1958 450,980 Cs. (8,672) 153,545 (2,952) 604,525 76.6
1959 633,521 Cs.(12,183) 158,736 (3,052) 792,257 79.9

Receipts of Florida produced eggs had increased 100 percent in
four years, and in 1959 were up 40 percent over 1958. The impact of
such an increase on the market is obvious. The Tampa Bay Area, com-
prised of five counties, (Hillsborough, Pinellas, Pasco, Polk and
Hernando) has become the largest egg producing area in the State.
Production now exceeds the requirements of the area's permanent popu-
lation and for better than one-half of the year the Tampa market is in
a surplus production status. From January 1st through Easter, area re-
ceipts are reasonably well absorbed with Florida produced eggs bring-
ing a premium of 4 to 5 cents over shipped-in. During this period,
4,000 to 5,000 cases originating out of state arrive to supplement area
needs without upsetting the stability of the market. However, with the
exodus of the tourist trade directly after Easter, 4,000 to 5,000 cases
of locally produced eggs must be shipped out of the area. A study of
the movement in the Tampa market for 1959 best illustrates this situa-
tion. Eighty percent of the total receipts moving through Tampa for
the entire year were Florida produced. Throughout the first quarter of
the year, during the heavy tourist season, only l percent of receipts
were Florida produced, whereas in the second and third quarters locally
produced eggs represented 83 to 85 percent of total receipts. During
this period of the year competition to move excessive supplies of



Florida produced eggs frequently established the market at levels be-
low shipped-in prices. The bulk of the eggs shipped out during the
spring and summer months move into the Miami area, although during
1959 a sizable volume was exported to South America, while some flowed
to other states, including a trailer load into New York Cityo

A second factor which influenced prices in the Tampa market was
a change in the origin of the out-of-state eggs which arrived to compete
with the Florida product. Heretofore, all shipped-in eggs coming into
the market originated in the mid-west. Always a depressant factor,
pricewise, the quality of the mid-western eggs declined markedly with
the advent of hot weather. Undergrades ran high and increased the
actual cost. Thus, the Florida egg enjoyed a quality advantage which
returned some premium even during summer months when demand was at low
ebb. By early 1959, effects of the vast expansion in egg production
throughout the South was being felt in many markets and in February 1959
the first load of southern eggs to reach Tampa arrived from Mississippi.
Henceforth, by far the greatest percentage of shipped-in eggs arriving
in the Tampa market were Iroduced in Georgia, Mississippi or Alabama.
These eggs come from contract operations and move on a price formula
based on the New York market, irrespective of local supply and demand
situations, which disrupts market stability at times, These eggs are
produced and processed in accordance with the best practices. The
haul to Tampa is relatively short and the quality, while no better than
Florida produced, is far superior to the midwestern product, Thus this
change in the origin of competition greatly reduced one competitive
advantage the Florida producers enjoyed during the summer months

Several attempts were made to establish contract or integrated
operations in the area, but only one has survived, which to date has
not seriously influenced the market.

The trend toward big chains moving a larger percentage of the food-
stuffs, including eggs, and steadily liquidating the small store is
noticeable here, as elsewhere. The number of egg dealers remains about
the same, although several are handling larger volumes and exerting a
greater influence on the market. The trend is definitely toward fewer
but larger units in merchandizing as well as production.

The Urner-Barry quote was a subject of much discussion during the
past year. In spite of growing dissatisfaction with the method of
establishing the New York commercial market, and its use as a basis of
trading, its influence continued to increase as the number of contracts
or sales based on the New York market grew. On several occasions the
Marketing Bureau sought opinions from producers and dealers as to
whether a market report at additional trading I.vels would be desirable.
In each case a significant majority, after due deliberation, indicated
that while the present reporting system was no. perfect, they could not
suggest changes that would better serve the needs of the Tampa market.
Consensus indicates a definite degree of confidence in the Marketing
Bureau on the part of all segments of the industry.



Accordingly, the Tampa poultry and egg market continued to be re-
ported in accordance with methods and procedures outlined in detail in
several previous reports.

The activities of the market reporter likewise continued along the
lines previously reported but on an expanded basis.

Meetings of poultry producers associations in the five-county area
were attended regularly and occasionally the reporter was asked to
speak on market reporting.

In November 1959 a Producers' Marketing Committee was formulated
to consider plans for the establishment of a marketing organization to
process and distribute a large volume of eggs. Subsequent meetings re-
sulted in the development of a framework which would be practical.
Such an organization would tend to stabilize the market. The reporter
attended all meetings of this marketing committee in an advisory

A meeting of all Bureau poultry and egg market reporters was held
in Orlando in March, 1959. The characteristics of the various markets
as well as general problems affecting all were reviewed in a round
table discussion. All present felt the meeting well worthwhile and
it is to be hoped that such a meeting will become an annual event.

Additional charts were prepared and tabulations recorded to keep
pace with the expanding market.

A summary of the week's market activity including receipts and
inventories was carried by the Tampa Tribune each Sunday. This resume
served to keep poultrymen and dealers informed and comments indicated
it to be a popular service.

As in the past, much of the information was obtained through
personal contact and the reporter spent considerable time in the field.

Market interest is centered around eggs and for that reason
most of the reporter's time and effort is devoted to that product.
However, that is not to say that poultry is neglected. In the Tampa
market this field generally concerns light-type production birds.
Supply and demand is closely related to egg prices. During the past
year, depressed egg prices resulted in heavy and continuous culling.
Supply exceeded demand during most of the year, and in keeping with
other markets hen prices were also depressed. It is noteworthy that
heavy-type, red birds which used to be plentiful in this market have
practically disappeared. Fryer production has also reached the
diminishing point in this area.

Cooperation from all segments of the industry was excellent
throughout the period covered by this report.



Earl S. Reed is presently reporting the Tampa poultry and egg
market and has tackled a tough assignment with a high degree of deter-
mination and conscientious effort.

NOTE: Upon the resignation of Mr. Macomb January 11, Mr. Earl S. Reed
was assigned to take over the duties as Market Reporter of the Tampa
Bay area. Mr. Reed has since January 11 reported the Tampa poultry
and egg market in accordance with established market news procedure
and policy. Mr. Reed's report would incorporate and naturally dupli-
cate routine activities included in Mr. Macomb's resume, and accord-
ingly is omitted. In justice to Mr. Reed, his performance limited
to only five rionths has been creditable and noteworthy.


The following activities of my department have accumulated since
my last biennial report June 1958.

Collected and reported prices and market information from poultry-
men and wholesalers in the Palm Beach area which eliminates the local
reporter in that area. This arrangement requires numerous trips to
that area. I also report prices three times a week to the laim Beach

Contacted wholesalers and producers in Broward County.

Collected the hen population for Broward and Dade Counties
which was to assist in compiling poultry data for the USDA to obtain
accurate numbers of laying hens. Two such counts have been made since
the last biennial report.

Supplied information to County Agents from my office, and to
prospective producers desiring to move into this area, three or four
from Cuba and numerous ones from northern states.

attendedd poultry meetings in Dade, Broward and Palm Beach
counties from time to time when I felt that it was of mutual interest
to poultrymen and our department.

Each Friday, after receiving reports from Jacksonville, New York
and Chicago, I have made calls to all poultrymen and wholesalers '-
req',est this information, which is, on an average estimate, twelve to
sixteen calls.



The normal calls to compile the Daily Report is on an average of
fifteen to twenty, to be given to The Miami Daily News, Miami Herald,
Palm Beach Post. The last named, I call three times a week.

I receive from three to five calls a day requesting information
with regard to poultry and other agricultural interests. Example:
Does the Agricultural Department have any literature on raising
rabbits? Date of sale of livestock at State Markets. Location of
Weights and Measures personnel. Location of Food Inspectors or where
they can be contacted.

Such calls are too numerous to list them all and the reason for
the calls is that the State Marketing Bureau telephone is the only one
listed in the directory concerning the Florida State Department of
Agriculture in this area.

On May 23, Fruit and Vegetable reporting was transferred from
John Phelps to me. To establish and do a reasonably good job re-
quires at least eight to ten hours a week, this being twice weekly in
the evenings, 6:30-8:00 when I contact twenty-five or thirty persons
on the open Farmers Market and from 6:30-8:00 in the mornings when I
contact twenty or twenty-five wholesalers on the open market. These
contacts require two extra trips to the market each week in order to
contact the farmers who would be sold out and gone before morning. Then
I compile the data obtained, make calls and type reports.

To thoroughly cover the market, more contacts could be made, such
as buyers for A&P, Winn-Dixie and other large chains.


Duties and activities during the past two years as representative
of the Florida State Marketing.Bureau have, in general, been as follows:

Collecting and reporting the availability, supply, demand and
market prices in the Orlando area of poultry and eggs.

Reporting market price changes to the local press.

Preparing and mailing reports to the Jacksonville office daily.
I make telegraphic reports on Tuesday and Friday in addition to the
reports sent in by mail.

Attending Florida State Poultry Association meetings. Also dis-
trict and state 4-H Club meetings and shows.

Noting regulations closely as they related to quality requirements



for the various grades of eggs and poultry offered for sale in Florida.

Distributing "READ THE LABEL" pamphlet printed and distributed by
the Florida Department of Agriculture to the homes in my area and to
members of the Woman's Club of which I am a member.

Almost continual answering of telephone and answering, to the best
of my ability, questions related to efgs and poultry, the name of
the local egg and poultry inspector, fertilizer inspector, weights and
measures inspector and the inspector of whatever the caller happens
to be concerned with at the time. As a representative of this great
organization dedicated for the purpose of rendering a service to the
citizens of our State, I welcome the opportunity and privilege of
playing a minor part in the service.


This reporter is a member-unit of the Federal-State Market News
system which performs a service for the benefit of all persons
interested in the production, marketing, distribution and consumption
of dairy and poultry products. The Jacksonville office is one of a
nationwide network of offices located in major producing areas and
terminal markets which are connected by nearly 15,000 miles of leased
wire providing up-to-the-minute news from coast to coast.

The officer in charge is responsible for the collection, com-
pletion and formulation of daily and semi-weekly information relative
to market conditions, prices, shipments and receipts of poultry and
egg products in the Jacksonville and surrounding areas. When final
statistics are compiled relative to these various markets,a report on
them is disseminated to Radio, TV, Newspapers and to the wire services.
In addition, a special Semi-h'eekly Report is published in which daily
reports are included.

There is no doubt that the past two-year period has brought
notable changes in the production and marketing of farm products.
Evidence of this has been the acceptance of started pullets for egg
production purposes. In addition, we have witnessed with amazement
the rapid development of direct egg marketing (farm to retail out-
lets). These changes are but a few that have developed in the recent
period. Cognizant of these and other changes, the Market News Service
has moved forward as quickly as possible in an effort to meet the
demands of the industry. The following is a list of new or improved
services which were initiated during the biennial period:



1. A volume-price report for hens listed on the N.E.Florida
Poultry Market.

2. Incorporation of the Jacksonville Live Poultry Market with
that of the N. E. Florida Poultry Market.

3. Reporting of the Jacksonville Egg Market on a volume-price
basis and listing prices up to 11 A.M. of the current day.

4. Reporting of the total daily slaughter of broilers and fryers
in the N. E. Florida area.

5. Including St. Petersburg egg receipts with those of other
major cities listed on the Tuesday Semi-heekly Market Report.

6. Initiation of a Florida Egg Movement Report which is also
included in the National Weekly Egg Movement Report.

7. Monthly Origin of Egg Receipts for the Jacksonville, Tampa,
and Miami markets,

8. Broadening of the Jacksonville egg market to include the N.E.
Florida areas (Green Cove Springs, Gainesville, Fernandina Beach and
St. Augustine).

9. Discontinuance of a Daily report on Loose Eggs in favor of
one listed on a Semi-Weekly basis (Tuesday and Friday).

10. Discontinuace of Shipped Cartoned Egg Prices due to lack of

11. Reporting of a monthly weighted average of egg and poultry
prices on the Jacksonville market.

12. Reporting a monthly price average for cartoned eggs for
Jacksonville, Miami and Tampa,

Services as yet not under survey for which requests have been
received are:
1. FOB Shipping Point Egg Prices.
2. First Receivers Egg Paying Prices.

In maintaining the broadest possible coverage when obtaining
market news information, a total of approximately 63 respondents are
on our list for price information at all trading levels. Furthermore,
it is estimated that 150 telephone calls are completed each week to
obtain this information. In addition, many other calls are received
for the purpose of being given market news information.

Statistical reports, Egg & poultry receipts, Commercial Egg Move-
ment Reports and Poultry Slaughter data have become increasingly



valuable. In seeking this information approximately 58 producers
and/or firms are contacted weekly either by phone or through the mail.

The Semi-Weekly Dairy & Poultry Report is the official release of
this office. On June 1, 1960, 540 names were carried on the mailing
list. It was estimated that during the period in question, 104,000
Semi-Weekly Reports and 6,200 Daily Reports were released.

Personal daily trade contacts and attendance at trade meetings are
an important part of any reporter's duties. In meeting these require-
ments, at least 350 personal calls were made to persons or firms di-
rectly associated with the poultry industry for the purpose of strength-
ening trade relationship, seeking market information, and obtaining
helpful remarks or suggestions which would improve the service. The
following meetings and group discussions were attended:

1. Annual meeting of the Florida Poultry Producers Association.
2. Monthly meeting of Volusia County Poultry Atssociation.
3. On three or four occasions attended the Duval County Poultry
Association meetings.
4. Joint meeting of the Duval-Nassau County Poultry Association.
5. The 1959 meeting of the Eastern Area Market News Association.
6. The 1960 meeting of the Eastern Area Market News Association.
7. The National Workshop for the Dairy & loultry Market News
Branch held in Chicago.
8. Meeting of the Dairy & Poultry Market News reporters Associa-
tion, "ashington.

9. On a number of occasions discussions of Dairy & Poultry Market
News with student marketing classes from the University of
10O.Two annual meetings of the State Poultry & Egg Reporters.

In conclusion, I am grateful for the assistance and cooperation so
readily provided by the Florida State Marketing Bureau. Furthermore,
many, many thanks to my clerk, Mrs. Faith Butner, who has conscien-
tiously performed and contributed immeasurably to the successful
operation of this service.

Note: Reports of activities of the cooperative Poultry Products Market Reporters
covering the Ft. Myers, Panama City, St. Petersburg and Tallahassee areas are not
included. These smaller markets are important and have been well reported regu-
larly pursuant to established market news procedure. The detailed activities re-
viewed by reporters for the larger Florida cities and areas are sufficiently
amplified to apply also to the above mentioned markets.




Duties and activities of the Supervising Livestock Market News Specialist have
increased as this service has expanded since its beginning in 1947, to the extent
that "Livestock Market News" comprises only one of at least four principal lines
of related activity currently conducted by the Specialist. Since any one of
these four pursuits is normally considered a branch in itself, each will be
covered briefly in the following review, presented under 3 main headings:

I. Routine Duties of the Supervising Specialist, Livestock Market News.

II. Assumed Activities, Relative to Livestock Market News.

III.Specific Activities, July 1958-June 1960.

I. Routine Duties General: The Supervising Specialist coordinates livestock
market reporting field activities of the Florida State Marketing Bureau with the
United States Department of Agriculture's Livestock Division. He is pivot man
also between the Commissioner of the Marketing Burea,u and the Bureau's Livestock
Market News Specialists in the field. As the title indicates, he supervises
activities of these specialists (presently numbering four, plus one relief), and
two to three secretary-stenographers in the Bureau headquarters. His time is
fairly equally divided between administrative duties in the office and supervisory
work in the field.

The Supervising Specialist is responsible for most policy decisions,constant
evaluation of methods, and formulating plans for improved future application and
procedure of the Bureau's livestock market reporting work.

Specific Duties: 1. Regularly covers two livestock auction markets each
week, recording prices by U. S. Grades of Cattle on one, of cattle and
hogs on the other. This requires thorough knowledge of, and training in,
Federal Standards and reporting methods. Reports consisting of numbers,
price trends and prices by U. S. Grades are written up following each
sale and wired, mailed, telephoned and delivered immediately to newspapers,
radio-TV stations, and auction markets. The following morning a more
detailed report is sent over leased wire or telephone to the Cooperating
U.S.D.,I. office in Thomasville, 6a., where reports from all sales held
the previous day are combined into a composite report for the state-wide

2. Obtains regular weekly price information on direct (non-auction)
purchases of cattle from packers and feeders in the Ocala area. Each
Friday this Specialist assembles direct sale cattle information by tele-
phone, leased wire, or mail from reporters in all areas, which he combines
into a weekly "Direct Sales of Florida Cattle" report to supplement reports
based on auction market conditions. This is released to news agencies in
Jacksonville, and sent over leased wire to Thomasville for inclusion in



the "Florida Weekly Livestock Market Summary", a mimeographed report made
up and mailed to the trade each Friday from the U.S.D.A. office in Thomas-
ville, Ga.

3. Trains and supervises continued training of Livestock Market Reporters
in the field. This requires periodic visits with reporters on auctions,
to maintain accuracy and consistency in grading and reporting procedure.

4. Administers practically all of the collection of livestock market infor-
mation, and much of its distribution.

5. Arranges periodic grading checks for reporters, whereby cattle are
individually graded live to 1/3 grade by reporters independently, marked
for identification and followed through slaughter for comparison with
carcass grade, applied to 1/3 grade by an official U.S.D.A. meat grader.

6. Arranges and acts as moderator and secretary of periodic livestock
reporters' conferences, purpose being to air problems and arrive at
decisions for uniform group application.

7. Handles practically all Bureau correspondence dealing with livestock
market news and related information, some of which, particularly that of
statistical or descriptive nature, is voluminous.

8. In order to improve on market information received and distributed,
this Specialist is continually contacting trade members-producers, pack-
ers; auction managers; radio-TV and newspaper personnel; U.S.D.A.,
University and Extension personnel, Association and group officials,etCo

9. Attends and represents the Bureau and the Federal-State Market News
Service at conferences, livestock association meetings, etc.

10. Writes editorials on livestock marketing for various publications;
advises on or edits similar articles written by others.

11. Determines types and supervises maintenance of Bureau livestock
records kept. Developed practically all forms being used in market re-
porting and record-keeping in Florida market news work. Responsible for
revising forms, keeping reporters supplied, maintaining livestock
statistical files, etc. Arranges for relief of reporters during Annual
or Sick Leave.

12. Assembles and arranges monthly Cattle Price by Grade Comparisons and
market percentages carried each month regularly in For Sale Want and
Exchange Bulletin.

13. Relays collected market statistical information to U.S.D.A Agricul-
tural Statistician in Orlando,

II. Assumed Activities, Relative to Livestock Market News: These will be dis-
cussed briefly under 3 headings: Grading, Statistics, and Information.



A. Livestock Grades and Grading: The Supervising Specialist has often been
designated as sort of "Official (Live)l attle Grader" in Florida. This
includes interpretation and application of Federal grade standards in mar-
ket news, grading talks and demonstrations before cattlemen groups, etc.
He has served as Chairman or a member of many cattle grading, sorting and
sifting committees such as at fat stock or feeder sales, and in advisory
capacity on planning committees. According to the by-laws of the
University's "Production Testing Association", he or a member of his
staff must be present when calves are graded on ranches for Production
Testing work in Florida.

This Specialist has done, and plans to do, considerably more work in
grade education-- is presently building a file of representative grade
photoslides for use at grading schools or discussions at reporters' and
producers' group meetings.

B. Livestock Statistics: The Specialist supervises practically all
statistical records kept by the Bureau on livestock. Much of this is USDA
material, assembled and arranged into ready reference form by the Special-
ist, particularly for use in the Bureau's Annual Report. He assembles and
arranges the Livestock Section of this Annual Report. Most of the statis-
tical records kept have been done in conjunction with Florida market re-
porting. Detailed figures are maintained on Florida market cattle and
hogs-- supplies, seasonal and total marketing, average prices and weights,
etc. Records on interstate movements of livestock into and out of
Florida are also maintained,and until 1959 most of the actual tabulations
were done by the Specialist.

Much of the statistical information recorded and tabulated in Florida market
reporting work has made possible more accurate USDA official estimates of
livestock numbers on farms in Florida, marketing, average prices and
weights, etc.

The reputation these Bureau livestock statistics have for quality, complete-
ness and accuracy is evidenced by this Specialist being honored with joint
authorship of two State Department of Agriculture livestock bulletins,
which carry most of this information verbatim.

C. Livestock Information Service: This actually extends the foregoing, and
deals largely with furnishing a source of supply for official, dependable,
representative statistical and related market information. Numerous requests
are answerable only because of the information tabulated in connection with
market reporting-requests from all interests of the trade- producers, meat
packers, buyers, auctions, ranch managers, USDA personnel, statisticians,
agricultural consultants, research workers, claim agents, Treasury agents,
railroads, Veterinarians, students ard professors alike, University and
Extension personnel, writers, newspapers and magazine editors, -hambers of
Commerce, out-of-state buyers, potential buyers or citizens, departments of
agriculture in other states, etc. Considerable information has been supplied
to several other states studying Florida's methods of reporting livestock
markets, to be used as a guide in establishing similar reporting systems in
those states.


Also under t' is category could be listed these activities performed by
this Speci.list: ta'.'s at livestock group meetings; editorials; serving
as advisor or con. iltant for or at committee meetings; relaying informt-
tion eithe.- tnroi-. Bulletin notices or correspondence; preparing and dis-
tributing .rketint information in printed form or in talks recorded on
tale ftr u by radio stations, etc.

IIl. Specific Atctivities: Since market reporting work is principally routine, it
b,-comes increasingly difficult to list "new" activities each biennium. The
following activities have been performed by the Supervising Specialist the past
t.-o years July 1958-June 1960 in addition to regular market news reporting work,
as outlined above under "Routine -ctivities".

Grading: Chairman, Sifting Committee, Southeastern Fat Stock Show & Sale, Ocala,
2 years, 1959 and 1960.

Planning, Sorting and Sifting Committees, tuigus and hereford Feeder Calf
Sales, Gainesville, 1958 and 1959 (4 sales),

Grading Co.rmittee, Siuwannee Valley Youth Cattle Show, 2 years, 1959-19b0.

Grading Committee, Production tested bulls, West Central Florida Experiment
Station, I130.

Graded calves on several ranches in Production-testing work with Extension

Graded live cattle several times for correlation purposes and helped work up
results analyses. Made representative grade photoslides during correlation work
for post-slaughter study and for use in talks on grades at cattlemen's group

;raded calves for University Creep-feeding experiment.

Graded cattle on auctions ard in -acking plants with USDA personnel for
uniform application of Federal standards nation-wide.

Meetings and Conferences: Attended two meetings of livestock specialists and
statisticians in connection with Florida Beef Council work. Suggested r-dvisory or
Situations Livestock Committee for Florida. Furnished statistical information to
Beef Council representative for analysis of cattle marketing in South Florida.

Attended 1960 Midsumner Florida Cattlemen's Association Convention, participat-
ed in Marketing Comnittee meetings. Furnished considerable marketing information
to officials as follow-up.

Attended Herdsmen's Short Course, Gainesville, 2 years, 1959-19o0, and
Cattlemen's Institute, Lake Placid, 1959.

Initiated, arranged,conducted and summarized several Florida livestock report-
ers' conferences. -ent reports on these to cooperating Federal agencies.



Initiated Bureau Staff Meetings between Bureau Commissioner and Staff
Specialists; served as first Chairman.

Information Service: Laid groundwork for possible future official wholesale meat
price quotations in the Southeastern U.S. by securing lists of livestock organi-
zation and association officials in the southern states, and relaying to Florida
Cattlemen's Association for further action.

Reported Livestock Market News status and situation to Florida Cattlemen's
Association, 1959.

Circularized a letter to Florida auctions requesting more careful handling of

Secured numbers of Florida cattle and hogs exported by boat and air from
USDA for more complete interstate and outshipment information.

Worked up balance sheet of Florida Cattle Marketings based on combined USDA-
Market Bureau estimates; supplied to USDA for use in Inventory, Production,
Marketing and Income Annual Estimates.

assembled and arranged Livestock Section, Annual Reports 1958 and 1959.

Assembled and arranged Statistical Appendix for revised "Beef Cattle in
Florida" and "Hog Production in Floridd'State Department of Agriculture bulletins.

Furnished monthly auction market receipt, price and weight and other market
information to "Florida Cattleman" magazine, 1958 and 1959; wrote two articles
and edited one for same magazine.

Furnished Florida cattle market and interstate information to "Breeder's
Gazette" and "Farm Journal" magazines.

Wrote two articles for the "For Sale Want and Exchange Bulletin", edited
three more.

Advised availability of the Bulletin for carrying notices important to live-
stock producers (such as Livestock Board's plans for tick and screwworm eradica-.=
tion; notices of available market reports; dates of Experiment Station Field Days,
Feeder Sales sponsored by livestock associations, etc).

Furnished feeder pig price information to Extension Specialist for discussion
at Swine Herdsmen's Field Day; slaughter calf weight and price information to
University Specialist; Florida livestock price, weight and interstate information
to several USDA agencies, slaughter firms, railroads, ranchers, etc; feeder calf
sales results to Chairman of Angus Feeder Sale; general livestock market informa-
tion to many others.

Furnished detailed reports describing Florida's methods of reporting live-
stock sales to North 'arolina, Virginia, and Texas agricultural secialists.



Discussed livestock marketing an(, c,, lec grading with Clay County and Columbia
County Cattlemen's Associations, with the marketingg Committee of the Florida
Cattlemen's Association, and at the Everclades Experiment Station Field day in 1959.

Tape-recorded a talk describing Florida Livestock Market reports, which is
still being distributed to radio stations.

In addition to continued regular auction market statistics to the JSDA
Statistician in Orlando, starting in 1959 prices on direct (lion auction) sales of
Florida cattle were supplied for computing more representative Florida cattle
sale averages; also in 1960 the balance sheet on "Florida Cattle Marketings" was

Livestock Marketings: Helped livestock producers sell stock to better advantage.

Considered inaugurating a new service of publishing livestock "for sale and
wanted" listings, to broaden producers' market, but postponed because of lack of
time and personnel, and possibility of duplication.

Began having reporters count and tabulate numbers of cattle according to
breeds, selling through auctions.

Made periodic visits to auctions covered in order to maintain grading consis-
tency between reporters.

Visited Florida State Veterinarian's office to discuss interstate livestock
shipments, auction market records, Livestock Board Relorts, etc.

Contacted 35 to 40 radio and TV stations and newspapers in connection with
extended livestock market reports. At present between 5 and 10 reports are
written by the reporters on each auction sale. Averaging 6 or 7 per sale,around
100 reports on the 16 auctions covered are supplied to auctions, radio and TV
stations, and newspapers all over the state. This is in addition to regular
statewide composite reports issued from Thomasville, which are available to all
newspapers and radio and TV stations via their AP and UPI press services.

This new service, requiring very little added expense but a great deal more of
each reporter's time, has proven to be one of the most important steps yet taken in
market news dissemination, and has resulted in considerable favorable publicity
for the Bureau and Federal-State Market News Service.

===+++===+++=== =++===+++===+++===++===

,.CTI'JTIL T1 R. jT~rt BY

Regularly reported Orlando, Sarasota, Arcadia, and Wauchula live-
stock markets each week, recording -rices and weights of cattle by
classes and grades, and numbers by breeds. Tabulated prices and weights
by classes and grades on all sales covered.



Furnished written reports beginning January 1960 on each sale to
five newspapers and 22 radio stations. Telephoned reports to one tele-
vision station each night Monday through Thursday.

Spent time prior to each sale getting reports from cattlemen and
buyers on direct (private) country sales.

Graded cattle on private ranches for Production Testing in co-
operative work with the University of Florida.

Each year graded cattle at Everglades Experiment Station for
checking and improving accuracy in live grading, for comparative
grading with other Marketing Bureau staff, and for use in University
Bulletin by Prof. W. K. McPherson.

Helped on Annual Field Day each year at Range Cattle Experiment
Station at Ona.

Attended Cattlemen's Short-Course in Gainesville and when possible
attended all Marketing Bureau Reporters' conferences.

Arranged annual conference for Marketing Bureau Livestock Market
Reporters at Sebring.

Graded cattle for special stocker sales at Arcadia and Lakeland.
Served on Official Grading Committee for several special Feeder-
Stocker Sales.

Made daily personal and telephone contacts with cattlemen, fur-
nishing information on the price of cattle and when to sell.


Regularly reported each week four livestock auction markets:
Graceville, Marianna, Live Oak and Lake City. Receipts and price
information on cattle and hogs furnished Federal-State Livestock
Market News Office, Thomasville, Ga., to be incorporated in all-Florida
Livestock Market News releases. Tabulation of numbers, classes, grades
and prices for statistical purposes furnished Florida State Marketing

Since January 1, 1960 have supplied local livestock auction
Market News to seven radio and TV stations and four newspapers. Have
worked closely with these agencies in obtaining and providing them
with pertinent Market News of most interest and help in the area.

Have reported direct sales information (number cattle, class,



grade, price and movement) whenever and wherever available. Have also
encouraged producers and buyers to cooperate in providing direct sales

On many occasions by requests have helped nroducers sell livestock
more profitably by using all facts available. According to producers'
own statements, this practice has netted them up to $1,200.00 more for
one sale than they would have otherwise received.

Have brought buyers and sellers together by supplying stocker and
slaughter buyers with all the information obtainable state-wide of
cattle as to location, class, grade, etc., and furnishing sellers a
list of interested buyers.

Have attended all conferences of livestock reporters and correlat-
ed live grades with slaughter grades wherever possible. Have also
constantly compared and verified grades of livestock with all available
specialists in the field.

On Jan. 1, 1959 took over the responsibility of tabulating Inter-
state Livestock Movement by truck from and into Florida points east
of the Suiwannee River. This information is used extensively by li.e
Bureau and also by the USDA in livestock-en-farms estimates, etc.

'lave assisted in sorting cattle into uniform groups for better
pricing at Feeder Sales at Gainesville.


Following is a summarization of this reporter's activities for
the period of July 1, 1958 to June 30, 1960. This reporter's activi-
ties may be generalized under two categories, namely Basic or Regular
duties and Extra Curricular duties. For simplification and to avoid
repetition, these activities are listed numerically as follows:

Basic Duties: (1) Relort regularly, each week, the Tampa, Lakeland
and Kissimmee livestock auction sales.

(2) Furnish television and radio stations, newspapers and cattle
markets with a special cattle report prepared by this 'el orter imme-
diately following each sale at the previously mentioned cattle

(3) Daily prepare a Fruit & Vegetable Report each morning report-
ing prices received by jobbers at the Tampa Wholesale Produce Market.
The information for this Report is obtained by this reporter directly



at the produce market the evening prior to or the morning that each
report is prepared. This report is then disseminated to two local
newspapers, a local radio station and the Marketing Bureau office in

(4) Daily furnish prices of and general information pertaining
to cattle, fruits and vegetables and poultry and eggs to the public.
Occasionally this office has received phone calls from out of state
requesting this information. For instance, recently a man called
frcm Alabama requesting information on watermelons and other Florida
produce. He wanted to know the prices on these commodities and
when and where would be the best places to purchase them.

(5) Prepare a direct sales report one day each week. The infor-
mation for this report is derived by contacting meat packing plants
and ranchers within a 50 mile radius of Tampa.

(6) Tabulate prices and weights one day each week for the cattle
markets reported within the week. These tabulations are then sent to
the Federal Agricultural Statisticians'office in Orlando.

Extra Curricular Activities:

(1) Graded cattle on private ranches for cattlemen for the pur-
pose of evaluation.

(2) Live graded cattle at Belle Glade Experiment Station each
year for the purpose of correlating live grading with carcass grading
and to improve efficiency in live grading.

(3) Graded cattle on private ranches for production testing in
conjunction with the Agricultural Extension Service of the University
of Florida.

(4) Served on the official grading committee for special stocker
sales in Gainesville each year.

(5) Attended Herdsmen's Short Course at the University of Florida
in Gainesville each year.

(6) Attended livestock reporters' conferences.

(7) Served on official grading committee at Fat Stock sales at
Ocala, Tampa and Bartow.

(8) Made up special cattle and fruit and vegetable reports for a
television show called "WEST COAST LIVING" on educational television
station WEDU. This report was furnished Thursday of each week.

(9) Made survey of the Tampa and Lakeland areas to determine the
quantity of tomatoes being shipped into Florida from Cuba. This



information was relayed to the Marketing Bureau office in Jackson-
ville for a special report.

(10) Furnished price quotations on California produce, sold at the
Tampa wholesale produce market, to Freight Claim offices in San
Francisco and Los Angeles, California.


My activities as a Livestock Market Reporter of the Bureau during
the last two-year period have been varied and different in nature.

I have covered the Belle Glade and Okeechobee auction sales each
week, have gotten direct sales reports on slaughter cattle from the
five major packing plants in the Miami area and a majority of the
direct stocker sales for the south third of the State of Florida.
Duties as reporter include tabulation of prices and weights at the
two auction sales covered regularly. 1 have also covered and assisted
with all of the sales on the Big Cypress and Brighton Indian Reserva-
tions, as well as a number of private auctions on ranches.

At the Glades Livestock Market, I have done everything possible to
assist with cattle marketing. Probably the most important is the sort-
ing and grouping of cattle prior to the sale. With the present set of
circular cutting pens at this market, I have been able to group cattle
into sale lots numbering from four to fifty of varying degrees of
uniformity and thus have cut sale time, reduced bruises, and made for
better marketing. With the records I have kept, I have found that
groups of cattle in this area sell from 50 to $3.00 per cwt more
than single animals, and this one activity alone will give the cattle
producers in this area from $1,000 to $25,000 added gross income per
week depending upon the number and type of cattle marketed.

Besides the above mentioned, I have also sat in on a number of the
Board of Directors Meetings of the Glades Market, as well as attended
most of the numerous meetings that have been held with cattle producers
in this area to discuss ways and means of better marketing.

At the Okeechobee Livestock Market, upon my suggestion, the
corners of the sale ring have been rounded, and hydraulic gates have
been installed. These two improvements have eliminated bruises on
cattle, the use of one man and have shortened the sale time from to
li hours depending upon the number of cattle going through the ring.

During 1959 I helped the Highlands County cattlemen with their Annual
Feeder Calf Sale by grouping the cattle. I also assisted at the State
Angus Calf Sale at Gainesville. Also during the year along with other



marketing men, we did correlation grading at the Everglades Experiment
Station, the State Fair at Tampa, the Ocala Show and the Bartow Show.

During 1958 and 1959, I made a radio program five days a week
over Station WRIM at Pahokee, giving local and national livestock mar-
ket quotations and news. At present this program has been reduced to
three days a week.

I have made it a point to become personally acquainted with as
many producers in the area as possible, to visit their ranches, see
their cattle and assist in any way with marketing cattle. I have
been of some help in assisting ranchers procuring replacement cattle,
herd foundation cattle and purebred sires.

During the past two years, I have become a member of the Farm
Bureau and the Palm Beach County Cattlemen's Association, and have
attended their meetings.

It is always interesting to work with young people, so, at
present I am a local 4-H Club leader, have helped to organize a
local Junior Cattlemens Association, and served as an advisor to
them, I also have worked with the F.F.A. Chapters in this area and
assisted them, as well as the 4-H members, in securing animals for
their projects and in fitting, showing and marketing their cattle. It
also gives me a lot of satisfaction to have become an honorary member
of the Pahokee F.F.A. Chapter during the past year.

Another activity which I have taken part in, is assisting the
State Livestock Extension men in production testing by grading calves
on ranches. I have been assisting, and on several occasions doing all
of the grading, on nine different ranches in South Florida,

My telephone is always on the hook, and I have always been alert
and willing to help anyone day or night to make better livestock
marketing. There is no specific way to measure in dollars and cents
what I may or may not have done, but I sincerely hope that my efforts
have been useful to my fellow cattlemen in some small way.


made survey
consisting of some
1800 inquiries at request
of Florida citrus industry, to
determine the number of marketing units
and individual distributors of citrus fruits,
and the percentage of the crop marketed by each us-
ing 1926-27 season as basis. Results published May 15,1928o
Made survey of Fla.vegetable packing houses,value,number employed, etc.




It is my job to direct, improve and publish an extensive quantity of market
news information.

Florida's agriculture is predominately horticultural. An average of the past
five years shows that 65% of this State's agricultural money comes from horticul-
tural crops as contrasted with the overall United States' average of only 10 percent.

The Fruit and Vegetable Specialist must have a marketing knowledge of some 25
fruit and vegetable commodities as well as gladiolus and chrysanthemums. In
addition to the fruit and vegetable work, the Specialist edits a 200-page Annual
Agricultural Statistical Summary. There is a number of other duties and services
as well, which will be mentioned in the latter part of this review.

1. The Bureau, through a cooperative agreement with the USDA, AMS, Fruit and
Vegetable Division, maintains six fruit and vegetable market news field stations
in Florida during the commercial production seasons.

I handle the liaison work between the Federal market newsmen and the State
at these Federal-State field offices, and much liaison work with the Washington
Market News Office.

I have several personal visits each year with our Washington associates. In
late May this year, a one day meeting was held with Mr. F. S. Nightingale, Chief,
F & V Market News, at the Eastern Market News Conference in Atlanta. In February
Mr. C. B. Miller, Head of the F & V Market News Report Section,accompanied me on
a four-day tour of commercial producing areas in the State. There is a constant
exchange of correspondence on F & V transportation data with Mr. J. L. Buntin,
In Charge, Transportation Reports, F & V Division. These Federal officials have
been considerate and thoughtful in their decisions regarding our State.

I do the liaison work with the Federal-State Market News field stations
which perform, in general, three basic functions: (1) collect daily price quota-
tions Monday through Friday in their respective producing areas, (2) edit market
news reports which contain transportation statistics, and shipping point and
terminal price information, and (3) issue a seasonal market news summary on the
products reported. An exception to this is the Lakeland office which does not
report shipping point price information.

Following is a list of the offices, commodities reported and the operation

Lakeland reports all the Florida citrus and is open nine months out of the
year, October through June. Belle Glade reports Lake Okeechobee area vegetables,
Ft. Pierce tomatoes, and Dade County tomatoes, potatoes, and miscellaneous vege-
tables. This office is open seven months -- mid-November through mid-June.



Pompano reports on vegetables in Broward and the Eastern part of Palm Beach
Counties. It is open for a period of six months -- mid-November through mid-May.
Sanford reports vegetables grown in the Sanford-Oviedo-Zellwood area as well as
the Hastings area cabbage. This year the Sanford reporter began quoting spring
vegetables from the McIntosh area. Sanford is open six and a half months --
December through mid-June.

Plant City covers several producing areas from this location. They are the
Ft. Myers-Immokalee cucumbers, peppers, potatoes, and tomatoes; Wauchula cucum-
bers and miscellaneous vegetables, Sarasota celery, Hillsborough-Palmetto Counties
tomatoes and miscellaneous vegetables; Webster cucumbers and peppers, Oxford
tomatoes and Plant City strawberries and spring vegetables.

Market News coverage of the important Florida watermelon deals is handled
from Plant City during the early part of the harvest. When the buyers move up to
Thomasville and Valdosta, Georgia, during the latter part of June, the office is
moved to Thomasville. The Planc City office is operated for a period of five and
one-half months--January through mid-June.

An office is opened in Hastings during the Flagler, Putnam and St. Johns
Counties' spring potato harvest.

Pecan Market News Service is carried on in collaboration with the USDA Fruit
and Vegetable Division, as well as with Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana and Mississippi
Bureausof Markets. This field office is maintained in Albany, Georgia, from late
October through December 31. Due to the many growers, buyers, and sellers
scattered throughout the five southeastern states, the collection of the informa-
tion by a single reporter has been the most practical method of preparing useful
Market News information on this particular crop.

The Federal Market News man at Albany, in conjunction with the area service,
makes phone calls to various Florida buying points for price information, and to
the Starke State Farmers' Market for the pecan auction sales. Pecan information
is published in the daily four-page Fruit and Vegetable Report issued in Jackson-

2. Upon request of the Florida floral industry, I initiated a cut-flower
transportation report during the 1959-60 season. Although this was a Federal-
State project, the complete details were carried out by the Bureau with the
exception of the airline contacts which were made by the Transportation Chief of
the USDA, AMS, Fruit and Vegetable Division. Several meetings were held with Mr.
John Early, Manager, Florida Flower Association, and Mr. Cecil Smith, Agricul-
tural Economics, Agricultural Experiment Stations, concerning the reporting
procedure. Trade reports have been favorable toward this type of market infor-
mation. There are some indications that the daily statistics had a stabilizing
effect by curtailing supplies at the production end rather than having an over-
supply in the city markets.

3. 1 have quoted the wholesale produce market in Jacksonville each morning
Monday through Friday. In my absence one of the stenographers, who has been
trained for the work, collects the price information.



The principal method of distributing the Jacksonville market information is
through the Florida Times-Union. This newspaper is distributed throughout North
Florida and South Georgia. Today's price transactions appear in tomorrow morn-
ing's paper. The Associated Press sends our release over its leased wire circuit.
This information is carried by seven principal dailies in the State.

4. One of the most important releases we issue in the Fruit and Vegetable
Section is the daily four-page Fruit and Vegetable Report during the commercial
truck crop season from about November 1 to June 30. This report carries rail and
truck shipments in tabular form with seasonal comparison. The "16 cities rail
and truck" serve as a barometer of trading as does the "38 cities Rail and Truck
Unloads". These show the flow of fruits and vegetables in major markets and
indicate surpluses and shortages when they exist. Other ages of the report show
prices in leading Florida terminal markets, prices at shipping point, and prices
in leading Eastern, Midwestern and Southern cities.

The one-page Avocado-Lime-Mango Report is released daily from June 15 through
October 31. Since avocados, limes and mangoes are principally consigned to
terminals, the daily market prices in the various cities and shipments from
Florida are especially valuable to this South Florida industry. There are 20
out-of-State markets shown.

5. Another of my duties concerns supervision of the Florida Truck Passing
Report for vegetables and miscellaneous fruits. The staff of the Florida Road
Guard Stations under the direction of Mr. L. P. Hickman has been most helpful in
collecting the data directly from truckers' manifests as they pass each of the
eleven stations along the St. Mary and Suwannee Rivers. Daily information is
phoned from the six heaviest volume stations to our office each morning. All
stations send in mail reports. Mr. Hickman has given us the privilege of writing
directly to the various stations concerning the truck passing. During the past
two years I've written 19 letters of instruction and inquiry to these inspectors.

The daily truck passing report is sent over the USDA leased wire system
every morning about 9:30 A.M. and is listed as a priority message.

This year's truck watermelon passing report was changed from tabulation on
a per-melon basis to a hundredweight basis. This has provided quite an improve-
ment in our service since sizes vary during the season as well as between the
seasons. The use of this new common denominator (cwt) has been possible since
a high percentage of the melons are now sold on a per-pound basis,

Upon the request of various agricultural industries we have begun compiling
data on the Florida Flower Truck passing, and the Starter Pullets (Chix age
12-22 weeks) which come into the State. The road guard inspectors are assisting
us in handling a Florida Agricultural Experiment Station request for marking all
truck loads for watermelons as "for hire" and "personally owned". We sincerely
appreciate the fine cooperation which Mr. L. P. Hickman gives us on truck reports.

6. Our market news teletype, over which we obtain all information from other
markets, is vital to our activity. A 28AKR machine with a tape attachment to
speed up and improve the sending and receiving of messages has been installed.



There has been an increase of out-going messages from this office.

A forty-five minute educational teletype market news tape was made for the
University of Florida, Agricultural Economics Department in conjunction with the
Agricultural Fair. Several days were spent in preparation of this tape. Mrs.
Caryl Michael represented the Bureau at the University Agricultural Fair for two
and a half days.

7. We place much emphasis on tabulating transportation information into
various types of series. Each year more of our Florida transportation data are
tabulated into weekly series, and five year averages.

This past winter, I worked up a 43-page transportation booklet in which
adjusted rail and truck loadings of the past six years were shown converted to a
current rail loading basis. Mr. James Duncan, Traffic Manager of the Florida
Fruit and Vegetable Association, and other well informed transportation represen-
tatives expressed appreciation for the booklet.

The rail loadings had been in a transition period in which favorable per-car
charges resulted in greater number of packages per car. There was a great need
for this adjusted transportation series. Mr. J. B. Owens, Truck Crop Statistician,
Florida Crop Reporting Service, assisted as consultant on this project.

8. I direct a monthly import report of selected fruits and vegetables arriv-
ing at Florida ports which is tabulated by our staff and sent to seven cooperative
agencies and organizations in the State.

9. Each week I mail the Florida Avocado Administrative Committee a weekly
tabulation of transportation statistics for all domestic shipments other than
Florida and imports. This is a special service to the avocado group. The
avocado transportation series was developed this past year through the co-
operation of the USDA F & V Market News Service.

10. The 1959 Florida Legislature enacted several new agricultural laws which
may potentially increase my duties. These were Enabling Acts for celery, corn,
and tobacco. I attended several meetings held in conjunction with the Celery and
Corn Acts.

The market news portion of the Tobacco Enabling Act was passed on to me. The
Federal-State Market News Service in Valdosta, the Florida Agricultural Stabili-
zation Committee in Gainesville and the Florida Crop Reporting Service were
contacted as to the extent of need for a tobacco market news report. I also
reviewed the type of data already being compiled by the other services. The
first series of market news reports on tobacco warehouse auction transactions
were issued during the 1959 tobacco season. The Tobacco Advisory Board has re-
quested that additional market news information be tabulated in the 1960 tobacco

11. Each November we issue a 200-page Annual Agricultural Statistical
Summary on the most used information concerning the State's agricultural indus-
try. I edit the publication with the exception of the livestock information



which is handled by Gifford Rhodes, Livestock Market News Specialist.

Twenty-five Federal ind State Agencies as well as trade organizations con-
tribute statistics for usein the release. Some of the tabulations in the summary
were expressly prepared for use by people in the various organizations. Some
were contributed for use before the individual agency released them in its own
publication; other tables were duplicated from worthwhile agricultural reports.

We feel that the summary is definitely beneficial to the state in the
"agribusiness" era. Our experience at the Bureau with marketing information shows
clearly the wide range of intermediary businesses embraced by growers. As many
as 2000 copies of this summary are mailed annually to growers, shippers, bankers,
seedmen, transportation representatives (air, boat, rail, truck), fertilizer and
chemical representatives, chain store organizations, independent grocery groups,
citrus and vegetable processors, slaughtering plants, advertising organizations,
container companies (cans, cartons, wooden boxes), libraries, marketing organiza-
tions and production men and economists, both public and private. These profes-
sional people as well as the growers are very interested in the agricultural
trends. They supply credit, equipment, transportation, containers, cans, etc.

12. Much effort has been placed on service improvement during the past
biennium. During the winter and spring of 1959 Guyton Williams, Poultry and Egg
Specialist, and I held a series of six meetings on poultry and egg market infor-
mation. Briefly, the purpose of these conferences was to ascertain the existing
needs for information, which information each agency is prepared to publish at
the present, and what information we should stress in order to provide better mar-
ket data.

The complete outline and results of our inquiry was published in an article
entitled "Progress Report on Poultry and Egg Market Information", in the For Sale
Want and Exchange Bulletin June 15, 1960.

Another phase of our service improvement work has begun in truck crops. Due
to the rapid marketing of these perishable crops the need has arisen for improved
marketing information, well analyzed, and simply presented.

The group with whom I am holding discussions on this problem include J. Bo
Owens, Truck Crop Statistician, Florida Crop Reporting Service; Kenneth Gil-
braith, Fruit and Vegetable Specialist, Agricultural EconomicsDepartment, Florida
Agricultural Extension Service; F. S. Jamison, Head Vegetable Crops Section,
Florida Agricultural Extension Service; Stanley Rosenberger, Retail Merchandiser
also of the Vegetable Crops Section; George Talbott, Manager, Production and
Marketing Division, Florida Fruit and Vegetable Association,

The Florida Tomato Committee, which operated under a Federal marketing
agreement, was active during the first year of the biennium. The Committee was
in operation four years. My work with this group was both along the improvement
and service lines. Much time was spent applying our transportation and price
information to market series developed by the Committee's Manager, Dr. W. E.
Black. The tomato market material was passed on to Dr. Black by phone and
through mail correspondence each week,



13. A year ago in July, Mr. "rdes reorganized his staff in the Jacksonville
office. At that time he placed me in direct charge of all the Bureau's fruit and
vegetable work. In this process it relieved me of the poultry and egg market news
relief assignment on the Jacksonville desk of the local P & E reporter in his

14. About five to six times each year, I write up the Florida direct cattle
sales report on Friday in the absence of the Livestock Market News Specialist.
The report takes about an hour and a half to prepare.

15. I have a considerable amount of public relation work, personal contacting
as well as phone and mail requests to handle. My long distance phone costs have
tripled over that of the last biennium, also there has been a considerable in-
crease of LD calls coming into the Bureau concerning our F & V work. In conjunction
with the Dade County Agricultural Extension office, I prepared an article on
"Mango Marketing Notes" for release in the For Sale Want Fnc1 Exchange Bulletin.
This article was reprinted in the Mango Forum Proceedings. Also I prepared several
F & V statistical price tables for the "Bulletin".

I attended the 1960-61 Acreage-Production-Marketing Guides conference in
Gainesville and contributed a voluminous quantity of transportation data for the
groups' publication. I represented the Bureau at the Florida Fruit and Vegetable
Association convention and the Florida Flower Association convention. I presented
a paper on the Jacksonville Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Market atthe Florida State
Horticultural Society's 1958 meeting. I attended the Annual Eastern Market News
conferences in Washington and Atlanta. I made a visit to the Georgia and Virginia
Bureau of Markets to discuss market news office procedures. I made every effort
to utilize the service of other organizations and agencies and to offer them our
service and cooperation whenever possible.

Miss Sara Wright, Mrs. Caryl Michael and Mrs. Jean Lord have been most help-
ful in the Bureau's fruit and vegetable work. They deserve much credit.


The State Agri-
cultural Marketing Boa d
was created by the Legislature
of 1929... "the duties of which shall
be to further extend the activities of the
State Marketing Bureau...." The sum of $35,000 was
annually appropriated to defray the expenses necessary
to carry out the provisions of the Act.No other purpose
was intended nor mentioned except to exterd the activities
of the Bureau, and the law was unamended for several years.




The beginning of the Twenty-Second Biennial Report presented volume and value
data of Florida agricultural production for seasons 1957-58 and 1958-59. The
Introduction further emphasized the diversification and ranking importance of
agriculture to Florida welfare,- and no less that the dimension of the ability of
officials serving the greatest industry of the State should be proportionate and
adequate for the requirements of any agricultural position, particularly at
administrative levels.

Having served Florida agriculture since July 1917, under the Administrations
of three Commissioners of Agriculture, twelve Governors and twenty-one sessions
of the Legislature, not to mention the rapidly increasing population, I can
appreciate the progressive stride of Florida agriculture. For instance early
annual reports of the Bureau show that in the 1911-12 season Florida shipped
17,161 cars of citrus, 7,130 cars of strawberries, watermelons, etc., and
15,5)4 cars of vegetables. Grand total 39,825 cars, value $43,189,804. By the
1924-25 season, the total fruit and vegetable shipments from Florida amounted to
94,125 cars, value $80,862,348. Comparison with the figures for 1958-59 will
illustrate the increase in both our agricultural volume and diversity.

The Assistant Commissioner, the Marketing, and the Market News Specialists
have in foregoing pages reported their activities for the past two-year period.
I call attention to the self-evidence of these summaries that the Bureau staff
has been progressive, both in expanding normally routine functions, and in
initiating new and supplementary services. I would emphasize that in new posi-
tion assignments and replacements following resignations and retirements, com-
paratively young men with many years of efficient service ahead have been

In the preparation of the Twenty-Second Biennial Report of the Bureau, the
prime objective was to make it complete yet brief. Appropriate continuity, stitch-
ing together the Introduction and Conclusion with mileposts from the record
erected in between, was designed for the interest and information of everyone
concerned enough to read the Report.

In drawing curtain upon the biennial period ending June 30, 1960, I wish to
express appreciation for and duly accredit the splendid performance record of the
Assistant Commissioner, the Marketing and Market News Specialists, and the
secretarial, stenographic, clerical and mailing-printing department force in the
Jacksonville headquarters offices. To the Bureau personnel in all offices and
departments, headquarters and field, I give maximum credit and pay the tribute
they all richly deserve for Bureau accomplishments.

The closing quarter of the last year of the biennium under review brought
to a close the long, distinguished career of Commissioner of Agriculture Nathan
Mayo whose death occurred in April 1960. This tribute among others paid Mr.
Mayo in the May 1, 1960 issue of our Bulletin now as then reveals my high esteem
of him as official and friend:



"The good Nathan Mayo did will live long after
him, in the permanence of his progressive accom-
plishments,- and in the hearts of Florida citizenry.
lie established an enviable standard, one which many
may well imitate, few will equal and I doubt any
will surpass."

The ending of the period reported upon was rather uniquely marked by the
death of the incumbent Commissioner, the appointment of his Administrative
Assistant, Honorable Lee Thompson, Commissioner for the remainder of Mr.
Mayo's term, and also the election of Honorable Doyle Conner, Commissioner of
Agriculture for the 1961-65 term. Florida agricultural leadership has been, is
now and will continue to be in good hands.

Threading back to early milestone mention of the Bureau's annual appropria-
tion of $15,000, the financial statement for years ending June 30, 1959 and 1960
shown on pages 50-51 will indicate the growth of the Bureau to serve requirements
in most demand. It will also fulfill my intent to account for where the money

Neill Rhodes
Florida State Marketing Bureau


Under cooperative
agreement, suggested by
present Marketing Commissioner,
between State and Federal Bureaus,
special field office market news service
was provided free of charge first time in the 1929-
30 season. Previously local funds of approximately one-
third the total cost were provided by growers and shippers.

In the
fall of 1929
Bureau advised every
honey producer of record in
Florida of market outlets for
the heavy honey surplus reported.




The Bureau
completed arrange-
ments for a special livestock
market news service in 1929, and issued
the first official report Jan. 7, 1930. Sept. 9,
1938, the mailing list was delivered to the cooperative
Federal-State Livestock Market News Office, Thomasville, Ga.,
from which the first Federal-State report was issued Sept. 12, 1938.

With the
assistance of
Florida representatives
in Congress and the State
Legislature, the Bureau obtained
Federal-State matching funds for beginning
in 1935 the Federal-State Frost Warning Service.

F The Bureau was the pioneer official marketing agen- B
S cy in Florida, and the first in starting, providing F
M or arranging for the following in Florida, in addi- S
B tion to "first" services elsewhere mentioned: M
S Field Marketing Specialists, statewide service. F
M The first egg auction. S
B The first producer cooperative carlot egg sale. M
F The first Federal surplus egg buying. B
S The first carlot shipping point turkey sale. F
M The first carlot live poultry sale, also the first S
B carlot broiler sale for producers. M
F The first Feature Florida Foods Week. B
S The first independent livestock auction. F
M The first hog and cattle cash auction field sales. S
B The first to broadcast agricultural market news M
F data by radio. B


of the
Expenditures from July 1, 1958, to June 30, 1959

Appropriation for Year ending June 30, 1959 . . . . . . $246,653.00
Federal Allotment Special Livestock Market News . . . . . 2,200.00
Credit, Cooperative Dairy Agreement . . . . . . . . 42.89






Communication and Transportation .
Printing Services . . . .
Repairs and Maintenance,.. . .
Travel . . . . . .
Utilities. . . . . . .
Other Contractual Services . .
Heating Supplies . . . .
Maintenance Materials and Supplies
Motor Fuels and Lubricants . .
Office Materials and Supplies. .
Insurance and Surety Bonds . .
Rental of Buildings. . . .
Ebes, Commissions, etc. . . ..
Tariff commission . . . .

. 30.02
. 1,244.73
. 37,079.91
. 597.31
. 15,585.45
. 34.06
. 1,229.58
. 11,120.78
. 182.55
. 6,576.00
. 20.00
. 5,000.00


5100 Books . . . . . . . 10.50
5600 Office Furniture and Equipment . 1,266.50


Turned back to the State June 30, 1959

Cap.Ou tlay







of the
Expenditures from July 1, 1959, to June 30, 1960

Approp, nation for Year ending June 30, 1960 . . . . . .
Fe eral allotmentt Special Livestock Market News . . . . .
Crpr';t, '" operative Dairy Agreement . . . . . . . .
Credit, by sale of damaged paper stock . . . . . . .
Refund rental payment Dec. 1959 (old lease 505 West Adams St.) .
Refund PlateGlass Insurance Policy (upon vacating 505 W.Adams St.).
Credit by General Inspection Fund transfer Capital Outlay . .

Fire Fund Replacement Account--Fire damage Nov.20,1959 $18,200.00
Cost of replacing and/or refinishing equipment $18,200.00




1100 SALARIES . . . . . . .


Communication and Transportation .
Printing Services . . . .
Repairs and Maintenance. . . .
Travel . . . . . . .
Utilities. . . . . . .
Other Contractual Services . .
Heating Supplies . . . .
Maintenance Materials and Supplies
Motor Fuels and Lubricants . .
Office Materials and Supplies. .
Insurance and Surety Bonds . .
Rental of Buildings. . . .
Dues, Commissions, etc . . .
Tariff Commission . . . .

. . . . $156,299.74



5600 Office Furniture and Equipment .

Turned back to the State June 30, 1960 .



1,944.83 255,287.73

. . . $ 5,859.84







Neill Rhodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Commissioner
F. W. Risher. . .Assistant Commissioner--Specialist, Poultry and Dairy Products
L. T. Pendarvis . . . . . . . Specialist, Livestock and Field Crops
G. N. Rhodes. . . . . . . . .. Specialist, Livestock Market News
E. F. Scarborough . . . . . .Specialist, Market News, All Commodities

Dick Stark. . . .
Guyton M. Williams. .
Fred 0. Witt. . .
Edna G. Ferguson. .
C. Faith Butner . .
R. Jean Lord. . .
V. J. McCrary . .
Wilda Polk. . . .
Pauline C. Pendarvis.
Kathryn L. Vernon .
Sara Wright . . .
Wanda Tustison. . .
Caryl C. Michael. .
H. L. Mayberry. . .
Chris Georgiades.. .
Frank R. Schmehl. .

. . . .Specialist, Dairy Products
. Specialist, Poultry and Dairy
. In charge Printing and Mailing Room
. . . . . . Secretary
. . . . . . Stenographer
. . . . . . .Stenographer
. . . . . . Stenographer
. . . . . . Stenographer
. . . . . Stenographer
. . . . . Stenographer
. . . . . . Stenographer
. . . . . . .Stenographer
. . . . . . Telegrapher
. . . . .Mechanical Operator
. . . . Mechanical Operator
. . . . Mechanical Operator


Geo. C. Avery .
Harold C. Howze .
Eugene P. Harper.
Alfred J. Larson.
Earl S. Reed. .
Sam C. Means. .
Marlin M. Nicely.
M. B. Smith . .

H. E. Gooden. . . .
Marjorie B. Fields. . .
Mrs. James M. Messer. .
Mrs. J. W. Padgett. . .
J. M. Doris . . . .

(Does not include Federal

. .Market News Representative, Marianna
* .Market News Representative, Wauchula
. Market News Representative, Pensacola
. . Market News Representative, Tampa
. . Market News Representative, Tampa
. . Market News Representative, Miami
. Market News Representative, Pahokee
. Market News Representative, Orlando

Market News Representative (cooperative), St.Petersburg
S. Market News Representative (cooperative), Ft. Myers
. Market News Representative (cooperative), Tallahassee
. Market News Representative (cooperative), Panama City
. . Market News Representative (Federal),Jacksonville

field office supervisory or Federal-State clerical

MAIN OFFICE HE/DQUARTERS 430 West Monroe Street, Jacksonville, Florida

. . o o .

. . 0 *

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