Title: Biennial report - Florida Division of Marketing
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00094067/00017
 Material Information
Title: Biennial report - Florida Division of Marketing
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services. -- Division of Marketing
Publication Date: 1948-1950
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1- 1917-
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00094067
Volume ID: VID00017
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01403025


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JULY 1, 1948 TO JUNE 30, 1950


Letter of Transmittal

Florida State Marketing Bureau

State of Florida

To His Excellency
Honorable Fuller Warren
Governor of Florida


I have the honor to herewith submit to you
the Seventeenth Biennial Report of the Florida State
Marketing Bureau for the Fiscal Period July 1,
1948, to June 30, 1950.


Neill Rhodes,

State Marketing Commissioner.

Jacksonville, Florida

August 21, 1950


Neill Rhodes-
L. H. Lewvis_
F. W. Risher_
F. H. Scruggs
G. N. Rhodes-....
W. L. Jackson_ ..
Edna G. Ferguson-
Effie L. Cureton....
Kathryn L. Vernon.
Sara Wright
Caryl C. Michael.
Fred 0. Witt____
H. L. Mayberry
Martin E. Nissle-

-Specialist, Livestock and Field Crops
Specialist, Poultry and Dairy Products
- -- Specialist, Market News
_._Specialist, Livestock Market News
-In Charge Printing and Mailing Room

- ---Stenographer
.Mechanical Operator
-Mechanical Operator
Mechanical Operator

F. L. Lothamer -- --- Market News Representative, Tampa
John B. Phelps ____ .Market News Representative (cooperative) Miami
D. L. Smith Market News Representative (cooperative) Orlando
W. P. Arnold Market News Representative (cooperative) Tallahassee

OFFICE HEADQUARTERS 505 W. Adams St., Jacksonville, Florida.
OFFICE HOURS 8:30 A.M. 5:00 P.M. Saturday, Close at noon.


July 1, 1948-June 30, 1950

Duties: According to law the duties of the State Marketing Com-
missioner shall be to receive and compile reports on all fruits, vegetables
and other farm products as are grown in the State, to publish same, to
collect information as to additional market centers and their capacity, and
to keep and compile a statement of all shipments moving out of the State
that through such information farmers and producers can be kept posted
as to conditions existing in the State and in the markets of other States,
to cooperate with and prevent loss to our people, etc. (603.09, Florida
Statutes, 1949).

The statutory requirements have been complied with, and duties
performed not prescribed or contemplated when the Bureau was created.
In a pioneering experimental way, the Jacksonville poultry and egg, and
fruit and vegetable market was quoted daily back in 1919. The Florida
market news service with State and national market coverage has since
been expanded until we are second in rank to no other State. That such
development was warranted is amply sustained by the following statement
made at the conclusion of the 1949 Annual Meeting of the National Asso-
ciation of Marketing Officials in Washington, D. C.:

"One of the most valuable services that can be rendered is assembly
of facts and figures reflecting important trend and relationship in market-
ing farm products. Data must be put in a form that is understandable and
usable, if producers and handlers are to use such information as a basis
for improving marketing practices. The accuracy of facts, timeliness of
recommendations, practical rather than theoretical are essential to the
success of any state marketing program."


Statistical tables and comment included in the annual reports and
summaries released by the Bureau, and cooperatively with the U. S.
Department of Agriculture by market news offices at Hastings, Sanford,
Pompano, Belle Glade, Lakeland, Plant City, and Leesburg, previously
released state-wide, will not be included in this report. Brevity is the
essence of our biennial reports with the objective of saying much in few
words which has greater chance of being read by more persons with greater
interest. I note the Florida Citrus Exchange covers its annual reports in
about 25 pages. The nation's largest corporations review their activities in
annual reports to stockholders in brief, condensed form. For all practical
purposes and good economic reasons, voluminous book-size reports are
unnecessary,-and I venture saying that very few within departments
committed to such practice ever read their reports in toto, not to mention
the general public.

The Bureau has not established stop lights against or detoured
around marketing assistance to Florida growers and shippers. The depart-
ment has considerable latitude under the provision: ". . to do all that

Seventeenth Biennial Report

can be done in connection with the Commissioner of Agriculture to bring
relief to and aid in the marketing and distribution of Florida's products."
(603.09, Florida Statutes, 1949). We have exercised that privilege and taken
advantage of every opportunity to provide economical, efficient, conserva-
tive service to the agricultural industry of Florida.
For Sale, Want and Exchange Bulletin
The For Sale, Want and Exchange Bulletin is an example of filling
in the picture, of rounding out our service. There is a wider market outlet
for farmers' miscellaneous products among farmers themselves than is
generally realized. Ornamental plants and shrubbery for example: Most
of the Garden Club membership of the State subscribe to the Bulletin.
Especially is this true for the small farmer, the widow often, very few of
whom have available means of knowing fair market value of miscellaneous
offerings except through checking prices of similar articles listed for sale by
others in the Bulletin. Many items offered in the Bulletin,-used farm
equipment for instance,-have no readily available sale elsewhere,-and
the less sale a product has the more help the farmer needs in disposing of it.
As the founder of the Bulletin, it has been my pleasure to note its
growth over the years. The mailing list consists of about 56,000 names and
the Bulletin is read regularly by two or three times that number. More than
a million copies of the Bulletin are mailed to regular subscribers annually,
mostly over Florida, but including circulation among other states and to
some foreign countries. In the last two years some 3000 persons in other
states have requested their names placed on the Bulletin mailing list to
obtain information on the farm lands listed. In addition to wanted items,
for sale listings of seeds and plants, poultry and eggs, livestock, farm im-
plements and equipment, farm and grove products, farm lands and miscel-
laneous offerings are run in each issue by more than 500 Florida farmers.
The editorial page is devoted to timely agricultural marketing subjects.
For example, articles such as Needs of the Florida Cut Flower Industry;-
Livestock Auctions, Good and Bad;- Florida Agricultural Bond and License
Law;- Preventing Livestock Losses;-Commercial Broiler Development
in Florida;-Developments Florida Citrus Marketing for Quarter Century;
-Summary Weather Damage Florida Vegetables (24 years);- Marketing
Florida Peppers Cabbage Escarole Sweet Corn;-Florida F.O.B. Ship-
ping Point Vegetable Prices;-Beekeeping;-these are titles of a few of the
many editorials appearing in the Bulletin since July 1, 1948.

Know-how Requisite
To be able to come to grips with agricultural marketing problems,
marketing specialists must possess a good practical background knowledge
of its fundamentals, basically of what there is to do, and sufficient experi-
ence and ability to know how best to do it. Successful marketing is no less
than aggressive marketing. It must be abreast of modern technique, its
features in step with scientific advances of the time and be kept on a sound,
economic basis. The physical marketing conditions and consumer demands,
and the nature and quality of each particular crop marketed must undergo
continual adjustment.

It has been authoritatively stated that in all markets consumers
can generally be divided into three classes: 15% are quality buyers regard-

State Marketing Bureau

less of price; 15% are price buyers, regardless of quality; and 70% are
quality and cost conscious. Products can be priced out of reach of the
15% price buying segment.

The consumer's average income level must be followed, and con-
sumer preference and buying potential closely analyzed. The consumer
must be appealed to with advertising or the product neglected may become
a roving occupant of the grocer's shelves.

In super market merchandising, as the trend increases toward self-
service, most of the direct contact with the consumer is lost. The checker
at the cash register is the principal "good-will" personality serving the
customer,-I have noticed the regular marked price is often charged instead
of the advertised special, "loss-leader" low.

Prices of agricultural products in many instances have reached un-
easy levels following the downward postwar trend. Yet there have been
important economic supports which were not available in previous post-war
periods. For example, farm programs, plans, the high income level and
holdings of savings, securities, government bonds, etc. Although the manu-
facturing industry got its first comprehensive effective tariff act in 1842,
acreage allotments, marketing quotas and safeguard programs for the
agricultural industry could only be provided for in the Agricultural Ad-
justment Act of 1938.

Marketing is affected by transportation trends. Very significant
has been the increasing diversion to truck of Florida fruits and vegetables
once handled by rail, and increased rates in the face of decreased propor-
tionate rail volume. In the 1948-49 Season, truck volume of citrus increased
sensationally to more than double the previous year,-grapefruit movement
by truck was nearly three times heavier. Federal studies reveal that in
1949, based on available statistics for a number of large wholesale markets,
50% of fruits and vegetables, 60% of eggs, 66% of cattle, 70% of hogs and
98% of live poultry were brought in by truck. Reasons for the shift among
others were: The 50% overall increase in the rates during the previous
2 years; shippers trying to avoid the extra handling at each end necessary
with most rail connections; greater speed of truck transportation with delays
enroute largely eliminated; the flexibility of truck transportation.

Market News, Origin and Setup

With the trend more. and more toward outright sales, "keeping
farmers and producers posted as to conditions existing in the State and in
the markets of other states . . to prevent loss to our people" is more
important and essential now than back in 1917, some 33 years ago, when
the law creating the Bureau was adopted, and most shipments moved under
consignment. Working in Florida's interest over the years, the Bureau has
gained the close cooperation of the U. S. Department of Agriculture in
keeping Florida producers reliably informed of market prices and condi-
tions. The Bureau originated the system of equal division of the cost of
the shipping point, field market news service, the result of which is that
the growers and shippers receive market information without fees or assess-
ments, and the Federal government absorbs half the cost, without which
arrangement the State would have to pay all the cost. The Commissioner

Seventeenth Biennial Report

is Collaborator, U. S. Department of Agriculture, whereby market reports
by mail move under frank, saving the State the heavy postage otherwise
necessary. The total economy in market news thus effected over the years
has resulted in a saving to Florida of at least a quarter million dollars.

The Bureau is on the leased wire circuit of the U.S.D.A., from Nov.
1 through June 30 following. This circuit is connected with most of the
nation's large market centers and important shipping areas, over which
system flows daily comprehensive market information covering fruits,
vegetables, livestock, poultry and dairy products, etc.

Market News, Vegetables

The principal volume of fruits and vegetables is shipped from
Florida in the season from November to July. Daily throughout the season
a miscellaneous Market News Bulletin is mailed from the Bureau offices,
Jacksonville. The report is available to every person requesting it and is
free of any charge. The daily report gives shipment information, carlot
volume from Florida and all States, imports, passing at diversion centers,
f.o.b. sales and market conditions at Florida shipping or assembling points
and competitive f.o.b.s in other states, track holdings on larger markets,
arrivals, unloads, market tendency and the range of quotations of Florida
vegetables sold on the nation's markets. At centers of heavy production
and movement, cooperative market news offices also are operated in season,
providing complete coverage for the important product or products common
to each section and including other miscellaneous vegetables. Field report-
ing stations are maintained each season at Hastings for potatoes, Sanford
for celery, Belle Glade for beans and miscellaneous vegetables, Pompano
for beans and vegetables, Plant City for strawberries, Leesburg for water-
melons. Hastings cabbage f.o.b.s were added for the spring crops of 1949
and 1950.
Market News, Citrus

Special citrus market news offices are located at Lakeland, provid-
ing the citrus grower and shipper with detailed market news data, similar to
and as complete as the service supplied the vegetable grower.

Market News, Poultry and Eggs

To keep the poultry producers posted on market conditions, the
Bureau issues every Tuesday and Friday a two-page mail report, covering
current quotes and market conditions of poultry live and dressed, also eggs,
sales to retailers and consumers, for the Florida markets of Jacksonville,
Miami, Orlando and Tampa. Quotations for the intervening days,-Monday,
Wednesday, Thursday, Saturday, on which reports are not issued-are
included in order in the Tuesday and Friday releases so the producers will
have a year round complete daily file available. For those desiring faster-
than-mail service, telephone and telegraph facilities are used to serve them
provided messages are accepted collect. About 85 telephone or telegraph
service wires are sent out collect by the Bureau upon quotation changes.
The long established service keeps pace with the times, revisions are made
as conditions warrant. Amendments have recently been made to provide
better merchandising differential and coverage for truck pick-up loads of
poultry, the New York and Atlanta egg markets and the North Georgia

State Marketing Bureau

fryer market have been included to indicate the effect of competitive out-
side supplies and prices upon Florida offerings. Coverage for Tallahassee
and West Florida sections was started June 1, 1950.

Market News, Livestock

Florida's livestock industry is an important one and is progressing.
To keep the livestock farmer posted as to conditions, to provide him with
reliable facts daily as to supply, demand and current value of his cattle and
hogs, the Bureau has developed market news coverage of livestock in every
way possible, particularly in the last two years. In early 1930 this special
service was started. The Bureau led the demand for Federal market news
service for the southeastern area, which was established at Thomasville,
Ga., as the most centrally located base for the territory. Federal quotations
on Federal grade basis were made available, the Bureau arranged for the
Thomasville reports to include Florida markets and be sent free to Florida
producers and shippers.

With the cooperation of Commissioner Mayo the Bureau was pro-
vided with special funds of $10,000 for two years to expand the livestock
market news service by the 1947 Florida Legislature. The Bureau's live-
stock marketing specialist secured the cooperation of Florida's Congres-
sional delegation and $7500 Federal funds were made available for further
expansion and supplementing the Florida livestock market news service
with coverage of additional Florida markets. Within the current biennial
period the service has been greatly expanded, tailored to better fit the needs
of the industry. More sources in position to supply information have been
contacted and the composite data have been used to serve more people.
The Florida livestock farmer now has available from the cooperative Fed-
eral-State offices: Daily hog quotations for the southeastern area including
Florida and Montgomery, and Chicago; tabulation of animals,-cattle,
calves, hogs, sheep, goats,-slaughtered in Alabama, Florida and Georgia,
and other states by groups. A special weekly summary of hog and cattle
markets for Florida at large and including in detail Monticello, Gainesville,
Tampa, Marianna, Arcadia, Kissimmee markets. The daily press is provided
with special report of cattle and hogs, Florida and southeastern markets,
and a special typed copy of weekly summary is sent newspapers to serve
their publishing schedule. We arranged to get daily passing reports of
Florida livestock by truck, starting October 1948, first time available. Seven
Florida radio stations use the data in regular broadcasts. Belle Glade
service for livestock market news was initiated under cooperative arrange-
ments June 1, 1950. If there is such thing as a Florida livestock producer
not being fully posted on market conditions, it is his own indifference or
negligence, for the Bureau has made available all the information he needs
without expense to him.

Market News, Cut Flowers

Of larger annual volume and value than the public realizes is the
aggregate of cut flower and horticultural specialty shipments from Florida.
Producers have experienced difficulty in obtaining reliable current market
quotations for those products. The only official quotation service in the
United States for cut flowers is provided for New York City by the State
Department of Farms and Markets of New York. The Bureau endeavored

Seventeenth Biennial Report

to establish a Federal-State market news service for flower growers, but
the Federal department was without funds for such project and met with
opposition from much of the trade in preliminary spade work, with the
result that we worked out the next best arrangement possible. Through
cooperation of the New York Department and the U. S. Department of
Agriculture, we provided the Florida grower with a daily quote on gladiolus,
etc., from the New York City market. Also for the New York Department
to send Florida growers a daily report by mail, air mail or special wire
report collect. Hundreds of Florida cut flower shippers have availed them-
selves of this opportunity to get official quotes for the largest outlet for
their shipments.

Market News, Minor Crops

The Bureau has kept a watchful eye upon some minor crops of
today that are important to sections in which grown. For example, limes,
avocadoes, mangoes, and the like. All larger markets connected by our
leased wire circuit at our request have supplied market news data when
supplies offered were sufficient to establish a base for quotes.

Market News, Summary

So noting again "that through such information farmers and pro-
ducers can be kept posted as to conditions existing in the State and in the
markets of other States Florida products are well quoted. Florida pro-
ducers are well posted. As to conditions existing in the State: Jacksonville,
Miami, Tampa markets are quoted regularly on fruits and vegetables, and
poultry and eggs, and Orlando is quoted for poultry and eggs. Citrus fruits,
vegetables and non-citrus fruits are quoted on the markets to which most of
the Florida volume moves, and f.o.b. Florida point of origin quotes are
carried on the major vegetables. For instance, Hastings and Dade county
potatoes; Sanford and South Florida celery; Leesburg watermelons, Plant
City strawberries; South Florida beans, cabbage, sweet corn, peppers, esca-
role, tomatoes from Belle Glade and Pompano field reporting stations. For
state-wide blanket coverage the miscellaneous vegetable market bulletins
issued from the Bureau offices in Jacksonville cover all vegetables of com-
mercial importance. Florida cattle and hog markets and key markets out-
side the state are quoted the year round and the information is mailed or
wired the producer according to his preference.

While Market News is the theme of the Seventeenth Biennial
Report, it is only one of many projects of the Bureau which to those more
specially served might be considered of equally as great importance and
possibly more indispensable to their line of agricultural marketing en-
The Little Fellow

The Bureau draws no lines of service between farm owner and
tenant, lessor and lessee, the individual and the cooperative of which he may
or may not be a member, the private organizational group and the coopera-
tive,-the large operator and the little farmer. We bear in mind the little
fellow is without retained counsel, tax experts, traffic managers and sales
specialists. In general he needs help and accurate information as to how to
best utilize services available, with which he is unfamiliar.

State Marketing Bureau

The Little Fellow, Claims

Assistance in claim work has long been a feature of our service, no
less emphasized by appeals to us for help in the current biennial period.
Numerous claims have arisen from fruit and vegetable consignments and
outright sales transactions, but relatively a far greater total has been pre-
sented by fern and bulb and cut flower, and horticultural specialty growers.
We have handled claims arising from shipments destined within the State,
destined to other States, and handled one claim for a plant shipment made
to Oranjestad, Aruba. The Bureau prepared and distributed 50,000 copies
of a synopsis, the highlight of both the Federal Produce Agency Act and
the Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act which laws relate to inter-
state shipments of perishable food products. The Commissioner later pre-
pared a brief of the Florida Agricultural Bond and License Law relating to
intrastate shipments of Florida farm products which was also distributed
to some 50,000 persons. The Commissioner has the experience of half a
life-time in claim work, from which many hundred of large and small
growers and shippers have profited. The day of "skinning" the Florida
grower and getting by with it has become a very short one.

The Little Fellow, Trade Directory Service

Another service the little fellow cannot afford is that of trade direc-
tories without which he may know nothing of the financial, commercial or
moral standing of the person with whom he does business in both selling
his products and purchasing the supplies and equipment upon which his
production depends. Complete directory service is provided by the Bureau
covering all lines of business.

Buyer Lists, General

Special lists are available to growers and shippers,-dealers hand-
ling and buying fruits, vegetables, livestock, poultry and eggs, honey, syrup,
pecans, tung nuts, and farm products in general. Also florist and bulb
dealers, moss buyers, buyers of roots, barks, herbs, berries, etc. The Bureau
receives some unusual calls for such lists. Recently request was received
for names of dealers handling mistletoe, how it was packed, etc., and the
inquiry was served. Another call was made for sources in position to supply
rice hulls for bulb and plant shipping, and the information was supplied.
We were requested to supply information as to method and facilities avail-
able for shipping centipede grass to Arabia. Requests have been made and
the data supplied for lists of dealers handling fish, turtles, frog legs, hides,
Special Lists, All Products

In early 1949 the Bureau received hundreds of calls, personal and
by mail, for sources buying and selling hibiscus. No other agency had the
information, none undertook to do anything about working up the data.
The Bureau over a period of several months prepared the information and
supplied some 500 special lists requested. This was primarily a marketing
service, it opened new outlets and expanded distribution of a specialty
production of many growers. We have been more concerned in marketing
service for any and all money crops the farmer grows rather than holding
to the major routine lines of his production. It is the farmer income, not

Seventeenth Biennial Report

the kind of crop he grows to make it, which deserves and gets our utmost

Naturally our objective is serving Florida producers and shippers.
The demand for information about farms for sale, agricultural marketing
information in general in the last two-year period, has been unprecedented
from prospective Florida farmers,-citizens of other states interested in
coming to Florida to farm. The demand following the first World War was
nothing to compare with that made to the Bureau for agricultural informa-
tion after World War Two. All data requested were provided promptly,
fully and factually.

The Relative Cost of the Bureau and Who Use It

Florida farmers spend annually about $40,000,000 for fertilizer,
about $12,000,000 for insecticides and fungicides, about $8,750,000 for seeds,
about $20,000,000 for feed, or $80,000,000 per year for these items. The value
of Florida agricultural products is more than $400,000,000 per annum. The
cost of the Bureau absorbed by appropriation from the General Inspection
Fund is about one thirty-three hundredths of that amount. Our finances do
not permit as extensive coverage as conditions warrant in some directions,
but every cooperation is given agencies providing specialized service in
certain fields. For instance, $5000.00 of our annual appropriation is ear-
marked for use by the Florida Fruit and Vegetable Association. Special
statistical data and information have been supplied the Florida Growers
and Shippers League. Instance upon instance of similar service could be

Summarizing for one marketing-specialist project in May 1949 we
found many different agencies were served in addition to farmers, ranches,
cattle and hog breeders: Dairymen, poultry and hatchery operators, news-
papers and radio stations, agricultural statisticians and economists, county
agents and Extension representatives, veteran vocational agricultural work-
ers and teachers, home demonstration agents, railroad agricultural and
claim agents, livestock auction and cash daily markets, livestock dealers and
buyers, feed stores, meat packers and slaughterers, attorneys, farm loan
agencies and life insurance companies, Farm Credit Administration, and
many others.

At the close of the 1948-49 season we took a cross-current check of
263 voluntarily reporting on their use of another phase of Bureau marketing-
specialist service. The different sources mentioned is conclusive evidence of
the confidence which numerous important factors place in information
released by the Florida State Marketing Bureau. Appreciative expressions
were received from: Truck farmers, large and small, plantations; shippers,
growers, packers, brokers, distributors, marketing agencies, cooperative
associations; county agricultural agents, and vocational agricultural instruc-
tors; experiment stations; railroad freight and general agents, and commer-
cial agents; Fruit Growers Express, various traffic managers; bulb com-
panies and gladiolus shippers; Growers and Shippers League; Florida Fruit
and Vegetable Association; Production Credit Association, and Production
and Marketing Administration; research laboratory; American Institute of
Food Distributors; Columbia Bank of Cooperatives; container manufac-
turers, bag and can companies; cold storage plants; fertilizer companies;

State Marketing Bureau

chain stores; Florida Industrial Commission; Quartermaster Field Buying
offices; Florida Power and Light Co., to name a few.

Marketing Specialists
The qualifications of the Bureau's Marketing Specialists for service
in the field and office as well, and their masterful performance of duties
assigned, deserve a few spotlight remarks. Our Market News Specialist:
College graduate; eighteen years experience in active Federal market news
work, in terminal markets, and in charge of field offices. Served in sixteen
different states, nine of the larger terminal markets, covered twenty major
fruits and vegetables; with the Bureau twenty years. The Livestock and
Field Crops Specialist: Farm born and reared, college graduate; agricultural
instructor; Agricultural Agent two years for Southern Railway; County
Agent marketing; Officer U. S. Army; livestock marketing South Carolina
Extension Service for nine years; some thirty years experience in teaching
and marketing livestock and field crops, in three States; served also as
Director of Livestock Pavilions for Commissioner Mayo in current biennial
period; has been with the Bureau since 1929. The Poultry and Dairy Prod-
ucts Specialist: Born and reared on cotton farm; college graduate. Graduate
assistant one year. Taught agriculture for three years, two States. County
Agent eight years. Built grain elevators and sweet potato storage houses,
assisted in cooperative purchase of seed, fertilizer, etc. Handled cooperative
shipments poultry and eggs several years. Field representative cotton
growers association one year. Marketing Specialist poultry and eggs, and
livestock with North Carolina Division of Markets three years. Also served
with Commissioner Mayo as Director of Poultry and Egg Division past two
years. Twenty years with the Florida State Marketing Bureau. The
Livestock Market News Specialist: College graduate. Three years herd
management. Officer Air Force U. S. Army World War Two. Assistant
Livestock Marketing Specialist one year; Market News Specialist two years;
with the Bureau since 1947.

Other Personnel
Foreman, Printing and Mailing: Twenty-seven years experience
in mimeograph, multigraph, press, linotype, folding, sealing, tying machine
and equipment, also in general mailing and routing first and second class
and special permit and frank mail. His three assistants are qualified and

The clerical force was selected for qualified experience in general
stenographic, secretarial, bookkeeping, filing and office work. Four of this
number have been with the Bureau twenty years, the telegrapher since 1942.

The market news stations likewise are well staffed with highly ex-
perienced and well trained, Federally licensed representatives in charge.
For instance, the Lakeland citrus field offices, representative in charge:
College graduate, seven years supervising production various farm crops
and livestock in five states, twenty-four years Federal market news and
affiliated agricultural work in both field and terminal markets ranging from
Aroostook County, Maine to Imperial Valley, California and the Canadian
border to Florida, total twenty-two states field activities alone embracing
nineteen major fruits and vegetables in nine states. Or the Plant City

Seventeenth Biennial Report

station representative: Farm reared. College graduate. Taught agriculture
two years in high school. Has thirty-four years Federal USDA market news
experience including four terminal markets and most of the states from
Minnesota to Florida.

Duty Compliance

The foregoing is evidence that the Bureau has kept farmers and
producers posted as to conditions existing in Florida markets and those of
other states to the extent humanly possible, whereby loss to our people
has been prevented, the loss being further reduced by our claim work, cattle
loss prevention by our livestock division, poultry and egg loss by our poul-
try division, and in other respects. That the Bureau has worked with the
Commissioner of Agriculture "to bring relief to and aid in the marketing
and distribution of Florida's products," is evidenced in many ways, strongly
for instance in lending part time services of our Livestock Marketing
Specialist to serve the Commissioner as Director of Livestock Pavilions, and
of our Poultry Product Marketing Specialist to serve the Commissioner as
Director of the Poultry and Egg Division of the Department.

Through our extensive statewide market news service, our field
specialists, our semi-monthly Bulletin, our claim work, our telegraphic,
radio and press releases, personal interviews and conferences, our tremen-
dous mail volume covering almost every conceivable phase of marketing
Florida's many products, there are few Florida farmers indeed who are
not served in some beneficial way by the Bureau.

The complexity of marketing is increasing. Surplus in some areas
is apparent, demand is less in others. A major problem is the drop in
farm income and the producer's share of the consumer's dollar.

The farmer's high producing power is growing while his bargaining
power has recently been declining. His increasing productive power seems
to weaken his relative position in the overall economy. Dr. Bushrod Allin,
Chairman of the Outlook and Situation Board of the Bureau of Agricultural
Economics is authority for the observation that for 1950 realized net income
of farm operators will be almost one-third below the post war peak of
1947, but still more than double the prewar level.

The Florida State Marketing Bureau has shouldered its responsi-
bility for sharing the difficult marketing problems and taking front line
participation in practical solution of them. Through our individual State
and cooperative Federal-State marketing service programs we believe
Florida producers are receiving more effective marketing assistance and
the consumer better quality products.

State Marketing Bureau

of the
Expenditures from July 1, 1948 to June 30, 1949

APPROPRIATION FOR YEAR ENDING June 30, 1949 -$101,168.00
APPROPRIATION Special Livestock Market News- __. 5,000.00
Brought forward from June 30, 1948. 5,918.66
Federal Fund 1,650.00
TOTAL AVAILABLE__. _$113,736.66
SALARIES -- $49,442.42
PRINTING $15,951.01
Maintenance of equipment and supplies,
such as paper, envelopes, ink, etc., for
issuing daily market reports, bulletins, etc.
Upkeep and supplies.
POSTAGE ______ 3,133.44
General office mail, semi-monthly
bulletins, market reports, daily mail
reports from Miami, Tampa, Orlando,
9 road guard stations, miscellaneous.
TELEGRAPH __ 422.01
General office, leased wire maintenance.
Office equipment, rating agency subscrip-
tions, trade directories, typewriters,
stationery, ink, stencils, water, etc.
TELEPHONE 1,036.16
Monthly regular, and long distance.
Commissioner and Marketing Specialists
field duties.
RENTAL 3,770.00
Jacksonville offices.
MARKET NEWS 16,016.17
Daily reports 8 field stations, general
overhead expenses.
GROWERS ASSOCIATION 4,997.98 $58,138.81 $107,581.23
(formerly Tariff Commission)
TURNED BACK TO THE STATE, June 30, 1949 $ 6,155.43

of the
Expenditures from July 1, 1949 to June 30, 1950

APPROPRIATION FOR YEAR ENDING June 30, 1950---. $121,170.00
Federal Allotment Special Livestock Market News....----......- 2,200.00
TOTAL AVAILABLE ----------.4-- ---$123,370.00


SALARIES ................-----------...... -------.. .....$58,934.92

Heat, Lights, Water ..$ 573.06
Postage ........_.... ........ 4,301.24
Telephone-Telegraph ____.... .. 1,302.20
Freight, Express, Cartage .....------ ---.......... 304.33
Travel ........... ........... .......... 8,862.50
Commissioner and Marketing
Specialists field duties.
Cleaning and Laundry Services
and Supplies ..-.. ... ....... 510.05
Information, Credit and other
Contractual Services (including
Market News and Tariff) ---.. ..._.11,624.99
Office and Printing Supplies .----. 2,640.66
Rent .......-----......--- ....--- ---- --...---- 4,628.00
Office and Printing Equipment
and Repairs .....-......... --... .. 4,433.22
Paper for Printing---- ..-_.. ..... ...... 7,674.34
Miscellaneous Items ---------- 136.53

TOTAL EXPENSES..----...-- -----.___- .---.$46,991.12 $105,926.04

BALANCE carried forward to 1950-51 appropriation.......-----........--$ 17,443.96

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