JULY 1, 1937 TO JANUARY 1, 1939
Reading Time: 45 Minutes
OFFICE: 204 ST. JAMES BUILDING
THE STATE OF FLORIDA
Department of Agriculture
February 3, 1939
Honorable Fred P. Cone
Governor of Florida
I am handing to you herewith the Eleventh Biennial Report of the State
Perhaps more people come in contact with the personnel of the Marketing
Bureau of Florida than with any other Marketing Bureau in the other forty-seven
states. Three men are in the field constantly aiding farmers direct in marketing
their products the Fruit and Truck Crop Specialist, the Livestock Specialist, and
the Poultry Specialist.
We have in this two-year period provided market news to farmers with an
investment of $800,000,000-3,300 daily reports, for instance, from only the Jack-
The Marketing Bureau maintains in cooperation with the Federal Depart-
ment of Agriculture, a citrus Market News office in Lakeland from September
through May each year, and eight vegetable Market News Stations in the princi-
pal sections of the state.
The Assistant Marketing Commissioner has directed the Bureau's part in
providing Federal-State shipping point inspection on 54,804 cars in the last two-
The Marketing Commissioner wrote the first law for the Standardization of
Fruits and Vegetables in Florida. He brought about a change in employing 85
percent Florida residents in the Federal-State Inspection force, which formerly
employed 90 percent out of state.
The total appropriation for the State Marketing Bureau is less than 1/7 of
1% of the total expenditure of the state.
Hoping you will find time to peruse the full report presented and assuring
you of the fullest cooperation in every respect, I am
Very sincerely yours,
Commissioner of Agriculture
January 30, 1939
morable Fred P. Cone
vernor of Florida,
airman, Agricultural Marketing Board
In the ten Biennial Reports submitted to the Chief Executives and to the Legislature of the
te of Florida since the Florida State Marketing Bureau was established by the Legislature of 1917,
s department has taken considerable pride in the complete reports made of the activities of the
reau, and of the general services rendered the agricultural industry of our State. The department
perhaps rendered as many services not contemplated in the original drafting of the Law creating
as the duties prescribed within the Law.
This is the twenty-second year in the life of the Bureau. It has thoroughly demonstrated its
ispensability and usefulness. It has years ago passed the experimental stage. It is not the brain
ld of promoters, and it has never been, strictly speaking, a political office. The department has not
spasmodic, seasonal spurts of the mushroom type of growth and activity, followed by fluctuating
activity or abandonment, but has developed along conservative, progressive but dependable lines ot
eavor. It has maintained at all times a carefully selected, highly efficient personnel of market-
i specialists. Consequently, it is only natural that the marketing services we perform are helpful,
the information we supply is taken at its true face value by the agricultural industry of Florida.
Having begun operations a comparatively short time after the Federal Bureau of Agricultural
anomics was created, we have perhaps worked more closely with that Federal agency than any other
ilar State Bureau. Being one of the first State Marketing Bureaus to be established, marketing
-artments in other states have followed our course and have attempted to rival our success. We
estly point to the record established. We do not wish to impose upon your time by even generally
iewing the activities summarized in our previous Biennial Reports. We are, accordingly, presenting
fly the activities of this department for the last two-year period ending January 1st, 1939, in this
Eleventh Biennial Report of the Florida State Marketing Bureau.
We have in this two-year period provided general market news to an $800,000,000 fruit, vegeta-
field crop, poultry and livestock industry, having a gross income exceeding $150,000,000. Daily
ket reports, showing Florida shipments by rail, boat and truck; passing, arrivals, unloads and
er detailed market information; and prices on Florida fruits and vegetables, and essential detailed
ket condition and price information on livestock, poultry and eggs, have been issued in coopera-
with the Federal Government at Jacksonville, Hastings, Sanford, Pompano, Belle Glade, Lake-
Plant City, Bradenton, Gainesville, and a special cooperative livestock report for Florida at Thomas-
Georgia. Florida has today the most modern, and the best rounded out market news service of any
e in the Union. It reaches more people daily, is beneficial to more shippers and aids them in mar-
ng a volume of Florida products aggregating greater value, than the services of all other Florida
:ial agricultural agencies combined.
We have recently supplemented this comprehensive market news set-up in Florida by beginning
ultry and egg daily quotation bulletin covering the larger markets in Florida, and also a special daily
stock service for Florida in cooperation with the U. S. Department of Agriculture. Truck passing
vegetables are now being shown by the Bureau for the first time in the history of the State, with
cooperation and able assistance of the State Department of Agriculture. Omitting the activities
he other nine cooperative market news stations, and citing only the Jacksonville daily report, this
office distributes on special request from growers and shippers more than 3,300 daily re-
s to shippers of fruits and vegetables, livestock, poultry and eggs. We send to ship-
from this office alone on an average of thirty wires daily. Some fifty telegrams are
regularly to producers and the trade on dates of changes of the Jacksonville egg
nations, in addition to our making and answering dozens of local telephone calls. These reports
nade available to the daily newspapers through the Associated Press and to radio stations when
listed. This information is, therefore, available to any and every Florida shipper free of direct
Te, upon request to this department.
This market news division of the Bureau has materially assisted the State and Federal agencies
in supplying them with county shipments, State shipments, production costs and valuation, and other
pertinent information, such agencies, for instance as the Florida Citrus Commission, Federal Sur-
plus Commodities Corporation, Florida Railroad Commission, Florida Tariff League, Florida Growers
and Shippers League, Federal Crop Estimators, State-Federal Extension Service, Federal Land Bank,
Interstate Commerce Commission, the Secretary of Agriculture, Federal Writers' Project, Federal
Port Authorities and Engineers, Agricultural Adjustment Administration, and many others.
Our Market News Specialist attended in 1938 a rate hearing in New Orleans as a witness for
the State fruit and vegetable industry, offering extensive exhibits and statements to help prevent the
proposed 15% increase in rates, and the final increase allowed was only around 5%. He also attended
A rate conference in Buffalo, New York, in July, 1938, offering extensive testimony as to the resources
With the cooperation of tobacco warehousemen, a very complete summary of the pounds of
tobacco sold on each market in Florida, and the price per pound it brought, was prepared by our Market
The department has rendered great service to the poultry and egg industry of Florida. Egg
grading and candling demonstrations have been held by our Marketing Specialist in Poultry and Eggs at
18 fairs. He held a turkey grading school where producers and dealers were shown the latest and best
methods used in killing, picking and dressing turkeys. He arranged with Food Chains to purchase eggs
from poultry associations, and he directed the work of certifying eggs under an agreement with the
U. S. Bureau of Agricultural Economics so that grade certificate could be used on the cartons to identify
the product to the consumer. He assisted in holding the first turkey auction at the Branford Market.
Dur Poultry Marketing Specialist assisted in securing funds for a dairy cattle exhibit in connection
with the Florida Fair at Tampa, which will be the first such exhibit to be held at the Fair in some time.
Aided in selling and grading 1,902,810 dozen eggs valued at $484,347; 195,851 pounds of poultry valued
it $41,691; 285,911 pounds of turkeys valued at $50,403.51; 64 cars of hogs valued at $60,087.21;
collectedd claims aggregating $3,100, and helped in selling miscellaneous items from the office amount-
ng to $15,000. In this partial enumeration, there is a total value of products sold of $654,628.72, in
;he last two years.
In addition, the Marketing Specialist in Poultry and Eggs held 213 conferences; attended 89
meetings, with an attendance of 5,293; wrote and revised eight bulletins having a circulation of 73,000;
preparedd 27 articles for the press; acted as judge at 9 fairs; wrote 3,225 letters in connection with his
vork, and answered many calls for marketing help by poultry and egg producers, and the trade.
We have been able in the last two-year period to render more service to the livestock industry
if Florida than in any previous two-year period. Florida producers now have access to seven meat pack-
r markets in Florida as well as numerous butcher and quite a few abbatoir markets. All of the major
teat packers are located within the deep southeast near the State line of Georgia and Florida. The
ive major packers, for instance, Swift & Company, Armour & Company, Cudahy Packing Com-
,any, Wilson & Company, and Kingan & Company,-have killing facilities in a large way accessible to
'lorida cattle shippers. In the past two years this department assisted in selling cattle, calves, year-
[ngs and steers valued at $4,225,000; assisted in the sale of $1,658,000 worth of hogs. Has helped
.vestock producers procure 1,755 pure bred bulls and high grade bulls, 223 pure bred boars, and ap-
woximately 500 improved high grade and pure bred gilts; and assisted in the purchasing of 15 pure
Primarily, during the past two years, 8 livestock auction markets have been established and
extended to the interest of Florida producers. There has been held regularly during the marketing
eason 12 cooperative hog sales; cattle sales have been held in more than two-thirds of the counties of
he State; and 32 calf grading demonstrations were held. As a result, this department maintains the
etive support not only of packers but of butchers, dealers and other traders as a means of giving pro-
ucers good prices for their livestock. It has been generally said that Florida sells like quality of live-
tock at higher prices than other states. An active program for improved livestock has been pushed.
wo special livestock bulletins have been prepared by the Livestock Specialist of the Bureau.
We have cooperated with the producers and the railroads in trying to maintain reasonable freight
rates and improved rapid schedules for handling livestock, and to coordinate the activities of coopera-
I A I
ives and others as a means of reducing losses of livestock in transit. We have cooperated with the
railroads in helping to secure better livestock pens with cover and water, and have secured improved
eight rates as well as helped in securing and maintaining 10,000 lb. overflow for livestock of Florida
loving to any market.
Our Marketing Specialist in Livestock and Field Crops in the past year aided in every way pos-
ible in securing daily market news service for the southeast for the states of Florida, Alabama and
,eorgia. This department has given every cooperation possible and has been very active in the two
principal cattle shows held in Florida each year, not only in the last two but the past five years. Hog
shows have also been held, one as a Breeders' Show, and four Fat Hog Shows.
This department of the Bureau gave marketing assistance in the sale of 7,000 tons of peanut
y, which brought $56,000; peavine hay in the amount of 4,200 tons valued at $52,400. Pecan sales
e amounted to $29,000; corn sales $83,000; syrup $78,000; wool and other miscellaneous crops $17,-
We have given ten sweet potato harvesting, grading and storage demonstrations. We have ad-
ated central reconditioning plants at strategic points for the purpose of reconditioning farmer pro-
ed syrup so as to put it in a more uniformly marketable condition, so that the larger buyers might
come interested in a standardized product, and much interest is being manifested in installing such
plants in Florida.
Wool has been sold for individual farmers, and three cooperative sales were held in northwest
rida. Pecans have been assembled at five different points in the State and auctioned off to the
This department has cooperated with the Extension Service, Livestock Sanitary Board, Voca-
onal Agricultural Teachers, Farm Credit Associations, Agricultural Agents of Railroads, Chambers of
4mmerce, and others in trying to better market conditions for producers. Our Livestock Marketing
ecialist has aided in the formation of county and district livestock associations; has cooperated
th all livestock associations in the State, and at the present time there is a State Cattlemen's
sociation, and 26 county and district cattle associations. He has written a number of timely articles
)r cattlemen's magazines. Some 3,332 letters have been written, 150 telegrams sent by our Live-
ck Marketing Specialist in giving general marketing information, and some 1,244 circulars have
en distributed; 32 articles for magazines were prepared; 45 meetings attended, and 273 conferences
re held. This department has been very active, and our Specialist in charge has responded to special
ls for assistance in practically all parts of the State.
Florida is now producing between 42% and 46% of the beef it consumes and about 30% of the
rk. In 1929 this State was producing only 27% of the beef and about 25% of the pork. In 1929
rida's cattle industry of live animals was valued at $9,000,000; the present value is more than $20,-
)0,000. In 1929 less than 2% of Florida's cattle showed beef improvement, while now more than 25%
lows definite improvement. A very small percentage of Florida's cattle was under fence in 1929,
while now 60% is behind fence. The quality of cattle which has gone into Florida feed lots shows at
ast 300% greater improvement than in 1929. Florida producers not only have 30 packer markets in
rida, Alabama and Georgia, but they have used markets of the north and east as well.
Our Marketing Specialist in Fruits and Vegetables has in the last two years attended 45 meet-
gs with an attendance of 6,250; held 755 conferences with 1,927 growers and shippers; written 378
:ers along marketing lines; and rendered assistance at 28 agricultural fairs.
Gave advice and assistance in the formation of 2 new cooperatives. Advised with officials of
cooperative marketing organizations. Was called into conference regarding the establishment of 5
w State Farmers' Markets. Assisted cooperatives and individuals in securing money from Govern-
Int sources for use in improving facilities for handling farm products. Advised with County Agents,
wers and shippers regarding improvement in grading, packaging, and marketing.
Our Fruit and Vegetable Specialist has general supervision of the State Department of Agri-
ture and Marketing Bureau educational display shown at 23 fairs, also the display in the Union
minal Railway Station in Jacksonville showing to approximately 1,000,000 people. Upon official re-
est acted as chief judge of the Agricultural Department at the Alabama State Fair, 1937-38.
Devised the plan for and assisted in making arrangements whereby truck movement of fruits,
er than citrus, and vegetables going out of the State is now collected and included in the daily
ket reports of the Federal-State Bureaus.
-' TAttended three meetings of the National Association of State Marketing Officials. Was appointed
by this Association on a special committee for research and study of conditions and laws relating to
standardization and grades for fruits and vegetables.
He is working on a survey of the State vegetable industry which will include information not now
available in a comprehensive form. Has cooperated with State and National agricultural agencies
in efforts to improve marketing conditions.
The Assistant Commissioner of the Bureau, in addition to directing the work and activities of the
department in general, has handled small lots of products in the following amounts: 35,530 lbs. poul-
try; 370 cases of eggs; 47 cars of fruits and vegetables; 2,100 gallons of syrup; 6,100 lbs. of pecans; 8
ars of lumber and cross ties. Supplied lists of buyers and dealers specializing in different Florida
joducts to 660 Florida shippers. Advised 198 different Florida shippers the reliability of firms with
hom they expected to do business. Aided in the collection of 606 claims for Florida shippers. Sup-
ied market data along various lines by letter to 5,379 different shippers. Held 1,977 conferences in
le office with Florida growers and shippers. Advised 327 different sources where they could get mis-
cellaneous supplies, such as seeds, fertilizers, etc. Wrote and amended two books for Florida growers
mad shippers. Prepared an official grade booklet for the Florida fruit and vegetable industry. Initiat-
ed the special poultry and egg daily report, and worked out the final details for giving Florida live-
stock producers daily market news reports.
The Assistant Commissioner remains almost constantly in the office as he has been with the
Department 22 years, since the first day the Bureau began operation, and is conversant with
very detail of the department's work.
The Assistant Commissioner has directed the Bureau's part in providing Federal-State shipping
point inspection on 54,804 cars in the last two-year period. More than 260,577 cars of fruits and
l vegetables have been Federal-State inspected through the cooperation of the Florida State Marketing
bureau since this service began in 1922. It has operated entirely without any State or Federal appro-
,riation, and has operated continuously without deficits. The Bureau has played a most important
art in general grade work and Federal-State inspection of fruits and vegetables in Florida, and we
egard our activity in this direction as one of the most outstanding of our accomplishments.
A complete list of the activities and past performance record of the Assistant Commissioner
Would hardly be mentioned, because this office is so closely tied in with the activities of all the other
apartments of the Bureau, particularly the Market News Service over the State.
The For Sale, Want and Exchange Bulletin, consisting each issue of an average of 16 to 18 pages
f listings of farm products, is distributed regularly semi-monthly to approximately 22,000 farmers.
ales resulting from listings in this Bulletin amount in value to from $5,000,000 to $8,000,000 an-
ually. This service is greatly appreciated by the farmers of Florida.
In connection with the foregoing, may I point out that Florida has a total investment in its
agricultural industry of approximately $800,000,000. More than $500,000,000 of this investment in
and and equipment is used for the production, harvesting, packing and selling of citrus, non-citrus,
Lnd vegetables. The State of Florida appropriated for the year 1937, $2,219,279.25. The Federal
government's appropriation to the Agricultural Extension Service, added, made a total for the pro-
notion of agriculture of $2,552,992. Only $110,966 of this amount was appropriated directly to mar-
:eting. But during the last four years there has been a total of $97,457 spent from the General In-
pection Fund for the erection and equipment of State Farmers' Markets. Other State departments
rave spent $16,038, a total during these four years of $113,495, or an average annual expenditure on
these State Farmers' Markets by the State of $28,373. This amount added to the $110,966 makes a
otal expenditure by the State for marketing of $139,339. And when this annual average of $28,373
s added to the $2,552,992 appropriated for the promotion of agriculture, it makes a total of $2,581,365.
Uhe total of $139,339 made available for marketing is less than 6% of the total made available for
he promotion of agriculture. And the $69,566 appropriated for the State Marketing Bureau in 1937-
8 is a little more than 2y2% of the total spent on agriculture.
The ridiculously small proportion of the total amount spent on agricultural promotion, which
es to marketing, proves conclusively that marketing, in spite of its tremendous importance, is the
epchild of Florida agriculture and not a joint heir with production, as it undoubtedly should be.
marketing is the life blood of agriculture.
ow According to a report made editorially in the Florida Times-Union recently, the entire expen-
iture of the State Government in 1937 was $49,393,619. The total of $2,581,365 spent for the pro-
lotion of agriculture,-the State's basic industry,-was 5Y4% of the total State expenditure, and the
total appropriation for the State Marketing Bureau is less than 1/7 of 1% of the total expenditure
f the State.
I have consistently believed during my term of office as Commissioner of the Florida State Mar-
eting Bureau that my first duty was to select a competent, practical, loyal, industrious, efficient
office force, with experience, honor and personality, and with genuine sympathy for the agricultural
lass, regardless of political pressure or influence.
It is a greater problem than the public sometimes realizes to stick steadfastly to duty and not
w the department to be swayed by political pressure. In my judgment another very important
blem is to avoid being inveigled into sponsoring unsound and impractical procedures presented and
ed often by people actuated largely for selfish purposes. Then, the various complexities, difficulties
adverse marketing conditions will constantly present problems for all time to come. I feel that
policy and practices of this Bureau must be carried on without fear or favor with absolute im-
tiality, with no preference shown to large, powerful growers, shippers or organizations over the
all, less influential farmers. The practices, operations and methods must be honest, conscientious,
n and above board, and the operations for this department have been so performed economically, and
strict accounting kept of all expenditures. This department has operated without deficits and has
In able many seasons to turn back a fair saving in appropriation. Based on a careful, conservative
imate, following numerous surveys and carefully kept records, the State Marketing Bureau has
ndered beneficial service, in some form or another, on the marketing of $1,500,000,000 worth of
orida farm products, or an average of $71,000,000 worth a year,-for the entire life of the Bureau.
* The foregoing Eleventh Biennial Report of the Florida State Marketing Bureau is respectfully
mitted to Your Excellency with the hope that it has been so condensed that you will have time for
ding it carefully, and with the understanding of course that any further information or supple-
ntary data you may desire will be cheerfully supplied.
The financial statement for the current two-year period is shown immediately following.
Very respectfully yours,
L. M. RHODES, Commissioner,
Florida State Marketing Bureau
and Secretary, The Agricultural
Rhodes/ef Marketing Board
Expenditures of the Florida State Marketing Bureau
July 1, 1937, to Jan. 1, 1939
For Period July 1, 1937, to July 1, 1938
ALARIES ................................................................................ --------------------$32,007.04
'ULTIGRAPH ..............---................---...............-----.....-.....----...........---........--------------------.... 5,705.44
Maintenance of equipment and supplies, such as paper,
envelopes, ink, etc., for issuing daily market reports,
DDRESSOGRAPH ...--.............-..............--------.-------------.............. --------------134.68
Upkeep and supplies.
POSTAGE ....-...............................................----------------------.........------..-.......--------......... 1,655.59
General office mail, semi-monthly bulletins, market
reports, special reports, etc.
'ELEGRAPH .....---------..------..............................----------..................---------------.............---. 2,001.97
General office, leased wire maintenance, special field
station relays, etc.
TATIONERY AND OFFICE SUPPLIES ....................................------------. 1,240.15
Office equipment, rating agency subscriptions, trade
directories, typewriters, stationery, ink, stencils,
ELEPHONE .................... .. ..----------------------------.....-------------. 549.30
RAVELING EXPENSES ................................................................ 6,896.77
Commissioner and Marketing Specialists, field duties.
ENTAL ...................------....----------....---..................-------------. 2,200.00
[ARKET NEWS ..................................................................---------------------------...........----.. 9,156.25
Daily reports, field stations, general overhead expenses.
ARIFF COMMISSION ....--------............---.--..--- ............--------------..--. 1,539.57 $63,086.76
ARRIED FORWARD TO 1938-39 ................----------------------.... .------------------ $ 3,920.30
For Period July 1, 1938, to January 1, 1939
appropriated per Annum .........---..................................---------------------.. -------------...--............--....-...--.....$67,007.07
nexpended balance brought forward from 1937-38 --........--------------------------------------------.............................. 3,920.30
LARIES ...------------------------.----- ....-$15,753.52
ULTIGRAPH ......---- ---............ ------------------..................... .. --..----------. 3,878.44
DDRESSOGRAPH ...........-----.........-..-..--.........---------------.................................3---------- 36.38
)STAGE ................. ..------------------..... ----..--................------...-. 1,081.15
LEGRAPH ...............-----------................................ .... ........--.--......------ 917.52
FATIONERY AND OFFICE SUPPLIES ...................................... ----------666.73
ILEPHONE ...-----.....----....-..... ---------.. .......------................................ 306.85
RAVELING EXPENSES .-...........-........---...--.-----------.................-------------. 4,867.21
NTAL ..........------------..............---------------...................................----------------......... 1,400.00
ARKET NEWS .....................................--------------------------------.........--...........--..............---4,387.11
RIFF COMMISSION .......................------------ ..........---------------..................------.. 1,577.75 $34,872.66
Balance for remaining six months
(January through June, 1939) $36,054.71