THE BUREAU STAFF
L. M Rhodes ................................................................ Com m issioner
Neill Rhodes .......................................... Assistant Commissioner
S. W. Hiatt ............................ Specialist Fruits and Vegetables
L. H. Lewis .................... .Specialist, Live Stock and Field Crops
F. W. Risher .................... Specialist, Poultry and Dairy Products
F. H. Scruggs .......................................... Specialist, Market News
0. W Cordero ................................................................ Telegrapher
Effie L. Cureton ............................................................ Stenographer
Edna Rosenkranz .......................................................... Stenographer
Kathryn L. Vernon ...................................................... Stenographer
Sara W right .................................................................. Stenographer
W L. Jackson ............................................................... M ultigrapher
M S. K night ................................................................................ Clerk
Wm. James McKelvey ............................ Assistant Multigrapher
Fred 0. W itt ................................................ Assistant Multigrapher
THE STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Nathan Mayo, Commissioner
February 5, 1937
Honorable Fred P. Cone,
Governor of Florida
I am handing to you herewith a typewritten report of
the State Marketing Bureau.
Perhaps more people come in contact with the personnel
of the Marketing Bureau of Florida than with any other
Marketing Bureau in the other forty-seven states. Three
men are in the field constantly aiding farmers direct in
marketing their products-the Fruit and Truck Crop Spe-
cialist, the Livestock Specialist and the Poultry Specialist.
These men have aided personally in marketing during the
last two years a great part of 700,000 hogs, valued at
During the last two years approximately 1,350 improved
bulls have been brought to the state, and 7,000 head of
improved gilts and boars have been brought to the state.
The Poultry Specialist has assisted in selling over 613,000
pounds of poultry for $120,185.
Hundreds of meetings have been attended and thou-
sands of letters written.
Seventeen exhibits have been built at county fairs, at-
tended by thousands of people.
During the last two years Market News has been sup-
plied to the fruit, vegetable, livestock and poultry indus-
tries with a gross income exceeding $210,000,000.
During the last two years more than 157,000 car-loads
of citrus with a gross value of $96,000,000 were shipped out
of the state, canned or locally consumed.
4 TENTH BIENNIAL REPORT
The Marketing Bureau maintains, in cooperation with
the Federal Department of Agriculture, a citrus Market
News Office in Lakeland from September through May
each year, and eight vegetable Market News Stations in the
principal sections of the State.
Vegetables, melons, and small fruits in Florida repre-
sent $100,000,000 investment.
During the last two years 110,000 car-loads were ship-
ped, canned, or locally consumed, with a gross value of
Grade and condition inspection has been applied by the
Bureau, in cooperation with the Federal Bureau, in the last
two years on about 53,000 cars of Florida fruits and vege-
tables, and on more than 200,000 cars since the service was
instituted in 1922.
The Marketing Commissioner wrote the first law for
the Standardization of Fruits and Vegetables in Florida.
He brought about a change in employing 85 percent Florida
residents in the Federal-State Inspection force, which for-
merly employed 90 percent out of state.
Hoping you will find time to peruse the full report here-
with presented and assuring you of the fullest cooperation
in every respect, I am
Very sincerely yours,
Commissioner of Agriculture.
STATE MARKETING BUREAU
STATE OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE MARKETING BUREAU
204 St. James Building, Jacksonville, Florida
FLORIDA STATE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Nathan Mayo, Commissioner
To His Excellency Fred P. Cone,
Governor of Florida, and Chairman of the
Agricultural Marketing Board,
Realizing the limited time you have available for read-
ing reports of the many State Departments, and the neces-
sity of brevity in the modern day of business rush, we shall
condense the Tenth Biennial Report of the Florida State
The Florida State Marketing Bureau was created as a
division of the State Department of Agriculture by the
Legislature of 1917, and began operations only four years
after the Federal Bureau of Markets was established. Our
Bureau was a real pioneer. Nine biennial reports have
been made since the establishment of this department, giv-
ing full accounting of our work. The department served
the fruit and vegetable and the general agricultural indus-
try of Florida during the World War period, through the
boom, in the subsequent depression, and more recently has
provided the necessary supplementary services under Presi-
dent Roosevelt's Agricultural New Deal policies, and gov-
It would require many pages to relate the history of
the development of the Bureau, and in detail the different
lines of activity in which it is now engaged,-as for instance,
the development of Federal-State Shipping Point Inspec-
tion from 162 cars in 1923 to 60,000 cars in 1934, or from
the modest beginning of the Market News Service in 1919
with only Jacksonville quoted in one daily paper to the
present nine reporting stations in respective shipping sea-
sons, covering complete market information free of charge
6 TENTH BIENNIAL REPORT
to Florida growers and shippers for fruits, vegetables, poul-
try, eggs, livestock, etc., about three thousand served from
Jacksonville alone; or the For Sale, Want and Exchange
Bulletin, started in 1919, now eagerly read and used by
some 25,000 Florida farmers; or the addition to the Bureau
staff of Marketing Specialists in Fruits, Vegetables, Poul-
try, Eggs, Livestock, Field Crops, Market News; or the
development of grades for Florida products; or the coopera-
tive marketing laws; or securing the establishment of meat
packing plants and livestock auction markets in territory
available for Florida shippers; or starting and making the
necessary plans for the present greatly improved Weather
Reporting Service in Florida; or official reports of the
State's shipments, claim work, special books and bulletins,
and many other special features of work. These duties
have in previous reports been outlined and reported in more
or less detail, and we shall omit repeating a full account
for years prior to 1935. The active, current line of en-
deavor is, we are sure, of more interest and value, and better
serves as a gauge of the present usefulness of the depart-
ment. Therefore, we briefly cover in the following remarks,
the period of operation from July 1, 1935, to Jan. 1, 1937.
LIVESTOCK AND FIELD CROPS
During the past several years the livestock department
of the State Marketing Bureau has been working on several
1. The establishment of cooperative hog sales, cash ship-
ping point basis.
2. The establishment of a Florida cattleman's association
with county units for the mutual benefit of all cattle-
3. The establishment of livestock auction markets, to
improve market conditions, and central livestock yards
to assemble livestock in large quantities for sale.
4. The bringing into this area of more and larger packing
companies, and a closer cooperation with service to
those already here.
5. Reasonable freight rates on live stock.
6. Cattle shows to prove to the consumer an improved
quality of Florida cattle, and to demonstrate to the
STATE MARKETING BUREAU 7
producer the increased value of quality products from
livestock, as a means of bettering livestock markets.
7. The establishment of assembly points for pecans and
syrup for large truck shipments or for carlot ship-
8. The establishment of farmers markets, to assemble
products into carlots.
9. A plan to let buyers know where such farm products
are produced, who owns these products, and when they
are ready for sale.
10. Cooperative marketing, grading and selling of farmer
produced products as is demonstrated by hog ship-
ments, wool shipments, and in some cases pecan ship-
11. A plan of improvement of livestock, practical for the
producer to follow.
12. The establishment of market quotations on livestock
and livestock products for helpful market use to the
producer, so the producer would know what such pro-
ducts were worth by grade, and to popularize such
markets as are quoted.
In reference to cooperative hog sales, there are 15 hog
sales being held regularly in this State, with two other
points in prospect. During the past 2 years approximately
700,000 hogs have been sold directly and indirectly as a re-
sult of our efforts. We have cooperated with other edu-
cational forces, as well as dealers, in making these ship-
ments. Approximately $9,400,000 worth of hogs have been
handled in Florida during the past 2 years.
In reference to the establishment of cattleman's asso-
ciations for the benefit of Florida cattlemen, a Florida cat-
tleman's association as well as 22 county units have been
established for the mutual benefit of all cattlemen.
In reference to livestock auction markets, 2 such live-
stock auction markets have been established, one at Gaines-
ville and one at Live Oak. One is in prospect at Tallahassee.
During the past 2 years, two of the larger packing com-
panies, Armour & Company, Cudahy Packing Company,
have located plants readily accessible to Florida producers.
8 TENTH BIENNIAL REPORT
Three of the four largest packing companies of the United
States are now located in the southeast, and are easily
reached by Florida producers. There are several meat pack-
ing plants in Florida-7 in number-today killing, curing
and handling livestock and converting such livestock into
edible products. In the southeast there are 28 such plants.
This department has not only cooperated with the larger
packers, but has cooperated equally with the already exist-
ing plants in this State and elsewhere in the southeast, as
a means of helping them in locating livestock for sale. The
meat packers have demonstrated their faith in the south-
east by establishing plants here.
During the past 2 years the cattle shipments in market-
ing from this State have amounted to $3,314,500. These
cattle include range cattle for stock purposes, feeder cattle,
fed cattle, bean fed cattle, as well as bulls, and cattle shipped
for slaughter purposes.
Cattle shows have been held to prove to the consumer
that Florida is producing an improved quality of cattle, and
to demonstrate to the producer that this increased quality
of product will better livestock markets and give him a
greater profit. The livestock show at Tampa, at the Tam-
pa Fair last year, was responsible for the placement of 400
bulls. The cattle show at Tampa was one of the best edu-
cational shows ever held, this statement was made by one
of the leading cattle judges of the United States. There
is a material increase in quality of cattle in the feed lots
due to the Fat Cattle Show held in Jacksonville. This de-
partment helped to initiate the Fat Cattle Show in Jack-
sonville as well as the breeder show in Tampa.
During the past 2 years there has been a decrease in the
freight rates on hogs from 20% to 35%. The transporta-
tion companies have given us a 10,000 lb. overflow rate on
hogs which has materially benefited shipments. We have
worked with the railroads in establishing livestock trains
and through connections to central markets. To illustrate:
whereas it formerly took 2 to 3 feeds between Florida and
Jersey City on calves, today cattle and hogs can be put
from Kissimmee, Fla., to Baltimore, Md., with one feed and
water which formerly took 2 or 3 feeds and water to accom-
plish this job. Such handling means a reduction in shrink-
age and more profit to the producer as well as to the buyer.
We have kept in touch with wool marketing in this
STATE MARKETING BUREAU 9
State, averaging in selling about 10 cars annually the past
2 years. This crop has brought $139,200. These sales were
purely cooperative and held by local managers in different
During the past 2 years, approximately 1350 improved
bulls have been put in this State, and more than 7000 head
of improved gilts and boars have been placed in this State.
Very few calves were shipped from Florida prior to the
summer of 1935 when 125 cars were shipped. The com-
bined shipments for the season 1935 and 1936 will amount
to 255 cars.
This department has always been interested in securing
greater competition for the sale of livestock and field
crops products. The small packer will continue as he has
in the past to better market conditions along with the larger
meat packing companies. It takes the cooperation of the
producer, the railways, the packer, and the consumer, to
do the job efficiently. This division has endeavored to co-
operate with all of these agencies in accomplishing the job.
This division of the Bureau touches annually approximately
$6,300,000 worth of these products. This is besides the
savings in rates and the help in getting new meat packing
companies into the southeast. The producers of Florida
will get for their livestock and field crops products in 1936
more than a million dollars more than they did in 1935.
Besides the many contacts and helpful methods of mar-
keting of such crops, as sweet potatoes, pecans, corn, hay,
velvet beans, peas, peanuts and syrup, this division has
been actively alert on the needs of better market outlets for
POULTRY AND DAIRY PRODUCTS
1. This section of the Florida State Marketing Bureau co-
operates with the U. S. Bureau of Agricultural Eco-
nomics to provide Federal-State Grading Service for
eggs and poultry, thus enabling the Florida producer
to have the National standards used as Florida stand-
2. This Division has worked in close cooperation with the
Inspection Division of the Florida Department of Agri-
10 TENTH BIENNIAL REPORT
culture, in making rules and regulations governing the
sale of eggs and live and dressed poultry in Florida.
3. Cooperated with the State Poultry Association and other
agencies in getting the Florida Egg and Poultry Meat
Law passed by the Legislature.
4. Cooperated with the State Poultry Association and
Tampa Fair Association in conducting the first Poultry
Meat and Egg Exhibit.
5. Cooperated with the Extension Service in conducting a
survey of the Tampa egg market, and in holding meet-
ings in the interest of securing a cheese plant and a
butter-making plant in West Florida.
6. Cooperated with the Inspection Division of the Florida
Department of Agriculture in laying plans for a Turkey
Dressing Plant at Branford, Florida, and with the Coun-
ty Agent and local poultrymen in securing funds for
building a poultry market for Dade City.
7. When the new Egg Law went into effect, assisted in
training the inspectors, the egg dealers and poultry-
men in the use of the Federal standards which were
adopted as State standards. These training schools were
held in all the important producing and market centers
Secured an egg buying station for Marianna, which has
done much to improve the egg market situation in West
Florida by raising the market price of eggs in that section.
This was accomplished by buying eggs on a graded basis
and paying a premium for good quality eggs, and by the
fact that eggs are being collected twice a week in the sum-
mer, to insure good quality.
Secured the service of an all-time man to report the
Tampa egg and poultry market, thus making possible the
securing of accurate, unbiased price quotations in this
Secured egg grading service for egg dealers in Tampa,
St. Petersburg, Jacksonville and Miami. These graders are
furnished by the Florida State Marketing Bureau cooperat-
ing with the U. S. Bureau of Agricultural Economics.
Secured funds to advertise Florida turkeys in newspa-
pers in the principal Florida markets, urging consumers
to use home raised turkeys.
STATE MARKETING BUREAU
Held cooperative poultry sales and assisted individuals in
selling 613,743 pounds of poultry and turkeys that brought
the producers at shipping point $120,185.63. Sold or fur-
nished grading service for 11,650 cases of eggs valued at
$94,650. Helped locate a market for 35,210 pounds of pe-
cans valued at $3,168.90; also helped farmers sell 17- cars
of hogs at cooperative sales for $19,646.00. The value of
these products sold mostly at cooperative sales was $237,-
649.63. To further assist producers, wrote three bulletins
for the Florida Department of Agriculture, and one circular.
Wrote in line of duty 904 letters; attended 75 meetings
in which 2750 people took part. Held 1080 conferences on
subjects related to marketing of some kind, and traveled
Was instrumental in getting the Government to pur-
chase in February, 1937, hundreds of cases of surplus Flor-
ida eggs which, by being removed from regular commercial
market channels, immediately improved the egg market.
Assisted in building 17 exhibits at various Florida Fairs
where resources of the State were shown to at least 250,000
people, many of them tourists. More than 50,000 pieces
of literature on Florida were distributed at these Fairs.
FRUITS AND VEGETABLES MARKET NEWS
During the last two years market news has been sup-
plied to a $750,000,000 fruit, vegetable, poultry and live-
stock industry with gross income exceeding $210,000,000.
Approximately $400,000,000 is invested in the citrus in-
dustry with more than $31,000,000 invested annually in
producing and marketing the crop. More than 100,000 peo-
ple have full or part time work in this industry during the
shipping season, and 25,000 have employment, mostly full
time, during the off season months. More than 157,000
carloads with a gross valuation of $96,000,000 were shipped
out of the State, canned or locally consumed.
It is the duty and obligation of the State Marketing Bu-
reau, in cooperation with the far flung Federal market news
system, to give a complete service to the Florida citrus
industry. We maintain, in cooperation with the Federal
Department of Agriculture, a market news office in Lake-
land, Florida, from September through May each year. This
office was formerly in Orlando, but was moved to Lakeland
12 TENTH BIENNIAL REPORT
to better cooperate with the Florida Citrus Commission.
We supply several thousand growers and shippers through-
out the State with: (1) The daily movement of citrus by
rail, boat, truck and express; (2) The rail passing through
gateways and diversion points with destinations to various
markets; (3) The boat destinations to respective mar-
kets; (4) Packing house report showing daily volume of
fruit packed and unprocessed and that packed ready for
shipment; (5) Carlot arrivals, cars on tracks, cars offered
and auction prices at the respective markets. Many other
special services are rendered by telegraph, radio, telephone
and daily press.
Vegetables, Melons, and Small Fruits
There is an average permanent investment of $100,000,-
000 in the vegetable, melon, strawberry, and small fruit in-
dustry in Florida with an additional $20,000,000 invested
annually in the production, packing and marketing of these
commodities. During the past two years more than 110,000
carloads of such commodities were shipped, canned or lo-
cally consumed, with a gross value exceeding $68,000,000.
We fully cooperate in maintaining local market news sta-
tions in all the most important producing areas in Florida,
(1) Belle Glade, Fla. (Palm Beach County). This sta-
tion supplies complete information on string beans, green
peas, new potatoes, cabbage, and tomatoes during the fall
and spring months.
(2) Pompano, Fla. (Broward County). This station
during the winter months furnishes complete information
on beans, limas, peas, peppers, potatoes, tomatoes, and mis-
(3) Sanford, Fla. (Seminole County). This station sup-
plies complete information on celery, escarole, and mis-
cellaneous vegetables from January to May.
(4) Plant City, Fla. (Hillsborough County). This sta-
tion supplies full information to strawberry growers
throughout the State from December through April.
(5) Bradenton, Fla. (Manatee County). This station
supplies full information for the benefit of the celery, to-
STATE MARKETING BUREAU 13
mato and vegetable growers on the West Coast in the
(6) Leesburg, Fla. (Lake County). This station fur-
nishes complete market information on watermelons
throughout the State during May and June.
(7) Hastings, Fla. (St. Johns County). This station
supplies all of north and west Florida potato growers with
full market information.
The market news division of the State Marketing Bu-
reau is the center of all the market news services in the
State. Our leased wire connects with the central head-
quarters of the Federal market news service in Washing-
ton where all the market news service of the nation is cen-
tered. We receive an immense volume of market code mes-
sages in the Jacksonville office and we distribute the neces-
sary information to our citrus station in Lakeland and other
stations in Belle Glade, Pompano, Sanford, Plant City, Bra-
denton, Hastings and Leesburg. Each of these eight field
stations publishes a daily market bulletin available to all
free of charge.
The Jacksonville office of the Bureau publishes a daily
bulletin covering full shipment, passing, arrival, unload,
track holding, and price information for all fruits and vege-
tables throughout the State. More than 2200 growers and
shippers request this service each year and through our
cooperative arrangement with the Federal government this
market news mail goes out in "franked" envelopes, which
affords a saving of thousands of dollars in postage to the
State of Florida. An average of 30 daily market telegrams
are sent to shippers collect. Some 41 telegrams are sent
regularly to the producers and trade on dates of changes
in the Jacksonville egg quotations. All of our market service
is made available to the daily newspapers through the As-
sociated Press and our information is thus spread over
the entire State without cost to us.
The Jacksonville market for fruits, vegetables, poultry,
eggs, and livestock has been reported daily by the Market
News Specialist in addition to other duties such as super-
vising the distribution of market news to Florida field of-
fices, decoding and preparing the state-wide daily market
news bulletin, and assisting market reporters in Tampa,
Miami, Sanford and other points in Florida.
TENTH BIENNIAL REPORT
Special New Services
During the past two years we have added to our exten-
sive market news service the following special services:
1. A complete daily market price report covering the
sale of fruits, vegetables, poultry and eggs, on both the
Tampa market proper and on the Tampa Farmers and
Truckers Market. An immense quantity of West Coast
produce is sold on the Tampa market to truckers from
many States, and this market service was especially need-
ed and requested not only by the Florida growers and ship-
pers, but by buyers from other States. This market news
is distributed gratis via the Associated Press to the many
newspapers interested. The Tampa market quotations are
also included in the daily market report released from the
State Marketing Bureau in Jacksonville, which goes to more
than 2200 growers and shippers in Florida and elsewhere.
2. A full market service was established for the State
Farmers Wholesale Market in Sanford which shows the
most complete f. o. b. cash market in Florida. This infor-
mation is distributed through our usual press connections
and more particularly by the State Federal Cooperative
News Service. Telegraph and telephone companies have
agreeably provided special service for this State Market
and all growers and shippers of Florida may be informed of
daily prices, changes and market developments. This in-
formation is especially valuable to the small farmer and the
grower of the miscellaneous or diversified agricultural pro-
ducts, but the large grower or shipper also gets complete
information on such commodities as beans, cabbage, celery,
cucumbers, eggplant, lettuce, peas, potatoes, peppers and
tomatoes, as well as oranges, grapefruit and tangerines.
Quotations are provided on apples, pears, onions, sweet po-
tatoes, syrup, hay, grain, etc., which truckers from East-
ern States bring into Florida when coming for loads of
vegetables and citrus. Although northern trucks only bring
in about 10-20 per cent as much as they take out of Flor-
ida, it is important that they know the market prices pre-
vailing in Florida to encourage mutual trade needed and dis-
courage a flood of commodities not needed.
3. For the benefit of Florida livestock producers we
have organized a market news service on livestock on the
STATE MARKETING BUREAU 15
principal markets, quotations on Florida dressed native cat-
tle and hogs together with Jacksonville quotations on cured
4. We have materially assisted the Florida Citrus Com-
mission in supplying their crop estimator with essential
county shipments, volume estimates and other pertinent
5. We have supplied Florida port authorities with pro-
duction and value estimates together with considerable
other information as to commodities in their back country.
6. Considerable cooperation has been extended to the
W.P.A. and F.E.R.A. and other Federal agencies supplying
them with certain volume and value data requested in con-
nection with state, county and city projects.
7. The market news division during the past two years
has materially assisted the Florida Railroad Commission,
the Florida Citrus Commission, the Florida Tariff League,
the Federal Crop Estimator, the State-Federal Extension
Service, the Federal Land Bank, the Interstate Commerce
Commission, the Secretary of Agriculture and others by
furnishing growing, shipment, volume, value, and general
market information, to be used in obtaining lower rail, boat
and express rates, higher duties on imports, lower duties
on exports, ciop estimates, citrus control, removal of color-
added restrictions, better appraisals for Florida farm and
grove loans, and other beneficial concessions to the Florida
FRUIT AND VEGETABLE SPECIALIST
A great deal of service has been rendered in the last
two years along educational lines in an effort to improve
grade and pack, and for the betterment of general mar-
keting practices. Considerable assistance was rendered in
the selection of sites and construction of the State Whole-
sale Produce Markets, also with some of the cooperative
and independent farmers' markets. Assistance was also
given several cooperative marketing organizations in secur-
ing financial aid.
The Marketing Specialist in Fruits and Vegetables ad-
vised with and assisted growers in the marketing of a large
number of carloads of fruits and vegetables, and many small
TENTH BIENNIAL REPORT
express and truck shipments. Cooperated with officials of
the Agricultural Adjustment Administration and other
government agencies active in the endeavor to improve
Assisted growers and shippers in securing Federal-State
inspection when desired. Made seasonal surveys of crops
and market conditions over the State in connection with
our Market News stations, particularly as to location, and
opening and closing dates.
In order to render more efficient service, a personal visit
was made to inspect a number of the outstanding farmers'
wholesale produce markets in other states. With the rapid
change in methods of transportation and distribution of
perishable products, it is essential that the Bureau keep
well informed along these lines.
Considerable time was spent in the supervision of the
State Department of Agriculture and Marketing Bureau
educational display shown at most of the principal fairs
in the State during the last two years. Owing to the ap-
parent value of such displays at fairs within the State to
the agricultural industry in disseminating information rela-
tive to the agricultural development, progress and market-
ing facilities, the Commissioner of Agriculture and the Mar-
keting Commissioner authorized the writer to assemble
and construct a comprehensive, portable display for this
purpose. Conflicting dates of our many fairs have made
it impossible to meet the request of all county fairs with
the one display.
During the lapse of time between the close of the north
and west Florida fairs and the opening of the central and
south Florida fairs, this display was for about seven weeks
placed in the Terminal Railway Station in Jacksonville where
it was visited by many prominent people coming into the
State. Representatives of the Department of Agriculture
or Marketing Bureau were in attendance at all times to
give visitors at the booth reliable information regarding
the agriculture of the State, and to confer with growers
and shippers of Florida products on all problems they might
wish to discuss.
The Fruit and Vegetable Specialist was also placed in
charge of the Florida State display at the Alabama State
Fair during the past two seasons.
The Fruit and Vegetable Marketing Specialist has tray-
STATE MARKETING BUREAU
eled 45,505 miles in the course of duty; held 1,158 confer-
ences with an attendance of 3,943; attended 34 agricultural
meetings having an attendance of 6,195.
The Marketing Specialist of this Division has responded
to many calls for marketing assistance from County Agents
and Agricultural Teachers and is appreciative of the fine
cooperation rendered by them at all times.
Grade or condition inspection based on Federal and State
grades has been applied in the last two years on 52,556
cars of fruits and vegetables by the Bureau in cooperation
with the U. S. Department of Agriculture.
Years ago this department realized that perhaps the
outstanding need of the Florida fruit and vegetable indus-
try was an improvement in the standards and grades of
Florida citrus fruit and vegetable shipments. To encour-
age grade work, the Federal-State Shipping Point Inspec-
tion Service was inaugurated by the Bureau in cooperation
with the U. S. Department of Agriculture in 1922, since
which time 205,773 cars have been inspected by us in Flor-
ida. Beginning with a volume of only 162 cars in the
1922-23 season, the service was gradually increased until
a 60,000 per season car volume was realized. Arrange-
ments for the first Federal-State inspection were made by
the present Commissioner of the Bureau and the work was
handled under trying conditions. Shipping point inspec-
tion was initiated, carried to a high state of development,
and the inspection force trained by the Federal-State Ship-
ping Point Inspection Service. Blanket compulsory citrus
inspection was handled two seasons in accordance with the
Citrus -Marketing Agreement for Florida. Not one dollar
of Federal or State appropriation has been provided to
maintain this service, and it has been conducted efficiently
on a self-sustaining basis, without a deficit accruing from
any individual season's operations.
We shall omit detailed report of this important service
initiated and brought to the present stage of efficiency by
the Florida State Marketing Bureau and the U. S. Depart-
ment of Agriculture, but we shall outline briefly the pur-
pose of inspection, which is applicable in the last two year
period as well as to the future.
TENTH BIENNIAL REPORT
In the final sense, Federal-State grade or condition in-
spection at shipping point is fundamentally grade work.
Inspection substantiates merits proclaimed for products in
arranging sales, advertising, or otherwise. Inspection pro-
vides an impartial, disinterested means of adjusting dis-
putes between shippers and receivers and a fair basis for
settling transportation claims. It aids the shipper in in-
telligently bargaining with the buyer and protects him in
instances of unwarranted complaints or rejections.
The purpose of inspection is to secure statements of
quality and grade; to establish value; to standardize and
increase the revenue from vegetable products by improve-
ment in grading and packing operations; to furnish a cer-
tificate showing the facts obtained by inspection which is
written in a terminology and phraseology so as to provide
an actual descriptive account of the commodity; to prevent
losses; to establish responsibility for damage; to provide a
basis for FOB, roller (in transit), or delivered sales; to
furnish prima facie evidence in the courts of the United
States, the courts of many States, and to administrators
of the Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act, and the
Produce Agency Act which were passed by Congress to
prevent unfair or fraudulent practices in the fruit and vege-
table produce trade for shipments handled in interstate
The Federal-State Inspection Service which conducts
this work cooperates in every way to interpret grades and
demonstrate better methods of sorting, packing, handling
and loading that may facilitate more orderly marketing.
The duties of the Assistant Commissioner are mainly
the detailed supervision of the Bureau activities. The pur-
chasing of supplies, handling of office correspondence, sup-
porting the marketing specialists in their field schedules
and attending to their office duties while they are absent,
supervising the extensive market news work in Florida, and
for the Bureau the Federal-State Inspection Service-in-
cidentally handling supplies, records, payroll and expense
accounts in the last two years on 52,556 cars-and many
other activities too numerous to mention, are performed by
this office of the Bureau.
A number of the present most popular features of ser-
vice of the Bureau were initiated by the Assistant Commis-
STATE MARKETING BUREAU 19
sioner years ago, such for instance as the Bureau poultry
and egg quotations; the Jacksonville market complete ser-
vice, the extension of the market news service to Miami
and Tampa; the For Sale, Want and Exchange Bulletin;
the semi-weekly livestock reports; securing the approval
by the Government of extending the market news service
in Florida to provide Belle Glade and Pompano, Plant City
and the Bradenton-Sarasota districts with special field re-
porting stations. Secured the change in the market news
set-up in Florida by having the Federal Bureau absorb one
half the expense, and provide the service free to the farm-
ers instead of their paying one-third the operating costs.
Has written a number of books, bulletins and editorials for
use by the farmers of Florida. Wrote the first grade book
ever prepared for the State. One of the authors of the
first standardization law for fruits and vegetables in Flor-
ida. Led and won the fight for the Florida man to have
fair and impartial representation on the Federal-State Ship-
ping Point inspection force, breaking up the policy of plac-
ing on the force 90% or more of the personnel from north-
ern states, with the result the inspection force has in re-
cent years consisted of about 85-90% of so-called Florida
In passing it might be said that the Assistant Commis-
sioner started in a clerical position with the Bureau 20 years
ago, and having worked through the various departments
and helped in advancing the Bureau to its present high
standard, has at his finger tips every detail of the work.
As he has not taken a straight vacation in this entire
period, his traveling expenses averaging only $64.62 per
year since 1929, it is evident that this important office has
not been neglected. Exclusive of administrative duties he
has in the last two years, for instance, sold or aided in the
sale of products in small lots, aggregating,-poultry, 39,345
lbs.; fruits and vegetables, 44 cars; honey, 120,000 gallons;
syrup, 10,490 gallons; eggs, 525 cases; corn, 5 cars; pecans,
61,200 lbs.; wool, 500 lbs.; hogs, 92. Supplied various lists
of dealers and buyers to 772 shippers. Supplied source of
seeds, plants, fertilizer, machinery, containers, livestock,
etc., to 242 growers and shippers. Gave crop and market
data, and special marketing information to 857 growers
and producers. Advised as to the reliability of different
dealers to 134 growers and shippers. Collected or aided in
20 TENTH BIENNIAL REPORT
the collection of claims for 527 shippers of fruits, vegeta-
bles, ferns, plants, seeds, poultry, etc. Gave information
in regard to filing claims under the Perishable Agricultural
Commodities Act to 89 shippers. Gave market information
by commercial and long distance telephone to 6,475 inquir-
ers. Held in offices conferences with 3,350 visitors ask-
ing for various kinds of market information. Wrote ap-
proximately 12,480 letters in line of duty.
Under the organization plan of the Bureau, the Assis-
tant Commissioner has remained almost constantly at his
desk, this work not being delegated to someone else. This
explains in a measure why a wire is replied to instantly,
the mail answered the day it is received, and the business
of the entire department handled with efficiency and dis-
patch. This position has many times been compared to the
works of a watch-performance without being seen or heard
of much by the public. Not only in accomplishing many
types of needed service, but in steering away from activi-
ties that might have involved the department as has been
the case in many other States, has the work of this official
been valuable. Space will not permit a more complete list-
ing of the past performance record of this office which by
its nature is tied into the other divisions of the Bureau.
SERVICE TO THE LARGE AND THE SMALL FARMER,
AND ALL EQUALLY AND IMPARTIALLY
The small farmer has not been overlooked by this de-
partment in the marketing of his crops. Particularly dur-
ing the hard times we provided every encouragement and
assistance possible in diversifying the means of income to
especially the small farmer. These minor activities have
really never been covered in the official biennial reports
to the Governor, Commissioner of Agriculture or the Legis-
lature. To mention a few instances of rendering help in sell-
ing products comparatively unknown on the larger markets,
one individual Massachusetts produce dealer advised us
that he was handling dasheens for the account of some ten
different growers and it was through the Bureau's sugges-
tion that they started handling dasheens some ten years
ago, and advised that this one house had sold dasheens of
approximately 50,000 pounds yearly.
When interest was revived in the production of Sea
STATE MARKETING BUREAU 21
Island cotton, some five years ago, this department was
requested by growers in the Trenton district to locate
a supply of Sea Island cotton seed. We contacted do-
mestic sources and made arrangements for growers to buy
seed at very reasonable prices. Considerable correspon-
dence developed among State and Federal officials and also
with a number of foreign officials in order to secure the
best seed possible. We were informed by one of the pioneer
growers in Trenton that due to encouragement and help
given by this department, a large shipment of Sea Island
cotton moved from that section in 1936.
Likewise help was rendered in marketing scattering
shipments of chayotes, which product was practically un-
known except in a few southern markets. We circularized
the trade in a number of the large cities with the result that
chayotes in solid carlots have moved from Florida.
In the early part of 1935 this department received in-
quiries about the collection and sale of sweet gum, and as
these inquiries opened up the possibility of increasing the
income of a number of farm families, we supplied all the
information possible as to the firms interested, method of
tapping trees, collecting and shipping sweet gum, etc.
Hundreds of inquiries have been answered about Flor-
ida moss and information given as to where it could be
sold. The names of dealers handling the product in carlot
volume or less in both the raw and finished state have been
supplied, and all information possible given in the market-
ing of this product.
Helping in the sale of tung oil nuts, broccoli, and a num-
ber of other commodities might also be mentioned on which
the department has given assistance without any thought
DEPARTMENT VERIFICATION OF RESULTS
This department checks up from time to time on the
various services we are rendering. We feel that the best
judges after all are the people who have been served by
the Bureau. In the early part of 1935 we conducted a sur-
vey of the egg quotation service as supplied by this Bu-
reau. As every one surely knows, practically all of the
eggs sold in Florida are merchandised on the basis of our
quotations published in the daily press, and distributed by
22 TENTH BIENNIAL REPORT
mail reports and by special telegraphic service by the Bu-
reau. A questionnaire was sent out to about 20,000 farmers
and producers in Florida. Dozens of reports were made ver-
bally to our office or to representatives in the field. A vol-
ume of about 1575 cases of eggs per week was represented in
the reports mailed to us. Ninety-two complete reports were
made, and ninety-one stated they wanted the quotations con-
tinued. The one asking for the reports to be discontinued was
a merchant who bought eggs in the country. Eighty-four
out of ninety-two stated that they were satisfied with the
system of quotations. Eighty-three stated that they used
the Jacksonville quotations in some form as a basis in sell-
ing their eggs. To the question, "Are you satisfied with
the present system of quotations ?" the following are some
of the replies received:
"Your prices have always seemed fair in past years. Have pro-
duced and handled many, many thousands of dozens of eggs."
"Very much. It gives me a certain basis for retail prices and
also helps me maintain wholesale prices for surplus. Every man to
his job. We think you know more about it than we do, and so we
depend on you."
"I have found them a reliable average price to gauge my own
sales. I sell eggs by your quotation. I am firmly convinced that if
market quotations were to lapse to the hands of wholesalers, jobbers
and the like as formerly, the producer would suffer thereby. I be-
lieve your service is of inestimable value to the egg producers of
the State, a stabilizer. We have powerful outside interests that would
be glad to see these market reports taken out of your hands and put
back into their own. It used to be done and the general producer
did not get a price. He took what somebody wanted to pay."
"Yes, the quotation tends to keep market organized and stops
cutting of prices."
"Have used your quotations since you started. Always consid-
ered them a fair unbiased judgment of the market."
"No producer of eggs can be dissatisfied with your work. If it
was not for your splendid cooperation, there would be no way to
make a living with chickens in Florida."
"Yes, because it is the only system of quotations we have that
we can be governed by."
"Neither the buyer nor the seller can set a fair price for quota-
tion purposes. Your department being a third party is in a position
to give a fairer quotation, I should be very sorry if you allow un-
just criticism to discontinue the service."
STATE MARKETING BUREAU
"Satisfied. It stabilizes the market, prevents the merchant from
setting price, which lowers price."
"By so doing we are not gouged and have got a fair deal. This
system is of much benefit to us farmers. Please keep it up."
"Perfectly satisfied. We use Jacksonville quotations as a base
and would be clear at sea without them. To me it would be a ca-
lamity if we could not get these quotations as a base."
"Yes, when Jacksonville markets are flooded your quotations
always fair-stabilize the prices."
"It is the only way us poultrymen can base our prices on our
eggs. Without it we would be at a loss to know what eggs are worth."
"I am. If it was not for the quotations these pick up trucks
would give us just what they please."
"Yes. If it were not for these quotations as a basis for selling
my eggs, I would be getting from three to four cents per dozen less
than the Jacksonville market quotations."
"Yes, because it has enabled me to obtain full market price for
"Any other system would break down, unless you had the whole-
sale men hog tied and that is impossible. Any system that would
stand up would have to have the State of Florida behind it."
We have verified results of other features of our ser-
vice, but space will not permit quotations of the many com-
mendatory reports we have received.
AGRICULTURE-The original and basic industry of the
We are told in the story of creation that the Lord God
planted a garden in Eden, and placed the first man and wo-
man in it to dress and keep it.
That was the beginning, according to Biblical history,
of agricultural operation on earth. It has progressed scien-
tifically, advanced economically and increased in produc-
tion until it is estimated that the world's annual consump-
tion of agricultural food products is approximately 700,-
000,000 tons in volume with an estimated value of $200,-
000,000,000, and if the purchasing power of the people were
normal, this food bill could easily be increased to $300,000,-
Agriculture is still the basic industry of the United
States and Florida. More than 3,000 years after the Lord
24 TENTH BIENNIAL REPORT
started Adam as the first farmer, the Lord said unto the
people, "In the morning sow thy seed, and in the evening
withhold not thy hand". More than 2,700 planting sea-
sons have passed since this verse was recorded. Agricul-
ture is the foundation upon which rests the entire fabric of
human society, and without which the dreams of opulence,
the wizardry of invention, the wonders of metropolitan
trade-craft are but naught.
As soon after the World War as the devastated fields
of Europe got back into production, and decreased their im-
ports of farm products from this country, or during the
past 15 years, the agriculture of the United States began to
have economic difficulties, complex problems, reduction in
prices and severe losses.
From 1929 to 1932 inclusive the agriculture of the
United States suffered by decrease in crop value a loss of
$15,000,000,000 and a loss by decrease in value of farm
property of $20,000,000,000; a total loss to the nation's
basic industry of $35,000,000,000, or $24,000,000 a day.
While these conditions have confronted our agriculture
in a national way, and of course have handicapped agricul-
tural progress in Florida, this State has been especially
fortunate, not only in the last 2, but during the last 15
years in having a faithful, efficient, progressive, energetic
force of agricultural workers who have rendered valuable
services during these trying years and untoward conditions.
And it is interesting to note that the number of Florida
farms has increased from 1920 to 1935 from 54,005 to
72,357, or more than 100 new farms per month. That meat,
dairy and poultry products increased in value from 1930 to
1935 from $17,775,381 to $35,000,000 or 100%. That our
milk supply increased from 1920 to 1935, 242%; egg pro-
duction, 206%; field crops, apiary, nursery, greenhouse,
hothouse products, tropical and semi-tropical fruits other
than citrus, and other miscellaneous products taken to-
gether, show an increase of 237% from 1920 to 1935.
Our citrus crop, during the same 15 years, increased in
number of boxes 236% and in value from $27,675,000 to
$42,800,000. Truck crops and Irish potatoes increased in
acreage from 77,775 to 181,550 and in value from $15,462,-
421 to $37,844,424 or 133% from 1920 to 1935. The gen-
eral average increase of all agricultural products, includ-
STATE MARKETING BUREAU
ing beef cattle for these 15 years, has been 170% or more
than 10% per annum.
In 1929 Florida imported $125,000,000 worth of food
and feed products. In 1935 this has been reduced to $55,-
000,000 or a reduction of 127%. While Florida imported
food and feed products amounting in value to $55,000,000
in 1935, we exported food products valued at $99,676,000,
or our exports of these products exceed our imports by
These records are gratifying and encouraging and speak
well for the farmers of the State and the men and women
who have worked in the various departments of agricul-
Florida was carved by the finger of destiny from one
of the most favored farming regions of the American con-
tinent, and is pre-eminently an agricultural State. Suc-
cessful marketing of its farm products is one of its biggest
problems. The record of the Florida State Marketing Bu-
reau in helping to solve these many problems is one of
which we are proud and which we have outlined briefly for
the last two-year period in the foregoing.
In making annual or biennial reports it is too often the
policy of State and Federal departments to so burden them
with detail and generality that but few read them. In this
our Tenth Biennial report we have limited our review of
activities almost entirely to the last two-year period. To
better picture the major features of service, we have in-
stead of covering all activities, broken down our report to
show more completely the work of individual departments
or Specialists. We have omitted a detailed account of all
our work, but in the condensed form have, I hope, outlined
what the Bureau has in the recent two-year period been
doing to serve the agricultural industry of Florida.
It is with a degree of pride that I point to the Financial
Statement of the Bureau on the following pages, and the
record of economy practiced by this department. It is a
well known fact that it is the custom of some departments
to spend somehow all that is appropriated to them, and to
ask every session of the Legislature for more funds than
are actually needed. Our appropriation for the 1931-33
26 TENTH BIENNIAL REPORT
Biennium was reduced $5,640 under that of 1929-1931, and
again in 1933-1935 our appropriation was reduced $25,480
under that of 1931-1933, yet we turned back to the State
on July 1st, 1932, $5,531.58, and on July 1st, 1933, $501.50.
Although the appropriation was reduced from $69,740 to
$57,000 per annum for the biennium 1933-1935, we turned
back to the State July 1st, 1935, for the biennial period
$1,651.44. We expect to turn back to the State on July 1,
1937, every dollar that is not actually needed for the pur-
pose for which it was appropriated. The department has
consistently shown that unless there is need for an expen-
diture, it will not be made. Naturally, though, we must
curtail services when funds are reduced.
In presenting for your reading the report of the Bureau,
I feel it appropriate to say that the great success and
achievement record of the department has been brought
about by the team-work of the Commissioner and the As-
sistant Commissioner, and the loyal cooperation with them
of every Specialist and employee in the last two years.
Some nineteen years ago when the Bureau came into exis-
tence, the Commissioner took over the field duties, coopera-
tive organization, public attendance activities, and largely
all outside work; the Assistant Commissioner has had
charge of the inside work, the business administration of
the department and all of the "chief clerk" type of Bureau
services. There is perhaps in no other public office as
close team-work as in this instance, and the results ob-
tained are a matter of record.
I shall not prolong this report to give a detailed sum-
mary of my activities for I feel in my 20 years of service
to the State that my efforts are well known and my record
established. I have given the best administration at my
command to the sane, conservative, constructive function-
ing of the Florida State Marketing Bureau. I have guided
the field work of the Marketing Specialists, and served in
an advisory and supervisory capacity in the many features
of work done by the Bureau. It has been my pleasure to
cooperate with the other State Departments and officials,
and especially the Cabinet members. I have found time to
attend 240 meetings, deliver more than 200 addresses and
STATE MARKETING BUREAU 27
take part in 370 conferences in the last two years. The
foregoing Tenth Biennial Report of the Florida State Mar-
keting Bureau is respectfully submitted to Your Excellency,
with the understanding that any supplementary data you
may require will be cheerfully supplied.
Very respectfully yours,
L. M. RHODES,
Florida State Marketing Bureau,
Secretary, The Agricultural
28 TENTH BIENNIAL REPORT
Expenditures of the Florida State Marketing Bureau.
July 1, 1935, to January 1, 1937
For Period July 1, 1935, to July 1, 1936
MULTIGRAPH .................................... 3,160.86
Maintenance of equipment and sup-
plies, such as paper, envelopes, ink, etc.,
for issuing daily market reports, bul-
ADDRESSOGRAPH ...------------......................... 20.89
Upkeep and supplies.
POSTA GE ............................................
General office, semi-monthly bulletin,
special reports, etc.
General office, leased wire mainte-
nance, special field station relays. etc.
STATIONERY AND OFFICE SUP-
Office equipment, rating agency books,
trade directories, typewriters, station-
ery, ink, stencils, water, miscellaneous.
TRAVELING EXPENSES ...-........--
Commissioner and Marketing Special-
ists traveling expenses.
RE N TA L .............................................-
MARKET NEWS ................................
TARIFF COMMISSION ....................
CARRIED FORWARD TO 1936-37 ........................$ 7,802.65
STATE MARKETING BUREAU 29
For Period July 1, 1936, to January 1, 1937
Appropriated per Annum .........--.......................------........$64,860.70
Unexpended balance brought forward from '35-36 7,802.65
SALARIES ..................--..-......---......-.......... $14,551.04
MULTIGRAPH ---............------------........................ 3,970.01
ADDRESSOGRAPH ..--.........................---. 47.13
POSTAGE ..--.....................-.....-----..............----------------.. 1,395.82
TELEGRAPH ........----------...--..-......--................-... 1,073.26
STATIONERY AND OFFICE SUP-
PLIES --.......---........................................---------------. 1,242.10
TELEPHONE .....................-------...........--------- 360.90
TRAVELING EXPENSE .................. 4,680.50
MARKET NEWS ........-......................---------.. 3,366.66
TARIFF COMMISSION ...----................... 1,309.88 33,397.30
Balance for remaining six months (January
through June, 1937) ........--......................-----..-..--.......... $39,2136.05