Solving water pollution problems in the Wakulla Springshed of North Florida
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00094056/00001
 Material Information
Title: Solving water pollution problems in the Wakulla Springshed of North Florida science and technology at work for a better Florida
Series Title: Special publication (Florida Geological Survey)
Physical Description: 1 computer disk : ill., col., charts, maps ; 4 3/4 in.
Language: English
Creator: Florida -- Dept. of Environmental Protection
Florida Geological Survey
Hydrogeology Consortium (Fla.)
Conference: Hydrogeology Consortium Workshop, May 11-13, 2005
Publisher: The Consortium
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: 2005
Copyright Date: 2005
Subjects / Keywords: Water quality -- Florida -- Wakulla Spring   ( lcsh )
Hydrogeology -- Florida -- Wakulla Spring   ( lcsh )
Groundwater flow -- Florida -- Wakulla Spring   ( lcsh )
Water -- Pollution -- Florida -- Wakulla Spring   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
Summary: Purpose of workshop: To present an overview of the broad and growing scientific evidence linking water quality decline at Wakulla Spring with land use practices in the region.
System Details: System requirements: PC or Mac, CD-ROM reader, Adobe Acrobat Reader.
General Note: Title from: Title screen.
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Holding Location: University of Florida
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Full Text

4th Annual Hydrogeology Consortium Workshop
<1Haz May 11-13, 2005 Tallahassee, Florida

Solving Water Pollution Problems in the
Wakulla Springshed of North Florida

Science and Technology at work for
a Better Florida

Florida Geological Survey Special Publication 58 2006

FGS Introduction and Disclaimer

In 2005 the Florida Geological Survey (FGS) co-sponsored (see list of sponsors) this workshop in an effort
to bring together the various parties knowledgeable and involved in activities that potentially impact the
water quality in Wakulla Spring. The main objective of the workshop was to facilitate open and
scientifically-based discussion of these activities and the available data to better understand the
hydrogeology of the system and its reaction to various land use activities. A common objective of the co-
sponsors was to reverse the observed and documented deterioration of the spring's water quality. To
further bolster the objectivity of the workshop and the legitimacy of its findings; the co-sponsors invited
a group of reputable scientists to act as an independent peer review committee and to write a report
reflecting their impressions of the information presented. This compilation of presentations, data,
figures, panel findings and recommendations, along with the Peer Reviewers Report, reflects the
professional opinions of authors, presenters and participants and does not constitute endorsement by
the FGS or the Florida Department of Environmental Protection. The workshop proceedings are being
published as an FGS Special Publication to facilitate scientific discussion of the issues involved and to
educate the public at large in the hope of conserving this priceless natural resource for future


WAX A&EfY 131tY

Workshop Introduction




Problem Statement

Wakulla Spring is the third largest spring in Florida and one of the best known. The spring is the
centerpiece of Wakulla Springs State Park, considered the crown jewel of the Florida parks. It discharges
an average of 250 million gallons of water per day from the Floridan aquifer to form the Wakulla River. It
has the largest range of discharge of any spring in Florida, ~80 million gallons per day at low stage and >
1 billion gallons per day at high stage. The sheer size of the spring basin is uniquely impressive being
several hundred feet across and more than 100 feet deep. The spring pool contains the entrance to one
of the longest and deepest underwater caves in the world having more than 10 miles of mapped
passages that extend both north and south from the spring.

Glass-bottom boat over Wakulla Spring

The park features glass bottom boat tours that enthrall visitors when the water is clear with views of the
spring and cave entrance. Wakulla Spring is also a national cultural treasure being the site of Indian
artifacts, and the setting for classic movies such as the original Tarzan series and the Creature from the
Black Lagoon.
Unfortunately, water quality in Wakulla Spring has been in decline for more than a decade due to
rising nitrate levels, algae blooms and a growth explosion of Hydrilla that chokes the spring and causes
the loss of native species, including the apple snail and limpkin. The decline in water clarity has kept the
glass bottom boats at the docks and tourists and cave explorers waiting for clear water that seldom
comes. Park attendance has dropped in recent years by approximately 20,000 visitors per year.


The purpose of this workshop was to present an overview of the broad and growing scientific evidence
linking water quality decline at Wakulla Spring with land use practices in the region. The workshop
convened scientific and engineering experts to present the current understanding of groundwater and
surface water flow patterns through the Woodville Karst Plain, the sources of pollution to Wakulla
Springs, and explore the applicability and effectiveness of advanced technologies as solutions to the
problem of degrading spring water quality and clarity. The primary goal of this workshop was to
disseminate this knowledge to local decision makers and encourage cooperative proactive
governmental investment in water resource protection programs in the Woodville Karst Plain basin.

General Workshop Format

The workshop convened as a plenary session on Thursday morning, May 12. Scientists currently engaged
in research projects within the Woodville Karst Plain gave presentations on groundwater and surface
water flow patterns and sources of pollution in the Woodville Karst Plain. Afterward, the group broke
out into three discussion sessions focused on the science and technologies specific to abating three
important sources of nutrient loading in the basin: stormwater, septic systems, and wastewater
treatment facilities. The discussion sessions each contained four or five panelists who gave short
presentations on the problems from their perspective and a moderator who guided subsequent
discussions. The goal for each session was to build a consensus of opinion and recommendations for the
best course of action to solve the problems. On Friday morning, May 13, the plenary session reconvened
and the moderators presented the conclusions and recommendations derived in each session. The
workshop then concluded with lunch and a summary by the emcee. Members of the Woodville Karst
Plain Project presented a video luncheon presentation, Exploring Wakulla Cave, on Thursday, May 12. A
half-day field trip was offered on Wednesday, May 11, to provide an overview of the hydrogeologic
setting and sources of pollutions.

Useful Links

1000 Friends of Florida
City of Tallahassee Public Works
Department of Health
FGS/FSU Woodville Karst Plain Research
FGS Hydrogeology Research
Florida Department of Community Affairs Springs Protection
Florida Springs
Hydrogeology Consortium
Leon County Capital Area Flood Warning Network
Northwest Florida Water Management District
Wakulla County, Florida
Wakulla Springs State Park

l .i ............................................................................... ..
-4Wakiutla Springs
J 1 a Mile River Sink


1971 197T 1982 19?7 193 m1 2004
Nitrate levels measured in the Wakulla Spring basin between 1971 and 2004

Algae and hydrilla covering the Wakulla Spring basin near the platform

Measured reduction of water clarity in the Wakulla Spring basin based on the number of days the glass
bottom boats cannot run

Scientific Overview

A plenary session was held on May 12, 2005. The session began with opening remarks from the Emcee
and the five political and regulatory leaders from the region.

Jim Stevenson (Emcee)
Mike Sole
Valerie Hubbard
Debbie Lightsey
Cliff Thaell
Ed Brimner

FDEP Retired
FDEP Chief of Staff
FDCA, Community Planning Division Director
Tallahassee City Commissioner
Leon County Commissioner
Wakulla County Commissioner

Six speakers from the scientific community then presented talks on the record of water quality declines
at Wakulla Spring and the unique hydrogeologic features in the Woodville Karst Plain that control water,
and thus contaminant flow to the spring. Particular focus was directed to scientific work that has
established connections between land use practices in the Woodville Karst Plain and water quality in the
springs. Following the plenary session, a luncheon presentation was given on exploring Wakulla cave.

9a p



A list of the presenters is provided below along with links to web versions of their presentations.

Joe Hand FDEP Water Resources Division presentation bio
Tom Pratt Northwest Florida Water Management District presentation bio
odd Kincaid Hydrogeology Consortium, Hazlett-Kincaid Inc.,
Todd Kincaid presentation bio
Global Underwater Explorers prn
Sean McGlynn McGlynn Laboratories presentation bio
Hal Davis U.S. Geological Survey presentation bio
Timothy Hazlett Hydrogeology Consortium, Hazlett-Kincaid Inc. presentation bio

The luncheon presentation was given by Todd Kincaid representing the Global Underwater Explorers-
Woodville Karst Plain Project.

Panel Discussions

Following the scientific overview presented in the Plenary Session the group broke out into three
discussion sessions focused on the science and technologies specific to abating three important sources
of nutrient loading in the basin: stormwater, septic systems, and wastewater treatment facilities. The
discussion sessions each contain a small group of invited expert panelists who short presentations on
the problems from their perspective and a moderator who guided subsequent discussions. The goal for
each session was to build a consensus of opinion and a set of specific recommendations for the best
course of action necessary to solve the problems.

Discussion Session 1: Stormwater Runoff

The Stormwater panel addressed water quality impacts on the Wakulla springshed stemming from
stormwater discharge into the basin; correlation of discharge with precipitation; relationship between
land use and the quantity and quality of runoff and use of Florida's stormwater program and BMP's to
address these impacts; nutrient loading; local efforts to reduce stormwater pollution; and, the role of
phosphorus vs. nitrate concentrations as triggers to eutrophication and Hydrilla and algal growth. The
panel evaluated current stormwater runoff management practices and discussed field-tested and new
and innovative practices that offer more environmentally sound and/or cost effective alternatives to
stormwater management in karst. Panelists included:

Jon Arthur
Florida Geological Survey Recommendations bio

Eric Livingston FDEP, Watershed Management Program presentation pdf bio

University of Central Florida,
Martin Wanielista pdf bio
Florida Stormwater Academy

City of Tallahassee, Stormwater Management presentation

ohn Buss.

Leon County, Stormwater Management

Discussion Session 2: Septic Systems

The Septic System panel addressed the effectiveness of septic systems as wastewater treatment
methods; the prevalence and density of these systems in the Wakulla springshed; suitability of local soils
as drain fields; mounding as an alternative for drain field operation; multi-family and commercial
facilities vs. single dwelling systems; aerobic vs. anaerobic systems; and the ideal or recommended
protocols for system monitoring and maintenance. The panel also discussed the latest innovations in the
manufacture and installation of septic systems and compared these systems with local or regional
sewage treatment plants from the environmental, public health and economical perspectives. The panel
reviewed and evaluated current practices of domestic wastewater management in the springshed and
discussed best management practices that may reduce current detrimental impacts on the watershed.
Panelists included:

Rodney DeHan

Paul Booher

Florida Geological Survey

Florida Department of Health



Eberhard Roeder Florida Department of Health presentation pdf bio

lex Mahon

Brian Crawford

Mark D. Repasky

Leon County Health Department

Wakulla County Health Department

Sustainable Design

Discussion Session 3:

The Wastewater panel evaluated the effectiveness of existing wastewater treatment facilities in
maintaining the ecological health and integrity of the Wakulla springshed and discussed alternative
practices that might be considered by decision makers, within the local and State entities responsible for
managing this community's wastewater and protecting its natural resources. Specific topics included:
the level of treatment needed before spray irrigation, i.e. secondary, tertiary or advanced wastewater
treatment (AWT); ideal crops and application rates for nutrient uptake; seasonal variations and the role
of karst formations in the successful operation of spray fields or other land application methods for
treating domestic wastewater. Panelists included:

Dick Fancher

FDEP, Northwest District





heresa Heiker

CDM, Inc, Jacksonville, Florida presentation

Mark Sees City of Orlando Utilities presentation pdf bio

Richard Drew FDEP Wastewater Facilities pdf bio

Ellie Whitney Friends of Wakulla Spring pdf bio

Lynne Putnam City of Tallahassee presentation pdf bio

Stormwater Discussion Session Recommendations

Findings Recommendations from the Stormwater Panel

General comments:

Define the issue: is it water quality at springs or aquatic plant growth
As moving forward, be sensitive to the various perspective regarding stormwater management:
urban vs. national forest vs. county
Increase ad valorem tax for NWFWMD
Emphasize that loadings need to be delineated as accurately as possible, and have a good
hydrogeological model
TMDLs underway (assimilation capacity of water bodies to minimize water qual. and quant.
First address stormwater entering most vulnerable areas
Continue working with DOT re: stormwater and hydrogeological issues

Priority issues identified by breakout session participants

1. Relative loadings: septic vs. storm water vs. agriculture/spray field, etc... (group acknowledges
that this work is in progress, but we stress that it needs to be completed as soon as possible).
2. Land-use; modify comprehensive plan based on highly vulnerable areas.
To map highly vulnerable areas, must:
1. Evaluate existing data
2. Acquire LIDAR in Wakulla Co
3. Complete stream to sink (swallet) study
4. Complete aquifer vulnerability assessment of natural hydrogeologic system (e.g., a local
FAVA-type study)
5. Define highly vulnerable areas based on vulnerability model
3. Leon Co/TLH/Wakulla coordination
4. Interlocal agreement
5. Phased in land use regulations (long term and short term)
6. Tie in FEMA flood zone remapping into land use plan
7. Implement DCA Springs Model Code for highly vulnerable areas within all springsheds in region
8. Evaluate and implement existing programs (i.e. ERP, other states dealing with karst, Wekiva

IKart Vaith

Odf bio

9. Have all relevant agencies at table (i.e., DOT, DCA, DEP, WMD, etc.)
10. Improve accountability and enforcement

Septic Systems Discussion Session Recommendations

Findings and Recommendations from the Septic Systems Panel:

1. Variability in hydrogeological settings and land use patterns across the State requires that
watershed-specific approaches to waste water treatment and disposal be used. No one size fits
all (centralized waste treatment might be the ideal solution in certain areas such as urban
communities; while enhanced septic systems may be the model of choice in sensitive rural
2. The panel recognizes the need for additional studies, monitoring and research to verify the
effectiveness of Best Management Practices (BMPs) implemented or policies chosen. However,
the panel also emphasizes the need for taking immediate steps, based on available knowledge,
that further efforts to reverse water quality-degradation in the spring systems.
3. State, regional and local governing bodies should preserve critical areas through purchase or
conservation easements.
4. The panel recommends delineation of vulnerable zones of high ground water vulnerability as
delineated by FAVA or a similar approach. Local governments, in collaboration with state
agencies, should define zones within which wastewater treatment practices must be designed
to protect and improve water quality.
5. The EPA has defined five management models for decentralized and onsite wastewater
treatment systems in ascending order of responsibility and ownership. The panel recommends
that nothing lower than level 4 or 5 be adopted for the Woodville Karst Plain springshed.
6. Establish management entity(s) such as a utility that will be responsible for the construction,
operation and maintenance of decentralized wastewater treatment facilities (AKA onsite
wastewater systems), including existing septic systems, performance-based treatment systems,
clusters systems and even small package plants, if applicable.
7. The entity could be a local government agency, a cooperative or a private sector entity with
proper supervision by state, local or municipal governments. The possibility of obtaining federal
EPA funds, as the initial capital outlay should be investigated; but long term funding should be
from a dependable tax-based source and/or from user fees.
8. Systems used by the management entity in the defined spring protection zones should be
performance-based in order to ensure compliance with established standards of water quality
and periodic monitoring to verify compliance. There are many treatment options available for
new construction and retrofits within a defined protection zone. Within such a zone, the panel
recommends the use of systems that can achieve at least 70% nitrogen reduction, 95%
reduction in BOD and TSS, 98% reduction of fecal coliforms or, establish an effluent limitation.
9. The panel suggests that existing efforts to protect environmentally sensitive areas, such as the
Wekiva, the Florida Keys, or others outside Florida be evaluated for applicability to the
Woodville Karst Plain.
10. The panel also considered adding the concept of reduced density in lieu of or in combination
with performance-based treatment systems, hence reducing loading in higher risk/vulnerability
areas. Restricting density to 5 acres or more for these areas could serve to address lowering
nitrate loadings as well as reflect current land use trends."

11. Education the panel recognizes that cooperation of the communities involved is essential to
implementing measures to protect sensitive water resources. The panel strongly recommends
the design and implementation of a regional public education effort including specific steps such
users can take that would result in better operation and maintenance of decentralized waste
treatment facilities.

Septic Systems Discussion Session

Brian Crawford Wakulla County Health Department Notes from Presentation

There are approximately 2646 septic tanks in the springshed. This includes the entire area
between the Wakulla and St. Marks Rivers, the north central and north western portions of the
They range in age from a few days old to over 50 years old.
The newer systems meet the current standards of the Septic Tank Code, whereas the older
systems probably do not.
The majority of the growth in Wakulla County is in the Crawfordville Area. Very few
homes/business are being constructed utilizing Septic Tanks in the springshed; they are being
developed using central sewerage.

Wastewater Discussion Session Recommendations

Findings and Recommendations from the Wastewater Panel

1. Sprayfield nutrients are affecting Wakulla Springs. Additional studies are underway.
2. TMDLs important and worthwhile but allocation results uncertain; schedule for implementation
needs to be better defined and sped up; some things could be done now:
o Implement feasible short term measures now;
o Improve Nutrient reductions at treatment plants;
o Defining volume discharge; regulate application in regards to nitrogen already in soil;
o Eliminate land application of biosolids in watershed;
o Complete and implement nutrient management plan to minimize nutrients entering
o DEP would work with city to determine what short term measures could be undertaken
quickly with moderate costs;
o Minimize discharge of treated effluent during wet weather periods
3. Consider other types/levels of wastewater treatment to reduce nutrient levels. For example:
o Forms of advanced wastewater treatment; and,
o Artificial wetlands
4. Increase reuse north of Cody Scarp or off of the karst plain or on the plain with reduced
5. Nearly all treatment and disposal options involve considerable expense, a burden on some
customers, therefore the City should consider the:
o Need for a strong educational component; and,
o Need to explore funding alternatives that recognize issue is regional.
6. Explore and implement ways to reduce volume going to the treatment plants; partner with TAPP
7. Support and complete dye-trace study from the Southeast Sprayfield (2006)

8. Set up steering committee (local governments, citizens, agencies, WMD, scientist and engineers)
to work cooperatively in order to address nutrient and cost issues in a comprehensive manner
and participate in the TMDL process (2005)
9. Through local regulation, require developments of a certain size to be designed to accept
reclaimed water where feasible (Leon Co, City of Tallahassee, Wakulla County)
10. Encourage Water Management District to curtail Consumptive Use Permits to support viability
of water re-use.

Speaker Biographies

Emcee and Invited Speakers


Mr. Stevenson served as Chief Biologist for the Florida State Park System for 20 years during which he
developed the educational and the land management programs for the state park system. He was
Chairman of the Florida Springs Task Force that developed a protection strategy for Florida's springs and
he was Director of the Governor's Florida Springs Protection Initiative that implemented springs
protection projects.Jim retired in 2003, after 38 years with the Department of Environmental Protection.
In recognition of his dedication to the protection of Florida's springs, the State of Florida named a spring
on the Suwannee River "Stevenson Spring" in his honor. And for his longstanding stewardship of
Florida's public lands, the Governor and Cabinet dedicated the Department of Environmental
Protection's highest award the "Jim Stevenson Resource Manager of the Year Award" that is given
annually to the most deserving state lands manager. Jim continues his springs protection work by
serving on the Florida Springs Task Force and coordinating the Wakulla Springs Basin and the
Ichetucknee Springs Basin working groups.


Mr. Sole was appointed by Secretary Colleen M. Castille to serve as Chief of Staff for the Florida
Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) on January 3, 2005.Mike assists the Secretary in
establishing priorities and policies for the Department, communicating those to senior staff, and
coordinating and monitoring their implementation to ensure departmental goals and objectives are
accomplished. Prior to becoming Chief of Staff, Mike was the Division Director of Waste Management,
with the FDEP.In this capacity, Mike was responsible for implementing state and federal laws,
regulations, and programs relating to solid and hazardous waste management, storage tank regulation
and the cleanup of contaminated sites. Mike has been with the DEP since 1991 with responsibilities
ranging from marine turtle protection, beach management and Environmental Resource Permitting to
managing the petroleum cleanup and regulation program and Assistant Director within the Waste
Management Division.Prior to coming to work for the State, Mike was a Captain in the United States
Marine Corps.He received his Bachelors of Science degree in Marine Biology from the Florida Institute of


Ms. Hubbard is the Director of the Division of Community Planning at the Florida Department of
Community Affairs. Ms. Hubbard was appointed Director of the Division of Community Planning with

DCA on September 19, 2003. Ms. Hubbard has 25 years of experience in planning, working in a variety of
jurisdictions to help formulate and implement innovative approaches to land planning. Prior to DCA she
was Interim Planning Director and Chief of Comprehensive and Environmental Planning for Tallahassee-
Leon County. She is also presently President of the Florida Chapter, American Planning Association
(FAPA). Ms. Hubbard received a master's degree in Urban and Regional Planning and French Language
and Literature from the University of Florida.


Commissioner Debbie Lightsey was first elected to the Tallahassee City Commission in March 1989, and
has been re-elected for three additional terms.She served as Mayor from March 1991 to March 1992.
Throughout her career, she has given special attention to the environment, affordable housing, water
issues, transportation, and economic development. She is currently the lead commissioner on water
resources for the community, and is co-lead on financial viability of the government and student affairs.
In 2001, Commissioner Lightsey received the Florida Lake Management Society's Bob Graham award, an
honor bestowed to an elected official who has shown an outstanding commitment to conserve, protect
and restore Florida's surface water resources.ln addition, she is a long-standing member of the Florida
League of Cities' Environmental Quality Policy Committee, serving as vice-chair in 1992 and as chair of
the committee in 1994. Just last year, she was a finalist for the League's 2004 Council Member of the
Year Award. Commissioner Lightsey has been the City's representative to the Apalachee Regional
Planning Council since 1992, and a member of the Florida Regional Council Association's Policy Board for
that same time period.


Mr.Thaell is a eon County Commissioner and President Elect for the Florida Association of Counties.
Commissioner Thaell has been a Leon County Commissioner since 1994 and Chairman from 1998-1999.
He is president of Thaell Associates, Public Relations and Marketing in Tallahassee and has been
involved in a wide variety of community related activities over the years such as: former President of
Council of Neighborhood Associations, President of the Millennium Project 2000, former Chair of
Medically Indigent Task Force and Domestic Violence Task Force and a host of other boards and
committees. Born in Springfield, Massachusetts and raised in Lake Placid New York, Cliff moved to
Florida in 1967 where he has been a permanent resident ever since.


Ed Brimner is a local boy whose family home was about three miles from Wakulla Springs. He spent
many summer days swimming in McBride Slough and canoeing on the Wakulla River. From these
experiences, he learned to appreciate the beauty and diversity of life in this area. After graduating from
Wakulla High in 1976, he joined the Air Force and spent 2 years in Michigan where he saw first hand the
water pollution caused by industrial neglect. He also spent 2 years in Japan where he was part of the
most densely populated area in the world. In 1981, he left the military to attend college. After
graduating from FSU in 1985, he returned to the Air Force as a military officer. As a military officer, he
worked and traveled throughout the world. He retired from the military in 2000. Ed's education includes
an AA degree from TCC, a BA degree from FSU, and a master's degree from the University of Arkansas.
Ed was elected as a Wakulla County Commissioner in 2004.

Scientific Presenters


Mr. Hand has worked for Orange County Environmental Protection; National Marine Fisheries Service;
and, the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (29 years). While at DEP worked for many
years improving DEP's water quality assessment capabilities including: producing the biannual report to
congress on Florida's water quality status and trends (Since 1980). Other successes at DEP have included
working on the statewide water quality assessment program which identifies impaired waters in need of
correction through the TMDL (total maximum daily load) process and, recently exploring Wakulla
Spring's aquatic health and factors causing problems. Mr. Hand attended Notre Dame Biology degree
in Ecology and Limnology University of Florida, Environmental Engineering Master's degree in chemical
and biological water quality and statistics.


Mr. Pratt is a Florida registered professional geologist. He received his BS in Geology from the University
of Alabama and his MS in Civil Engineering from Auburn University. Presently Mr. Pratt is Chief of the
Bureau of Ground Water Management at the Northwest Florida Water Management District where he
has been employed since 1979. Mr. Pratt, with Angela Chelette from the NWFWMD and Brian Katz from
the U.S. Geological Survey, produced the important report entitled, "Nitrate Loading as an Indicator of
Nonpoint Source Pollution in the Lower St. Marks-Wakulla Rivers Watershed".Through his work at the
Water Management District, Mr. Pratt has been vital to many hydrogeologic studies and reports
relevant to the region.


Todd is a native Floridian who grew up swimming, scuba diving, and canoeing in many of Florida's
springs and rivers. He has been an active underwater cave explorer for more than 25 years having dived,
mapped, and explored numerous underwater caves in Florida, Mexico, and Turkey. His passion for
springs and caves led him to earn BS and MS degrees from the University of Florida in Geology and
Hydrogeology in 1991 and 1994 and a Ph.D. in karst hydrogeology from the University of Wyoming in
1999. He is currently the vice President of Hazlett-Kincaid, Inc., a small consulting firm specializing in
hydrogeological modeling. He also serves on the Steering Committee for the Hydrogeology Consortium,
a non-profit group dedicated to understanding and protecting the karstic Floridan aquifer and as a board
member for Global Underwater Explorers, a non-profit organization dedicated to underwater education,
exploration, and research. Together with the Florida Geological Survey and Florida State University, he
has been working for the past four years to map the underground flow to Wakulla Spring through
groundwater tracing and modeling.


Dr. McGlynn was born in Tallahassee, FL. Sean began working on aquatic issues in the late 70's at the
Center for Wetland resources at Louisiana State University in the Sediment Geochemistry Department
of the Center for Wetland Resources. Dr. McGlynn has worked in aquatic systems from Laguna Madre,

Texas to the Florida Keys and north to the coast of Maine. He worked at Receptor Molecules Inc., a
Research and Development Laboratory specializing in immunoassays for pollutants; the Center for
Aquatic Research and Resource Management at Florida State University to direct laboratory and field
experimentation during the Choctawhatchee Project. In 1997 Dr. McGlynn incorporated McGlynn
Laboratories, Inc. (MLI) in response to requests to elucidate nutrient loading problems. Dr. McGlynn has
published extensively in the field of aquatic research and ecology. McGlynn Laboratories, Inc. expanded
operations along the Gulf of Mexico opening a second office in Baton Rouge, La. Dr. McGlynn is on the
Board of Directors of the Florida Lake Management Society, the Big Bend Environmental Forum, Leon
County Science Advisory Committee and has been elected to a second term as Supervisor, District 1,
Ochlockonee Soil and Water Conservation District.


Mr. Davis has been cave diving in the karst terrain of Florida for almost 25 years with additional cave
diving experience in the Yucatan of Mexico. He is a certified cave diver by the National Association for
Cave Diving and has logged over 300 cave dives. He has a B.S. in Geology from Georgia Southwestern
University and a M.Sc. in Hydrology from the University of Arizona. He has studied karst aquifers in
Florida for 13 years, both as a private consultant and with the U.S. Geological Survey. He is a registered
professional geologist in Florida. His work in hydrology has included ground-water flow modeling, fate
and transport modeling, the degradation of contamination due to natural attenuation, interpretation of
seismic data, and the delineation of areas of contribution to pumping wells.


Dr. Hazlett is the current President of the Hydrogeology Consortium and is also President of Hazlett-
Kincaid, Inc. He has a background in hydrogeology, geological engineering, and numerical modeling and
has worked on computer modeling of groundwater flow and contaminant fate and transport on projects
nationwide. Tim has worked with Dr. David Loper, at FSU, over the last four years on the development
of a new model for groundwater flow in karst basins and has also developed the first models of karst
systems with cave conduits included (for the Woodville Karst Plain WKP). Much of the data from the
quantitative dye tracing experiments ongoing in the WKP is being integrated into a regional
groundwater model currently being developed by Dr. Hazlett.

Stormwater Discussion


Dr. Arthur is a licensed Professional Geologist and graduate of Florida State University, where he
received his B.S. with honors and Ph.D. degrees in geology. Jon began working at the Florida Geological
Survey (FGS) as a staff geologist in 1987. He currently supervises the Florida Department of
Environmental Protection FGS Hydrogeology Program and serves on numerous state and federal
committees and work groups involving aquifer research and protection. Jon's numerous research
publications focus on hydrogeology and geochemistry, with emphasis on water-rock interaction during
aquifer storage and recovery activities, regional hydrogeologic framework mapping, and aquifer
vulnerability modeling. His professional memberships include the Geological Society of America,

Southeastern Geological Society, International Association of Hydrogeologists and the Hydrogeology
Consortium. He is also a member of the Florida Association of Professional Geologists, where he serves
as the organization's President. Devoted to environmental stewardship, Jon is also active in geology
education and outreach.He is producer of the award-winning video curriculum, Florida's Geology
Unearthed, and recently co-produced Florida's Aquifer Adventure, which will soon be available to public


Mr. Livingston is a public servant who has dedicated his life to the protection, management, and
enhancement of our planet's water resources. He began his career at the Florida Department of
Environmental Protection in Tallahassee in 1977 as a scientist in the Stormwater/Nonpoint Source
Management program which he administered from 1984 through 1999. In late 1999 he became the
chief of the newly created Bureau of Watershed Management which is responsible for the
implementation of the state's watershed management and restoration program. Eric received his B.S. in
Biology from Florida State University and his M.S. in Biology from the University of Alabama.


Dr. Wanielista is the director of the Stormwater Management Academy at the University of Central
Florida and Professor of Engineering. He holds a Civil Engineering degree from the University of Detroit,
Masters from Manhattan College, and a PhD in Environmental Systems from Cornell. He has completed
over 60 research projects in the areas of Hydrology and Stormwater, and is currently working on 7
projects for the Stormwater Management Academy. He has about 200 publications including 7
textbooks. He completed the springshed identification study for the Wekiva area and proposed
stormwater methods to help protect springs.


Mr. Buss is the Director of the City of Tallahassee Stormwater Management Division. He holds degrees
in both Civil Engineering and Business Administration. He has worked for Tallahassee for nearly 15 years,
and has worked in various aspects of water resource engineering for 25 years. During his tenure with the
City, he has transformed the City's stormwater program from essentially a drainage maintenance
operation into one of the most progressive and pro-active stormwater management programs in the
state. Actions include: Tallahassee was the first in the state to create a stormwater utility fee to provide
funding to manage stormwater; Tallahassee developed and implemented SW regulations that became a
model recommended to other Florida cities; Tallahassee pioneered the treatment of stormwater with
alum in a pilot project in Lake Ella in the late 1980s; since 1990, Tallahassee has invested over $70
million in capital projects to control flooding and improve water quality; and, most recently, Tallahassee
has enacted a stormwater fee increase to generate an additional $60 million to invest in projects
specifically to reduce stormwater pollution this is in addition to the normal level of stormwater
infrastructure investment. In addition to his work with the City of Tallahassee, John has worked to
improve stormwater regulations and stormwater management practices, state-wide. He was the
founding president of the Florida Stormwater Association, and at various times is invited to provide
testimony to legislature committees on stormwater issues.


Ms. Heiker is the Stormwater Management Coordinator for Leon County Public Works. She graduated
from Godby High School and went on to receive a B.S. in Engineering and Public Policy from Washington
University in St. Louis, Missouri. She returned to Tallahassee, working for the Florida Dept. of
Environmental Regulation in the Wastewater Construction Grants Program and then with Broward Davis
& Assoc., a local consulting firm, before joining Leon County in 1994. She established the County's
NPDES-MS4 program (National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Municipal Separate Storm
Sewer System).Other County projects have included the Stormwater Management Master Plan for the
non-urban basins, the Lake Munson Restoration Project, and the Capital Area Flood Warning Network.
She has served on the Florida Stormwater Association Board of Directors since 1996.

Septic Systems Discussion


Dr. DeHan holds advanced degrees in veterinary medicine, microbiology and biochemistry. He was in
charge of the Ground Water Protection Program at Florida Department of Environmental Protection for
many years until his move back in 1997 into the research arena as a Senior Research Scientist at the
Florida Geological Survey. His main research interests focus on the dynamics of interaction between
surface and ground water in karstic settings.


Paul Booher has worked with the Department of Health in the Bureau of Onsite Sewage Programs
Bureau since 1995. He joined the Bureau to manage the research and engineering projects. His previous
experience was in the private sector, having spent 18 years in facility management, project management
for defense contracts, and engineering management for process engineering and process installations.ln
addition, Mr. Booher spent 10 years in shipyards management and engineering, and 2 years in private
consulting. Booher's assignments with the Bureau include reviewing engineered designs, product
approvals, septic tank designs and construction, innovative proposals, and performance-based design


Dr. Roeder coordinates the research program of the Bureau of Onsite Sewage Programs in the Florida
Department of Health. Current projects include the fate and transport of nutrients and coliforms from
onsite sewage systems in karst and coastal areas, and the performance of advanced onsite sewage
systems. He joined the Department in 2004 after working on studies related to contaminant hydrology
and groundwater modeling in Florida, South Carolina, Finland and Germany.He graduated with a Ph.D.
in environmental systems engineering from Clemson University and is a registered professional engineer
in Florida.


Mr. Mahon is a 1982 graduate of the University of Georgia with a Batchelor of Science degree in
zoology. He began a career in public health in 1983 at the Osceola County Health Department in
Kissimmee, Florida as a Sanitarian. In 1985 was promoted to Environmental Health Supervisor assuming
supervisory responsibilities for all environmental health programs and staff and had primary
responsibilities for all permitting, soil testing and site evaluation of septic systems. In 1987 he accepted
a promotion to become the Assistant Environmental Health Director of the Leon County Health
Department and in 1995 accepted a promotion as the Environmental Manager of that Division.


Mr. Crawford has been in Public Health since 1984 when he started working for the Florida Department
of Environmental Regulation in the Pesticide Review Section. Mr. Crawford began at the Wakulla County
Health Department in 1989, becoming the Environmental Health Director in 1994.


Mr. Repasky graduated with a BS in Civil Engineering from UF in 1978. After a few months working as a
Civil Engineer, he was employed by Harris Corporation, Melbourne Florida. At Harris, he worked as a
mechanical stress analyst, and designed a major substructure for the Galileo Space Probe (which was
recently plunged into Jupiter's atmosphere). Later, Harris Corporation sent him to Argentina as Field
Engineer for 3 years, constructing Satellite Communications Earth Stations. Continuing his work
overseas, Repasky spent several years designing and building Air Freight facilities for Flying Tigers
Airlines, out of their Los Angeles headquarters. purchased Flying Tigers, Mark went independent,
consulting in California for 7 years. In 1997, he returned to his hometown of Tallahassee. Mr. Repasky
became involved in onsite wastewater systems design and construction in 1999. His company has
designed and overseen installation of more than 500 performance-based and engineered systems in the
Florida Keys, as well as dozens more statewide. He is currently involved in the design of the advanced
wastewater treatment and reuse system for the South Shoal Development at Alligator Point in Franklin

Wastewater Discussion


Mr. Fancher is currently the District Director for the Northwest District of the Department of
Environmental Protection (DEP). He is a Graduate of Regent University where he obtained a Masters in
Management in 1994. He began his career with DEP over 30 years ago that has included working with
citizens and agencies on various environmental restoration projects, managing the Northwest District's
wetlands and stormwater programs and air, water and wastewater sampling and analysis.


Mr. Kart Vaith is currently serving as Vice President and Senior Officer in CDM. In this role Mr. Vaith
serves as project manager or principal in charge for major infrastructure projects including those that
are delivered using the design/build method. Mr. Vaith has been the principal in charge of many
projects inclusive of: City of Valdosta for a 7.5 mgd $19 million expansion to a water treatment plant
(WTP); St. Johns County, Florida for the design build delivery of 2 WTPs; the City of St. Augustine, Florida
for a 2-mgd RO WTP; Tallahassee for the TP Smith Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) overseeing a
process and operations evaluation of a 22.5 mgs WWTP. Mr. Vaith worked with a number of utilities in
the Tampa Bay area with their wastewater effluent management programs ranging form wastewater
treatment technology development and design, to acting as the design build contractor to construct
improvements for wastewater treatment. Mr. Vaith's professional activities have included work with
Water Environment Federation, American Water Works Association and the Florida Water Environment


Mr. Sees manages the Orlando Easterly Wetlands, a 1,650-acre facility that serves to polish reclaimed
wastewater. Day to day activities include oversight of various sub-contractors, nuisance and exotic
species control, providing technical tours, conducting prescribed burns, conducting scientific
investigations into the flora and fauna of the Wetlands, and documenting water quality trends,
manipulating water levels within treatment areas, obtaining and administering educational and
recreational grants. Mr. Sees also functions as a consultant to various City Bureaus in the area of
wetlands and other environmental related areas. Mr. Sees has previously worked for the St. Johns River
Water Management District and Post, Buckley, Schuh and Jernigan, Inc.


Mr. Drew is the Chief of the Bureau of Water Facilities Regulation, located in the Division of Water
Resource Management with the Florida Department of Environmental Protection in Tallahassee. He has
a Masters Degree in Environmental Engineering Sciences from the University of Florida's College of
Engineering. Except for a four-year span when he co-authored four books on the ecology of southwest
Florida watersheds for the U. S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Richard has spent over 20 years with the
department, working with water resource issues. Since the mid-1980s, he has been involved in
wastewater regulatory programs. In addition and over the last ten years as chief, he has been
responsible for managing the drinking water, Underground Injection Control, and federal pretreatment
regulatory programs.


Dr. Whitney grew up in New York City, was educated at Harvard and Washington Universities, and
moved to Tallahassee in 1970. She has spent the three-plus decades since then exploring outdoor
Florida and studying its ecology. She taught at both the Florida State and Florida A&M universities from
1972 to 1985 and has authored some two dozen college textbooks which are used nationwide. She also
contributed weekly columns on environmental matters to the Tallahassee Democrat from 1990 to 1995.
Dr, Whitney's book, "Priceless Florida: Natural Ecosystems and Native Species", written with D. Bruce
Means, PhD and Anne Rudloe, PhD was published by Pineapple Press in 2004.


Ms. Putnam has been the Engineering Manager for the City of Tallahassee's Water Utility for three
years. Previously she was employed with Black & Veatch, an international consulting firm, where she
managed several water and wastewater master planning projects in addition to managing various
reuse projects. Prior to that she was the Special Projects chief engineer with Central Contra Costa
Sanitary District\ specializing in treatment, solid waste and reuse projects. She has conducted or
managed pilot studies for filtration, UV disinfection, clarifier capacity and solids stabilization. Ms.
Putnam has conducted stream water quality monitoring programs for use in analyzing wet weather
discharge requirements and effluent mixing zone studies for a treatment plant. Ms.Putnam has
managed a large recycled water program from funding and permitting through implementation and
marketing. Ms. Putnam received her B.S. in Civil Engineering from the University of California at Berkeley
in 1978 and her Master degree in Public Administration from California State University at Hayward in
1987. Ms. Putnam is a member of the Florida Water Environment Association (FWEA), Current Chair of
the Big Bend Section FWEA, Water Environment Federation (WEF) and was past chair of the WEF
Disinfection Committee, American Water Works Association (AWWA), Florida Section AWWA.


Hydrogeology Consortium
1000 Friends of Florida

List of Co-Sponsors

Florida Department of Community Affairs
Department of Environmental Protection
Leon County
Wakulla County
City of Tallahassee
Northwest Florida Water Management District
Florida Department of Health
Florida Geological Survey