Citation
Springs of Florida (FGS : Bulletin 66)

Material Information

Title:
Springs of Florida (FGS : Bulletin 66)
Series Title:
Florida Geological Survey: Bulletin
Creator:
Scott, Thomas M.
Means, Guy H.
Florida Geological Survey
Meegan, Rebecca P.
Means, Ryan C.
Upchurch, Sam B.
Copeland, R. E.
Jones, James
Roberts, Tina
Willet, Alan
Place of Publication:
Tallahassee, Fla.
Publisher:
Florida Dept. of Environmental Resources
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
2004
Language:
English
Physical Description:
xviii, 377 p. : ill. (chiefly col.), maps, charts ; 28 cm. +

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Springs -- Florida ( lcsh )
Suwannee River, FL ( local )
Kings Bay ( local )
Wacissa River ( local )
Rainbow Springs ( local )
Holmes Creek ( local )
Silver Springs (Marion County) ( local )
Natural springs ( jstor )
Spring water ( jstor )
Rivers ( jstor )
Furunculosis ( jstor )
Boats ( jstor )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Bibliography: p. 343-347.
General Note:
Series Statement: Bulletin - Florida Geological Survey ; 66
Statement of Responsibility:
by Thomas M. Scott ... et al. ; published for the Florida Geological Survey, Bureau of Geology, Division of Resource and Assessment Management, Florida Department of Environmental Protection.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
003134883 ( AlephBibNum )
57345518 ( OCLC )

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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
903 W. TENNESSEE STREET
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA 32304-7700


Walter Schmidt, State Geologist and Chief


ADMINISTRATIVE AND GEOLOGICAL DATA MANAGEMENT SECTION
Jacqueline M. Lloyd, Assistant State Geologist


Karen Achille, Administrative Secretary
Carol Armstrong, Librarian
Wanda Bissonnette, Administrative Assistant
Paulette Bond, Research Geologist
Kenji Butler, Research Assistant
Jessie Hawkins, Custodian
Michael Miller, Research Assistant
Chris Poarch, Systems Programmer


Jeremy Poarch, IT Assistant
Paula Polson, CAD Analyst
Andrew Rudin, GIS Analyst
Frank Rupert, Research Geologist
Christie Seale, Secretary Specialist
Carolyn Stringer, Management Analyst
Susan Trombley, Secretary Specialist


GEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS SECTION
Thomas M. Scott, Assistant State Geologist


Jon Arthur, Hydrogeology Program Supervisor
David Arthur, Research Assistant
Kristin Bailey, Research Assistant
Alan Baker, Hydrogeologist
Kristy Baker, Research Assistant
Jim Balsillie, Coastal Geologist
Craig Berninger, Driller
Lee Booth, Driller's Assistant
Jonathan Bryan, Research Associate
Ken Campbell, Drilling Supervisor
James Cichon, Hydrogeologist
Bridget Coane, Research Assistant
Rick Copeland, Hydrogeologist
Brian Cross, Research Assistant
Adel Dabous, Research Associate
Roberto Davila, Research Assistant
Kevin DeFosset, Research Assistant
Rodney DeHan, Senior Research Scientist
Erin Dorn, Research Assistant
Will Evans, Senior Research Associate
Cindy Fischler, Research Assistant


Rick Green, Stratigrapher
Tom Greenhalgh, Hydrogeologist
Jacob Halfhill, Research Assistant
Eric Harrington, Engineering Technician
Ron Hoenstine, Coastal Research Program Supervisor
Robby Jones, Research Assistant
Clint Kromhout, Research Assistant
Robert Kurtz, Research Assistant
Michelle Lachance, Research Assistant
Jim Ladner, Coastal Geologist
James McClean, Research Associate
Harley Means, Research Geologist
Ryan Means, Research Assistant
Rebecca Meegan, Research Assistant
Elizabeth Moulton, Research Assistant
David Paul, Research Associate
Dan Phelps, Coastal Geologist
Steve Spencer, Economic Mineralogist
Wade Stringer, Marine Mechanic
Alan Willet, Research Assistant
Alex Wood, Hydrogeologist


OIL AND GAS SECTION
David Curry, Environmental Administrator


Paul Attwood, Asst. District Coordinator
Robert Caughey, District Coordinator
Brett Cimbora, Research Assistant
Ed Garrett, Geologist
Al Keaton, Engineer


John Leccese, District Coordinator
Tracy Phelps, Secretary
David Taylor, Engineer
Joel Webb, Research Assistant


Cover: Fern Hammock Spring, Marion County (photo by Tom Scott).









STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
Colleen M. Castille, Secretary




DIVISION OF RESOURCE ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT
Edwin J. Conklin, Director




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Walter Schmidt, State Geologist and Chief






Bulletin No. 66



SPRINGS OF FLORIDA






By

Thomas M. Scott (PG #99), Guy H. Means,
Rebecca P. Meegan, Ryan C. Means,
Sam B. Upchurch, R. E. Copeland,
James Jones, Tina Roberts, Alan Willet


Version 1.1
Revised October 12, 2004



Published for the

FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Tallahassee, Florida
2004






















































Printed for the
Florida Geological Survey

Tallahassee
2004

ISSN 0271-7832



ii









PREFACE


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Tallahassee, Florida
2004




The Florida Geological Survey (FGS), Division of Resource Assessment and
Management, Department of Environmental Protection, is publishing as its Bulletin No. 66,
Springs of Florida. In 2001, the Florida Legislature passed the Florida Springs Initiative to
further the State's ability to conserve and protect our valuable freshwater spring resources.
As part of this larger program the FGS began a three year project to update and complete
the state's inventory of these resources. The original report by the FGS on Florida's springs
was published in 1947, as Bulletin No. 31. This was revised in 1977. In recent decades,
much has been learned about additional spring resources unreported in earlier compila-
tions. In addition, a great deal of water chemistry information has been gathered to enable
long-term trend analysis and interpretative dynamics of our subsurface aquifer flow
regimes. Further data is being compiled to better define various springsheds to aid policy
makers as they try to address land-use decisions to foster sustainable fresh water resources.
The information contained in this report, provides data for scientists, planners, environ-
mental managers, and the citizens of Florida.







Walter Schmidt, Ph.D, PG
State Geologist and Chief
Florida Geological Survey


































































iv









TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page
Introduction ................................................ ......... .1
Acknowledgements .............................................. .......... 3
Definitions and Terms ........... .............................. ...........5
Florida Springs Task Force .................................................... 5
Task Force Members and Advisors ............... ........................ .7
Classification of Springs ............ .................................. .8
Archaeological and Paleontological Significance of Springs ....................... 11
Hydrogeology of Florida Springs ................. ........................... .13
Springsheds ................ ............................ .19
Spring W ater ..................... ................. .....................23
Natural Factors Affecting Water Quality ............................23
Indicators of Water Quality Problems ..................................24
O offshore Springs .......................................... ............ 26
W ater Q quality ................... .........................................27
Methodology ........... .................................. .............27
Field Parameters .................................... ... ...........28
Water Samples ................................................ 29
Additional Data ....................................................29
Discharge Measurements ............... ..........................29
Characteristics of Spring Water ................... ........................ 31
Descriptions of Analytes .................................................. 31
Physical Field Parameters ...........................................31
Dissolved Oxygen ..................................... ..........31
pH ............................................ ............ 31
Specific Conductance ............... .......................... 32
W ater Temperature .................................. ...........32
Discharge ........... ...... ....................................32
Other Field Data .................................... ...........33
Secchi Depth .................................... ... ...........33
Laboratory Analytes .................................... ...........33
Alkalinity ............ ...... ..................................33
Biochemical Oxygen Demand ................. ................... 33
Chloride (Cl) .................................... ... ........... 33
Color ....................... ............... ................... 33
Nitrate + Nitrite (NO, + NO,) as N ................................33
Organic Carbon ..................................... ...........34
Orthophosphate (P04) ...................................... 34
Potassium (K) ............. ..... ........ ..................... 34
Radium 226 and 228 (Ra226 and Ra228) ............................. 34
Sodium(Na)........................................34
Sodium (Na) ..................................................... 34
Sulfate (S04) ...............................................34
Total Ammonia (NH, + NH4) ....................... .. ......... .34
Total Dissolved Solids ...........................................34
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen ............... ........................35


v











Total Nitrogen ..................................... ...........35
Total Suspended Solids ..........................................35
Turbidity ................................. ..... ........ .... 35
Trace M etals ............. ................... ....... ............ 35
Biological Analytes ................................... .............36
Descriptions of Individual Springs and Results of Analyses ..................... .. 37
Alachua County ............ ........................................... 38
Hornsby Spring ........................................ ...........39
Poe Spring ........................................... ............ 41
Santa Fe River Rise ..................................... ...........44
Treehouse Spring .................................... ...........46
Bay County .......... ................................................48
Gainer Springs Group .................................... .......... 49
Gainer Spring No. 1C ................. ........................49
Gainer Spring No. 2 ................................... ........... 50
Gainer Spring No. 3 .............................. .... ........ 51
Bradford County .......................................... ............ 53
Calhoun County .......................................... ............ 54
Citrus County ........................................... ............ 55
Chassahowitzka Springs Group ....................................... .56
Chassahowitzka Main Spring ................................... .57
Chassahowitzka No. 1 ............................ ..............57
Citrus Blue Spring ..................................... ...........59
Homosassa Springs Group ............................ ..............61
Homosassa Springs Nos. 1, 2 and 3 .............................. . 61


Kings Bay Springs Group ......
Hunter Spring ...........
Tarpon Hole Spring ........
Clay County ...................
Green Cove Springs ...........
Columbia County .................
Columbia Spring ............
Ichetucknee Springs Group .....
Ichetucknee Head Spring ...
Blue Hole ................
Cedar Head Spring ........
Roaring Spring ..........
Santa Fe Spring ..............
Dixie County ..................
Copper Spring ................
Guaranto Spring .............
Steinhatchee River Rise ........
Duval County ....................
Franklin County .................
Gadsden County .................
Gilchrist County .................
Devil's Ear Spring ...........
Gilchrist Blue Spring ..........
Ginnie Spring ...............


................................... 64
...................................... 65
................................... 65
...................................... 67
.................. ....................68
.................. ....................71
........................... ...........72
................ ................ .74
................ ................ .75
........................... ...........75
................ ........ ...........75
........................... ...........77
........................... ...........78
.................. .................... 80
......................................81
. .......................................84
................ ................ .86
. .......................................88
.................. .................... 89
.................. ....................90
.......................................91
.................. ....................92
.................. ....................95
.................. ....................97










Hart Springs ................
Otter Spring .................
Rock Bluff Springs ............
Siphon Creek Rise ............
Sun Springs .................
Hamilton County .................
Alapaha River Rise ...........
Holton Creek Rise ............
Rossetter Spring ..............
Hernando County ................
Gator Spring .................
Little Spring .................
Magnolia Spring ..............
Salt Spring ..................
Weeki Wachee Spring .........
Hillsborough County ..............
Buckhorn Main Spring ........
Lithia Spring Major ...........
Sulphur Spring ..............
Holmes County ..................
Holmes Blue Spring ...........
Ponce de Leon Spring .........
Jackson County .................
Baltzell Spring ...............
Blue Hole Spring .............
Hays Spring .................
Jackson Blue Spring ..........
Shangri-La Springs ...........
Spring Lake Springs ..........
Black Spring .............
Double Spring ............
Gadsen Spring ...........
Mill Pond Spring ..........
Springboard Spring ........
Jefferson County .................
Wacissa Springs Group ........
Spring No. 2..............
Big Spring (Big Blue Spring)
Lafayette County .................
Allen Mill Pond Springs .......
Lafayette Blue Spring .........
Mearson Spring ..............
Owens Spring ................
Ruth Spring .................
Troy Spring ..................
Turtle Spring ................
Lake County ....................
Alexander Spring .............
Apopka Spring ...............


................... ................. 99
........................... ..... . 102
................... ................ 104
........................... ..... . 107
................... ................ 109
........................... ..... .112
................... ................ 113
........................... ..... .115
................... ................ 117
........................... ..... .119
................... ................ 120
........................... ..... . 122
................... ................ 125
........................... ..... . 128
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3 1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1 3 3
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3 4
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1 3 7
................... ................ 140
........................... ..... . 143
................... ................ 144
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1 4 6
................... ................ 149
........................... ..... . 150
. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 1 5 2
........................... ..... . 154
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1 5 6
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1 5 9
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1 6 1
........................... ..... . 16 1
........................... ..... . 163
........................... ..... . 165
........................... ..... . 16 7
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1 6 9
........................... ..... . 17 1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .1 7 2
........................... ..... . 172
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .1 74
........................... ..... . 175
........................... ..... .176
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .1 7 8
........................... ..... . 180
. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 18 2
........................... ..... . 184
........................... ..... . 186
........................... ..... . 188
........................... ..... . 190
........................... ..... . 19 1
........................... ..... . 194










Bugg Spring .................
Leon County ....................
Horn Spring .................
Natural Bridge Spring .........
Rhodes Springs ...............
Rhodes Springs No. 1 ......
Rhodes Springs No. 2 ......
Rhodes Springs No. 4 ......
St. Marks River Rise ..........
Levy County .....................
Fanning Springs ..............
Levy Blue Spring .............
Manatee Spring ..............
M adison County .................
Madison Blue Spring ..........
Suwanacoochee Spring ........
Manatee County .................
M arion County ..................
Fern Hammock Springs ........
Juniper Springs ..............
Orange Spring ...............
Rainbow Springs Group ........
Rainbow No. 1 ............
Rainbow No. 4 ............
Rainbow No. 6 ............
Bubbling Spring ..........
Salt Springs .................
Silver Glen Springs ...........
Silver Springs Group ..........
Main Spring ..............
Reception Hall ...........
Blue Grotto ..............
Orange County ..................
Rock Springs ................
Wekiwa Spring ..............
Pasco County ...................
Crystal Springs ..............
Pinellas County .................
Putnam County .................
Beecher Spring ...............
Welaka Spring ...............
Sarasota County .................
Warm Mineral Spring .........
Seminole County .................
Sanlando Springs .............
Starbuck Spring ..............
Sumter County ..................
Fenney Spring ...............
Gum Spring Main ............


. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 19 6
. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 19 9
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 0 0
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 0 2
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 0 5
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 0 5
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 0 6
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 0 6
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 0 9
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 1 1
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 1 2
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 14
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 16
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 1 8
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 19
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 2 1
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 2 3
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 2 4
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2 5
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 2 7
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 3 0
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 3 2
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 3 3
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 3 5
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 3 5
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 3 5
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 3 7
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 4 0
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 4 3
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 4 4
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 4 4
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 4 4
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 4 7
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 4 8
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 5 1
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 5 4
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 5 5
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 5 8
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 5 9
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 6 0
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 6 2
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 6 4
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 6 5
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 6 8
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 6 9
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 7 2
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 7 4
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 7 5
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 7 7









Suwannee County ......................................................279
Branford Spring ................................................... 280
Ellaville Spring ................. .................. ............ . 282
Falmouth Spring ................................................. 284
Ichetucknee Head Spring ............................................286
Little River Spring ..................................................286
Running Springs ...................................................288
Suwannee Spring ...................................................290
Telford Spring .....................................................293
Taylor County ........................................................ 295
Nutall Rise ....................................................... 296
Waldo Spring ......................................................298
Union County ........................................................ 301
Volusia County ....................................................... 302
DeLeon Spring .....................................................303
Volusia Blue Spring ................................................. 306
Wakulla County ...................................................... 308
Cray's Rise ....................................................... 309
Newport Spring ....................................................311
Sheppard Spring ...................................................313
Spring Creek Springs Group ......................................... 315
Spring Creek No. 1 ...............................................317
Spring Creek No. 2 ............................................. 317
Wakulla Spring ....................................................318
W alton County ........................................................ 321
Morrison Spring ....................................................322
W ashington County .....................................................324
Beckton Spring ...................................... ............ 325
Brunson Landing Spring ............................................ 327
Cypress Spring .................................................. 329
Washington Blue Spring Choctawhatchee .............................. .332
W ashington Blue Springs Econfina ................................... .335
Williford Spring ................................................... 338
Springs Information Resources on the Web .................................... .341
References ......................................................... 343
Appendix A Glossary ......................................................349
Appendix B Florida Springs Locations ...................................... 359
Appendix B 1 Springs visited by FGS springs teams .................... .359
Appendix B 2 Location of additional known or reported
springs in Florida not visited by FGS spring teams .................... .371
Appendix C Descriptions of additional springs visited by FGS spring teams ........ .379

Figures

1. Old Florida spring photos and moments ............... .................... 2
2. Florida Springs Task Force at Salt Springs in 2003 ......................... 6
3. Location of Florida's springs. .............................................10
4. Native American artifacts from Florida Springs ............................. 12



ix









5. Generalized geologic map of Florida ...................................... 16
6. Karst areas related to first magnitude springs ............................ 17
7. Example of the Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment (FAVA) ............. .18
8. Median nitrate concentrations in 13 selected first magnitude springs in Florida .. .19
9. Idealized springshed delineation ............... ...................... .21
10. Potentiometric map of springshed ................. ..................... 22
11. Offshore springs .......... ............................... ...........26
12. Known offshore springs in the Florida Big Bend Region ................... .. .27
13. The FGS Spring Sampling Team, 2001 ..................................... 28
14. SCUBA diver in Silver Springs (photo by G. Maddox) ..................... .. 37
15. Springs visited by FGS in Alachua County ............................... 38
16. Hornsby Spring (photo by T. Scott) ...................................... ..39
17. Poe Spring (photo by R. Means) ..........................................41
18. Santa Fe River Rise (photo by T. Scott) ................................. 44
19. Treehouse Spring (photo by J. Stevenson) ............................... 46
20. Springs visited by FGS in Bay County ................................. . .48
21. Gainer Springs Group Vent 1C (photo by T. Scott) ......................... 49
22. Gainer Springs Group Vent 2 (photo by T. Scott) ........................... 50
23. Gainer Springs Group Fracture (photo by H. Means) ...................... .. 51
24. Springs visited by FGS in Bradford County ............................... 53
25. Springs visited by FGS in Calhoun County ............................... 54
26. Springs visited by FGS in Citrus County ................................ 55
27. Chassahowitzka Main Spring (photo by R. Means) ........................ .56
28. Chassahowitzka No. 1 (photo by R. Meegan) .............................. 56
29. Citrus Blue Spring (photo by R. Means) ............... ................. 59
30. Homosassa Springs Group (photo by H. Means) ........................... 61
31. Kings Bay Springs Group, Hunter Spring (photo by R. Meegan) ............... .64
32. Kings Bay Springs Group, Tarpon Hole Spring (photo by R. Means) ............ 64
33. Springs visited by FGS in Clay County ................................. 67
34. Green Cove Springs (photo by T. Scott) ................................. 68
35. Springs visited by FGS in Columbia County .............................. 71
36. Columbia Spring (photo by D. Hornsby) .................................. 72
37. Ichetucknee Springs Group, Ichetucknee Head Spring (photo by T. Scott) ........ 74
38. Ichetucknee Springs Group, Blue Hole Spring (photo by T. Scott) ............... 74
39. Santa Fe Spring (photo by T. Scott) ...................................... .78
40. Springs visited by FGS in Dixie County ................................. 80
41. Copper Spring No. 2 (photo by R. Means) ................................ 81
42. Guaranto Spring (photo by R. Means) ..................................... .84
43. Steinhatchee River Rise (photo by R. Means) .............................. 86
44. Springs visited by FGS in Duval County ................................ 88
45. Springs visited by FGS in Franklin County ............................... 89
46. Springs visited by FGS in Gadsden County ................................. 90
47. Springs visited by FGS in Gilchrist County .......................... . 91
48. Devil's Ear Spring (photo by H. Means) ................................. 92
49. Gilchrist Blue Spring (photo by R. Means) ............................... 95
50. Ginnie Spring (photo by H. Means) ...................................... .97









51. Hart Springs (photo by T. Scott) ............... ................... .. ..99
52. Otter Spring (photo by H. Means) ...................................... ..102
53. Rock Bluff Springs (photo by H. Means) .................................. .104
54. Siphon Creek Rise (photo by T. Scott) .................................... .107
55. Sun Springs (photo by H. Means) ...................................... .. 109
56. Springs visited by FGS in Hamilton County ............................. 112
57. Alapaha River Rise (photo by T. Scott) ................................... .113
58. Holton Creek Rise (photo by T. Scott) ................................. . .115
59. Rossetter Spring (photo by H. Means) ................................... .117
60. Springs visited by FGS in Hernando County ............................. 119
61. Gator Spring (photo by R. Means) ...................................... ..120
62. Little Spring (photo by R. Means) ...................................... ..122
63. Magnolia Spring (photo by R. Means) ................................. . .125
64. Hernando Salt Springs (photo by R. Means) ............................. 128
65. Weeki Wachee Spring (photo by R. Means) .............................. 131
66. Springs visited by FGS in Hillsborough County ........................... 133
67. Buckhorn Main Spring (photo by R. Means) ............................. 134
68. Lithia Spring Major (photo by R. Means) ............................... 137
69. Sulphur Spring circa 1930 (anonymous) ............... ................ 140
70. Sulphur Spring (photo by R. Means) ..................................... .140
71. Springs visited by FGS in Holmes County .............................. 143
72. Holmes Blue Spring (photo by R. Meegan) ............................... 144
73. Ponce de Leon Springs (photo by R. Means) ............................. 146
74. Springs visited by FGS in Jackson County ............... .............. 149
75. Baltzell Spring (photo by R. Means) ..................................... .150
76. Blue Hole (photo by R. Means) ............... ................... .. ..152
77. Hays Spring (photo by R. Means) ...................................... .. 154
78. Jackson Blue Spring (photo by T. Scott) ................................ 156
79. Jackson Blue Spring aerial photo (photo by T. Scott) ................... ... 156
80. Shangri-La Springs (photo by R. Means) ............................... 159
81. Black Spring (photo by R. Means) ...................................... ..161
82. Double Spring (photo by R. Means) ...................................... .163
83. Gadsen Spring (photo by R. Means) ..................................... .165
84. Mill Pond Spring (photo by R. Means) ................. ............. ...167
85. Springboard Spring (photo by R. Means) ............................... 169
86. Springs visited by FGS in Jefferson County .............................. 171
87. Wacissa Springs Group, Big Spring (Big Blue Spring) (photo by R. Means) ...... 172
88. Springs visited by FGS in Lafayette County ............................. 175
89. Allen Mill Pond Springs (photo by R. Means) ............................. 176
90. Lafayette Blue Spring (photo by T. Scott) ............... ............... 178
91. Mearson Spring (photo by D. Hornsby) ................................ . .180
92. Owens Spring (photo by R. Means) ...................................... .182
93. Ruth Spring (photo by R. Means) ..................................... ..184
94. Troy Spring (photo by T. Scott) ............... ................... .. ..186
95. Turtle Spring (photo by R. Means) ...................................... .188
96. Springs visited by FGS in Lake County ................................ 190










97. Alexander Spring (photo by T. Scott) .................................... .191
98. Alexander Spring aerial photo (photo by H. Means) ........................ 192


99. Apopka Spring (photo by R. Means)


100.
101.
102.
103.
104.
105.
106.
107.
108.
109.
110.
111.
112.
113.
114.
115.
116.
117.
118.
119.
120.
121.
122.
123.
124.
125.
126.
127.
128.
129.
130.
131.
132.
133.
134.
135.
136.
137.
138.
139.
140.
141.
142.


Bugg Spring (photo by T. Scott) ..........
Springs visited by FGS in Leon County ...
Horn Spring (photo by H. Means) ........
Natural Bridge Spring (photo by R. Means)
Rhodes Spring No. 4 (photo by H. Means)
St. Marks River Rise (photo by H. Means)
Springs visited by FGS in Levy County ...
Fanning Springs (photo by T. Scott) ......
Levy Blue Spring (photo by T. Scott) .....
Manatee Spring (photo by T. Scott) .......
Springs visited by FGS in Madison County
Madison Blue Spring (photo by T. Scott) ..
Suwanacoochee Spring (photo by R. Means)
Srings visited by FGS in Manatee County
Springs visited by FGS in Marion County
Fern Hammock Springs (photo by T. Scott)
Juniper Springs (photo by H. Means) .....
Orange Spring (photo by R. Means) ......


Rainbow Springs Group aerial photo (photo by H. Means) ................... 232
Rainbow Springs Group head spring (photo by T. Scott) ................... .. .232
Rainbow Springs Group rocks underwater (photo by T. Scott) ................ 233
Salt Springs (photo by T. Scott) ...................................... .. 237
Silver Glen Springs circa 1930 (anonymous) ............................ 240
Silver Glen Springs (photo by T. Scott) ................................ . .240
Silver Springs Group, Main Spring aerial photo (photo by H. Means) ........... 243
Silver Springs Group, Main Spring (photo by Steve Specht) ................. .243
Springs visited by FGS in Orange County ............................... 247
Rock Springs (photo by T. Scott) ....................................... ..248
W ekiwa Spring (photo by T. Scott) ...................................... .251
Springs visited by FGS in Pasco County ............... ................ 254
Crystal Spring (photo by H. Means) ..................................... .255
Springs visited by FGS in Pinellas County ............... .............. 258
Springs visited by FGS in Putnam County ............... ............... 259
Beecher Spring (photo by R. Means) ...................................... 260
Welaka Spring (photo by H. Means) ...................................... 262
Springs visited by FGS in Sarasota County ............................. 264
Warm Mineral Spring (photo by R. Means) .............................. 265
Springs visited by FGS in Seminole County .............................. 268
Sanlando Springs (photo by R. Means) ................................... .269
Starbuck Spring (photo by R. Means) .................................... .272
Springs visited by FGS in Sumter County ............................... 274
Fenney Spring (photo by R. Means) ..................................... .275
Gum Springs Main (photo by R. Means) ............... ................ 277


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 4
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 9 6
.............................. 199
.............................. 200
.............................. 202
.............................. 205
.............................. 209
................................ 2 11
.................. ........... 2 12
.............................. 2. 214
.............................. 2. 216
.............................. 2. 218
.............................. 2. 219
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2 1
.............................. 223
.............................. 224
.............................. 225
.............................. 227
.............................. 230









143. Springs visited by FGS in Suwannee County ............................. 279
144. Branford Spring (photo by T. Scott) ..................................... .280
145. Ellaville Spring (photo by T. Scott) ...................................... .282
146. Falmouth Spring (photo by T. Scott) .................................... 284
147. Little River Spring (photo by R. Means) ............... ................ 286
148. East Running Springs (photo by R. Means) .............................. 288
149. Suwannee Springs (photo by R. Means) ................................ 290
150. Telford Spring (photo by R. Means) ...................................... .293
151. Springs visited by FGS in Taylor County ............... ............... 295
152. Nutall Rise (photo by R. Means) ....................................... ..296
153. W aldo Spring (photo by R. Means) ...................................... .298
154. Springs visited by FGS in Union County ............................... 301
155. Springs visited by FGS in Volusia County ............................... 302
156. DeLeon Spring (photo by T. Scott) .................................... .303
157. Volusia Blue Spring (photo by T. Scott) ................................ 306
158. Springs visited by FGS in Wakulla County .............................. 308
159. Cray's Rise (photo by R. Means) ........................................ 309
160. Newport Spring (photo by T. Scott) ...................................... .311
161. Sheppard Spring (photo by R. Means) ................................... .313
162. Spring Creek Springs Group (photo by J. Stevenson) ................... ... .315
163. W akulla Spring (photo by T. Scott) ...................................... .318
164. Spring visited by FGS in Walton County ............................... 321
165. Morrison Spring (photo by R. Means) .................................... .322
166. Springs visited by FGS in Washington County .......................... .324
167. Beckton Spring (photo by H. Means) .................................... .325
168. Brunson Landing Spring (photo by R. Means) ............................ 327
169. Cypress Spring (photo by T. Scott) ...................................... .329
170. Washington Blue Spring Choctawhatchee (photo by R. Means) ............... 332
171. Washington Blue Spring Econfina (photo by R. Means) ..................... .335
172. Williford Spring (photo by R. Means) .................................... .338

Tables

1. Florida's spring classification system (from Copeland, 2003) ................. 11
2. List of analytes sampled at first magnitude springs and measured by the FDEP
laboratory for the Springs Initiative during Fall 2001, Winter 2002,
and Spring 2002 .......................................... ...........30
3. Units of measurement .................................... ............ 32
4. Hornsby Spring water quality analyses ................................. 40
5. Hornsby Spring bacteriological analyses ................................ 40
6. Poe Spring water quality analyses ....................................... .42
7. Poe Spring bacteriological analyses ................. ................. .. 43
8. Santa Fe River Rise water quality analyses .............................. 45
9. Santa Fe River Rise bacteriological analyses ............................. 45
10. Treehouse Spring water quality analyses ............... ................ 47
11. Treehouse Spring bacteriological analyses ............................... 47









12. Gainer Springs Group water quality analyses ............................... 52
13. Gainer Springs Group bacteriological analyses ................. ............ 52
14. Chasahowitzka Springs Group bacteriological analyses ....................... 57
15. Chassahowitzka Springs Group water quality analyses ................... ... 58
16. Citrus Blue Spring water quality analyses ................................. .60
17. Citrus Blue Spring bacteriological analyses ................................. 60
18. Homosassa Springs Group water quality analyses ........................... 62
19. Homosassa Springs Group bacteriological analyses ......................... 63
20. Kings Bay Springs Group water quality analyses ............................66
21. Kings Bay Springs Group bacteriological analyses ........................... 66
22. Green Cove Spring water quality analyses ................................. .69
23. Green Cove Spring bacteriological analyses ................................ .70
24. Columbia Spring water quality analysis ................................... .73
25. Columbia Spring bacteriological analysis .................................. .73
26. Ichetucknee Springs Group water quality analyses .......................... .76
27. Ichetucknee Springs Group bacteriological analyses ..........................77
28. Santa Fe Spring water quality analysis .................................... 79
29. Santa Fe Spring bacteriological analysis ................................... 79
30. Copper Spring water quality analysis ...................................... 82
31. Copper Spring bacteriological analysis . ................................ .82
32. Guaranto Spring water quality analysis .............................. . 85
33. Guaranto Spring bacteriological analysis .................................. .85
34. Steinhatchee River Rise water quality analysis ............................. .87
35. Steinhatchee River Rise bacteriological analysis ............................. 87
36. Devil's Ear Spring water quality analysis .................................. 93
37. Devil's Ear Spring bacteriological analysis ................................. .93
38. Gilchrist Blue Spring water quality analysis ............................... .96
39. Gilchrist Blue Spring bacteriological analysis ............................... 96
40. Ginnie Spring water quality analysis ..................................... .98
41. Ginnie Spring bacteriological analysis .................................... .98
42. Hart Spring water quality analysis ....................................... 100
43. Hart Spring bacteriological analysis ...................................... 101
44. Otter Spring water quality analysis ...................................... 103
45. Otter Spring bacteriological analysis .................................... .103
46. Rock Bluff Springs water quality analysis ................................. 105
47. Rock Bluff Springs bacteriological analysis ............................... .106
48. Siphon Creek Rise water quality analysis ................................. 108
49. Siphon Creek Rise bacteriological analysis ................................ .108
50. Sun Springs water quality analysis ...................................... 110
51. Sun Springs bacteriological analysis ...................................... 110
52. Alapaha River Rise water quality analysis ................................ .114
53. Alapaha River Rise bacteriological analysis .............................. 114
54. Holton Creek Rise water quality analysis ................................. 116
55. Holton Creek Rise bacteriological analysis ................................ .116









56. Rossetter Spring water quality analysis .................................. .118
57. Rossetter Spring bacteriological analysis .................................. 118
58. Gator Spring water quality analysis ...................................... 121
59. Gator Spring bacteriological analysis ..................................... 121
60. Little Spring water quality analysis ...................................... 123
61. Little Spring bacteriological analysis ..................................... 124
62. Magnolia Spring water quality analysis .................................. .126
63. Magnolia Spring bacteriological analysis ................................. .127
64. Hernando Salt Spring water quality analyses .............................. 129
65. Hernando Salt Spring bacteriological analyses ............................. 130
66. Weeki Wachee Spring water quality analysis .............................. 132
67. Weeki Wachee Spring bacteriological analysis ............................. .132
68. Buckhorn Main Spring water quality analysis ............................. .135
69. Buckhorn Main Spring bacteriological analysis ............................. 136
70. Lithia Spring Major water quality analysis ................................ 138
71. Lithia Spring Major bacteriological analysis ............................... 139
72. Sulphur Spring bacteriological analysis .................................. .141
73. Sulphur Spring water quality analysis ................................... .142
74. Holmes Blue Spring water quality analysis ............................... .145
75. Holmes Blue Spring bacteriological analysis ............................... 145
76. Ponce de Leon Springs water quality analysis .............................. 147
77. Ponce de Leon Springs bacteriological analysis ............................. 148
78. Baltzell Spring water quality analysis .................................... 151
79. Baltzell Spring bacteriological analysis .................................. .151
80. Blue Hole Spring water quality analysis .................................. 153
81. Blue Hole Spring bacteriological analysis ................................. .153
82. Hays Spring water quality analysis ..................................... .155
83. Hays Spring bacteriological analysis ..................................... .155
84. Jackson Blue Spring water quality analysis ............................... .157
85. Jackson Blue Spring bacteriological analysis .............................. .158
86. Shangri-La Spring water quality analysis ................................. 160
87. Shangri-La Spring bacteriological analysis ................................ 160
88. Spring Lake Springs, Black Spring water quality analysis ................... .162
89. Spring Lake Springs, Black Spring bacteriological analysis ................... 163
90. Spring Lake Springs, Double Spring water quality analysis ................. .164
91. Spring Lake Springs, Double Spring bacteriological analysis .................. 164
92. Spring Lake Springs, Gadsen Spring water quality analysis ................. .166
93. Spring Lake Springs, Gadsen Spring bacteriological analysis ................ .166
94. Spring Lake Springs, Mill Pond Spring water quality analysis ............... .168
95. Spring Lake Springs, Mill Pond Spring bacteriological analysis ............... 168
96. Spring Lake Springs, Springboard Spring water quality analysis ............. .170
97. Spring Lake Springs, Springboard Spring bacteriological analysis ............ .170
98. Wacissa Springs Group water quality analysis ............................. 173









99. Wacissa Springs Group bacteriological analysis ............................174
100. Allen Mill Pond Springs water quality analysis ............................ .177
101. Allen Mill Pond Springs bacteriological analysis ............................177
102. Lafayette Blue Spring water quality analysis .............................. 179
103. Lafayette Blue Spring bacteriological analysis ............................ .179
104. Mearson Spring water quality analysis ................................... 181
105. Mearson Spring bacteriological analysis .................................. .181
106. Owens Spring water quality analysis .................................... .183
107. Owens Spring bacteriological analysis .................................... 183
108. Ruth Spring water quality analysis ...................................... 185
109. Ruth Spring bacteriological analysis ...................................... 185
110. Troy Spring water quality analysis ..................................... 187
111. Troy Spring bacteriological analysis ...................................... 187
112. Turtle Spring water quality analysis ..................................... 189
113. Turtle Spring bacteriological analysis .................................... .189
114. Alexander Spring water quality analysis .................................. 193
115. Alexander Spring bacteriological analysis ................................. 193
116. Apopka Spring water quality analysis .................................... 195
117. Apopka Spring bacteriological analysis ................................... .195
118. Bugg Spring water quality analysis ...................................... 197
119. Bugg Spring bacteriological analysis ...................................... 198
120. Horn Spring water quality analysis ...................................... 201
121. Horn Spring bacteriological analysis ...................................... 201
122. Natural Bridge Spring water quality analysis ............................ 203
123. Natural Bridge Spring bacteriological analysis ............................ .204
124. Rhodes Springs water quality analysis ................................... .207
125. Rhodes Springs bacteriological analysis .................................. 208
126. St. Marks River Rise water quality analysis ............................... 210
127. St. Marks River Rise bacteriological analysis .............................. 210
128. Fanning Springs water quality analysis .................................. .213
129. Fanning Springs bacteriological analysis ................................. .213
130. Levy Blue Spring water quality analysis .................................. 215
131. Levy Blue Spring bacteriological analysis ................................. 215
132. Manatee Spring water quality analysis ................................... 217
133. Manatee Spring bacteriological analysis .................................. .217
134. Madison Blue Spring water quality analysis ............................... 220
135. Madison Blue Spring bacteriological analysis .............................. 220
136. Suwanacoochee Spring water quality analysis ............................. .222
137. Suwanacoochee Spring bacteriological analysis ............................ .222
138. Fern Hammock Springs water quality analysis ............................ .226
139. Fern Hammock Springs bacteriological analysis ............................226
140. Juniper Springs water quality analysis ................................... 228
141. Juniper Springs bacteriological analysis .................................. .228









142. Orange Spring water quality analysis ................................... .231
143. Orange Spring bacteriological analysis ................................... .231
144. Rainbow Springs Group water quality analysis ............................ .234
145. Rainbow Springs Group bacteriological analysis ............................235
146. Salt Springs water quality analysis ...................................... 238
147. Salt Springs bacteriological analysis ...................................... 239
148. Silver Glen Springs bacteriological analysis ............................... .241
149. Silver Glen Springs water quality analysis ................................ 242
150. Silver Springs Group bacteriological analysis .............................. 245
151. Silver Springs Group water quality analysis ............................... 246
152. Rock Springs water quality analysis ..................................... .249
153. Rock Springs bacteriological analysis ................................. . 250
154. W ekiwa Spring water quality analysis .................................... 252
155. Wekiwa Spring bacteriological analysis ................. ................. 253
156. Crystal Springs water quality analysis .................................... 256
157. Crystal Springs bacteriological analysis .................................. 257
158. Beecher Spring water quality analysis ................................... .261
159. Beecher Spring bacteriological analysis .................................. .261
160. Welaka Spring water quality analysis ................................... .263
161. Welaka Spring bacteriological analysis ................................... .263
162. Warm Mineral Spring water quality analysis .............................. 266
163. Warm Mineral Spring bacteriological analysis .............................. 267
164. Sanlando Spring water quality analysis ................ ................. .270
165. Sanlando Spring bacteriological analysis .................................. 271
166. Starbuck Spring water quality analysis ................................ .273
167. Starbuck Spring bacteriological analysis .................................. 273
168. Fenney Spring water quality analysis ................................... .276
169. Fenney Spring bacteriological analysis ................................... .276
170. Gum Springs Main water quality analysis ................................ .278
171. Gum Springs Main bacteriological analysis ................................ 278
172. Branford Spring water quality analysis ................................... 281
173. Branford Spring bacteriological analysis .................................. 281
174. Ellaville Spring water quality analysis ................................... .283
175. Ellaville Spring bacteriological analysis .................................. .283
176. Falmouth Spring water quality analysis .................................. 285
177. Falmouth Spring bacteriological analysis ................................. .285
178. Little River Spring water quality analysis ................................ .287
179. Little River Spring bacteriological analysis ............................... .287
180. Running Springs bacteriological analysis ................................. 289
181. Running Springs water quality analysis .................................. 289
182. Suwannee Springs water quality analysis ................................. 291
183. Suwannee Springs bacteriological analysis ................................ 292
184. Telford Spring water quality analysis .................................... .294









185. Telford Spring bacteriological analysis ................................... .294
186. Nutall Rise water quality analysis ....................................... 297
187. Nutall Rise bacteriological analysis ...................................... 297
188. Waldo Spring water quality analysis .................................... .299
189. W aldo Spring bacteriological analysis .................................... .300
190. DeLeon Spring water quality analysis ................................... .304
191. DeLeon Spring bacteriological analysis ................................... 305
192. Volusia Blue Spring water quality analysis ................................ 307
193. Volusia Blue Spring bacteriological analysis ............................... 307
194. Cray's Rise water quality analysis ....................................... 310
195. Cray's Rise bacteriological analysis ...................................... .310
196. Newport Spring water quality analysis ................... ............... 312
197. Newport Spring bacteriological analysis .................................. .312
198. Sheppard Spring water quality analysis .................................. .314
199. Sheppard Spring bacteriological analysis ................................. .314
200. Spring Creek Springs Group water quality analysis ......................... 316
201. Spring Creek Springs Group bacteriological analysis ........................317
202. Wakulla Spring water quality analysis ................................... .319
203. W akulla Spring bacteriological analysis .................................. .320
204. Morrison Spring water quality analysis ................................... 323
205. Morrison Spring bacteriological analysis ................................. .323
206. Beckton Spring water quality analysis ................................... .326
207. Beckton Spring bacteriological analysis ................................... 326
208. Brunson Landing Spring water quality analysis ........................... 328
209. Brunson Landing Spring bacteriological analysis ........................... 328
210. Cypress Spring water quality analysis ................................... .330
211. Cypress Spring bacteriological analysis .................................. .331
212. Washington Blue Spring Choctawhatchee water quality analysis ............. .333
213. Washington Blue Spring Choctawhatchee bacteriological analysis ............. 334
214. Washington Blue Spring Econfina water quality analysis ................... .336
215. Washington Blue Spring Econfina bacteriological analysis .................. .337
216. W illiford Spring water quality analysis ................................... 339
217. W illiford Spring bacteriological analysis ................................. .340






BULLETIN NO. 66


SPRINGS OF FLORIDA
by
Thomas M. Scott (PG #99), Guy H. Means,
Rebecca P. Meegan, Ryan C. Means,
Sam B. Upchurch, R. E. Copeland,
James Jones, Tina Roberts, Alan Willet


INTRODUCTION

The bank was dense with magnolia and loblolly bay, sweet gum and gray-barked ash. He
went down to the spring in the cool darkness of their shadows. A sharp pleasure came over
him. This was a secret and a lovely place. Marjory Kinnan Rawlings, The Yearling, 1938

Mysterious, magical, even "awesome" springs elicit an emotional response from near-
ly everyone who peers into their crystalline depths. The clear, azure waters of Florida's
springs have long been a focus of daily life during the humid, hot months of the year. Many
Floridians have a lifetime of memories surrounding our springs. Florida's often warm,
humid weather rendered the state's springs a welcome relief from the effects of the climate.
Many children, on a hot summer day, 1. ..i.I their parents to take them to those cool, clear
inviting pools so that, after hours in the water, the air's warmth actually felt good! The draw
of the mysterious, pristine water issuing from caves and sand boils was unmistakable. Visit
any spring during the muggy months and you will find people of all ages partaking of
Nature's soothing remedy spring water! Marjory Stoneman Douglas, the grandame of
Florida environmentalists, stated that "Springs are bowls of liquid light." Writer and
author Al Burt observed that "Springs add a melody to the land."

Springs and spring runs have been a focal point of life from prehistoric times to the pres-
ent. Undoubtedly, the ancient flow of cool, fresh water attracted animals now long absent
from Florida's landscape. Many a diver has recovered fossil remains from the state's spring
runs and wondered what the forest must have looked like when mastodons and giant sloths
roamed the spring-run lowlands.

Human artifacts, found in widespread areas of the state, attest to the importance of
springs to Florida's earliest inhabitants. The explorers of Florida, from Ponce de Leon to
John and William Bartram and others, often mentioned the subterranean discharges of
fresh water that were scattered across central and northern Florida. As colonists and set-
tlers began to inhabit Florida, springs continued to be the focus of human activity, becom-
ing sites of missions, towns and steamboat landings. Spring runs provided power for grist-
mills. Baptisms were held in the clear, cool waters and the springs often served as water
supplies for local residents. Today, even bottled water producers are interested in utilizing
these waters. Some springs have been valued for their purported therapeutic effects, and
people flocked to them to soak in the medicinal waters (Figure 1).

Recreational opportunities provided by the state's springs are numerous. Swimming,
snorkeling, diving and canoeing are among the most common activities centering around
Florida's springs. The springs and spring runs are magnets for wildlife and, subsequently,






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The Sprlnq fJiws 3J.100 CGaJ~lb

MRBBK


.
WIN gigei RI


4'


i


ir 7,v


wa s*^


L-'r.1


, aJ,.


Figure 1. Old Florida spring photos and moments. Clockwise from top left, interior of bath house at White
Springs, Hamilton County, 1920s; exterior of bath house at White Springs; Silver Springs, Marion County, auto decal, 1950s;
Warm Mineral Springs, Sarasota County, brochure, 1950s; Sulphur Spring, Hillsborough County, early 1900s; boating at Troy
Spring, Lafayette County, 1960s; cars at Silver Springs, 1930s; Panacea Mineral Springs Motel, Wakulla County 1930s.


f -. j.. nPh P-. l-. wL'l:1. 'nZrnF. rF lln.


SILVER
FIORIDI


?-W!"-






BULLETIN NO. 66


draw many individuals and groups to view these animals in their natural surroundings. The
economic impact of the springs has been well documented (Bonn and Bell, 2003).
Ichetucknee, Wakulla, Homosassa and Volusia Blue Springs alone generated more than $65
million in 2002.

Spring water is a natural discharge that comes primarily from the Floridan aquifer sys-
tem, the state's primary aquifer. The springs provide a "window" into the aquifer, allowing
for a measure of the health of the aquifer. Chemical and biological constituents that enter
the aquifer through recharge processes may affect the water quality, flora and fauna of
springs and spring runs. As water quality in the aquifer has declined, the flora and fauna
associated with the springs and cave systems have been negatively affected. The change in
water quality is a direct result of Florida's increased population and changed land-use pat-
terns. The state's population has increased from approximately two million in 1940 to more
than 17 million in 2004 and is projected to exceed 24 million by 2030. These changes and the
subsequent degradation of our springs have led to the efforts to protect and restore Florida's
treasured springs.

In 1947, the Florida Geological Survey (FGS) published the first Springs of Florida bul-
letin which documented the major and important springs in the state (Ferguson et al., 1947).
This publication was revised in 1977, with many previously undocumented springs and
many new water-quality analyses being added (Rosenau et al., 1977). The Florida
Geological Survey's report on first magnitude springs (Scott et al., 2002) was the initial step
in once again updating and revising the Springs of Florida bulletin. The new bulletin
includes the spring descriptions and water-quality analyses from Scott et al. (2002). Nearly
300 springs were described in 1977. As of 2004, more than 700 springs have been recognized
in the state and more are reported each year. To date, 33 first magnitude springs (with a
flow greater than 100 cubic feet per second or approximately 64.6 million gallons of water
per day) have been recognized in Florida, more than any other state or country (Rosenau et
al., 1977). Our springs are a unique and invaluable natural resource. A comprehensive
understanding of the spring systems will provide the basis for their protection and wise use.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors wish to acknowledge a number of individuals and thank them for their
assistance in creating this volume. Gary Maddox, Laura Morse, Gail Sloane, Margaret
Murray, Tom Biernacki, Cindy Cosper, Andy Roach, Paul Hansard, and Jay Silvanima from
the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP), Division of Water Resource
Management, Bureau of Watershed Management guided the spring water analyses effort.
Without their knowledge and experience, the sampling, analyses and data quality and deliv-
ery could not have been accomplished within the requisite timeframe.

We would also like to acknowledge the efforts of numerous people from various water
management districts and state parks who were so helpful in either collecting or helping to
collect data for this project. In particular, the authors wish to thank David Hornsby from
the Suwannee River Water Management District for contributing his time and expertise.
We also thank Angela Chelette, Tom Pratt, Tony Countryman and Nick Wooten from the
Northwest Florida Water Management District; Eric DeHaven, David DeWitt, Joe Haber,






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


and Chris Tomlinson from the Southwest Florida Water Management District; David Toth,
Jim Peterson and Bill Osburn from the St. John's River Water Management District; Will
Ebaugh from the U.S. Forest Service; Richard Harris from Blue Springs State Park; Sandy
Cook from Wakulla Spring State Park; Larry Arrant from Suwannee River State Park; Sally
Lieb from Manatee Spring State Park; Alvin and Edith Hamlin, Lafayette Blue Spring;
Steve Davenport from Fanning Springs State Park; Mike Jacobs from Weeki Wachee
Springs; Steve Specht, Bob Gallager and Mike Young from Silver Springs; Guy Marwick
from the Silver River Museum; Robert LaMont from the Silver Springs State Park; Mark
Ludlow and Bill Maphis from Florida Caverns State Park; Boyd Blihovde and Rick "Bubba"
Owen from Wekiwa Springs State Park; the staff at Silver Glen Springs, Alexander Spring,
Juniper Spring and Fern Hammock Springs in the Ocala National Forest; Mark Wray of
Ginnie Springs Resort; Celeste and Hoch Shitama (Running Springs); the Branham family
(Bugg Spring); Amos Philman (Hart Spring); Ed Olman (Warm Mineral Spring); Jeffrey and
Trudy Williams (Manatee Mineral Spring); Harold Vickers (Cypress and Beckton Springs);
Jeffrey DiMaggio from Waccasassa Bay State Preserve; the land owners at Crystal Springs
and Meg Andronaco, who provided access to Crystal Springs. Joe Follman and Richard
Buchanan's Springs Fever website was a great help to us, and we appreciate their willing-
ness to help. There are many other anonymous individuals whose efforts benefited this proj-
ect.

Several individuals gave a significant amount of their personal time to lead FGS staff
into remote areas. William Shirling spent several days guiding us along Holmes Creek and
showing us the multitude of springs in that region. William Barton also spent time with FGS
springs teams, leading us to the Spring Lake area. To both of these individuals we are
greatly indebted. Joe Follman, author of Springs Fever, graciously provided his editorial
expertise.

Many thanks go to staff members of the Florida Geological Survey. Frank Rupert
organized the text, figures, tables and photographs into the digital format for publication.
John Marquez, Alan Baker, Andrew Rudin and Jim Cichon, provided cartographic expert-
ise. Walt Schmidt, Jon Arthur, Rodney DeHan, Rick Green, Tom Greenalgh, Jackie Lloyd,
Frank Rupert and Steve Spencer reviewed the text and data, offering many suggestions and
corrections. Kenji Butler and James McClean spent time in the field with the springs teams.

Many FDEP employees assisted with this project. They are: Division of Resource
Assessment and Management, Bureau of Laboratories Sampling Training: Russel
Frydenborg, Tom Frick. Bureau of Laboratories Chemistry and Biology Analyses: Yuh-Hsu
Pan, Kate Brackett, Maria Gonzalez, Amzad Shaik, Harrison Walker, Chris Armour, Tom
Ebrahimizadeh, Chris Morgan, Colin Wright, Matt Curran, Dave Avrett, Rick Kimsey,
Latasha Fisher, Elena Koldacheva, Keith Tucker, Elliot Healy, Dawn Dolbee, Blanca Fach,
Ping Hua, Anna Blalock, Patsy Vichaikul, Akbar Cooper, Richard Johnson, Paula Peters,
Gary Dearman, Virginia Leavell, Ceceile Wight, Travis Tola, Dale Simmons, Latasha
Fisher, Rob Buda, Melva Campos, Karla Whiddon, and Daisys Tamayo. Bureau of
Watershed Management, Watershed Monitoring and Data Management Section: Tracy
Wade, Thomas Seal. Division of Waste Management: Bill Martin, David Meyers. We appre-
ciate the efforts of all these individuals.

We would also like to thank individuals from the United States Geological Survey:
Stuart Tomlinson, Donna Schiffer, David Dale, Yvonne Stoker, Jack Regar, Hal Davis,






BULLETIN NO. 66


Brian Katz and Trudy Phelps.

FGS would also like to thank the current and past members of the Florida Springs Task
Force. In particular we would like to thank Mike Bascom, new Chair of the Springs Task
Force and Coordinator of the Florida Springs Initiative for his continued support.

Finally, the Florida Geological Survey Springs Team Members wish to thank Jim
Stevenson for his tireless dedication to Florida's springs. Jim retired from the FDEP and
the Florida Springs Task Force as Chair during the course of this study. Jim's long career
with the Department ended much like it began, with a passion for protecting Florida's nat-
ural resources for future generations of Floridians to enjoy. Governor Jeb Bush and the for-
mer FDEP Secretary, David Struhs recognized Jim's achievements and honored him by
naming the highest award given to FDEP employees the Jim Stevenson Resource Manager
of the Year Award. Without Jim, our springs would not have a voice. Thank you, Jim!

DEFINITIONS AND TERMS

Many terms relating to hydrogeology and springs may be unfamiliar. Copeland (2003)
compiled a glossary of springs terms which is included in Appendix A.

FLORIDA SPRINGS TASK FORCE

In 1999, David Struhs, Secretary of the Florida Department of Environmental
Protection (FDEP), directed Jim Stevenson of FDEP to form a multi-agency Florida Springs
Task Force (the first Springs Task Force TF I) to recommend strategies to protect and
restore Florida's springs. The Task Force, consisting of 16 Floridians who represented one
federal and three state agencies, four water management districts, a state university, a
regional planning council, the business community, and private citizens, met monthly from
September 1999 to September 2000. These scientists, planners, and other citizens
exchanged information on the many factors that impact the viability of Florida's springs and
the ecosystems that the springs support. They listened to guest speakers with expertise in
topics relating to springs health. They discussed the conflicting environmental, social, and
economic interests that exist in all of Florida's spring basins. During the months that the
Task Force met, members developed recommendations for the preservation and restoration
of Florida's rich treasury of springs. The implementation of the recommendations will help
ensure that Florida's "bowls of liquid light" will sparkle for the grandchildren of the children
who play in Florida's springs today.

The Task Force produced a report for the Secretary entitled Florida's Springs,
Strategies for Protection and Restoration (Florida Springs Task Force, 2000). Armed with
this report, Governor Jeb Bush requested funding from the 2001 Florida Legislature to
begin the Florida Springs Initiative. Funding in the amount of $2.5 million was approved
to support projects for springs restoration, research and protection. The Florida Springs
Initiative is funded through the Florida Department of Environmental Protection where
projects in research and monitoring, public education and outreach, and landowner assis-
tance are coordinated. The Governor's Springs Initiative is based on the 2000 Florida
Springs Task Force report.

In February 2000, the Springs Task Force sponsored the Florida Springs Conference,






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Natural Gems Troubled Waters, attended by over 300 people, including scientists, business
owners, representatives of environmental groups and residents from all over Florida. The
meeting was such a success that it was held again in February 2003, drawing even more
attendees. Future conferences are planned for every other year, the next one being in 2005.
The makeup of the Task Force has changed since its original members published the Task
Force Report. Less emphasis was placed on having members from the Florida Department
of Environmental Protection. As such, the second Springs Task Force (TF II) was created
and meeting frequency was reduced to quarterly. The meetings were held at different
spring locations around the state and served as a forum for exchanging information on ongo-
ing projects and discussing future goals for the Florida Springs Initiative. In June 2003, Jim
Stevenson retired from FDEP and the Task Force. Mike Bascom succeeded Jim Stevenson
as the Springs Initiative Coordinator and Chairman of the Task Force. Mike implemented
several changes to the Task Force membership and created the current Task Force III (TF
III)(Figure 2).

Ms. Colleen Castille succeeded David Struhs as the Secretary of FDEP in March 2004.
Ms. Castille continues the support of the Florida Springs Initiative by the department.


Figure 2.- Florida Springs Task Force at Salt Springs in 2003
(photo by T. Scott).






BULLETIN NO. 66


Task Force Members and Advisors

Task Force Chairman Jim Stevenson, Division of State Lands, FDEP. TF I,II current
citizen member TF III
Mike Bascom, Division of State Lands, FDEP, TF III

Technical Writer and Editor Frances M. Hartnett,
Technical and Creative Writing Services

Task Force Members
Dianne McCommons Beck, FDEP, TF I
Jeff Bielling, Florida Department of Community Affairs, TF I, II, III
Greg Bitter, Withlacoochee Regional Planning Council, TF I
Bruce Day, Withlacoochee Regional Planning Council, TF I
Hal Davis, U.S. Geological Survey, TF I, II, III
Russel Frydenborg, Division of Resource Assessment and Management, FDEP, TF I,
current advisor
Jon Martin, University of Florida, TF I, II, III
Gregg Jones, Southwest Florida Water Management District, TF I, II
Jack Leppert, Citizen, TF I
Gary Maddox, Division of Water Resource Management, FDEP, TF I, current advisor
Pam McVety, Division of Recreation and Parks, FDEP, TF I, II, and currently a citizen
advisor
Dana Bryan, Division of Recreation and Parks, FDEP, TF III
Doug Munch, St. Johns River Water Management District, TF I, II, III
Tom Pratt, Northwest Florida Water Management District, TF I, II, III
Tom Scott, Florida Geological Survey, FDEP, TF I, current advisor
Wes Skiles, Karst Environmental Services, TF I, II III
Gary Maidhof, Citrus County, TF II, III
Brian McCord, Danone Waters of North America, TF II
Meg Andronaco, Zephyrhills, TF III
Kirk Webster, Suwannee River Water Management District, TF I, II, III
Kent Smith, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, TF II, III
Sam Upchurch, SDII Global Corporation, TF II, III
Kim Davis, Blue Spring Park, Inc., TF II
Don Bennink, North Florida Holsteins, Inc., TF II
Doug Shaw, The Nature Conservancy, TF II, III
Chuck Edwards, poultry farmer, TF III

Technical Advisors
Florida Department of Environmental Protection
Karl Kurka, Office of Water Policy
Kathleen Toolan, Office of General Counsel
Joe Hand, Division of Water Resource Management
Jennifer Jackson, Division of Water Resource Management
Jim McNeal, Division of Water Resource Management
Harley Means, Florida Geological Survey
Florida Department of Community Affairs
Richard Deadman






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Florida Department of Health
Tim Mayer
Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission
Kent Smith
Karst Environmental Services
Tom Morris
St. Johns River Water Management District
David Miracle
Bill Osburn
Suwannee River Water Management District
David Hornsby
US Fish and Wildlife Service
Jim Valade

CLASSIFICATION OF SPRINGS

There are two general types of springs in Florida, seeps (water-table springs) and karst
springs (artesian springs). Rainwater, percolating downward through permeable sedi-
ments, may encounter a much less permeable or impermeable formation, forcing the water
to move laterally. Eventually the water may reach the surface in a lower-lying area and
form a seep (for example the steephead seeps along the eastern side of the Apalachicola
River). Karst springs form when groundwater discharges to the surface through a karst
opening. Seeps may form in karst areas when water flow from the aquifer is more diffuse.
The vast majority of Florida's more than 700 identified springs and all of the first magni-
tude springs are karst springs.

Springs are most often classified based upon the average discharge of water. Individual
springs exhibit variable discharge depending upon rainfall, recharge and groundwater with-
drawals within their recharge areas. One discharge measurement is enough to place a
spring into one of the eight magnitude categories. However, springs have dynamic flows. A
spring categorized as being a first-magnitude spring at one moment in time may not con-
tinue to remain in the same category. This can result in a spring being classified as a first
magnitude spring at one point in time and a second magnitude at another. A spring assigned
a magnitude when it was first described continued with that magnitude designation even
though the discharge may have changed considerably through time. The Florida Geological
Survey has suggested that the historical median of flow measurements be utilized in classi-
fying spring magnitude. Therefore, the magnitude of the spring is to be based on the medi-
an value of all discharge measurements for the period of record and a historical category is
defined in the Florida Springs Classification System (Copeland, 2003).

The location of a discharge measurement is critical for defining the magnitude of a
spring. Whenever possible, a discharge measurement should be restricted to a vent or seep;
however, this is often impractical or logistically impossible. For example, the only place to
take a measurement may be in a spring run downstream where multiple springs have dis-
charged into the run. For this reason, whenever a discharge measurement or water sample
is taken, the springs (vents or seeps) included in the measurement need to be reported. The
exact location of the discharge measurement (using a Global Positioning System with
approved locational specifications) and a standardized locational reference point for each
measurement is encouraged (Copeland, 2003).






BULLETIN NO. 66


The flow-based classification listed below is adapted from Meinzer (1927):

Magnitude Average Flow (Discharge)

1 100 cfs or more (64.6 mgd or more) cfs = cubic feet per second
2 10 to 100 cfs (6.46 to 64.6 mgd) mgd = million gallons per day
3 1 to 10 cfs (0.646 to 6.46 mgd) gpm = gallons per minute
4 100 gpm to 1 cfs (448 gpm) pint/min = pints per minute
5 10 to 100 gpm
6 1 to 10 gpm
7 1 pint to 1 gpm
8 Less than 1 pint/min

Current Florida Geological Survey springs tabulations list 720 springs including 33 first
magnitude, 191 second magnitude and 151 third magnitude springs (Figure 3). The list
includes individual springs, spring groups, karst windows and river rises (Appendix B).
Wilson and Skiles (1989) believe this listing has created some confusion due to the grouping
of hydrogeologically unrelated springs into groups and the inclusion of river rises and karst
windows. Often, individual springs comprising a group do not have the same water source
region or spring recharge basin (springshed) and are not hydrogeologically related. The
individual spring vents within a group may not discharge enough water to be classed as first
magnitude. Wilson and Skiles (1989) recommended grouping only hydrogeologically relat-
ed springs into spring groups. However, for the purposes of this report, spring groups are
used in the report as presented by Rosenau et al. (1977) and by the Florida Springs Task
Force (2000).

River rises are the resurgence of river water that descended underground through a
sinkhole some distance away. Wilson and Skiles (1989) state that the resurging water may
contain a significant portion of aquifer water but is primarily river water and therefore
should not be classified as a spring. Due to the inclusion of a significant addition of ground-
water, river rises have continued to be considered as springs for this report.

Karst windows form when the roof of a cave collapses exposing an underground stream
for a short distance. Four karst windows are included in this report.

Future springshed (spring recharge basin) delineations will identify the hydrogeological
relationships between springs, facilitating changes in the springs list. The identification of
these hydrogeological relationships will be carried out considering the recommendations put
forth by Wilson and Skiles (1989) and by hydrogeologists representing government agencies,
the private sector and academia.

The Florida spring classification system (Copeland, 2003) (Table 1) is based on an
assumption that karst activities have influenced almost all springs in Florida. Thus the sys-
tem is based on geomorphology. Because of the simplicity of the system, the use of spring
descriptors is encouraged.

Under this system, all springs in Florida can be classified into one of four categories,
based on the spring's point of discharge. Is the point of discharge a vent or is it a seep and






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


q *J*, o 3 _

--. -'.- -
'0
IIi
V.W


0 25 50 Miles A
Nme
0 00o Kilometers


- -
n ~ ~


o9
U


&- -



t -oG ? -

Ai '-


Ci


Figure 3. Location of Florida's springs.


is the point of discharge located onshore or offshore? Since all springs are either vents or
seeps, the classification can be simplified into the following:


Vent
Onshore
Offshore


Seep
Onshore
Offshore


Spring throat opening size is an extremely important characteristic of Florida springs.
A spring vent is defined as an opening that concentrates ground-water discharge to the
Earth's surface, including the bottom of the ocean. The opening is significantly larger than
that of the average pore space of the surrounding aquifer matrix. As an example, a vent
occasionally is considered to be a cave, and ground-water flow from the vent is typically tur-
bulent. On the other hand, a spring seep is composed of one or more small openings in which
water discharges diffusely (or "oozes") from the ground-water environment. The diffuse dis-
charge originates from the intergranular pore spaces in the aquifer matrix. Flow is typical-
ly laminar.


* 462 F(GS Visiled 'priair;
O 'prinp'N Database
_ Waler
- C:niunly Bnundariet


/


7_1


\






BULLETIN NO. 66


Table 1. Florida's Spring Classification System.
(from Copeland, 2003)

SPRING
Onshore Offshore
Vent Onshore Vent Offshore Vent
Examples: Examples:
Karst spring Offshore karst spring
Resurgence (River Rise) Unnamed offshore vent
Estavelle (intermittent Offshore estavelle vent
resurgence or exsurgence)
Subaqueous riverine vent
Subaqueous lacustrine vent
Sand boil
Seep Onshore Seep Offshore Seep
Examples: Examples:
Subaerial riverine seep Unnamed offshore seep
Subaqueous lacustrine seep Offshore estavelle seep


Using this scheme, individual springs type can
type of spring and the magnitude.


be accurately classified by defining the


Historically, there have been inconsistencies in the naming of springs. We have
attempted to make names more precise in this volume. For example, a spring site that phys-
ically has one vent is no longer referred to as springs Wakulla Springs becomes Wakulla
Spring. Also, if a river rise or a karst window was called a spring, the term river rise or
karst window now replaces "spring" in the name.

There are many "Blue Springs" in Florida. FDEP scientists have adopted the conven-
tion of referring to these springs with the county name placed before the name "Blue
Spring." Thus, Blue Spring in Jackson County becomes Jackson Blue Spring.

ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND PALEONTOLOGICAL
SIGNIFICANCE OF SPRINGS

Archaeological research has shown that Florida's springs have been important to
human inhabitants for thousands of years. Prehistoric peoples exploited the concentration
of resources found in and around springs. Fresh water, chert, clay, fish and game animals
were all available in and near springs.

Florida's first people, called paleoindians, left behind evidence of their culture in the
form of chert, bone and ivory tools that date to more than 12,000 years before present
(Figure 4) (Dunbar et al., 1988). These people coexisted with large, now extinct, megafau-
nal animals including mastodon, mammoth, ground sloth, giant beaver and giant armadil-
lo. During the latest Pleistocene Epoch, 10,000 to 12,000 years ago, sea level was approxi-
mately 115 to 148 ft (35 to 45 m) below present levels (Balsillie and Donoghue, in prepara-
tion, 2004). Deep springs and sinkholes may have been some of the only sources of fresh
water in parts of ancient Florida. Investigations at Wakulla Spring, Hornsby Springs,






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


\





















Figure 4. Native American artifacts from Florida springs
(from the Coastal Plains Institute collection -photo by H. Means).
Ichetucknee Springs, Silver Springs and the Wacissa River to name a few have shown
that paleoindians lived around springs and utilized the resources of these areas (Tesar and
Jones, 2004; Neill, 1958; Balsillie et al., in press).

Silver Springs has long drawn curious visitors to its shores (Schmidt, 2001). Before
glass-bottom boat tours and water slides invaded this magnificent spring, prehistoric people
had discovered its beauty and abundant resources. Evidence of their occupation lies buried
in sediments in and around the spring. W. T. Neill (1958) discovered the tools of ancient
people in sand that was being excavated near the spring for use in the park. An excavation
of the site produced a stratified column with paleoindian artifacts at the base and evidence
of younger cultures on top. This is one of many such excavations that have taken place
around the state at different springs and documents the long history of human occupation
at springs.

Divers and spring visitors have reported finding chert tools and fossils in and around
Florida's numerous springs and spring runs for many years. In 1927, the Simpson family
began to investigate the bottom of the Ichetucknee River (Simpson, 1935). The Simpsons
recovered thousands of stone and bone artifacts along with numerous remains of extinct
Pleistocene animals. In the 1950s the sport of SCUBA diving made the aquatic world acces-
sible. With this new technology, legendary diver Ben Waller began to survey the bottom of
many of central Florida's spring-fed rivers (Waller, 1983). He recognized quickly that these
springs and spring runs contained a long prehistoric record of human occupation spanning
some 12,000 years. After Ben's pioneering work, many others have followed and continue
to do so today.
More evidence of prehistoric human utilization of springs comes from Warm Mineral






BULLETIN NO. 66


Springs, located in Sarasota County. Archaeologists recovered human remains from a ledge
located 43 ft (13 m) below the current water level that contained preserved brain material.
The remains were radiocarbon dated and produced an age of 10,000 +/- 200 years before
present (Royal and Clark, 1960). Other archaeological material and fossils were recovered
from this site, which has proven to be one of the most important archaeological sites in the
southeastern United States.

Florida's abundance of springs does not stop at its present shoreline. Florida has an
undocumented number of offshore springs that provided resources to prehistoric people and
wildlife when sea level was lower. Evidence for occupation of offshore sites has been dis-
covered by researchers from the Florida State University Department of Anthropology. Dr.
Michael Faught and his students have conducted offshore surveys at and near some offshore
springs and have recovered an abundance of chert tools (Faught, in prep.). Although off-
shore springs may be discharging brackish to saline water today, they almost certainly dis-
charged fresh water during times of lowered sea levels when prehistoric human occupation
occurred at these sites. Further investigation of Florida's offshore springs is needed to
assess the role that these springs play in the hydrogeology and archaeology of the state.

As the Pleistocene Epoch came to a close in Florida, many environmental changes were
taking place. The large megafaunal animals that once had roamed the Florida landscape
were becoming extinct. Global weather patterns changed, and sea level began to rise. As
these drastic changes occurred, Florida's human inhabitants had to adapt. As water tables
rose, springs became more abundant and people continued to exploit the resources in and
around the springs. Prehistoric peoples living around springs built large shell middens and
mounds as they disposed of the inedible portions of their food items and other waste.
Numerous examples of these mounds exist throughout the state with some of the best exam-
ples being located along spring runs that drain into the St. John's River, the King's Bay
Spring Group near Crystal River and the spring-fed Wacissa River system. Abundant sup-
plies of fresh water, aquatic food sources, chert and clay sources made Florida's springs
highly desirable habitation sites.

Sediments in and around Florida's springs are time capsules that contain valuable
information about our environmental and cultural past. Prehistoric Floridians valued our
state's spring resources and now modern Floridians are the stewards of a tradition that has
lasted for more than 12,000 years. As our state's population continues to grow, more and
more people will be putting demands on our natural resources. It is our modern society's
responsibility to see that Florida's springs are preserved in their natural beauty and eco-
logical health for future generations.


HYDROGEOLOGY OF FLORIDA SPRINGS

Florida enjoys a humid, subtropical climate throughout much of the state (Henry, 1998).
Rainfall, in the region of the major springs, ranges from 50 inches (127 cm) to 60 inches (152
cm) per year. As a result of this climate and the geologic framework of the state, Florida has
an abundance of fresh groundwater. Scott and Schmidt (2000) and Scott (2001) estimated
that more than 2.2 quadrillion gallons of fresh water are contained within the Floridan
aquifer system (FAS) in Florida. Only a very small percentage of the fresh water is available
as a renewable resource for human consumption.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The Florida peninsula is the exposed portion of the broad Florida Platform. The Florida
Platform, as measured between the 200 meter below sea level contour (more than 600 ft), is
more than 300 miles (483 km) wide. It extends more than 150 miles (240 km) westward
under the Gulf of Mexico offshore from Crystal River, and more than 70 miles (113 km)
under the Atlantic Ocean from Fernandina Beach. The present day Florida peninsula is less
than one half of the total platform.

The Florida Platform is composed of a thick sequence of variably permeable carbonate
sediments, limestone and dolostone, lying on older igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary
rocks. The Cenozoic carbonate sediments may exceed 4,000 ft (1,220 m) thick. A sequence
of sand, silt and clay with variable amounts of limestone and shell overlie the carbonate
sequence (see Scott [1992 a, b] for discussion of the Cenozoic sediment sequence and the geo-
logic structure of the platform). In portions of the west-central and north-central peninsu-
la and in the central panhandle, the carbonate rocks, predominantly limestone, occur at or
very near the surface. Away from these areas, the overlying sand, silt and clay sequence
becomes thicker. As the sediments compacted and were subjected to other geologic forces,
fractures formed. These fractures allowed water to move more freely through the sediments
and provided the template for the development of Florida's many cave systems.

There are three major aquifer systems in Florida, The Floridan, the Intermediate and
the Surficial Aquifer Systems, all of which are very complex (Southeastern Geological
Society, 1986; Scott, 1992a). The Floridan aquifer system (FAS) occurs within a thick
sequence of permeable carbonate sediments (see Miller [1986] and Berndt et al. [1998] for
discussion of the FAS). In some areas, it is overlain by the intermediate aquifer system and
confining unit (IAS) which consists of carbonates, sand, silt and clay. The surficial aquifer
system (SAS) overlies the IAS, or the FAS where the IAS is absent, and is composed of sand,
shell and some carbonate. The vast majority of Florida's springs result from discharge from
the FAS.

Natural recharge to the FAS by rainwater, made slightly acidic by carbon dioxide from
the atmosphere and organic acids in the soil, dissolved portions of the limestone and
enlarged naturally occurring fractures. The dissolution enhanced the permeability of the
sediments and formed cavities and caverns. Sinkholes formed by the collapse of overlying
sediments into the cavities. Occasionally, the collapse of the roof of a cave creates an open-
ing to the land surface. See Lane (1986) for a description of sinkhole types common in
Florida.

Karst springs occur both onshore and offshore in Florida. Currently, little is known
about the offshore springs with the exception of the Spring Creek Group the largest spring
group in Florida averaging more than one billion gallons of water discharged per day (max-
imum flow estimated at more than two billion gallons of water per day [Rosenau et al.,
1977]) (Lane, 2001). In order to better understand the water resources of the state, a water
budget needs to include a comprehensive assessment of the total amount of recharge and
discharge occurring to and from the aquifer. To aid in this characterization, the FGS has ini-
tiated a program to investigate the occurrence, discharge and water quality of the offshore
springs.

Florida's springs occur primarily in the northern two-thirds of the peninsula and the






BULLETIN NO. 66


central panhandle where carbonate rocks are at or near the land surface (Figure 5). All of
these springs produce water from the upper FAS (Berndt et al., 1998) which consists of sed-
iments that range in age from Late Eocene (approximately 38 36 million years old [my]) to
mid-Oligocene (approximately 33 my). Miocene to Pleistocene sediments (24 my to 10,000
years) often are exposed in the springs.

The geomorphology physiographyy) of the state, coupled with the geologic framework,
controls the distribution of springs. The springs occur in areas where karst features (for
example, sinkholes and caves) are common, the potentiometric surface of the FAS is high
enough and the surface elevations are low enough to allow groundwater to flow at the sur-
face. These areas are designated karst plains, karst hills and karst hills and valleys on
Figure 6. The state's springs occur primarily within the Ocala Karst District and the
Dougherty Karst Plain District (Scott, in preparation, 2004). Other springs, including
Alexander, Silver Glen and Volusia Blue, occur in the Central Lakes District (Scott, in
preparation, 2004). Springs generally occur in lowlands near rivers and streams. There are
a number of springs known to flow from vents beneath rivers and many more are thought
to exist. Hornsby and Ceryak (1998) identified many newly recognized springs that occur in
the channels of the Suwannee and Santa Fe Rivers. Springs that have yet to be described
have been found beneath the Apalachicola River between Gadsden and Jackson Counties
(H. Means, personal communication, 2004).

Recharge to the FAS occurs over approximately 55% of the state (Berndt et al., 1998).
Recharge rates vary from less than one inch (2.54 cm) per year to more than ten inches (25.4
cm) per year. Recharge water entering the upper FAS that eventually discharges from a
spring has a variable residence time. Katz et al. (2001) and Katz (2004) found that water
flowing from larger springs had an average ground-water residence time of more than 20
years and may reflect the mixing of older and younger waters.

Discharge, water quality and temperature of springs remain reasonably stable over
extended periods of time (Berndt et al., 1998). However, because discharge rates are driv-
en by the rate of recharge, climatic fluctuations often have a major effect on spring flow.

During 1998 2002, Florida suffered a major drought with a rainfall deficit totaling
more than 50 inches (127 cm). The resulting reduction in recharge from the drought and
normal withdrawals caused a lowering of the potentiometric surface in the FAS. Many first
magnitude springs experienced a significant flow reduction. Some springs, such as Hornsby
Spring, ceased flowing completely. The flow data given for each first order magnitude spring
(see individual spring descriptions) reflect the drought-influenced flows. Some springs may
reverse flow in response to river water levels. Higher river levels may cause a reversal of
flow that introduces river water into the aquifer. Once river levels drop, the spring flow
resumes, pumping dark, tannic water until the river water is forced from the aquifer. The
appearance of the springs also changed during the drought as river and lake levels declined
reducing the size of the spring water body and exposing more sediments along the banks.

Factors affecting quality and quantity of spring water include the distribution of karst
features within a springshed, thickness of confining units, soil characteristics, topography,
potentiometric surfaces, as well as others. The Florida Geological Survey is currently
developing a Geographic Information System (GIS) model to estimate the relative vulnera-







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Generalized Geologic Map
of the
State of Florida


S--.-


I'


li.% p..,-.1


1 .
I...r


LEGEND

Holocene
Pleistocene
Pliocene/Pleistocene
Pliocene
Miocene
SOligocene
SEocene


Figure 5. Generalized geologic map of Florida (modified from Scott et al., 2001).


S\
t






BULLETIN NO. 66


Karst Areas Related to
First Magnitude Springs


977


*kl.


%*p.,-


LEGEND
Karst Hills
Karst Hills & Valleys
Karst Plains
Other


Figure 6. Karst areas related to first magnitude springs
(modified from Scott, in preparation).


,








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


ability of Florida's aquifer systems: the Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment (FAVA).
FAVA uses a statistical method, called Weights of Evidence, to quantify relationships
between spatial layers with measured contaminant occurrences. This yields a data-driven
predictive model or relative probability map of the aquifer being assessed. The model uti-
lizes many of the following spatial layers: depth to water table, thickness of confining units,
soil drainage and spatial distribution of karst features. FAVA will replace a formerly used
model and will more accurately define areas that are highly vulnerable to ground-water con-
tamination. FAVA will be a powerful tool for identifying highly vulnerable areas within
springsheds and is designed to assist land managers and urban planners in making
informed decisions about land use and ground-water resource conservation (Figure 7).










r 7 Wekiwa Spring
S Training Pints
W ekiva River SA
W County Boundaries
Calculated Response
L- aRelative uLnerabWiitv
Highest




W E

"- L 1Wekiva R. Topo Basin
Weknva R. GW Basin
C It River








F-o
W' .'..==" I t I ] I i t i











Figure 7. Example of the Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment (FAVA).






BULLETIN NO. 66


Springsheds

There has been increased emphasis in the last few years on the drainage basins that
supply water to Florida's springs as a result of awareness of increasing trends in contami-
nants, such as nitrate (Figure 8). The amount of water and the nature and concentrations
of chemical constituents that discharge from a spring are functions of the geology, hydrolo-
gy, and land uses within the ground- and surface-water drainage basins that collect water
for discharge from the spring.


Median Nitrate Concentrations in 13

Selected First-Magnitude Springs in Florida


1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0


1970


1980 1990 2000


Year

Figure 8. Median nitrate concentrations in 13 selected
first magnitude springs in Florida.


Ground-water basins are traditionally identified through either (1) construction of a
flow net and identifying divergent flow lines that delineate the hydraulic divides of the
spring drainage system, (2) particle tracking within a computer-generated ground-water
flow model, or (3) dye or chemical tracing to identify sources that contribute to the spring
discharge. All of these methods have uncertainties. For example, delineation of a basin
boundary from a flow net or potentiometric surface map is limited to the accuracy and res-
olution of the map and the flow lines which are subject to change with variations in rainfall,
land use, and ground-water withdrawals. The accuracy of the computer model and our
understanding of the aquifer system limit the accuracy of particle-tracking procedures.
Dyes and other chemicals can be used to identify sources within a basin, but the chemicals
may not be detected if they are (1) too diluted in the aquifer, (2) removed from the water


I I I I






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


(movement is retarded) by chemical interactions with aquifer materials, (3) transported to
an un-monitored conduit system, or (4) travel times may be so slow that monitoring may not
be feasible.

A spring recharge basin, or springshed, consists of "those areas within ground- and sur-
face-water basins that contribute to the discharge of the spring" (DeHan, 2002; Copeland,
2003). The spring recharge basin consists of all areas where water can be shown to con-
tribute to the ground-water flow system that discharges from the spring of interest. Because
karst systems frequently include sinking streams that transmit surface water directly to the
aquifer, the recharge basin may include surface-water drainage basins that bring water into
the spring drainage from outside of the ground-water basin. This concept is important
because contaminated surface water may be introduced to the springshed from sources well
outside of the ground-water basin by streams that originate outside the basin.

The scenario shown in Figure 9 illustrates some possible contribution areas within a
spring recharge basin. Two components of the springshed are shown: the ground-water
basin and a surface-water basin. A portion of the ground-water basin is located within a
karst plain where recharge is rapid through features such as sinkholes. Another portion
extends under a highlands area where fine-grained sediments overlying the aquifer retard
recharge and cause surface runoff and stream development. Because of the area of aquifer
confinement, the active recharge portion of the ground-water basin is limited to unconfined
portions of the basin. The surface-water basin may or may not extend outside the ground-
water basin. The stream that originates on the highlands discharges onto the karst plain
where it recharges the aquifer through a swallet. The hypothetical springshed (Figure 9)
suggests that a springshed may be subdivided into at least three recharge-potential cate-
gories. The semi-confined area of the ground-water basin has low recharge potential and,
therefore, low risk of ground-water contamination. The areas nearest the spring, where flow
lines converge and transport times from recharge points (i.e., sinkholes) are short, and areas
associated with swallets that receive surface water are highly vulnerable to ground-water
contamination. Finally, the portions of the karst plain within the ground-water basin that
are distant from the spring have an intermediate risk of contributing contamination to the
spring discharge because of possible long travel times of water to the spring and a high prob-
ability of dilution or retardation of constituents. The stream is a special problem because
storm water and permitted discharges upstream can cause contamination issues down gra-
dient of the swallet. Similarly, water sources that originate outside of the springshed can
cause potential contamination. For example, a sewage treatment plant that collects water
from outside of the basin and disposes of the treated wastewater by land application can con-
stitute a source that effectively extends the springshed to those portions of the wastewater
collection system outside of the springshed.

The Suwannee River Water Management District has developed high-resolution moni-
toring programs for a number of first-magnitude spring systems, including the Ichetucknee
Spring Group (Upchurch et al., 2001). High-resolution monitoring for water levels and
water quality involves placement of a large number of monitoring wells within the spring
basin. The number and spacing of the wells is determined by statistical methods (Upchurch,
et al., 2001; Upchurch and Champion, 2003). As a result of the numerous monitoring wells,
contour maps with higher resolution than normal (i.e., 1-foot contour intervals as opposed
to 5-foot intervals) can be prepared.





BULLETIN NO. 66


Ground
Water
Basin


Swallet


Primary
Contribution
Zone


Spring Run


SSpring C


Karst Plain


Figure 9. Idealized springshed delineation.


r
r


,c~citi
oo






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Figure 10 is an example that incorporates many of the features of the hypothetical
springshed with a high-resolution potentiometric surface map used as a basis for delineation
of the ground-water basin. This map, prepared for data collected in September 2003, shows
the ground-water basin as defined by the potentiometric surface map of the upper FAS.
Maps prepared for other time periods suggest that the basin boundaries change slightly over
time. The zone where the isopotential lines are close together is the transition from the
unconfined karst plain (Ocala Karst District) to the highlands where the FAS is confined.
Up gradient from this transition zone, aquifer vulnerability is low; down gradient it is high.
Aquifer vulnerability is particularly high in the transition zone where streams coming off
the highlands discharge into swallets in the karst plain. The hatchered portion represents
the drainage basins of the more important of those streams. Lake City is located on this
transition zone and runoff from portions of the city as well as from a wastewater land appli-
cation area enters the shaded area.


Figure 10. Potentiometric map of a springshed.






BULLETIN NO. 66


Delineation of ground- and surface-water portions of springsheds, identification of
major swallets that receive storm water, and identification of land uses that may lead to con-
tributions of nutrients or other constituents into the ground-water system are important
steps in protecting Florida springs. High-resolution monitoring is an important aspect of
this effort where the margins of the ground-water basin may include significant contamina-
tion sources or ground-water withdrawals. In addition, it allows for recognition of vulnera-
ble recharge areas and potential jurisdictional issues.

Spring Water

Natural Factors Affecting Water Quality

In order to fully understand the water quality of Florida's springs, a rudimentary under-
standing of the origin and chemistry of Florida's groundwater is needed. Most people are
aware that Florida is surrounded on three sides by salt water. Many are unaware howev-
er, that salt water also underlies the entire state. The reason for this is that the Florida
Platform consists of carbonate rocks that were deposited in a shallow ocean. At the time of
deposition of the rocks under the ocean, salt water existed in their intergranular pore
spaces. Gradually over geologic time, sea level was lowered relative to its position when the
carbonate sediments were deposited. Through compaction and downwarping of sediments
on both sides of the Platform, a series of complex fracture patterns developed. The patterns
are often reflected at land surface and have actually influenced the pathways of many of
Florida's streams.

As sea level lowered, the central portion of the Florida Platform was exposed to the
atmosphere. Over time, rainfall percolated downward and eventually replaced the upper
portion of salt water in the carbonates with a fresh water "lens." Today, the "lens" is gen-
erally deepest in the central portion of the state and becomes narrower toward Florida's
coastline. The lens is over 2,000 feet thick at its maximum (Klein, 1975). It should be
understood that the base of the lens is transitional rather than a sharp boundary.
Groundwater in the deeper portion of the lens, and along our coasts, is mixed and has rela-
tively high concentrations of saline indicators such as sodium (Na), chloride (Cl), and sulfate
(804).

Water discharging from Florida's springs has its ultimate source from rainfall. Much of
the rainfall reaching land surface flows overland to surface-water bodies, evaporates or is
transpired by plants. However, a portion of the rainfall percolates downward through the
sediments where it recharges our aquifers. During its travel downward from land surface
to the water table, and while water resides within Florida's aquifer systems, many factors
affect the water chemistry.

Residence time is the length of time that water is in contact with a particular portion of
an aquifer system (Upchurch, 1992). A long residence time may allow sufficient time for
chemical reactions between the water and the aquifer rock. As such, water chemistry
reflects the composition of the aquifer rock. Typical residence times range from several days
to thousands of years depending on the nature of the flow system (Hanshaw et al., 1965).

A second factor affecting ground-water chemistry is its flow path, which is the length
and depth of the path that the groundwater follows as it flows through an aquifer






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


(Upchurch, 1992). In general, shallow, short flow paths, which are characteristic of the SAS,
result in low residence times for chemical reactions. Consequently, the total dissolved solid
(TDS) content is less than in longer flow-path systems. If the flow path is long (on the order
of tens of kilometers), such as commonly occurs in the FAS, reactions between rock and
water become more probable and the TDS content of the water increases as a result of con-
tinued rock-water chemical reactions. Because of its residence time and flow path, spring
water quality is typically reflective of the interactions of the major rock types of the source
aquifer and water within it.

A third factor that is of particular interest is intergranular porosity (pores through
which water passes between the individual rock matrix grains). Even though Florida's karst
features suggest the existence of large, secondary cavernous pores spaces, most of the pores
tend to be small (Upchurch, 1992). Fortunately, whenever the pore throats are very small,
they act as filters for microbes, small organic substances, and clay minerals. In general, this
results in very clean groundwater that is extremely desirable for both drinking water and
recreational purposes. Unfortunately, some contaminants originating from our land use
activities are not always removed and contaminate groundwater.

Indicators of Water Quality Problems

Spring water, when it is in the aquifer, is considered to be groundwater. However, once
spring water exits from the spring vent onto the earth's surface, it is considered to be sur-
face water. Because of this change, the question arises whether scientists and regulators
should apply ground-water or surface-water quality standards to the water. Contaminant
criteria thresholds may exist for an analyte while the water is considered groundwater, but
not for surface water; or vice versa. Nitrate (NO, + NO2 as N) is a good example. Based on
drinking water criteria, nitrate has a groundwater threshold value of 10 mg/1 (FDEP, 1994).
However, no nitrate criteria exist for surface water. The FDEP Division of Water Resource
Management is currently developing criteria for spring water. Until legal criteria are estab-
lished, it should be understood that any reference to threshold values in the following text
simply infers potential water-quality problems.

One of the more disturbing aspects about Florida's spring water quality has been the
documented steady increase of nitrate over the past several decades (Jones et al., 1996;
Champion and DeWitt, 2000; Means et al., 2003). Figure 8 displays the nitrate increase in
13 selected first-magnitude springs (Alexander, Chassahowitzka Main, Fanning,
Ichetucknee Main, Jackson Blue, Madison Blue, Manatee, Rainbow Group composite, Silver
Main, Silver Glen, Volusia Blue, Wakulla, and Wacissa #2 Springs) between the 1970s and
the early 2000s.

Of the 125 spring vents sampled in 2001-2002, none had nitrate concentrations exceed-
ing the 10 mg/1 threshold for drinking water. The natural background nitrate concentra-
tions in groundwater in Florida are less than 0.05 mg/1 (Maddox et al., 1992). Of the spring
vents sampled, 52 had nitrate concentrations exceeding 0.50 mg/1 (42%) and 30 (24%) had
concentrations greater than 1.00 mg/1. Thus, over 40% of the sampled springs have at least
a ten-fold increase in nitrate concentrations above background and approximately one quar-
ter of them have at least a 20-fold increase. The effect of the increased concentrations of
nitrate in surface water is not fully understood. Increasing nitrate concentrations may
adversely affect the aquatic ecosystem in springs and spring runs. Further research is still






BULLETIN NO. 66


needed and is currently being sponsored by the Springs Initiative.

The FDEP is aware of the nitrate issues and has worked with other governmental agen-
cies to develop a series of steps to reduce nitrate concentrations in our groundwater and
springs in the middle Suwannee River Basin where many of Florida's springs are located
(Copeland et al., 2000). The FDEP Bureau of Watershed Management and the Florida
Department of Community Affairs are active in coordinating the development of springs
protection measures. In addition, in September 2003, Governor Bush and the Florida
Cabinet voted unanimously to strengthen protection for Florida's freshwater springs.
Improvements to the Florida Springs Rule, currently being proposed by FDEP, are designed
to increase protection for water quality, flow and habitats.

Another spring-water quality concern is the influence of saline water. Sixteen of the
sampled springs are "salty." Of these 16 springs, 13 had concentrations of chloride (a saline
indicator) exceeding the 250 mg/1 threshold for drinking water. Springs with this type of
water tend to be located along Florida's coast and along the St. Johns River. The ultimate
source of the saline indicators is from naturally occurring saline water within the FAS
(Klein, 1975). The saline water may cause water-quality changes in spring water as the
result of natural circumstances such as drought and upwelling within the FAS. The changes
may also be attributed to ground-water withdrawal.

Bacteria, such as enterococci and fecal coliform, represent a third concern regarding
spring water quality. It is generally believed that these bacteria originate in fecal matter
from warm blooded animals (Center for Disease Control, 2004). Fecal coliform concentra-
tions in 23 springs (18%) exceed the drinking water threshold (FDEP, 1994) of four colonies
per 100 ml. However, because it has been determined that these bacteria can complete their
normal life-cycle outside of warm-blooded animals, especially in a warm environment as in
parts of Florida (Fjuioka and Byappanahalli, 2004), the concentrations of fecal coliform may
not necessarily represent a direct link to warm-blooded animal pathogens. Further research
is needed before definitive conclusions can be made regarding the source of the fecal bacte-
ria.
FDEP encourages the development of best management practices (BMPs). BMPs are land
use strategies designed to reduce pollution to our environment. In an effort to reduce nitrate
concentrations in spring water FDEP cooperates with over 20 government and private
organizations to develop and implement BMPs for the middle Suwannee River Basin where
many of Florida's springs are located. It is believed that the net result of the BMPs will
ultimately result in a reduction of nitrate concentration in spring water in the region.

The Florida Springs Initiative addresses the nitrate and microbiological issues by pro-
viding funds for the monitoring of nitrate in springs and by sponsoring research on the
microbiology of caves and spring water. The FDEP also works very closely with the water
management districts in monitoring salt-water intrusion and in the establishment of mini-
mum flows for our streams and minimum levels for our aquifers. Florida law (Chapter 373,
Florida Statutes) requires Florida's water management districts to establish minimum flows
and levels (MFLs) for water courses, water bodies, and aquifers. The goal of the minimum
flows and levels program is "to establish minimum flows and levels in accordance with
Chapter 373.042, Florida Statutes, to protect Florida's water resources from significant
harm caused by water withdrawals or diversions." Minimum flows and levels are designed
to assure adequate quantities of water for our streams and springs. This statute also pro-






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


vides authority to reserve water from permit allocation to protect fish and wildlife (Chapter
373.223(4) Florida Statutes). These water reservations provide the highest level of protec-
tion allowed by law and will aid in protecting historical spring flows.

Offshore Springs

Offshore or submarine springs are known to exist off Florida's Atlantic and Gulf of
Mexico coastlines. These springs are most common in the offshore portion of the Florida
Platform from Tampa north and west to the Ochlocknee River south-southwest of
Tallahassee. Offshore springs have also been identified off the northern and southwestern
parts of the peninsula and the western panhandle (Rosenau et al., 1977) (Figure 11). Water-
quality data from some of these springs indicate that, at best, the water is brackish.
Anecdotally, there are reports of "fresh water" flowing from offshore springs.


Figure 11. Offshore springs (from Rosenau et al., 1977).


SUBMARINE SPRINGS
1. Bear Creek Spring
2. Cedar Island Spring
3. Cedar Island Springs
4. Choctawhatchee Springs
5. Grays Rise
6. Crescent Beach
7. Crystal Beach Spring
8. Freshwater Cave
9. Mud Hole
10. Ocean Hole Spring
11. Ray Hole Spring
12. Red Snapper Sink
13. Spring Creek Springs Group
14. Tarpon Springs
15. Jewfish Hole
16. Unnamed Spring No. 4






BULLETIN NO. 66


The area offshore from Tampa to the Ochlocknee River has carbonate rocks of the FAS
exposed on the sea bottom or slightly buried. At lower sea levels, particularly during the
Pleistocene, this area was exposed and dissolution created numerous karst features. Many
of these sinkholes are known to fisherman and divers (Figure 12). Some offshore karst fea-
tures are springs but how many of the karst features discharge water is not known.
However, to fully understand the water budget of the FAS, the determination of the flows is
necessary. The FGS, along with SRWMD and SWFWMD, are investigating offshore springs
to determine flow characteristics and water quality. Results of these investigations will be
published in the near future.


'r, ,.

-- 1 Lanark Sulfur Spring
2 Lanark Spring
3 FSUML Spring
.i 4 Bay North Spring
S5 ;.. < 5 Spring Creek Group
., 6 Ocean Hole
: 6 7 / 7 Freshwater Cave
8 V 8 Econfina Spring
101 9 Spring 22
S4 -- 10 Oyster Bar Spring
S 3 11 TAY0606991
S'1 12> K 12 Cedar Island Spring
12 13 Ray Hole
13- 14 Limerock
S"'15 Steinhatchee Spring
16 Spring 1 & 2
14 15 17 Lamb Spring
14 15 p-


16 17, -
16.



Figure 12. Known offshore springs in the Florida Big Bend Region.


WATER QUALITY

Methodology

One hundred eleven springs, two submarine springs, eight river rises, and four karst
windows were sampled from September 2001 through August 2003 (Figure 13). Tidally
influenced springs were sampled at low tide to minimize the influence of salt water on the
water-quality samples. Standard FDEP sampling protocols were followed for each sampling
event (Watershed Monitoring Data Management Section, Florida Department of
Environmental Protection, 1991). Any mention of brand names does not imply an endorse-
ment by the Florida Geological Survey or the Florida Department of Environmental
Protection.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Field Parameters

Temperature, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, and pH were measured using
either a Hydrolab Quanta or a YSI data sonde (model no. 6920) and data logger (model no.
6100). Instruments were calibrated at the beginning of each sampling day. A check was per-
formed at the end of each day to ensure calibration remained accurate throughout the sam-
pling events. If the end of the day check failed, field data were qualified for all vents sam-
pled that day. For quality assurance purposes, field reference standards were analyzed and
equipment blanks were submitted every five to ten samples throughout the sampling peri-
od.
To begin each sampling
event, two or three stainless steel
weights were attached to polyeth-
ylene tubing (3/8" O.D. x 0.062"
wall) which was then lowered
into the spring vent opening,
ensuring the intake line was not
influenced by surrounding sur-
face water. Masterflex tubing
was attached to the opposite end,
run through a Master Flex E/S
portable peristaltic pump (model
no. 07571-00), and the discharge
line was fed directly into a closed
system flow chamber. The data-
sonde was inserted into the flow
chamber and water was pumped .
through with a constant flow rate
between 0.25 and 1
gallon/minute. No purge was
required because springs are con-
sidered already purged. The field
parameter values were recorded
after the field meter displayed a
stable reading (approximately 10 Figure 13. The FGS Spring Sampling Team, 2001.
min.). The tubing was adequate-
ly flushed with spring water during the gathering of field parameters. The flow chamber was
removed and sampling was conducted directly from the masterflex tubing discharge line.
Two exceptions to this sampling method occurred at Wakulla Spring and Homosassa
Springs. Both springs have pre-set pipes running down into the cave systems where the
spring vents are located. In the case of Homosassa Springs, tubes from the three vents con-
verge at an outlet box with three valves inside, one for each vent. Sampling was conducted
from these valves. At Wakulla Spring, the pipe runs to a pump on shore from which sam-
pling is conducted. The Northwest Florida Water Management District (NWFWMD)
(Wakulla Spring) and Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD)






BULLETIN NO. 66


(Homosassa Springs) designed and operated the sampling systems. Each tube was purged
for 10 minutes, as there are gallons of water remaining in tubes from the last sampling
effort. FDEP standard operating procedures were followed for water quality sampling

Water Samples

Seven to ten bottles and three Whirl-pack bags were filled with water from spring vents
and analyzed by the FDEP Bureau of Laboratories following Environmental Protection
Agency or Standard methods. All containers, with the exception of the Whirl-pak bags, were
pre-rinsed with sample water prior to filling. Four to seven bottles and three Whirl-pak
bags were filled with unfiltered water samples. A GWV high capacity in-line filter (0.45 um)
was attached to the microflex tubing and the remaining three bottles were filled with fil-
tered water samples. The number of bottles filled and the types of analytes sampled varied
between the first magnitude springs sampling effort and the second and third magnitude
spring sampling effort. The analytes sampled for each event are shown in Table 2.

Whirl-pak bags were placed on ice immediately after filling. Bottles for filtered and unfil-
tered nutrients were preserved with sulfuric acid followed by acidification of bottles for fil-
tered and unfiltered metals using nitric acid. Narrow range pH litmus paper was used to
confirm acidity of pH = 2. All water samples were placed on ice and delivered to the FDEP
Bureau of Laboratories within 24 hours. New tubing and filters were used at each sample
site.

Additional Data

General descriptions of each spring vent were made and included the aquatic, wetland,
and upland (where applicable) surroundings. Water depth was measured using a hand held
Speedtech sonar depth gauge. Distances were measured with a Bushnell Yardage Pro 500
range finder. Secchi depth (visibility depth) was obtained using a secchi disk. A Trimble
XR Pro GPS system with a TDC1 data logger was used to record latitudinal and longitudi-
nal coordinates. Field parameters, weather conditions, sampling times, water and secchi
depth, and micro-land use information were also input into the GPS unit. Micro-land uses
within 300 ft of spring vents were identified and sketched.

Discharge Measurement

Every effort was made to collaborate with various agencies to obtain the most recent
discharge rate for each spring. Discharge rates of the remaining springs were measured by
the FGS using either the Price-AA meter or the Marsh McBirney Flo-Mate. The source of
each discharge measurement is denoted in the spring descriptions with a superscript. The
legend is as follows:

(1) Rosenau et al. 1977
(2) Florida Geological Survey
(3) Northwest Florida Water Management District
(4) Suwannee River Water Management District
(5) Southwest Florida Water Management District
(6) St. Johns River Water Management District
(7) U.S. Geological Survey







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Table 2. Laboratory analytes and sample tests. Analyses performed by FDEP.



INDICATOR SAMPLE TYPE
Alkalinity Total
Alkalinity (First magnitude only) Total; Filtered
Ammonia Total
Ammonia (First magnitude only) Total; Filtered
Biological Oxygen Demand Total
Chloride Total
Chloride (First magnitude only) Total; Filtered
Color Total
E. coli (First magnitude only) Total
Enterococci Total
Fecal Coliform Total
Fluoride Total
Fluoride (First magnitude only) Total; Filtered
Metals = Arsenic, Boron, Calcium, Cadmium, Chromium, Cobalt, Copper, Iron,
Lead, Magnesium, Manganese, Nickel, Potassium, Selenium, Sodium,
Strontium, Tin, Zinc (First magnitude only) Total
Metals = Aluminum, Arsenic, Boron, Cadmium, Calcium, Cobalt, Chromium,
Copper, Iron, Lead, Magnesium, Manganese, Nickel, Potassium, Radium 226,
Radium 228, Selenium, Sodium, Strontium, Tin, Zinc (Second and third only) Total
Metals = Arsenic, Aluminum, Cadmium, Calcium, Chromium, Copper, Iron,
Lead, Magnesium, Manganese, Nickel, Potassium, Selenium, Sodium, Zinc
(First magnitude only) Filtered
Metals = Arsenic, Calcium, Cadmium, Chromium, Copper, Iron, Manganese,
Magnesium, Nickle, Lead, Potassium, Sodium, Selenium, Zinc (Second and third
magnitude only) Filtered
Nitrite-Nitrate Total
Nitrite-Nitrate (First magnitude only) Total; Filtered
Orthophosphate Filtered
Orthophosphate (First magnitude only) Total
Specific Conductance Total
Sulfate Filtered
Sulfate (First magnitude only) Total; Filtered
Total Dissolved Solids Filtered
Total Dissolved Solids (First magnitude only) Total
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen Total; Filtered
Total Organic Carbon Total
Total Phosphorus Total; Filtered
Phosphorus (First magnitude only) Total
Total Suspended Solids Total
Turbidity Total



The FGS employed the discharge measurement methodology of Buchanan and Somers
(1969) and the DEP SOP for discharge measurement was also followed (FDEP, 2002). It
should be noted that the FGS Springs Teams visited, sampled and measured discharge dur-
ing the last phase of a major drought and early in the return to normal rainfall.






BULLETIN NO. 66


Characteristics of Spring Water

Spring water discharges provide a means of determining the quality of water in the
aquifer as well as the degree of human impact in the springshed. Upchurch (1992) states
that a number of factors influence ground-water chemistry. These include the precipitation
chemistry, surface conditions at the site of recharge, soil type in the recharge area, miner-
alogy and composition of the aquifer system, nature of aquifer system porosity and struc-
ture, flow path in the aquifer, residence time of the water in the aquifer, mixing of other
waters in the aquifer system, and aquifer microbiology. Refer to Upchurch (1992) for a
detailed discussion of the factors affecting the chemistry of groundwater.

Descriptions of Analytes

Water quality of springs was determined by collecting and analyzing water samples
(Figure 13). A series of field measurements were taken on site during sample collection.
When combined, field and analytical data give a snapshot of water quality at that point in
time. Comparing similar data, taken over time, can yield information about how water qual-
ity changes over time and what may be causing these changes. Analyte descriptions are
summarized in Champion and Starks (2001), Hornsby and Ceryak (1998), Jones et al.
(1998), Maddox et al. (1992), and Smith (1992). Table 3 gives the units of measure for each
analyte.

Physical Field Parameters

Field measurements were collected prior to water sampling. They include dissolved
oxygen, pH, specific conductance, water temperature and discharge. Other observations and
data recorded in the field include local geology, weather conditions and adjacent land use
practices.

Dissolved Oxygen Oxygen readily dissolves in water. The source of oxygen can be atmos-
pheric or biological. Typically, springs that discharge water from a deep aquifer source have
a low dissolved oxygen content. On the other hand, relative to springs, the dissolved oxygen
content in river rise water is high. This is due to a greater exposure to the atmosphere and
an increase in biological activity.

pH pH measures the acidity or alkalinity of water. It is defined as the negative log of the
activity of the hydrogen ion in a solution. Values range between 0 and 14. A low pH (below
7) represents acidic conditions, and a high pH (above 7) represents alkaline conditions. A
pH of 7 indicates the water is near neutral conditions.
As raindrops form they incorporate dissolved carbon dioxide, forming weak carbonic
acid. The resulting rain has a low pH. In Florida, as rainwater passes through soil layers it
incorporates organic acids and the acidity increases.

When acidic water enters a limestone aquifer, the acids react with calcium carbonate in
the limestone and dissolution occurs. Generally, most spring water falls within a pH range
of 7 to 8. During heavy rain events, spring water can drop in pH as tannic acids from near-
by surface waters are flushed into the spring system. It should be noted that sampled river
rises tend to have a lower pH than the clear-water spring systems, due to the surface-water
component of the river rise water.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Table 3. Units of measurement.


Specific Conductance Specific conductance is a measure of the ability of a substance, in
this case spring water, to conduct electricity. The conductance is a function of the amount
and type of ions in the water. The variability of the specific conductance of spring water can
be quite high when the spring is discharging saline water or when the spring is discharging
into the marine environment.

Water Temperature Geologic material is characteristically a good insulator. Rocks and
sediments tend to buffer changes in the temperature of spring water. Thus, spring water
temperature does not vary much and tends to reflect the average annual air temperature in
the vicinity of the spring. In Florida, this temperature can range from 680F to 75F (200 C
to 240 C), plus or minus several tenths of a degree. Temperature plays a role in chemical and
biological activity within the aquifer and can help in determining residence time of the
water in the aquifer.

Discharge Discharge, or spring flow, is controlled by the potentiometric levels in the FAS.


Unit of
Analyte Abbreviation
Measure
Temperature C
Dissolved Oxygen DO mg/L
pH units

Specific Conductance Sp. Cond. pS/cm at 25 C
Biochemical Oxygen BOD mg/L

Turbidity JTU (Historical)
NTU (Current)*
C r Platinum
Color
Cobalt Units
Alkalinity as CaC3 mg/L
Total Dissolved Solids TDS mg/L
Total Suspended Solids TSS mg/L
Chloride Cl mg/L
Sulfate SO4 mg/L
Fluoride F mg/L
Total Organic Carbon TOC mg/L
Total Nitrogen NO3 NO2 mg/L
Total Ammonia NH3 NH4 mg/L
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen TKN mg/L
Total Phosphorus P mg/L
Orthophosphate as P PO4 mg/L
*JTU and NTU are approximately equivalent though not identical


Unit of
Analyte Abbreviation
Measure
Calcium Ca mg/L
Potassium K mg/L
Sodium Na mg/L

Magnesium Mg mg/L
Arsenic As pg/L
Barium Ba gg/L
Boron B gg/L

Cadmium Cd gg/L

Cobalt Co gg/L
Chromium Cr gg/L
Copper Cu gg/L
Iron Fe gg/L
Manganese Mn gg/L
Nickel Ni gg/L
Lead Pb gg/L
Selenium Se gg/L
Tin Sn gg/L
Strontium Sr gg/L
Zinc Zn gg/L






BULLETIN NO. 66


Discharge generally changes slowly in response to fluctuations in the water levels in the
aquifer. Discharge is measured in cubic feet per second or gallons per day.

Other Field Data During sample collection, total water depth, sample depth, local geolo-
gy, adjacent land use and current weather conditions are noted at each spring. This gener-
alized information can be useful in helping to determine certain water quality-related issues
of the spring. The aquatic vegetation conditions were noted along with the occurrence of
algae. For specific information on the native and invasive aquatic vegetation, there is an
annual aquatic plant survey of public waters conducted by FDEP's Bureau of Invasive Plant
Management. For information on the survey, contact the Bureau at 850-245-2809.

Secchi Depth- A measure of the cloudiness or turbidity of surface water. This method uti-
lizes a Secchi disk, a disk divided into black and white quarters, used to gauge water clari-
ty by measuring the depth at which it is no longer visible from the surface.

Laboratory Analytes

Alkalinity The alkalinity of spring water is affected primarily by the presence of bicar-
bonate, hydroxide and carbon dioxide. Highly alkaline waters are usually associated with
high pH, dissolved solids and hardness which, when combined, may be detrimental to the
aquatic environment.

Biochemical Oxygen Demand Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is a measure of the
quantity of molecular oxygen utilized in the decomposition of organic material, during a
specified incubation time, by microorganisms such as bacteria. When the BOD is high, the
depletion of oxygen can have a detrimental effect on aquatic organisms. BOD is measured
in mg/1.

Chloride (Cl) Chloride is the most abundant constituent in seawater. Springs that are
tidally influenced may have high chloride concentrations. Chloride is added to the atmos-
phere via marine aerosols from the ocean. In most Florida's springs, chloride is introduced
to the spring system via rainfall. Chloride is chemically conservative and reacts very little
with spring water.

Color The color of spring water can be affected by factors such as the presence of metallic
ions, tannic acids, biological activity and industrial waste. Generally, spring water in
Florida is clear. Color measurements are made on filtered water samples so the true color
of the water is determined. Color is reported in either color units or Platinum Cobalt units
(Pt/Co).

Nitrate + Nitrite (NO, + NO,) as N Nitrate and nitrite are both found in spring water in
Florida. Nitrate contamination recently has become a problem in Florida's springs. Nitrate
found in spring water originates from fertilizers, septic tanks and animal waste that enter
the aquifer in the spring recharge area. Nitrate, being a nutrient, encourages algal and
aquatic plant growth in spring water, which may lead to eutrophication of the spring and
the associated water body. Nitrite, which is much less of a problem, can originate from
sewage and other organic waste products.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Organic Carbon Natural and non-naturally occurring organic carbon are present in vary-
ing concentrations in spring water in Florida. The primary source of naturally occurring
organic carbon is humic substances (decaying plant material). Synthetic organic carbon rep-
resents a minor component.

Orthophosphate (PO4) Phosphate is an essential nutrient and occurs in spring water in
Florida. Unfortunately, an excess of phosphate can cause run-away plant growth and the
eutrophication of surface waters. The Hawthorn Group, a geological unit in Florida, is the
most important source of phosphate in spring water. Other sources include organic and
inorganic fertilizers, animal waste, human waste effluent and industrial waste.

Potassium (K) Potassium occurs in trace amounts in Florida's spring water and is derived
primarily from seawater. Therefore, it occurs in higher concentration along the coast. The
weathering of mica, feldspar and clay minerals can contribute potassium to spring water. In
addition, because potassium is an essential nutrient, it is a component of fertilizers.

Radium 226 & 228 (Ra226 & Ra228) Radium is a naturally occurring radioactive element
that is produced when uranium and thorium minerals decay ("break down") in the environ-
ment. Radium itself decays into other elements, and eventually to lead (Pb), but exists in
the environment long enough to be of concern in groundwater. Radium is of similar size and
nature to phosphorus and often substitutes for it. Consumption of radium isotopes can lead
to the incorporation of radium into bone and other body systems. Radium is a known car-
cinogen. Uranium-bearing minerals, the natural source of radium, are found in all of
Florida's aquifer systems in varying, usually minor, amounts.

Sodium (Na) In Florida, sodium occurring in spring water has several sources. Marine
aerosols, mixing of seawater with fresh water and the weathering of sodium-bearing miner-
als like feldspars and clays are the primary sources.

Sulfate (SO4) Sulfate is commonly found in aquifer waters in Florida and has several
sources. The two most common sources are from seawater and the dissolution of gypsum
and anhydrite (naturally occurring rock types within Florida's aquifer systems). Sulfate is
often used as a soil amendment to acidify soils, and thus is associated with agricultural
activities. Finally, disposal and industrial waste activities release sulfate to groundwater.
Sulfate-rich spring water can potentially be toxic to plants. In higher concentrations it
affects the taste of drinking water.

Total Ammonia (NH, + NH4) Ammonia (NH3) occurs in groundwater primarily as the
ammonium ion (NH4) because of the prevalent pH and reduction-oxidation potential
(Upchurch, 1992). Microbial activity within the soil and aquifer can convert other nitroge-
nous products to ammonium.

Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) Total dissolved solids is a measure of the dissolved chem-
ical constituents, primarily ions, in spring water. Concentrations in Florida's spring water
vary widely. Since most of Florida's spring water issues from carbonate aquifers, the total
dissolved solid concentrations are fairly high. Higher concentrations are found in springs
that are tidally influenced and springs that discharge into the marine environment.






BULLETIN NO. 66


Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen This is a measure of the sum of the ammonia nitrogen and
organic nitrogen in the spring water sample. The ammonia nitrogen, mainly occurring as
ammonium (NH4), occurs in trace amounts in spring water (see ammonia [NH,] above).
Organic nitrogen originates from biological sources including sewage and other waste.
FDEP regulates nitrogen, in the form of nitrates and nitrites, in drinking water in Florida
(see previous descriptions above).

Total Nitrogen The amount of nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, and organic nitrogen, when
summed, gives the total nitrogen content of spring water.

Total Suspended Solids This refers to the amount of solid material suspended in the
water column. As opposed to turbidity, total suspended solids does not take into account the
light scattering ability of the water. Total suspended solids are filtered out of the water
sample and are measured in mg/1.

Turbidity Turbidity is a measure of the colloidal suspension of tiny particles and precip-
itates in spring water. High turbidity water impedes the penetration of light and can be
harmful to aquatic life. Most Florida springs discharge water low in turbidity. Turbidity is
measured in Nephlometric Turbidity Units (NTU's).

Trace Metals

Trace metals analyzed for this report include: aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), boron (B),
calcium (Ca), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), fluoride (F), iron (Fe),
lead (Pb), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), phosphorous (P), selenium (Se),
strontium (Sr), tin (Sn) and zinc (Zn). Trace metals, when present in spring water, are found
in very low concentrations and are measured in parts per billion (ppb), or micrograms per
liter (/l). In Florida, calcium and magnesium occur in higher concentrations and are there-
fore measured in milligrams per liter.

The naturally low abundance of trace metals in Florida's groundwater can be attributed
to several factors including: low natural abundance in aquifer rocks, low solubility of metal-
bearing minerals, high adsorption potential of metal ions on clays and organic particulates
and precipitation in the form of sulfides and oxides (Upchurch, 1992). Many biochemical
processes require small amounts of some trace metals; however, higher concentrations can
be toxic. Industrialization and increased demand for products containing trace metals have
overwhelmed the natural biogeochemical cycle, and anthropogenic sources of trace metals
now far outweigh natural sources (Smith, 1992).

In Florida, lead, mercury and arsenic are among metal contaminants locally found in
groundwater that are most detrimental to human health. These contaminants, along with
other metals, can be distributed throughout the ecosystem within the atmosphere, water,
and geological materials (soils, sediments and rocks). Atmospheric pollutants, such as mer-
cury, are often the primary source of waterborne metals. These pollutants are introduced
into the atmosphere by mining operations, smelting, manufacturing activities and the com-
bustion of fossil fuels (Smith, 1992).

Historically, contamination of groundwater by lead was caused primarily by combustion
of fossil fuels containing lead additives. Lead additives were phased out of fuels in the U.S.
and Canada by 1990. Other sources of contamination still persist. Lead bioaccumulates in






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


aquatic organisms, affecting the higher trophic levels the most. In humans, lead causes
severe health problems including metabolic disorders, neurological and reproductive dam-
age and hypertension. In Florida, the Primary Standard for lead in drinking water is 15
g/L.

When trace metals are released into the environment, they are characteristically not
biodegradable and tend to stay in the environment accumulating in foodwebs and impact
ecosystems. Trace metals such as arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and silver can have adverse
effects on aquatic and terrestrial environments at low concentrations.

Biological Analytes

Spring water samples were analyzed for total coliform, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli
(E. coli), and Enterococci. These analytes are used to assess the sanitary quality of spring
water and to determine the potential for waterborne diseases (bacterial and viral). The pri-
mary source of these contaminants is fecal waste from warm-blooded animals. When spring
water samples were analyzed for total coliform, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli (E. coli), and
Enterococci bacteria. These analytes are used to assess the sanitary quality of spring water
and to determine the potential for waterborne diseases (bacterial and viral). The primary
source of these contaminants is fecal waste from warm-blooded animals. When detected in
numbers that exceed the maximum contaminant level (MCL), coliforms may indicate that
the spring has been contaminated by domestic sewage overflow or non-point sources of
human and animal waste. Measurements made on these biological analytes are reported in
colonies per 100 milliliters.

Total coliform bacteria are a group of closely related, mostly harmless bacteria that live
in the digestive tract of animals. The extent to which total coliforms are present in spring
water can indicate general water quality and the amount of fecal contamination. By further
examining fecal coliforms, E. coli and Enterococci, it is possible to estimate the amount of
human fecal contamination of the sample. Human contact with water that is contaminated
with fecal wastes can result in diseases of the digestive tract including gastroenteritis and
dysentery. Typhoid fever, hepatitis A, and cholera are also related to contact with fecally
contaminated water.






BULLETIN NO. 66


DESCRIPTIONS OF INDIVIDUAL SPRINGS AND RESULTS OF ANALYSES

The FGS Springs Teams created brief descriptions for each spring group, spring, river
rise and karst window visited during 2001-2003. Data for the descriptions were derived from
field visits to the springs by FGS Springs Teams, FGS Bulletin 31 Revised (Rosenau et al.,
1977) and the Florida Springs website http://www.tfn.net/springs/. More elaborate descrip-
tions and links to maps are avail-
able on the websites listed in
Springs Information Resources on
the Web in this volume. The size,
shape and appearance of the
springs can vary in response to
rainfall and river and lake levels.
During the FGS effort to visit and
describe springs, the state was in
the last phase of a major drought.
As a result, springs often .
appeared different than had been
previously described by Rosenau
et al. (1977), Hornsby and Ceryak .
(1998) and others. Many springs
were visited and described but not 5
sampled for water quality. These
descriptions and the entire print-
ed volume are provided on the
enclosed CD.

The mileage in the springs
location information was deter-
mined using ArcView version 3.2.

NOTE : The legend for the
discharge measurements is:

(1) Rosenau et al., 1977, Springs
of Florida: FGS Bulletin No. 31
(Revised)
(2) Florida Geological Survey Figure 14. SCUBA diver in Silver Springs
(3) Northwest Florida Water (photo by G. Maddox).
Management District
(4) Suwannee River Water Management District
(5) Southwest Florida Water Management District
(6) St. Johns River Water Management District
(7) U.S. Geological Survey

Water Quality-Analyses were conducted by the Florida Geological Survey and the
Florida Department of Environmental Protection Bureau of Laboratories. Historical meas-
urements were obtained from Bulletin No. 31, revised (Rosenau et al., 1977).







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


ALACHUA COUNTY


FE RIVER RISE


TREEHOUSE


SPRING


ALA930971
POE SPRING


N

A
0 2.5 5 Miles


0 2.5 5 7.5 Kilometers


Sampled Springs
S3 1st Magnitude Springs
* 1 2nd Magnitude Spring


Additional Springs
( 3 2nd Magnitude Springs

0 3 3rd and 4th Magnitude Springs


Water
- Interstates

-- US and State Roads

Incorporated Places


Figure 15. Springs visited by FGS in Alachua County.


Santa Fe
River






BULLETIN NO. 66


Hornsby Spring


Figure 16. Hornsby Spring (photo by T. Scott)


Location Lat. 290 51' 01.3" N., Long. 820 35' 35.5" W. (NE 1/ NE 1/ SE 14 sec. 27, T. 7
S., R. 17 E.). Hornsby Spring is located in Camp Kulaqua 1.5 miles (2.4 km) north of High
Springs. From the US 441/41 and CR 236 (Main Street) intersection in High Springs, drive
north on US 441/41 approximately 1.5 miles (2.4 km) to Camp Kulaqua which will be on the
east (right) side of the road. Turn east (right) at Camp Kulaqua sign and follow road approx-
imately 1 mile (1.6 km) to campground entrance. The spring is located inside the camp-
ground about 300 ft (91.4 m) northwest of the camp entrance.

Description Hornsby Spring has a circular spring pool measuring 155 ft (47.2 m) north to
south and 147 ft (44.8 m) east to west. Its depth at the vent is 34.5 ft (10.5 m). The water
is clear and slightly greenish blue. The spring has an underwater limestone ledge on the
north side under a floating walkway. Algae patches are growing on limestone substrate.
The spring run is approximately 0.9 miles (1.5 km) long, 15 ft (4.6 m) wide and up to 5 ft (1.5
m) deep. It flows generally westward into the Santa Fe River. During the first FGS visit, the
spring was not flowing. The FGS sampled the spring during a subsequent visit when a small
spring boil was visible near the wooden walkway. This spring is situated on the edge of the
lowland floodplain of the Santa Fe River. The floodplain is forested with cypress, gum, and
maple. High ground on the east side of the spring rises steeply to 6 ft (1.8 m) above water
level, then gently rises to approximately 15 ft (4.6 m) and is a rolling sand hills terrain. The
uplands are open and grassy. An underwater cave system has been mapped at Hornsby
Spring.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Table 4. Hornsby Spring water quality analyses.


A=Average Value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit
I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J-Estirmaed value Q=exceeded holding time limit


Utilization Hornsby Spring is the central feature of the privately-owned Camp Kulaqua.
The spring is developed into a swimming and recreation area. There are numerous board-
walks over and around the spring. A slide leads into the spring pool on the north side. Full
facilities are located nearby.

Discharge- All discharge rates are measured in ft/s.
April 19, 1972 250(1
April 25, 1975 76(1)
October 16, 2001 14.11'4
October 2, 2002 0.0(2)

Table 5. Hornsby Spring bacteriological analyses.


2001
Analytes 1972 20
Unfilt. Filter
Field Measures
Temperature 22.5 22.8
DO 0 17
pH 88 7 15
Sp. Cond. 390 494
Lab Analytes
BOD 0.51 I
Turbidir[ 0.15
Color 5 LI
Alkalinity 130 163 J 163 A
Sp. Condi. 190 A -
TDS 313
TSS 4LI
Cl 12 12 12
SOl 60 83 82
F 0.4 026 0 22
Nutrients
TOC II -
NOW; NO, 0.00 0.3 J 0.3
NH:+NH 0.011 1 0.011 I
TKN 0.096 I 0.094 I
P 0.073 0.072
PO, 0.075


S2001
Analytes 1972
Analytes 192 Unfilt.I Filter
Metals
Ca 5.7 74.3 74.2
K 0.6 1 0.98
Na 8.5 8.46 8.55
Mg 9.6 12.8 12.6
. .................. ................ ........................

Al 75 U
B 25 U
Cd 0.75 U 0.75 U
Co 0.75 U
Cr 2 U 2 U
Cu 2.5 U 2.5 U
Fe 35 LI 35 LI
Mn 167 162
Ni 2U 2U
Pb 5 U -I L
Se 4 U 4 U
Sn 20 U
n... .................. .. ..
Sr 1140
Zn 5U 5U


Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL)
Analyte Value
Escherichia coli 10 Q
Enterococci 4 Q
Fecal Colifbrm 6 Q
Total Coliform 20 Q






BULLETIN NO. 66


Poe Spring


Figure 17. Poe Spring (photo by R. Means).


Location Lat. 290 49' 32.58" N., Long. 820 38' 56.30" W. (SW 1% NW 1% NE 1% sec. 6, T. 8
S., R. 17 E.). Poe Spring is located within Poe Springs County Park, 3 miles (4.8 km) west
of High Springs. From the junction of US 441/41 and US 27 in High Springs, drive south-
west on US 41/27 for 0.6 miles (1 km). Turn west (right) on SR 340 (Poe Springs Road) and
travel 2.9 miles (4.7 km), then turn north (right) into the park at the park sign. The spring
is down a foot path along the Santa Fe River.

Description Poe Spring is bordered by a man-made retaining wall. It forms a circular
pool 120 ft (36.6 m) in diameter. The vent is on the south side of the pool at the bottom of a
conical depression where there is exposed limestone. The depth measures 18.7 ft (5.7 m)
over the vent and a boil is present on the spring surface. The water is clear with a blue-
greenish hue. The spring has an exposed sand bottom resulting from heavy use. Aquatic
vegetation and algae are sparse within the spring. A steep, underwater limestone ledge is
on the east side of the vent. The spring run is swift and short, flowing approximately 75 ft
(22.9 m) northwest into the Santa Fe River. The river in this vicinity is choked with exotic
aquatic vegetation, but none occurs within the spring or its run. Pavilions and picnic tables
are on the east side of the spring. A wooden boardwalk is on the south side of the pool. Land
around the spring is low-lying river flood plain. Dense mesic hardwood forest occurs to the
south and west of the spring.

Utilization Poe Spring is in a county recreational area with full facilities.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Table 6. Poe Spring water quality analyses.


2002
Analytes 1924 1946 1972 20
Dissolved Total
Field Measures
Temperature 22 22.48
DO 0.38
pH 7.3 8.2 7.41
Sp. Cond. 437
Lab Analytes
BOD 0.361
Turbidity 0.05U
Color 5 5 5U
Alkalinity 170 179
Sp. Cond. 368 380 388.0
TDS 204 210 212 259
TSS 4U
C1 7 6.8 7 15
SO4 10 17 16 35
F 0.1 0.2 0.17
Nutrients
TOC 1.41
NO3 NO2 as N 0.27 0.20
NH3+NH4 0.01U
TKN 0.11 0.0751
P 0.11A 0.100
PO4 0.110
NO3 0.5 0.27
Metals
Ca 64 65 65 68.7 67.2
K 5.7 0.9 0.6 1 0.96
Na 5.7 4.4 4.7 9.3 9.1
Mg 4.7 6.4 5.3 7.8 7.6
Al 50U
As 3U 3U
B 211
Cd 0.5U 0.5U
Co 0.75U
Cr 2U 2U
Cu 3U 3U
Fe 50 70 25U 25U
Mn 89.8 88.9
Ni 2U 2U
Pb 3U 5U
Ra-226 0.3
Ra-228 0.9U
Se 4U 4U
Sn 7U
Sr 361.0
Zn 15U 2U
A=Average value U,K Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit
I Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q Exceeding holding time limit






BULLETIN NO. 66


Table 7. Poe Spring bacteriological analyses.

Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL)
Analyte Value
Enterococci 1AKQ
Fecal Coliform 1AKQ




Discharge All discharge rates are measured in fts/s.
February 19, 1917 86.5 1)
January 31, 1929 75.1 1)
March 14, 1932 31.2 1)
December 13, 1941 84.0 1)
July 22, 1946 75.3 1)
May 2, 1956 39.2 1)
October 17, 1960 91.7 1)
April 18, 1972 93.1 1)
June 26, 1997 50.59 (4)
May 14, 2002 6.1(2)






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Santa Fe River Rise


Figure 18. Santa Fe River Rise (photo by T. Scott).


Location-Lat. 290 52' 26.0" N., Long. 820 35' 29.9" W. (SW1A SW1A SW1A sec. 14, T. 7 S.,
R. 17 E.). Santa Fe River Rise is located within O'Leno State Park/River Rise Preserve State
Park. From the junction of US 441/41 and US 27 in High Springs, head north on US 441/41
approximately 6 miles (9.7 km) to O'Leno State Park entrance on the east (right) side of the
road. Directions to the river rise via park roads can be obtained at the park entrance.

Description-Santa Fe River Rise is the re-emergence of the underground Santa Fe River.
The spring pool measures 175 ft (53.3 m) east to west and 165 ft (50.3 m) north to south.
There is a vertical limestone ledge on the northeast side of the pool. The depth just south of
the ledge measures 49 ft (14.9m). The water color is typically that of the Santa Fe River,
which may be tannic or clear depending mainly on rainfall. No boil was observed during the
October 2001 visit. The river flows southward from the vent and is approximately as wide
(east to west) as the spring pool. There is a narrow band of cypress growing around the pool
perimeter. There are patches of duckweed around the periphery of the pool, and no aquatic
vegetation could be seen through the tannic water. Several hundred yards of the Santa Fe
River below Santa Fe Rise is choked with water hyacinth, and boat access to the rise is near-
ly impossible. Land around the river rise quickly rises to approximately 8 ft (2.4 m) above
water level and levels off into a flat mesic hardwood hammock.

Utilization- The Santa Fe River Rise is a pristine, state-owned natural area.






BULLETIN NO. 66


Discharge January 2, 2002: less than 75 ft3/s (D. Hornsby, pers. comm.).

Table 8. Santa Fe River Rise water quality analyses.


A=Average Value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit
I=Value shown is less than the practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value


Table 9. Santa Fe River Rise bacteriological analyses.


Analy2002
Unfiltered I Filtered
Field Measures
Temperature 22.50
DO 3.50
pH 6.67
Sp. Cond. 259.0
Lab Analytes
BOD 1.80
Turbidity 1.90
Color 250.00
Alkalinity 43J 42.0
Sp. Cond. 260.00
TDS 228.00
TSS 4U
Cl 31 32
SO4 34 34
F 0.12 0.12
Nutrients
TOC 36 1U
NO3+NO2 as N 0.058J 0.059
NH3 + NH4 0.051J 0.06
TKN 1.2J 1.2A
P 0.23 0.22A
PO4 0.2-


2002
Analytes 20
Ana s Unfiltered Filtered
Metals
Ca 35A 28.2
K 2.2A 1.9
Na 15.1A 12.8
Mg 8.3A 6.6
Al 630A
As 3U 3U
B 331
Cd 0.75U 0.75U
Co 0.75
Cr 2U 2U
Cu 2.5U 3.51
Fe 810A 570.0
Mn 43.7A 33.5
Ni 2U 2U
Pb 5U 4U
Se 4U 4U
Sn 20U
Sr 388A
Zn 6.71 5U


Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL)
Analyte Value
Escherichia coli 8Q
Enterococci 12Q
Fecal Coliform 6Q
Total Coliform 60Q






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Treehouse Spring


Figure 19. Treehouse Spring (photo by J. Stevenson).


Location-Lat. 290 51' 17.6" N., Long. 820 36' 0.4" W. (SW1A NE1% NW14 sec. 27, T. 7 S.,
R. 17 E.). Treehouse Spring is approximately 2 miles (3.2 km) north of High Springs on the
east bank of the Santa Fe River. The spring can be accessed by boat from a public boat ramp
downstream from the spring. From the junction of US 441/41 and CR 236 (Main Street) in
High Springs, drive north on US 441/41 approximately 1.2 miles (1.9 km). Turn west (left)
at public access boat sign just before the Santa Fe River. The spring is 0.6 miles (1 km)
upstream from the boat ramp on the southeast side of the river.

Description- Treehouse Spring is in a circular cove on the southeast side of the Santa Fe
River. The spring discharges westward into the adjacent river. Spring pool diameter meas-
ures 125 ft (38.1 m) north to south and 175 ft (53.3 m) east to west. Pool depth over the vent
is 31 ft (9.4 m). Water color was tannic, and there was no spring boil during October 2001.
Water hyacinth was the only non-native plant species observed in the spring pool. No other
vegetation could be seen through the dark water. Land adjacent to this spring is a forested
lowland flood plain. The nearest high ground is approximately 150 ft (46 m) to the east, and
it rises 10-12 ft (3-3.7 m) higher than the flood plain and is forested with mixed hardwoods
and pines. Treehouse Spring is also published as ALA112971 (Hornsby and Ceryak, 1998).

Utilization-the land surrounding this spring is privately owned and is pristine. There is a
small rope swing on the east side and the spring is a local swimming spot.










Discharge- All discharge rates
May 26, 1998
October 30, 2001


BULLETIN NO. 66


are measured in ft3/s.
405.96 (4)
39.9 (4)


Table 10. Treehouse Spring water quality analyses.


2001
Analytes
Analytes UI Lill. Filler
Field Measures


Temperature
DO
pH
Sp. Cond.
Lab Analytes
BOD
Turbidity
Color
Alkalinity
Sp. Cond.
TDS
TSS
Cl
SO4
F
Nutrients
TOC
NO3 + NO2
NH3 + NH4
TKN
P
PO4


A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit
I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value Q= exceeded holding time limit


Table 11. Treehouse Spring bacteriological analyses.


0.2 UA
1.4
250
57
280
225
4U
27
37
0.14

38
0.091
0.034
1.1
0.2
0.19


2001
Analytes fill.
Liiin il. Filler
Metals
Ca 31.9 32.8
K 1.9 1.8
Na 12 11.8
Mg 6.8 7
As 3U 3U
Al 370
B 281
Cd 0.75 U 0.75 U
Co 0.75 U
Cr 2U 2U
Cu 2.5 U 2.5 U
Fe 510 490
Mn 25.2 23.6
Ni 1.5 U 2U
Pb 5 U 4U
Se 8.8 U 4U
Sn 20 U
Sr 370
Zn 5U 5U


Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL)
Analyte Value
Escherichia coli 14Q
Enterococci 46Q
Fecal Coliform 20Q
Total Coliform 180Q


21.88
2.09
7.31
279


56




27
37
0.12



0.091 j
0.028 A
1.1
0.19







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY



BAY COUNTY


A.i /


0 2.5 5 Miles

o 2,5 5 7.5 Kilometers


INSET
APEA


Econfima
"\ River



) \

^ ~ i E-


-
I


N


Sampled Springs
* 1st Magnitude Spring Group
(3 vents)
Additional Springs
( 1 2nd Magnitude Spring Group
(2 vents)
* 3 3rd and Unknown Magnitude
Springs


Water
-- US and State Roads

Incorporated Places


Figure 20 Springs visited by FGS in Bay County


Pallalfia CiN
I{.L'


C-i


i






BULLETIN NO. 66


Gainer Springs Group


Figure 21. Gainer Springs Group Vent 1C (photo by T. Scott).


Group Location Lat. 300 25' N., Long. 850 32' W. (southern half of sec. 4, T. 1 S., R. 13
W.). Gainer Springs Group is located 0.4 miles (0.6 km) downstream from the SR 20 bridge
over Econfina Creek. It is best accessed by canoe, however, there is a gated dirt track on
Northwest Florida Water Management District (NWFWMD) land that leads to the springs
group on the east side of the creek. From the intersection of US 231 and SR 20 head west
on SR 20 approximately 7 miles (11.3 km) to Econfina Creek

Group Description At least five known springs associated with Gainer Springs Group are
along both sides of Econfina Creek. The uplands surrounding this group are high rolling
sand hills that are forested with sand pine and patches of longleaf pine-turkey oak commu-
nity. High ground adjoining the west side of the creek near Spring No. 2 and Spring No. 3
rises to 27 ft (8.2 m) above the water surface and is densely forested with mixed hardwoods
and pines. The creek floodplain is forested with cypress and hardwoods. Land on the west
side of the Econfina Creek at Gainer Springs is privately owned. The east side of the creek
is owned and managed by the NWFWMD.

GAINER SPRING NO. 1C Lat. 300 25' 39.6" N., Long. 850 32 45.83" W. (SW4 NW4
SE4 sec. 4, T. 1 S., R. 13 W.). Gainer Spring Nos. 1A, 1B, and 1C form a 820 ft (249.9 m)
long spring run that enters Econfina Creek on the east side directly across from Spring No.
2. Spring No. 1C is the first spring encountered approximately 495 ft (150.9 m) upstream
from the creek, and its pool is adjacent to the run on the southeast side. Spring pool dimen-






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


sions are approximately 72
ft (21.9 m) east to west and
33 ft (10.1 m) north to
south. Water issues from a
vertical tunnel in the lime-
stone. Shell and sand par-
ticles are suspended in the
spring flow. Pool depth is
20 ft (6.1 m) measured over
the vent. There is very lit-
tle aquatic vegetation; how-
ever, algae patches in
spring pool are common.
The adjoining, swampy low-
lands are heavily forested
with cypress and mixed
hardwoods. The nearest
uplands to the southeast
support a mixed hardwood
and pine forest. There is no
high ground adjacent to the
spring pool. These springs
are also known as
McCormick Springs. .

GAINER SPRING NO. 2 .
Lat. 300 25' 38.61" N., .
Long. 850 32' 53.95" W.
(SW% NE% SW% sec. 4, T. .
1 S., R. 13 W.). This spring,
also known as Emerald
Spring, is located directly
across from the mouth of
Gainer Spring No. 1 run
along the west side of
Econfina Creek. Spring Figure 22. Gainer Springs Group Vent 2 (photo by T. Scott).
water issues from the base
of the riverbank and forms
a pool along the edge of the creek. Pool diameter is approximately 60 ft (18.3 m) east to west
and 62 ft (18.9 m) north to south. Pool depth over the vent is 5 ft (1.5 m). Vent diameter is
approximately 5 ft (1.5 m). There is little or no aquatic vegetation, but patches of dark green
algae are present. The water is clear and light greenish blue. A concrete wall forms the
south side of the spring pool. Two parallel pipes that extract drinking water run from inside
the spring vent toward the top of the bluff and beyond. There are at least three other small-
er vents issuing from the bank just above this spring. A 23 ft (7 m) high bluff meets the
Econfina Creek at Spring No. 2. A mixed hardwood and pine forest inhabits the bluff face
and high ground.






BULLETIN NO. 66


GAINER SPRING NO. 3 Lat. 300 25'
44.30" N., Long. 850 32' 53.9" W.
(NE1% NE%1 SW1% sec. 4, T. 1 S., R. 13
W.). This spring is located along the
west side of Econfina Creek, and is
about 655 ft (199.6 m) upstream of
1Spring No. 2. It is at the head of a 325
ft (99.1 m) long spring run. There are
r at least three vent complexes in the
combined spring pool. The depression
is large and mostly shallow with a sand
bottom and limestone boulders. The
combined spring pool diameter is about
305 ft (93 m) east to west and 125 ft
(38.1 m) north to south. There is a
a forested island in the center of the com-
bined spring pool. Some emergent veg-
etation exists along the pool's shores,
but there is very little aquatic vegeta-
tion. Dark green algal mats are ubiq-
uitous throughout the bottom of the
spring pool. The western vent issues
out of a limestone sidewall and has a
small boardwalk nearby. The north
vent, where water quality was sam-
pled, is the largest and deepest. This
spring is about 15 ft (4.6 m) south of a
Figure 23. Gainer Springs Group fracture wooden wall presumably constructed
(photo by H. Means). for shore erosion management. Clear,
light greenish blue water issues from the bottom of a 16 ft (4.9 m) diameter conical depres-
sion and produces a boil at the surface. The depression is 7.4 ft (2.3 m) deep over the vent.
Vent diameter is about 1.5 ft (0.5 m). On the eastern side of the combined spring pool, there
are at least three other vents. Uphill to the north, there are picnic tables under a pavilion
in a grassy opening. The rest of the uplands adjoining the spring pool to the west are forest-
ed with mixed hardwoods and pines. In the surrounding forested area, there are karst win-
dows, dissolutionally-enlarged fractures and other karst features.

Utilization- The uplands around Gainer Spring No. 2 are privately owned. Econfina Creek
flows into Deerpoint Lake, which is a public water supply utilized by Panama City. Land
around the spring group is privately owned and is pristine and forested. Swimming and
canoeing occur frequently in all of Gainer Springs.

Discharge- Discharge reported here represents the total flow of the Gainer Springs com-
plex. All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s.
April 11, 1962 150(1)
September 11, 1962 174(1)
January 30, 1963 159(1)
October 14, 2002 128.2(3)
January 5, 2004 192.8(3)








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Table 12. Gainer Springs Group water quality analyses.
Vent #1 Vent #2 Vent#3
Analytes 2001 2001 2001
Analytes 1962 1972 2001 1962 1972 2001 1962 1972 2001
SUnfilt. Filter Unfilt. Filter Unfilt. Filter


Field Measures
Temperature
DO
pH
Sp. Cond.
Lab Analytes
BOD
Turbidity
Color







SO4

NIII1I'lII(
I Ii '2

l iii + I iii4


I I



K
Na
Mg
As
Al
B
Cd
Co
Cr
Cu
Fe
Mn
Ni
Pb
Se
Sn
Sr
Zn


21.0
2.8
7.9
127




5







0.0
I I



II III







i'

1.8
2.9

















80


21.54
2.12
8.00
142

0.2 U
0.25
5U




4i i


2.4 2.5
I i ilL i ,I ii ,


I I -










1.64 1.44
2.7 2.8
3U 3U
I 75 U
10U -
0.75 U 0.5 U
0.75 U -
0.7 U 0.5 U
2U 2U
25 U 20 U
0.5 U 0.5 U
1.5 U 1.5 U
5U 3U
5 U 375 U






3.5U 3.5U
9U
76.1
4U 3.5 U


21.1

7.3
82




7







0.4
I I








II J4



I I
1.7
1.8


22.0
2.5
7.8
108




5





II
0.0
II


II II









I I
1.4
2.4
10



0
0
0
0
30
0

2



70
30


21.4
2.27
8.19
113

0.2 U
0.2
5U







2.3 2.3
J IT




1 I1 1 1 1 -. T




II Illi II I II I i







1.45 1.34
2.4 2.4
3U 3U
75 U
10U -
0.75U 0.5U
0.75 U
0.7 U 0.5U
2U 2U
25 U 20 U
0.5U 0.5U
1.5U 1.5U
5U 3U
3.5U 3.5U
9U
41.5
4U 3.5U


21.1

7.2
115




2







0.8
I"













1.9
3.2


21.5
3.0
7.8
125




10


4II



0.0



I-
I I I I 'i








I I ..
1.8
2.8


21.6
2.18
8.20
121

0.2 U
0.1
5U

I "




2.1 2


I 1
I II 1
III I II I i


IIIll i i III
111112 -

I\I I

1.68 1.61
2.9 2.9
3U 3U
75 U
10U
0.75 U 0.5 U
0.75 U
0.7U 0.5 U
2U 2U
25 U 20 U
0.5U 0.5 U
1.5U 1.5 U
5U 3U
3.5U 3.5 U
9U
42.4
4U 3.5 U


A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit
I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value Q=exceeding holding time limit

Table 13. Gainer Springs Group bacteriological analyses.






BULLETIN NO. 66


BRADFORD COUNTY


Lawtey


HEILBRONN


Hampton


A
N
0 2.5 5 Miles

o 2.5 5 Kilometers


Additional Springs
1 2nd Magnitude Spring


Water
-- US and State Roads


Incorporated Places


Figure 24. Springs visited by FGS in Bradford County.
Spring description provided on enclosed CD.


Santa Fe
River






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


CALHOUN COUNTY


GROTTO SPRINGS-

SALLY SPRING-


Altha
_1


HAMILTON SPRING---

Chipola
River


Blountstown


0


B


Apalachicola
River







A
D 2.5 5 Miles


D 2.5 5 7.5 Kilometers


Additional Springs
0 3 3rd Magnitude Springs


Water
-- US and State Roads


Incorporated Places


Figure 25. Springs visited by FGS in Calhoun County.
Spring descriptions provided on enclosed CD.








BULLETIN NO. 66



CITRUS COUNTY


CITRUS BLUE SPRING


LITTLE HIDDEN SPRING


Wlthlacoochee
River


ALLIGATOR SPRING
BANANA SPRING
BEAR SPRING
BLUE HOLE SPRING
HOMOSASSA SPRING #1
HOMOSASSA SPRING #2
HOMOSASSA SPRING #3
BLUEBIRD SPRINGS


Ih rtIOf


POTTER SPRING
RUTH SPRING
TROTTER MAiN"



RAIRI
1 BAIRI


0 2.5 5 Miles


0 2.5 5 7.5 Kilometers


CHASSAHOWITZKA SPRING #2
CRAB SPRING
CHASSAHOWITZKA SPRING MAIN
CHASSAHOWITZKA SPRING #1


BAIRD SPRING #3
BAIRD SPRING #4


Sampled Springs
S2 1st Magnitude Springs
2 1st Magnitude Spring
Groups (5 vents)

" 1 2nd Magnitude Spring


Additional Springs

( 5 2nd Magnitude Springs

S 21 3rd and Unknown Magnitude
Springs
2 3rd Magnitude Spring
Groups (5 vents)


Water
-- US and State Roads

Incorporated Places


Figure 26. Springs visited by FGS in Citrus County.


BLACK


/






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Chassahowitzka Springs Group
-aa??^ B


Figure 27. Chassahowitzka Main Spring (photo by R. Means).


Figure 28. Chassahowitzka No. 1 (photo by R. Meegan).


56






BULLETIN NO. 66


Group Location Lat. 280 42' N., Long. 820 34' W. (Both spring vents are located in the
center of sec. 26, T. 20 S., R. 17 E.). The springs are 5.8 miles (9.3km) southwest of
Homosassa Springs on the Chassahowitzka River. From Homosassa Springs Wildlife State
Park, drive south on US 98/19 5.8 miles (9.3 km). Turn west (right) on CR 480 and drive
about 1.8 miles (2.9 km) to the public boat access area,

Group Description Chassahowitzka Springs form the headwaters of the Chassahowitzka
River, which flows westerly to the Gulf of Mexico approximately 6 miles (9.7 km) through
low coastal hardwood hammock and marsh. Rosenau et al. (1977) report as many as five
springs flow into the upper part of the river and many more springs are known to exist in
the lower portion. The entire river is tidally influenced.

CHASSAHOWITZKA MAIN SPRING Lat. 280 42' 55.87" N., Long. 820 34' 34.33" W.
(NE 14 NE 14 SW 14 sec. 26, T. 20 S., R. 17 E.). Chassahowitzka Main Spring is 360 ft ( 110
m) northeast of the boat ramp and is in the middle of the run. This spring is at the head of
a large pool that measures 147 ft (44.8 m) north to south and 135 ft (41.1 m) east to west.
The depth measured over the vent is 13.5 ft (4.1 m). The spring has a sand bottom. No lime-
stone was exposed. Water is clear and greenish. The spring run from Chassahowitzka No.
1 Spring flows into the Chassahowitzka Main Spring pool from the east. There is a boat
ramp with facilities on the southwest side of the pool. Aquatic vegetation is common, includ-
ing exotic aquatic vegetation and algae. A boil is visible at low tide. The spring is sur-
rounded by lowland hardwood swamp forest with mixed hardwoods, cypress, and palm.

CHASSAHOWITZKA NO. 1 Lat. 280 42' 58.24" N., Long. 820 34' 30.32" W. (NW 1% NW
14 SE %4 sec. 26, T. 20 S., R. 17 E.). Chassahowitzka # 1 is at the head of a spring run that
flows into the Chassahowitzka River from the north approx 250 ft upstream from
Chassahowitzka Main or 550 ft upstream from the boat ramp. This spring issues from a
small cavern in bedrock limestone. The spring pool measures 69 ft (21 m) north to south
and 81 ft (24.7 m) east to west. There are two closely spaced openings through which the
flow issues. The depth over the vents is 8.3 ft (2.5 m). The water is clear and light blue. A
small tannic stream flows into the northeast side of the spring pool. There is a thin layer of
algae covering most of the limestone bottom of the spring pool. The surrounding land is low
lying and heavily forested with hardwoods and palm. The spring run flows southwest
approximately 350 ft (106.7 m) into Chassahowitzka Main Spring pool. There are several
other spring vents along the spring run about half way to the Chassahowitzka Main Spring
pool.

Utilization Chassahowitzka Springs and River are used for fishing, swimming, snorkel-
ing, and pleasure boating. Manatees frequent the springs and river year round, but are
especially common in winter.

Discharge Current discharge estimate is
provisional. All discharge rates are meas- Table 14. Chassahowitzka Springs Group
ured in ft3/s. bacteriological analyses.
I Bacteria Results (in #/100ml)


Average 1930 1972 138.5(1)
(81 measurements)
Maximum (May 18, 1966) 197.0(1)
Minimum (July 8, 1964) 31.8'1)
October 15, 2001 53(2)


Analyte Main No. 1
Escherichia coli 1 KQ 1 KQ
Enterococci 1 KQ 1 KQ
Fecal Coliform 1 KQ 1 KQ
Total Coliform 1 KQ 20Q







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY



Table 15. Chassahowitzka Springs Group water quality analyses.

Main No. 1
Analytes 1946 1970 1971 1972 1975 2001 2001
Unfilt. Filter Unfilt. Filter


Field Measures
Temperature
DO
pH
Sp. Cond.
Lab Analytes
BOD
Turbidity
Color
Alkalinity
Sp. Cond.
TDS
TSS
Cl
SO4
F
Ntriiir'nl
TO
NO. NO-)
NH. NH,
TKN
P
P(C,



K

NI

Asb
Bi
B
C d




Fc
N ii

Pb
Sc
SI
Si
ZII


23.9

7.5
470


23.5

8.2
1370




10
140


0.2
3
8 10
140


22.2
5.4

564




10
130


320 110
56 21
II II "


- '1111I


2111 X I II


22.9
3.68
7.65
2790

0.2 U
1.3
5U
150
2800
1470
4U
680
110
II | J

Ili
ii 45 J
II I1 Ii
II ;2 1

IIIlIl






>5 s
14"

54 5






'LI



41
- 5 l
4 I

Xi I i

SI'


152




680
110
iill




II llI'
11 11





II 4
14

411
542

"511




2 I



1 5 I

4 1'
4 1'
Sl I
I U


23.2
4.10
7.71
1080


0.2 AU
0.45
5U
150
1100 A
562
4U
220
39
i1l2J


I1 i
1 4" J

1 I I i I

II ilS
11111



545
4 s
1j;1

"I

isl
II 5 Li



11 5 lI



I 5 l_i
5 1 _i

s,, Ii
2'' I'i
I, ,.
5I'


A=Average Value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit
I=Value shown is less than the practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value


152 A




200
40
Jill
II 1I





iiill I
Jill
11111i




45
121








211 5 L





4 _i
-1Ul






BULLETIN NO. 66


Citrus Blue Spring


Figure 29. Citrus Blue Spring (photo by R. Means).


Location Lat. 280 58' 09.60" N., Long. 820 18' 52.34" W. (SW 14 NE 1/ SW 14 sec. 33, T.
17 S., R. 20 E.). Citrus Blue Spring is located along the Withlacoochee River approximate-
ly 10 miles (16 km) southeast of Dunnellon. From the US 41 bridge over the Withlacoochee
River in Dunnellon travel south on US 41 approximately 1.3 miles (2.1 km) to the intersec-
tion with CR 39. Head east (left) on CR 39 and travel approximately 7.6 miles (12.2 km) to
the intersection with CR 200. Head northeast (left) and travel 0.1 mile (.2 km) to the bridge
over the Withlacoochee River at Stokes Ferry. A boat launch is on the southeast side of the
river. The spring can be accessed by boating 3 miles (4.8 km) upstream from the CR 200
bridge in Stoke's Ferry. The spring is situated on the south (right) side of the river.

Description Citrus Blue Spring has a roughly circular pool that measures 120 ft (36.6 m)
in diameter. The east side of the spring pool is partly enclosed by a man-made, five foot high
dike. The spring depression is relatively shallow and uniform except at the vent in the cen-
ter where depth measures 22 ft (6.7 m). A slight boil was observed over the vent during
October 2002. The color of the water is bluish-green, and the sand bottom has substantial
aquatic grass cover with sparse algae. Spring flow is directed northwestward through a 30
ft (9.1 m) wide man-made canal, eventually discharging into the Withlacoochee River
approximately 0.4 miles (0.6 km) downstream. The canal has a sand bottom with abundant
detritus as well as abundant aquatic vegetation. Before the dike was constructed, the
spring apparently discharged eastward approximately 150 ft (45.7 m) into the river. The
spring is within the forested Withlacoochee River floodplain. The spring reportedly has an
extensive cavern system that opens southward to a depth of at least 180 ft (54.9 m) below
the spring surface (Rosenau et al., 1977).







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Utilization Citrus Blue Spring is surrounded by private property and is used locally for
swimming.

Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s.
March 15, 1932 11.1(1)
March 7, 1961 17.7(1)
June 19, 1961 19.6(1)
May 25, 1972 15.11
October 16, 2002 16.3(2)




Table 16. Citrus Blue Spring water quality analyses.


A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit
I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit



Table 17. Citrus Blue Spring water bacteriological analyses.


Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL)
Analyte Value
Enterococci 1KQ
Fecal Coliform 1KQ


2002
Analytes 1975 20
Dissolved Total
Field Measures
Temperature 23 22.65
DO 1.4
pH 7.9 7.33
Sp. Cond. 333
Lab Analytes
BOD 0.2U
Turbidity 0.1
Color 5U
Alkalinity 140 146
Sp. Cond. 302 318.0
TDS 164 172
TSS 4U
Cl 6 5.2
SO4 6.8 13.0
F 0.2 0.0641
Nutrients
TOC 1U
NO3+NO2asN 0.04 0.51
NH3 +N H 0.01U
TKN 0.091 0.06U
P 0.032Q 0.033
PO4 0.04
NO3 0.18


2002
Analytes 1975 2
Dissolved Total
Metals
Ca 58 62.8 61.4
K 0.2 0.2A 0.17
Na 2.5 3.27A 2.84
Mg 2.1 2.7A 2.7
Al 10U
As 3U 3U
B 10U
Cd 0.5U 0.5U
Co 1U
Cr 2U 2U
Cu 2U 4U
Fe 5.11 7U
Mn 0.25U 0.5U
Ni 1U 2U
Pb 5U 5U
Ra-226 0.5
Ra-228 1.1U
Se 5U 7U
Sn 26U
Sr 140 135
Zn 10.6 5.41






BULLETIN NO. 66


Homosassa Springs Group


Figure 30. Homosassa Springs Group (photo by H. Means).


Group Location Lat. 280 47' 56.65" N., Long. 820 35' 18.70" W. (NE % SW 1 NE 14
sec. 28, T. 19 S., R. 17 E.). The springs are located within the Homosassa Springs Wildlife
State Park and form the headwaters of the Homosassa River. Coming from the north on US
19/98 into Homosassa Springs, turn west (right) on CR 490A and travel 0.5 mile (0.8 km).
Turn south (left) on access road to Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Park and travel 0.3
mile (0.5 km) to park entrance. The spring pool, into which all three vents issue, is just
below the underwater viewing platform in the manatee rehabilitation area.

Group Description Homosassa Springs Group forms the head of the Homosassa River,
which flows west approximately 6 miles (9.7 km) to the Gulf of Mexico. Downstream from
the head springs about a mile, the spring-fed Halls River flows in from the north. The entire
river system is tidally influenced.

HOMOSASSA SPRINGS NOS. 1, 2, and 3 All three vents issue into the same spring pool.
The pool measures 189 ft (57.6 m) north to south and 285 ft (86.9 m) east to west. The depth
for each of the vents is 67, 65, and 62 ft (20.4, 19.8, and 18.9 m) for spring nos. 1, 2, and 3,
respectively. The springs issue from a conical depression with limestone exposed along the







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Table 18. Homosassa Springs Group water quality analyses.


1972 1972 No. 1 No. 2 No. 3
1972 1972
Analytes 1956 1966 2001 2001 2001
( Unfilt. Filter Unfilt. Filter Unfilt. Filter


Field Measures
Temperature
DO
pH
Sp. Cond.
Lab Analytes
BOD
Turbidity
Color
Alkalinity
Sp. Cond.
TDS
TSS
Cl
SO4
F
Nutrients
TOC
NO3 + NO2
NH3 + NH4
TKN
P
PO4
Metals
Ca
K
Na
Mg
As
B
Al
Cd
Co
Cr
Cu
Fe
Mn
Ni
Pb
Se
Sn
Sr
Zn


23.5

8.2
2590


23.5
4.3
7.5 6.9
2900 2370


0.1
1
3 0 0
110 110 120




680 780 640
95 111 84
0.3 0.2

0
0.26


23.5

7.9
3740




10
110




1100
150
2.0



0.20


54 55 48
18 12
420 340
56 57 48
0
60

0
0
0
0
0
10
0

0


490 5000
10


23.4
3.97
7.67
5250

0.68
1.3
5U
120
5200
2830
4U
1500
220
0.14


115




1500
220
0.12


1U
0.51 0.51 J
0.028 0.02
0.151 0.121
0.0281 0.029
0.018 J -

69.2 70
28.8 29.8
815 814
100 103
3U 3U
344
75 U
0.75 U 0.75 U
0.75 U -
2U 2U
2.5 U 2.5 U
300 891
21.4 13.5
1.5U 1.5 U
5U 4U
4U 4U
10 U
858
5U 5U


23.3
3.86
7.62
6330

0.86
0.5
5U
120
6200
3310
4U
1900
260
0.14


117




1900
260
0.13


1U
0.5 0.5 J
0.034 0.026
0.131 0.121
0.0341 0.029
0.021 J

75.8 77.3
35.5 35.5
972 986
123 124
3U 3U
422
75 U
0.75 U 0.75 U
0.75 U
2U 2U
2.5 U 2.5 U
190 521
5.8 4.9
1.5U 1.5 U
5U 4U
4U 4U
10 U
1030
5U 5U


23.6
4.09
7.81
1980

0.76
0.25
5U
110
2000
1020
4U
520
74
0.1


112




510
72
0.093 I


1U
0.53 0.55 J
0.01 0.0121
0.091IQ 0.111
0.048 Q 0.026 I
0.011 J

47.6 46.3 A
9.84 0.45
267 3.7
39.1 37.5 A
3U 3U
125
75 U
0.75 U 0.75 U
0.75 U
2U 2U
2.5 U 2.5 U
370 35U
19.9 0.5 U
1.5U 1.5 U
5U 4U
4U 4U
10 U
372
5U 5U


A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit
I=Value shown is less than the practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value






BULLETIN NO. 66


sides and bottom of the spring pool. The pool is teeming with salt water and freshwater fish-
es. Water is clear and light blue. There is a large boil in center of pool. Surrounding land
is Gulf Coastal Lowlands with thick hardwood-palm forest cover. Approximately 1,000 ft
(304.8 m) downstream, a fence spans across the river to keep boats out of the spring pool.
There also is a barrier immediately outside the spring area which keeps the captive mana-
tees in the spring pool. Manatees frequent the spring pool and river year round, but are
especially common in winter. The springs are tidally influenced year round, especially in
winter.

Utilization The main spring pool and adjacent lands are within Homosassa Springs
Wildlife State Park. The area is developed into an interpretive center for manatee and
Florida wildlife education. There is a floating observation deck in the spring pool with a sub-
merged aquatic observation room. Injured and rehabilitating manatees are captive in the
spring pool for year round observation. Swimming is not allowed.

Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s.
Average 1931 1974 106(1) (90 measurements)
Maximum (August 18, 1966) 165(1)
Minimum (September 19, 1972) 80 (1)
October 16, 2001 87'2) (Estimate is provisional)



Table 19. Homosassa Springs Group bacteriological analyses.

Bacteria Results (in #/100ml)
Analyte No. 1 No. 2 No. 3
Escherichia coli 1 KQ 1 KQ 1 KQ
Enterococci 1 KQ 1 KQ 1 KQ
Fecal Coliform 1 KQ 1 KQ 1 KQ
Total Coliform 1 KQ 1 KQ 1 KQ







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Kings Bay Springs Group


Figure 31. Kings Bay Springs Group, Hunter Spring (photo by R. Meegan).


.' .1; :Fr~j^ is' **^ ^ jm 'BiB B


Figure 32. Kings Bay Springs Group, Tarpon Hole Spring (photo by R. Means).






BULLETIN NO. 66


Group Location Lat. 280 53 N., Long. 820 35' W. (sections 20, 21 and 28, T. 18 S., R.
17 E.). The Kings Bay Springs Group is located in Kings Bay west of Crystal River. Coming
into Crystal River from the north on US 19/98, King's Bay can be accessed via numerous
boat landings north and south of the Bay.

Group Description There are about 30 known springs, including Tarpon Hole and Hunter
Spring, that either issue from the bottom of Kings Bay or flow into the bay from side creeks.
Their combined flow feeds Crystal River, which flows approximately 7 miles (11.3 km)
northwest to the Gulf of Mexico. Surrounding land is coastal lowlands with brackish marsh
and hardwood-palm hammock to the west and the City of Crystal River to the east. The
whole system is tidally influenced, and Kings Bay is brackish. Rosenau et al. (1977) referred
to these springs as the Crystal River Springs Group.

HUNTER SPRING Lat. 280 53' 40.0" N, Long. 820 35' 33.0" W (NW % SW % SE % sec. 21,
T. 18 S, R. 17 E). This spring issues vertically from the bottom of a conical depression near
the head of a side creek channel feeding the eastside of Kings Bay. Another spring is at the
head of the channel. Hunter Spring pool is circular and measures 210 ft (64 m) in diameter.
Depth measured over the vent is 13 ft (4 m). The spring has a sand bottom with some lime-
stone near the vent. The spring bottom is choked with dark green filamentous algae, and
some Hydrilla is present. Water is clear and bluish. There is a large boil in pool center.
Land on the north rises to approximately 4 ft (1.2 m) above water and is a county main-
tained recreational park. Land on all other sides of spring pool is extensively developed with
apartments and houses. A concrete sea wall entirely surrounds the pool except for outflow
and inflow. There is a square swimming dock floating in the center of the spring pool. This
spring was closed to swimming during summer 2001 due to high coliform bacteria levels
detected in the water (Eric Dehaven, SWFWMD, pers. comm.).

TARPON HOLE SPRING Lat. 280 52' 54.64" N., Long. 820 35' 41.33" W. (NW 1 NW 1
SW % sec. 28, T. 18 S., R. 17 E.). This spring issues from a deep, conical depression in Kings
Bay on the south side of Banana Island. The spring pool measures approximately 450 ft
(137.2 m) north to south and 550 ft (167.6 m) east to west. The depth measured over the
vent is 58 ft (17.7m). Water is typically clear and bluish, but can be cloudy during high tide.
There is a large boil present in center of pool. Visibility was low when visited in October
2001. Algae cover limestone substrates. The vent is a large circular hole in limestone.
Nearby islands to the north are part of the Crystal River National Wildlife Refuge and have
marsh grasses and hardwood-palm hammock vegetation. Land to the east is privately
owned with many houses and a marina. This spring is a favorite scuba diving location and
manatee observation area.

Utilization All of Kings Bay and most of its springs are used for swimming, manatee
observation, pleasure boating, and scuba diving. The west side of Kings Bay and some
islands are part of the Crystal River National Wildlife Refuge. The city of Crystal River
nearly adjoins the east side of Kings Bay.

Discharge Kings Bay Group 1965-1977: 975 ft3/s(7)average







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Table 20. Kings Bay Springs Group water quality analyses.


A=Average valu: U.K= Compound not de
I= Value shown is less than the practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value


Table 21. Kings Bay Springs Group bacteriological analyses.


Tarpon Hole Hunter
Analytes 2001 2001
Unfilt. Filter Unfilt. Filter
Field Measures
Temperature 22.9 23.0
DO 2.09 5.09
pH 7.72 8.02
Sp. Cond. 2130 541
Lab Analytes
BOD 0.2 U 0.2 AU
Turbidity 6.8 0.95
Color 5U 5 U
Alkalinity 124 123 87 87
Sp. Cond. 2200 530
TDS 960 263 Q
TSS 4U 4 U
Cl 540 550 96 94
SO4 78 81 20 20
F 0.0911 0.12 A 0.065 0.0711
Nutrients
TOC 1U 1 U
NO3 + NO2 0.17 0.18 J 0.4 0.39 J
NH3 + NH4 0.01 U 0.0141 0.01 U 0.01 U
TKN 0.0841 0.121 0.06U 0.06U
P 0.042 0.033 I 0.023 0.024
PO4 0.029 0.028


Tarpon Hole Hunter
Analytes 2001 2001
Unfilt. Filter Unfilt. Filter
Metals
Ca 52.8 53.9 30.6 31 A
K 10.2 10.3 2.1 2 A
Na 289 290 54.9 52.9 A
Mg 39.4 40 10.4 10.3 A
As 3U 3U 3U 3U
Al 75 U 75 U
B 128 33 -
Cd 0.75 U 0.75 U 0.75 U 0.75 U
Co 0.75 U 0.75 U
Cr 2U 2U 2U 2U
Cu 2.5 U 2.5 U 2.5 U 2.5 U
Fe 130 35 U 35 U 35 U
Mn 13.4 7.2 0.5 U 0.5 U
Ni 2U 2U 2U 2U
Pb 5U 4U 5U 4U
Se 4U 4U 4U 4U
Sn 10 U 10 U
Sr 362 131
Zn 5U 5U 5U 5U


Bacteria Results (in #/100ml)
Analyte Tarpon Hole Hunter
Escherichia coli 1KQ 1KQ
Enterococci 1KQ 1KQ
Fecal Coliform 1KQ 1KQ
Total Coliform 1KQ 1KQ


___1__ -.1- -__-,- -. -Li- .--- --1-1- -1 -1 --1-- --1-' ,- 1 *-L






BULLETIN NO. 66

CLAY COUNTY


Orange
Park


WW GAY 1
WW GAY 2


St. Johns
River


Green Cove
Springs


Keystone
Heights /

o 2.5 5 Miles

/ 2.5 5 7.5 Kilometers


Additional Springs
1 2nd Magnitude Spring
6 3 3rd Magnitude Springs


Water
-- US and State Roads
Incorporated Places


Figure 33 Springs visited by FGS in Clay County.


SPRING


r__






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Green Cove Spring


Figure 34. Green Cove Spring (photo by T. Scott).


Location Lat. 290 59' 36.24" N., Long. 810 40' 40.48" W. (Land Grant 38, T. 6 S., R. 26
E.). Green Cove Spring is located within the town of Green Cove Springs. From the inter-
section of SR 16 and US 17 in Green Cove Springs, drive one block north on US 17. Turn
east (right) on Spring Street and drive one block to the city park. The spring is within a his-
toric city park.

Description Green Cove Spring is entirely enclosed by a circular brick wall that measures
15 ft (4.6 m) in diameter. Spring depth is 28 ft (8.5 m). The spring vent consists of a deep
vertical cave whose walls are visible through clear, slightly greenish water. No vegetation
or algae are observed in the spring pool, and the spring water emits a sharp hydrogen sul-
fide odor. Spring water is channeled into a concrete swimming pool. A narrow spring run
exits the swimming pool, cascading over a 3 ft (0.9 m) tall wall, and travels approximately
450 ft (137.1 m) eastward into the St. Johns River. The 5 ft (1.5 m) wide spring run has a
sand bottom. There is a view of the nearly 2 mile (3.2 km) wide St. Johns River to the east.
To the west, high ground rises into downtown Green Cove Spring 10 ft (3.1 m) higher than
the spring surface. There are several piers and boat docks on the river near the spring
mouth. Picnic tables, walkways, benches, and shade trees abound in the park. The City
Hall and a bathhouse are on the north side of the swimming pool. The spring has an exten-
sive cavern and cave system associated with it. Rosenau et al. (1977) report that a cavern
can be accessed through a 2 ft (0.6 m) wide orifice in the bottom of the spring. The cavern
extends northeastward toward the St. Johns River.







BULLETIN NO. 66


Table 22. Green Cove Spring water quality analyses.


Analytes 1924 1946 1972 2003
Dissolved Total
Field Measures
Temperature 25.0 24.36
DO 0.4
pH 7.3 8.0 7.55
Sp. Cond. 294
Lab Analytes
BOD 0.6AI
Turbidity 0.05U
Color 0 5 5U
Alkalinity 79 86A
Sp. Cond. 289 290 270.0
TDS 170 171 199 165.0
TSS 4U
C1 5.7 6.1 6.0 6.4
SO4 49 51 55 55
F 0.2 0.4 0.27
Nutrients
TOC 1U
NO3 NO2 as N 0.004U
NH3+NH4 0.038
TKN 0.06U 0.0761
P 0.015U 0.015U
P04 0.0051
NO3
Metals
Ca 28 28 28 27.9 28.6
K 1.8 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.4
Na 2.4 4.6 4.3 4.8 4.04
Mg 16 15 16 14.8 15
Al 10U
As 3U 3U
B 11I
Cd 0.5U 0.5U
Co 1U
Cr 2U 2U
Cu 3.5U 4U
Fe 30 60 5U 7U
Mn 0.25U 0.5U
Ni 2U 2U
Pb 5U 5U
Ra-226 0.5
Ra-228 0.9U
Se 8U 8U
Sn 111
Sr 1230
Zn 2.5U 4U
A=Average value U,K Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit
I Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Utilization Green Cove Spring is located within a city park and is a popular swimming
area. No swimming is allowed in the actual spring. Water from the spring directly supplies
the water for the swimming pool. In the 19th century, the spring was a popular health spa.

Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s
February 12, 1929 5.4(1
April 18, 1946 4.42(1)
November 4, 1950 4.15(1)
June 18, 1954 2.68(1)
April 25, 1956 2.74(1)
October 19, 1960 3.52(1)
March 8, 1972 3.03(1)
January 8, 2003 2.79'2'



Table 23. Green Cove Spring bacteriological analyses.

Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL)
Analyte Value
Enterococci 1KQ
Fecal Coliform 1KQ







BULLETIN NO. 66


COLUMBIA COUNTY


River


BLUE HOLE SPRING
CEDAR HEAD SPRING
ROARING SPRING-"F
MILL POND SPRINGS
COL917971 P -
SUNBEAM SPRING
WILSON SPRING- '
COL928971


0 5 10 Miles


0 5 10 15 Kilometers


Sampled Springs
j 2 1st Magnitude Springs
1 1st Magnitude Spring
Group (3 vents)


SANTA FE SPRING


COL428981
COLUMBIA SPRING


COL101974
JONATHAN SPRING
RUM ISLAND SPRING


Additional Springs
* 1 1st Magnitude Springs

6 2nd Magnitude Springs

10 3rd Magnitude Springs


Water
Interstates

-- US and State Roads

Incorporated Places


Figure 35 Springs visited by FGS in Columbia County.






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Figure 36. Columbia Spring (photo by D. Hornsby).


Location Lat. 290 51' 14.80" N., Long. 820 36' 43.03" W. (NW14 SEE1 NE1 sec. 28, T.
7 S., R. 17 E.). Columbia Spring is located 2 miles (3.2 km) northwest of High Springs on
the Santa Fe River and can be accessed by small boat. From the junction of US 441/41 and
CR 236 in High Springs, drive north on US 441/41 approximately 1.2 miles (1.9 km). Turn
west (left) at public access boat sign just before the Santa Fe River. Spring is in a cove on
the northeast bank of the river, 900 ft (274.3 m) downstream from the boat ramp.

Description Columbia Spring has an oval-shaped pool that measures 75 ft (23 m) north
to south and 150 ft (45.7 m) east to west. The depth at the vent is 25 ft (7.6 m). Water is
typically clear, but was tannic in October 2001. It has a 30 ft (9.1 m) wide spring run that
flows approximately 600 ft (182.9 m) westward to the Santa Fe River. There are native
aquatic grasses in the spring run and some algae are present on most substrates. The
spring run has a jagged limestone and sand bottom. There is a 1-2 ft (0.3 0.6 m) tall man-
made line of rocks that stretches across the spring run about 90 ft (27.4 m) west of the vent.
The entire spring and spring run are within the lowland flood plain of the Santa Fe River.
The flood plain in this area is heavily forested with cypress and other swamp inhabiting
hardwoods. The nearest high ground is approximately 600 ft (182.9 m) east of the spring,
and it rises to nearly 10 ft (3 m) above the flood plain. It is generally forested with mixed
hardwoods and pines. A house sits on the high ground to the east of the spring.

Utilization The land surrounding the spring is privately owned. The spring is a local
swimming hole with pristine surroundings.






BULLETIN NO. 66


Discharge November 1, 2001: 39.5 ft'/s(4



Table 24. Columbia Spring water quality analysis.


2001
Analytes
iiAnalys inili. Filler
Field Measures


A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit
I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value Q=exceeded holding time limit


Table 25. Columbia Spring bacteriological analysis.


Temperature
DO
pH
Sp. Cond.
Lab Analytes
BOD
Turbidity
Color
Alkalinity
Sp. Cond.
TDS
TSS
Cl
SO4
F
Nutrients
TOC
NO3 + NO2
NH3 + NH4
TKN
P


22.39
2.29
7.19
270

0.231
2.1
250
54
270
217
4U
28
34
0.14

39
0.089
0.062
1.3
0.3
0.19


2001
Analytes 2001
Liniiilt. Filler
Metals
Ca 33.6 31.5
K 2 1.8
Na 12.7 12
Mg 7.1 6.6
As 3U 3U
Al 530
B 291 -
Cd 0.75 U 0.75 U
Co 0.75 U
Cr 2U 2U
Cu 2.5 U 2.5 U
Fe 640 500
Mn 30.3 23.9
Ni 1.5U 2U
Pb 5 U 4U
Se 8.8U 4U
Sn 20 U
Sr 358
Zn 51 5U


Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL)
Analyte Value
Escherichia coli 26Q
Enterococci 158Q
Fecal Coliform 38Q
Total Coliform 340Q


54




27
34
0.12



0.088 j
0.038
1.1
0.21







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Ichetucknee Springs Group


-4


Figure 37. Ichetucknee Springs Group, Ichetucknee Head Spring (photo by T. Scott).
INqMkl~ )k- Kqm113i f y Wv 19,W.


Figure 38. Ichetucknee Springs Group, Blue Hole Spring (photo by T. Scott).






BULLETIN NO. 66


Group Location Lat. 290 59' N., Long. 820 45' W. (sections 12 and 13, T. 6 S., R. 15 E.
and section 7, T. 6 S., R. 16 E.). The Ichetucknee Springs Group is located within the
Ichetucknee Springs State Park which is approximately 10 miles (16.1 km) northeast of
Branford. From the bridge over the Suwannee River in Branford, drive east on US 27/129
for 7 miles (11.2 km). Turn north (left) onto CR 137 and continue for 1.3 miles (2.1 km).
Turn east (right) and go 4.2 miles (6.8 km) through the north park entrance to the parking
area.

Group Description These springs comprise a group of nine named and many unnamed
springs along the upper 2.5 mile (4 km) stretch of the Ichetucknee River. The most norther-
ly spring forms the head of the river and is named Ichetucknee Head Spring. From here,
the river flows about 1.5 miles (2.4 km) south, then 4 miles (6.4 km) southwest to discharge
into the normally darker tannic water of the Santa Fe River. Of the springs sampled for
water quality, all are located within Columbia County except for Ichetucknee Head Spring,
which is located just inside Suwannee County.

ICHETUCKNEE HEAD SPRING Lat. 290 59' 03.10" N., Long. 820 45' 42.73" W. (SE 1
NE 4 NE 4 sec. 12, T. 6 S., R. 15 E.). This spring forms the head of the Ichetucknee River.
The spring pool measures 102 ft (31.1 m) east to west and 87 ft (26.5 m) north to south. The
depth measures 17 ft (5.2 m) over the vent. Water is clear and light blue and issues from a
fracture in the limestone forming a visible boil. A thin layer of algae carpets most of the bot-
tom of the spring. The spring has sand and limestone bottom with little or no aquatic veg-
etation. North and east shorelines have thick emergent grass and shrubs, and the west
shore is near high ground sloping to approximately 15 ft (4.6 m) above water. All sur-
rounding land is densely forested. Restroom facilities are about 200 ft (61 m) west. This
spring is easily accessed by a path and is a popular swimming hole.

BLUE HOLE Lat. 290 58' 49.91" N., Long. 820 45' 30.44" W. (SW 1 SW 1 NW 1 sec.
17, T. 6 S., R. 15 E.). This spring is located in the spring run channel of Cedar Head Spring,
which is north of Blue Hole. The spring pool and outflow greatly widens the incoming spring
run, and the combined run flows south a short distance to the Ichetucknee River. The spring
pool measures 87 ft (26.5 m) east to west and 117 ft (35.6 m) north to south. The depth
measured over the vent is 37 ft (11.3 m). The water is clear and light blue, and a boil is vis-
ible on the pool surface. Water issues from a cavern in limestone. The pool has a sand and
limestone bottom with abundant aquatic grass and some algae. The land around the spring
is heavily forested with mixed hardwoods and palm. The spring run is fenced off approxi-
mately 100 ft (30.5 m) south of vent. This is a swimming spot with a wooden boardwalk for
spring access. A foot path leads to the spring from the north.

CEDAR HEAD SPRING Lat. 290 58' 59.88" N., Long. 820 45' 31.32" W. (SW 1 NW 1
NW 4 sec. 7, T. 6 S., R. 15 E.). This is a small spring at the head of a stream that flows
south into Blue Hole Spring. The spring pool diameter is approximately 20 ft (6.1 m) east
to west. The depth measures 6 ft (1.8 m) over the vent. No boil was present on the pool sur-
face during the October 2001 visit, although outflow stream was flowing. The bottom is cov-
ered with sand, logs and organic matter. Water is clear but does not appear blue due to dark
particulate layer on bottom. The vent is a small upwelling in the sand. A steep bank occurs
along the west side of the spring and rises to 8 ft (2.4 m) above water level. There is high-
er ground 150 ft (45.7 m) east of spring across a small lowland flood plain. Cypress, gum,
and maple forest occur in lowlands near water with mixed hardwood forest on higher







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Table 26. Ichetucknee Springs Group water quality analyses.


Main Blue Hole Cedar Head Mission
Analytes 1946 1975 2001 2001 2001 2001
Unfilt. Filter Unfilt. Filter Unfilt. Filter Unfilt. Filter


Field Measures
Temperature
DO
pH
Sp. Cond.
Lab Analytes
BOD
Turbidity
Color
Alkalinity
Sp. Cond.
TDS
TSS
Cl
SO4
F
Nutrients
TOC
NO3 + NO2
NH3 + NH4
TKN
P
PO4
Metals
Ca
K
Na
Mg
As
Al
B
Cd
Co
Cr
Cu
Fe
Mn
Ni
Pb
Se
Sn
Sr
Zn


22.2

7.7
329




0


21.0
4.5
7.6
290

2.0
1
1
140


0
3.6 4.4
8.4 6.9
0.1 0.4

0.0
0.37



0.05
0.05


- 0
0


3
30 340
20
0
7



170
0


21.95
3.52
7.91
319

0.2 UJ
0.05 U
5U
154
320
183
4U
3.6
8.3
0.1


154




3.7
8.5
0.097 I


1U
0.83 0.84
0.015 1 0.0121
0.06 U 0.06 U
0.023 0.022 J
0.02

54.5 52.5
0.15 0.14
2.12 2.02
5.8 5.8
3 U 3U
75U
25 U
0.75 U 0.75 U
0.75 U
2U 2U
2.5 U 2.5 U
35 U 20 U
0.5 U 0.5 U
1.5 U 1.5 U
5U 4U
4U 4U
10 U
156
5U 5U


21.9
2.01
7.49
287


0.2 UJ
0.1
5U
145
290
171
4U
4.3
4.8
0.11


145




4.3
4.9
0.11 A


1U
0.7 0.72
0.0111 0.01U
0.06 U 0.06 U
0.048 0.048 J
0.044

47.9 48.4
0.31 0.33
2.67 2.45
4.7 4.8
3U 3U
75 U
25 U
0.75 U 0.75 U
0.75 U
2U 2U
2.5 U 2.5 U
35 U 20 U
0.5 U 0.5 U
1.5U 1.5 U
5U 4U
4U 4U
10 U
76
5U 5U


0.2 UJ
0.05 U
5U
151
300
168
4U
3.9
5.3
0.1


151




3.9
5.4
0.091


1U
0.86 0.89
0.0111 0.0111
0.06 U 0.06 U
0.033 0.034 J
0.027

54 51.2
0.22 0.22
2.37 2.26
5.3 5.2
3U 3U
75 U
25 U
0.75 U 0.75 U
0.75 U
2U 2U
2.5 U 2.5 U
35 U 20 U
0.5 U 0.5 U
1.5U 1.5 U
5U 4U
4U 4U
10 U
105
5U 5U


21.8
0.63
7.91
312


0.2 UAJ
0.05 U
5U
148
310
172
4U
5.4
8.7
0.14


1U
0.51 0.53
0.01 U 0.0191
0.06 U 0.06 U
0.059 0.05 JA
0.056

49.7 48.6
0.46 0.48
3.65 3.53
6.3 6.4
3U 3U
75 U
25 U
0.75 U 0.75 U
0.75 U
2U 2U
4.41 2.5 U
35 U 20 U
0.5 U 0.5 U
1.5U 1.5 U
5U 4U
4U 4U
10 U
107
5U 5U


A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit
I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value Q=exceeded holding time limit


147




5.4 A
8.8 A
0.13






BULLETIN NO. 66


ground. Access is limited to an obscure foot path from the west. The spring is not used for
swimming because of its low water level and limited access.

ROARING SPRING Lat. 290 58' 34.44" N., Long. 820 45' 28.44" W. (SE 1 NW 1 SW 1
sec. 7, T. 6 S., R. 15 E.). Roaring Spring is the largest spring in a complex of springs often
referred to as Mission Springs. Roaring Spring along with Singing Spring and other small
springs emanate from the base of high banks about 250 ft (76.2 m) east of the Ichetucknee
River. Roaring Spring discharges out of a cavern in a limestone ledge on the north side of
the island into the northwest flowing run. Its spring pool measures 10 ft (3 m) east to west
and 15 ft (4.6 m) north to south. The depth measured near the limestone ledge is 3 ft (0.9
m). The ledge rises steeply to approximately 12 ft (3.7 m) above the water level. Water is
clear and bluish. Algae coat the aquatic grasses in the spring run. There are two small
runs; one flows to the northwest and the other flows southwest. Both meet the river approx-
imately 250 ft (76.2 m) from each other. At this point, the trickling northwest run becomes
a turbulent run with swaying aquatic grasses. The uplands east of the spring rise to nearly
20 ft (6.1 m) above the springs and are heavily forested with mixed hardwoods at lower ele-
vations and pines on the hilltops. An historic Spanish mission once stood on the high ground
approximately 200 ft (61 m) east of the springs.

Utilization The springs, river, and surrounding forested land are part of Ichetucknee
Springs State Park from the US 27 bridge northward. The park is a high quality natural
area that is partly developed and whose heavy public use is highly regulated in order to min-
imize damage to the environment. Camping, hiking, swimming, tubing, and canoeing are
some of the activities that are offered in the state park.

Discharge -All discharge rates are measured in fts/s. Discharge is measured for the entire
group.
May 17, 1946 197.2 ft3/s(1)
October 3, 2001 186 ft3/s(4


Table 27. Ichetucknee Springs Group bacteriological analyses.

Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL)
Analyte Main Blue Hole Cedar Head Mission
Escherichia coli 1KQ 1KQ 2Q 1AKQ
Enterococci 1KQ 1KQ 42Q 1AKQ
Fecal Coliform 1KQ 1KQ 2Q 1AKQ
Total Coliform 1KQ 1KQ 20Q 1AKQ






FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Santa Fe Spring (formerly COL61981)


Figure 39. Santa Fe Spring (photo by T. Scott).


Location-Lat. 290 56' 05.30" N., Long. 820 31' 49.51" W. (NW14 SEE1 SEE1 sec. 29, T. 6
S., R. 18 E.). Santa Fe Spring is located approximately 8 miles (12.9 km) northeast of High
Springs on the west bank of the Santa Fe River. From the intersection of US 441/41 and CR
236 in High Springs head north on US 441/41 approximately 6.2 miles (10 km) to the O'Leno
State Park sign on the east (right) side of US 441/41. Turn east (right) onto an access road,
which parallels US 441/41 and travel 0.3 miles (0.5 km) to a dirt road on the east (right) side
of the road, just past the O'Leno State Park entrance. Turn east (right) onto the dirt road
and travel approximately 3.3 miles (5.3 km) to a boat landing just upstream from the 1-75
bridge. The road makes a series of 90 degree turns to the north and east before finally bear-
ing southeast to the Santa Fe River. The spring is 2 miles (3.2 km) upstream from the 1-75
bridge over the river. At this point, a narrow spring run comes in from the north. The
spring is approximately 90 ft (27.4 m) up the spring run at the head.

Description-This spring, formerly named COL61981 (Hornsby and Ceryak, 1998), is a
large circular depression with steep sides. Spring pool diameter measures 192 ft (58.5 m)
north to south and 215 ft (65.5 m) northeast to southwest. Spring depth is 83 ft (25.3 m).
The water color is typically clear and tinged greenish blue though it was tannic in October
2001. No boil was observed during the October 2001 visit. The spring run is approximate-
ly 90 ft (27.4 m) long and flows southeasterly into the Santa Fe River. Some algae are pres-
ent on limestone substrate in the spring run. No other aquatic vegetation could be seen
through the dark water. Very little emergent vegetation is present. Cypress trees are com-
mon along the water line. The spring pool is surrounded by 15-20 ft (4.6- 6.1 m) high steep,






BULLETIN NO. 66


sandy banks. The uplands around the pool are generally forested with live oaks and pines.

Utilization-The uplands around this spring are privately owned. At least five cabins are
evenly distributed around the pool on the high banks.

Discharge-All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s.
June 1, 1998 149.99(4)
November 1, 2001 47.9(4)

Table 28. Santa Fe Spring water quality analysis.


A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit
I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value Q= Exceeded holding time limit


Table 29. Santa Fe Spring bacteriological analysis.


2001
Analytes i 2 Fi
LinfilI. Filler
Field Measures
Temperature 22.69
DO 0.78
pH 7.40
Sp. Cond. 271
Lab Analytes
BOD 0.2 U
Turbidity 0.8
Color 120
Alkalinity 107 107
Sp. Cond. 270
TDS 193
TSS 4 U -
Cl 10 9.9
SO4 18 18
F 0.2 0.17
Nutrients
TOC 22
NO3 +NO2 0.023 0.018 J
NH3 +NH4 0.057 0.051
TKN 0.76 0.62
P 0.2 0.19
PO4 0.19 -


2001
Analytes 2001
L infill. Filler
Metals
Ca 39.3 38.2
K 1.3 1.3
Na 5.5 5.57 A
Mg 7.9 7.8
B 25U
Al 2001
As 3 U 3U
Cd 0.75 U 0.75 U
Co 0.75 U
Cr 2U 2U
Cu 2.5 U 2.5 U
Fe 250 210
Mn 41 39.8
Ni 1.5 U 2U
Pb 5 U 4U
Se 4U 4U
Sn 10 U
Sr 276
Zn 5 U 5U


Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL)
Analyte Value
Escherichia coli 1KQ
Enterococci 1KQ
Fecal Coliform 2Q
Total Coliform 10Q







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


DIXIE COUNTY


STEINHATCHEE RIVER

- STEINHATCHEE RIVER


Steinhatchee
River


C
C


POT HOLE SPRING

GUARANTO SPRING .
RISE




DIX9597
MCCRABB SPRING-
UNAMED SPRING
ross
ity

COPPER SPRI LITTLE COPPER SPRING


Suwannee
River







N



o 2.5 5 Miles


O 2.5 5 7.5 Kilometers


Sampled Springs
j 1 1st Magnitude Spring

" 2 2nd Magnitude Springs


Additional Springs
1 2nd Magnitude Spring

0 4 3rd Magnitude Springs


Water
-- US and State Roads

Incorporated Places


Figure 40 Springs visited by FGS in Dixie County.




Full Text

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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 903 W. TENNESSEE STREET TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA 32304-7700 Walter Schmidt, State Geologist and Chief ADMINISTRATIVE AND GEOLOGICAL DATA MANAGEMENT SECTION Jacqueline M. Lloyd, Assistant State Geologist Karen Achille, Administrative Secretary Carol Armstrong, Librarian Wanda Bissonnette, Administrative Assistant Paulette Bond, Research Geologist Kenji Butler, Research Assistant Jessie Hawkins, Custodian Michael Miller, Research Assistant Chris Poarch, Systems Programmer Jeremy Poarch, IT Assistant Paula Polson, CAD Analyst Andrew Rudin, GIS Analyst Frank Rupert, Research Geologist Christie Seale, Secretary SpecialistCarolyn Stringer, Management AnalystSusan Trombley, Secretary Specialist GEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS SECTION Thomas M. Scott, Assistant State Geologist Jon Arthur, Hydrogeology Program Supervisor David Arthur, Research Assistant Kristin Bailey, Research Assistant Alan Baker, Hydrogeologist Kristy Baker, Research Assistant Jim Balsillie, Coastal Geologist Craig Berninger, Driller Lee Booth, DrillerÂ’s Assistant Jonathan Bryan, Research Associate Ken Campbell, Drilling Supervisor James Cichon, Hydrogeologist Bridget Coane, Research Assistant Rick Copeland, Hydrogeologist Brian Cross, Research Assistant Adel Dabous, Research Associate Roberto Davila, Research Assistant Kevin DeFosset, Research Assistant Rodney DeHan, Senior Research Scientist Erin Dorn, Research Assistant Will Evans, Senior Research Associate Cindy Fischler, Research Assistant Rick Green, Stratigrapher Tom Greenhalgh, Hydrogeologist Jacob Halfhill, Research Assistant Eric Harrington, Engineering Technician Ron Hoenstine, Coastal Research Program SupervisorRobby Jones, Research Assistant Clint Kromhout, Research Assistant Robert Kurtz, Research Assistant Michelle Lachance, Research Assistant Jim Ladner, Coastal Geologist James McClean, Research Associate Harley Means, Research Geologist Ryan Means, Research Assistant Rebecca Meegan, Research Assistant Elizabeth Moulton, Research Assistant David Paul, Research Associate Dan Phelps, Coastal Geologist Steve Spencer, Economic Mineralogist Wade Stringer, Marine Mechanic Alan Willet, Research Assistant Alex Wood, Hydrogeologist OIL AND GAS SECTION David Curry, Environmental Administrator Paul Attwood, Asst. District Coordinator Robert Caughey, District Coordinator Brett Cimbora, Research Assistant Ed Garrett, Geologist Al Keaton, Engineer John Leccese, District Coordinator Tracy Phelps, Secretary David Taylor, Engineer Joel Webb, Research Assistant Cover : Fern Hammock Spring, Marion County (photo by Tom Scott).

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STATE OF FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION Colleen M. Castille, Secretary DIVISION OF RESOURCE ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT Edwin J. Conklin, Director FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Walter Schmidt, State Geologist and Chief Bulletin No. 66SPRINGS OF FLORIDABy Thomas M. Scott (PG #99), Guy H. Means, Rebecca P. Meegan, Ryan C. Means, Sam B. Upchurch, R. E. Copeland, James Jones, Tina Roberts, Alan Willet Version 1.1 Revised October 12, 2004 Published for the FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Tallahassee, Florida 2004

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ii Printed for the Florida Geological Survey Tallahassee 2004 ISSN 0271-7832

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PREFACE FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Tallahassee, Florida 2004 The Florida Geological Survey (FGS), Division of Resource Assessment and Management, Department of Environmental Protection, is publishing as its Bulletin No. 66, Springs of Florida. In 2001, the Florida Legislature passed the Florida Springs Initiative to further the State's ability to conserve and protect our valuable freshwater spring resources. As part of this larger program the FGS began a three year project to update and complete the state's inventory of these resources. The original report by the FGS on Florida's springs was published in 1947, as Bulletin No. 31. This was revised in 1977. In recent decades, much has been learned about additional spring resources unreported in earlier compilations. In addition, a great deal of water chemistry information has been gathered to enable long-term trend analysis and interpretative dynamics of our subsurface aquifer flow regimes. Further data is being compiled to better define various springsheds to aid policy makers as they try to address land-use decisions to foster sustainable fresh water resources. The information contained in this report, provides data for scientists, planners, environmental managers, and the citizens of Florida. Walter Schmidt, Ph.D, PG State Geologist and Chief Florida Geological Survey iii

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iv

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Definitions and Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Florida Springs Task Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Task Force Members and Advisors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Classification of Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Archaeological and Paleontological Significance of Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Hydrogeology of Florida Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Springsheds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Spring Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Natural Factors Affecting Water Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Indicators of Water Quality Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 Offshore Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 Water Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Field Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Water Samples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 Additional Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 Discharge Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 Characteristics of Spring Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 Descriptions of Analytes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 Physical Field Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 Dissolved Oxygen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 pH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 Specific Conductance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 Water Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 Discharge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 Other Field Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 Secchi Depth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 Laboratory Analytes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 Alkalinity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 Biochemical Oxygen Demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 Chloride (Cl) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 Color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 Nitrate + Nitrite (NO3+ NO2) as N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 Organic Carbon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Orthophosphate (PO4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Potassium (K) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Radium 226 and 228 (Ra226and Ra228) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Sodium (Na) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Sulfate (SO4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Total Ammonia (NH3+ NH4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Total Dissolved Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 v

PAGE 8

Total Nitrogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Total Suspended Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Turbidity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Trace Metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Biological Analytes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 Descriptions of Individual Springs and Results of Analyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 Alachua County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 Hornsby Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 Poe Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 Santa Fe River Rise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44 Treehouse Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46 Bay County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48 Gainer Springs Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 Gainer Spring No. 1C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 Gainer Spring No. 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50 Gainer Spring No. 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 Bradford County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Calhoun County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 4 Citrus County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55 Chassahowitzka Springs Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56 Chassahowitzka Main Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 Chassahowitzka No. 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 Citrus Blue Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59 Homosassa Springs Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 Homosassa Springs Nos. 1, 2 and 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 Kings Bay Springs Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64 Hunter Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65 Tarpon Hole Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65 Clay County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67 Green Cove Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68 Columbia County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Columbia Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72 Ichetucknee Springs Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74 Ichetucknee Head Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75 Blue Hole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75 Cedar Head Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75 Roaring Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77 Santa Fe Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78 Dixie County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80 Copper Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81 Guaranto Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84 Steinhatchee River Rise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86 Duval County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88 Franklin County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Gadsden County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 0 Gilchrist County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91 Devil's Ear Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92 Gilchrist Blue Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95 Ginnie Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97 vi

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Hart Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99 Otter Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102 Rock Bluff Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104 Siphon Creek Rise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107 Sun Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .109 Hamilton County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 2 Alapaha River Rise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .113 Holton Creek Rise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115 Rossetter Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117 Hernando County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .119 Gator Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .120 Little Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122 Magnolia Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125 Salt Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128 Weeki Wachee Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .131 Hillsborough County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .133 Buckhorn Main Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .134 Lithia Spring Major . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .137 Sulphur Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .140 Holmes County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 3 Holmes Blue Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .144 Ponce de Leon Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .146 Jackson County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 49 Baltzell Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .150 Blue Hole Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .152 Hays Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .154 Jackson Blue Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .156 Shangri-La Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .159 Spring Lake Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .161 Black Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .161 Double Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .163 Gadsen Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .165 Mill Pond Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .167 Springboard Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .169 Jefferson County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 71 Wacissa Springs Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .172 Spring No. 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .172 Big Spring (Big Blue Spring) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .174 Lafayette County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 75 Allen Mill Pond Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .176 Lafayette Blue Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .178 Mearson Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .180 Owens Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .182 Ruth Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184 Troy Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .186 Turtle Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .188 Lake County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 Alexander Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .191 Apopka Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .194 vii

PAGE 10

Bugg Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .196 Leon County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 Horn Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .200 Natural Bridge Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .202 Rhodes Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .205 Rhodes Springs No. 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .205 Rhodes Springs No. 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .206 Rhodes Springs No. 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .206 St. Marks River Rise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .209 Levy County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .211 Fanning Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .212 Levy Blue Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .214 Manatee Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .216 Madison County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .218 Madison Blue Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .219 Suwanacoochee Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .221 Manatee County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .223 Marion County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 4 Fern Hammock Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .225 Juniper Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .227 Orange Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .230 Rainbow Springs Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .232 Rainbow No. 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .233 Rainbow No. 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .235 Rainbow No. 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .235 Bubbling Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .235 Salt Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .237 Silver Glen Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .240 Silver Springs Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .243 Main Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .244 Reception Hall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .244 Blue Grotto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .244 Orange County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 7 Rock Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .248 Wekiwa Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .251 Pasco County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .254 Crystal Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .255 Pinellas County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258 Putnam County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 9 Beecher Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .260 Welaka Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .262 Sarasota County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 4 Warm Mineral Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .265 Seminole County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 8 Sanlando Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .269 Starbuck Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .272 Sumter County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 4 Fenney Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .275 Gum Spring Main . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .277 viii

PAGE 11

Suwannee County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .279 Branford Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .280 Ellaville Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .282 Falmouth Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .284 Ichetucknee Head Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .286 Little River Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .286 Running Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .288 Suwannee Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .290 Telford Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .293 Taylor County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295 Nutall Rise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .296 Waldo Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .298 Union County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 01 Volusia County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 02 DeLeon Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .303 Volusia Blue Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .306 Wakulla County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .308 Cray's Rise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .309 Newport Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .311 Sheppard Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .313 Spring Creek Springs Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .315 Spring Creek No. 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .317 Spring Creek No. 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .317 Wakulla Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .318 Walton County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321 Morrison Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .322 Washington County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .324 Beckton Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .325 Brunson Landing Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .327 Cypress Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .329 Washington Blue Spring Choctawhatchee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .332 Washington Blue Springs Econfina . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .335 Williford Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .338 Springs Information Resources on the Web . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .341 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .343 Appendix A Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .349 Appendix B Florida Springs Locations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .359 Appendix B 1 Springs visited by FGS springs teams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .359 Appendix B 2 Location of additional known or reported springs in Florida not visited by FGS spring teams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .371 Appendix C Descriptions of additional springs visited by FGS spring teams . . . . . . . . .379 Figures 1.Old Florida spring photos and momentos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 2.Florida Springs Task Force at Salt Springs in 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 3.Location of Florida's springs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 4.Native American artifacts from Florida Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 ix

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5.Generalized geologic map of Florida . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 6.Karst areas related to first magnitude springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 7.Example of the Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment (FAVA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 8.Median nitrate concentrations in 13 selected first magnitude springs in Florida . . .19 9.Idealized springshed delineation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 10.Potentiometric map of springshed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 11.Offshore springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 12.Known offshore springs in the Florida Big Bend Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 13.The FGS Spring Sampling Team, 2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 14.SCUBA diver in Silver Springs (photo by G. Maddox) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 15.Springs visited by FGS in Alachua County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 16.Hornsby Spring (photo by T. Scott) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 17.Poe Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 18.Santa Fe River Rise (photo by T. Scott) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44 19.Treehouse Spring (photo by J. Stevenson) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46 20.Springs visited by FGS in Bay County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48 21.Gainer Springs Group Vent 1C (photo by T. Scott) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 22.Gainer Springs Group Vent 2 (photo by T. Scott) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50 23.Gainer Springs Group Fracture (photo by H. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 24.Springs visited by FGS in Bradford County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 25.Springs visited by FGS in Calhoun County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54 26.Springs visited by FGS in Citrus County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55 27.Chassahowitzka Main Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56 28.Chassahowitzka No. 1 (photo by R. Meegan) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56 29.Citrus Blue Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59 30.Homosassa Springs Group (photo by H. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 31.Kings Bay Springs Group, Hunter Spring (photo by R. Meegan) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64 32.Kings Bay Springs Group, Tarpon Hole Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . .64 33.Springs visited by FGS in Clay County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67 34.Green Cove Springs (photo by T. Scott) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68 35.Springs visited by FGS in Columbia County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71 36.Columbia Spring (photo by D. Hornsby) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72 37.Ichetucknee Springs Group, Ichetucknee Head Spring (photo by T. Scott) . . . . . . . .74 38.Ichetucknee Springs Group, Blue Hole Spring (photo by T. Scott) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74 39.Santa Fe Spring (photo by T. Scott) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78 40.Springs visited by FGS in Dixie County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80 41.Copper Spring No. 2 (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81 42.Guaranto Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84 43.Steinhatchee River Rise (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86 44.Springs visited by FGS in Duval County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88 45.Springs visited by FGS in Franklin County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89 46.Springs visited by FGS in Gadsden County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90 47.Springs visited by FGS in Gilchrist County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91 48.Devil's Ear Spring (photo by H. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92 49.Gilchrist Blue Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95 50.Ginnie Spring (photo by H. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97 x

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51.Hart Springs (photo by T. Scott) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99 52.Otter Spring (photo by H. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102 53.Rock Bluff Springs (photo by H. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104 54.Siphon Creek Rise (photo by T. Scott) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107 55.Sun Springs (photo by H. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .109 56.Springs visited by FGS in Hamilton County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112 57.Alapaha River Rise (photo by T. Scott) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .113 58.Holton Creek Rise (photo by T. Scott) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115 59.Rossetter Spring (photo by H. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117 60.Springs visited by FGS in Hernando County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .119 61.Gator Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .120 62.Little Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122 63.Magnolia Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125 64.Hernando Salt Springs (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128 65.Weeki Wachee Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .131 66.Springs visited by FGS in Hillsborough County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .133 67.Buckhorn Main Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .134 68.Lithia Spring Major (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .137 69.Sulphur Spring circa 1930 (anonymous) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .140 70.Sulphur Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .140 71.Springs visited by FGS in Holmes County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .143 72.Holmes Blue Spring (photo by R. Meegan) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .144 73.Ponce de Leon Springs (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .146 74.Springs visited by FGS in Jackson County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .149 75.Baltzell Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .150 76.Blue Hole (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .152 77.Hays Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .154 78.Jackson Blue Spring (photo by T. Scott) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .156 79.Jackson Blue Spring aerial photo (photo by T. Scott) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .156 80.Shangri-La Springs (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .159 81.Black Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .161 82.Double Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .163 83.Gadsen Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .165 84.Mill Pond Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .167 85.Springboard Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .169 86.Springs visited by FGS in Jefferson County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .171 87.Wacissa Springs Group, Big Spring (Big Blue Spring) (photo by R. Means) . . . . . .172 88.Springs visited by FGS in Lafayette County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .175 89.Allen Mill Pond Springs (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .176 90.Lafayette Blue Spring (photo by T. Scott) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .178 91.Mearson Spring (photo by D. Hornsby) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .180 92.Owens Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .182 93.Ruth Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184 94.Troy Spring (photo by T. Scott) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .186 95.Turtle Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .188 96.Springs visited by FGS in Lake County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .190 xi

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97.Alexander Spring (photo by T. Scott) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .191 98.Alexander Spring aerial photo (photo by H. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .192 99.Apopka Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .194 100.Bugg Spring (photo by T. Scott) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .196 101.Springs visited by FGS in Leon County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .199 102.Horn Spring (photo by H. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .200 103.Natural Bridge Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .202 104.Rhodes Spring No. 4 (photo by H. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .205 105.St. Marks River Rise (photo by H. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .209 106.Springs visited by FGS in Levy County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .211 107.Fanning Springs (photo by T. Scott) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .212 108.Levy Blue Spring (photo by T. Scott) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .214 109.Manatee Spring (photo by T. Scott) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .216 110.Springs visited by FGS in Madison County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .218 111.Madison Blue Spring (photo by T. Scott) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .219 112.Suwanacoochee Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .221 113.Srings visited by FGS in Manatee County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .223 114.Springs visited by FGS in Marion County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .224 115.Fern Hammock Springs (photo by T. Scott) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .225 116.Juniper Springs (photo by H. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .227 117.Orange Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .230 118.Rainbow Springs Group aerial photo (photo by H. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .232 119.Rainbow Springs Group head spring (photo by T. Scott) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .232 120.Rainbow Springs Group rocks underwater (photo by T. Scott) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .233 121.Salt Springs (photo by T. Scott) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .237 122.Silver Glen Springs circa 1930 (anonymous) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .240 123.Silver Glen Springs (photo by T. Scott) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .240 124.Silver Springs Group, Main Spring aerial photo (photo by H. Means) . . . . . . . . . . .243 125.Silver Springs Group, Main Spring (photo by Steve Specht) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .243 126.Springs visited by FGS in Orange County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .247 127.Rock Springs (photo by T. Scott) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .248 128.Wekiwa Spring (photo by T. Scott) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .251 129.Springs visited by FGS in Pasco County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .254 130.Crystal Spring (photo by H. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .255 131.Springs visited by FGS in Pinellas County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .258 132.Springs visited by FGS in Putnam County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .259 133.Beecher Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .260 134.Welaka Spring (photo by H. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .262 135.Springs visited by FGS in Sarasota County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .264 136.Warm Mineral Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .265 137.Springs visited by FGS in Seminole County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .268 138.Sanlando Springs (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .269 139.Starbuck Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .272 140.Springs visited by FGS in Sumter County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .274 141.Fenney Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .275 142.Gum Springs Main (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .277 xii

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143.Springs visited by FGS in Suwannee County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .279 144.Branford Spring (photo by T. Scott) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .280 145.Ellaville Spring (photo by T. Scott) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .282 146.Falmouth Spring (photo by T. Scott) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .284 147.Little River Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .286 148.East Running Springs (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .288 149.Suwannee Springs (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .290 150.Telford Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .293 151.Springs visited by FGS in Taylor County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .295 152.Nutall Rise (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .296 153.Waldo Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .298 154.Springs visited by FGS in Union County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .301 155.Springs visited by FGS in Volusia County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .302 156.DeLeon Spring (photo by T. Scott) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .303 157.Volusia Blue Spring (photo by T. Scott) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .306 158.Springs visited by FGS in Wakulla County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .308 159.Cray's Rise (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .309 160.Newport Spring (photo by T. Scott) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .311 161.Sheppard Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .313 162.Spring Creek Springs Group (photo by J. Stevenson) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .315 163.Wakulla Spring (photo by T. Scott) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .318 164.Spring visited by FGS in Walton County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .321 165.Morrison Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .322 166.Springs visited by FGS in Washington County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .324 167.Beckton Spring (photo by H. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .325 168.Brunson Landing Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .327 169.Cypress Spring (photo by T. Scott) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .329 170.Washington Blue Spring Choctawhatchee (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .332 171.Washington Blue Spring Econfina (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .335 172.Williford Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .338 Tables 1.Florida's spring classification system (from Copeland, 2003) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 2.List of analytes sampled at first magnitude springs and measured by the FDEP laboratory for the Springs Initiative during Fall 2001, Winter 2002, and Spring 2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 3.Units of measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 4.Hornsby Spring water quality analyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 5.Hornsby Spring bacteriological analyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 6.Poe Spring water quality analyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 7.Poe Spring bacteriological analyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43 8.Santa Fe River Rise water quality analyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 9.Santa Fe River Rise bacteriological analyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 10.Treehouse Spring water quality analyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47 11.Treehouse Spring bacteriological analyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47 xiii

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12.Gainer Springs Group water quality analyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52 13.Gainer Springs Group bacteriological analyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52 14.Chasahowitzka Springs Group bacteriological analyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 15.Chassahowitzka Springs Group water quality analyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58 16.Citrus Blue Spring water quality analyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60 17.Citrus Blue Spring bacteriological analyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60 18.Homosassa Springs Group water quality analyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62 19.Homosassa Springs Group bacteriological analyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63 20.Kings Bay Springs Group water quality analyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66 21.Kings Bay Springs Group bacteriological analyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66 22.Green Cove Spring water quality analyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69 23.Green Cove Spring bacteriological analyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70 24.Columbia Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73 25.Columbia Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73 26.Ichetucknee Springs Group water quality analyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76 27.Ichetucknee Springs Group bacteriological analyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77 28.Santa Fe Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79 29.Santa Fe Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79 30.Copper Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82 31.Copper Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82 32.Guaranto Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85 33.Guaranto Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85 34.Steinhatchee River Rise water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87 35.Steinhatchee River Rise bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87 36.Devil's Ear Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93 37.Devil's Ear Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93 38.Gilchrist Blue Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96 39.Gilchrist Blue Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96 40.Ginnie Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98 41.Ginnie Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98 42.Hart Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 43.Hart Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101 44.Otter Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103 45.Otter Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103 46.Rock Bluff Springs water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105 47.Rock Bluff Springs bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .106 48.Siphon Creek Rise water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108 49.Siphon Creek Rise bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108 50.Sun Springs water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .110 51.Sun Springs bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .110 52.Alapaha River Rise water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .114 53.Alapaha River Rise bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .114 54.Holton Creek Rise water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116 55.Holton Creek Rise bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116 xiv

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56.Rossetter Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .118 57.Rossetter Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .118 58.Gator Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121 59.Gator Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121 60.Little Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .123 61.Little Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .124 62.Magnolia Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .126 63.Magnolia Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .127 64.Hernando Salt Spring water quality analyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129 65.Hernando Salt Spring bacteriological analyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .130 66.Weeki Wachee Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .132 67.Weeki Wachee Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .132 68.Buckhorn Main Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .135 69.Buckhorn Main Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .136 70.Lithia Spring Major water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .138 71.Lithia Spring Major bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .139 72.Sulphur Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .141 73.Sulphur Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .142 74.Holmes Blue Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .145 75.Holmes Blue Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .145 76.Ponce de Leon Springs water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .147 77.Ponce de Leon Springs bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .148 78.Baltzell Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .151 79.Baltzell Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .151 80.Blue Hole Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .153 81.Blue Hole Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .153 82.Hays Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .155 83.Hays Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .155 84.Jackson Blue Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .157 85.Jackson Blue Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .158 86.Shangri-La Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .160 87.Shangri-La Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .160 88.Spring Lake Springs, Black Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .162 89.Spring Lake Springs, Black Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .163 90.Spring Lake Springs, Double Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .164 91.Spring Lake Springs, Double Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .164 92.Spring Lake Springs, Gadsen Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .166 93.Spring Lake Springs, Gadsen Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .166 94.Spring Lake Springs, Mill Pond Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .168 95.Spring Lake Springs, Mill Pond Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .168 96.Spring Lake Springs, Springboard Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . .170 97.Spring Lake Springs, Springboard Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . .170 98.Wacissa Springs Group water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .173 xv

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99.Wacissa Springs Group bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .174 100.Allen Mill Pond Springs water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .177 101.Allen Mill Pond Springs bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .177 102.Lafayette Blue Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .179 103.Lafayette Blue Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .179 104.Mearson Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .181 105.Mearson Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .181 106.Owens Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .183 107.Owens Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .183 108.Ruth Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .185 109.Ruth Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .185 110.Troy Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .187 111.Troy Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .187 112.Turtle Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .189 113.Turtle Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .189 114.Alexander Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .193 115.Alexander Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .193 116.Apopka Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .195 117.Apopka Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .195 118.Bugg Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .197 119.Bugg Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .198 120.Horn Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .201 121.Horn Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .201 122.Natural Bridge Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .203 123.Natural Bridge Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .204 124.Rhodes Springs water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .207 125.Rhodes Springs bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .208 126.St. Marks River Rise water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .210 127.St. Marks River Rise bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .210 128.Fanning Springs water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .213 129.Fanning Springs bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .213 130.Levy Blue Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .215 131.Levy Blue Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .215 132.Manatee Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .217 133.Manatee Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .217 134.Madison Blue Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .220 135.Madison Blue Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .220 136.Suwanacoochee Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .222 137.Suwanacoochee Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .222 138.Fern Hammock Springs water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .226 139.Fern Hammock Springs bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .226 140.Juniper Springs water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .228 141.Juniper Springs bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .228 xvi

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142.Orange Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .231 143.Orange Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .231 144.Rainbow Springs Group water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .234 145.Rainbow Springs Group bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .235 146.Salt Springs water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .238 147.Salt Springs bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .239 148.Silver Glen Springs bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .241 149.Silver Glen Springs water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .242 150.Silver Springs Group bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .245 151.Silver Springs Group water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .246 152.Rock Springs water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .249 153.Rock Springs bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .250 154.Wekiwa Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .252 155.Wekiwa Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .253 156.Crystal Springs water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .256 157.Crystal Springs bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .257 158.Beecher Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .261 159.Beecher Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .261 160.Welaka Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .263 161.Welaka Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .263 162.Warm Mineral Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .266 163.Warm Mineral Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .267 164.Sanlando Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .270 165.Sanlando Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .271 166.Starbuck Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .273 167.Starbuck Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .273 168.Fenney Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .276 169.Fenney Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .276 170.Gum Springs Main water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .278 171.Gum Springs Main bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .278 172.Branford Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .281 173.Branford Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .281 174.Ellaville Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .283 175.Ellaville Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .283 176.Falmouth Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .285 177.Falmouth Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .285 178.Little River Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .287 179.Little River Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .287 180.Running Springs bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .289 181.Running Springs water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .289 182.Suwannee Springs water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .291 183.Suwannee Springs bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .292 184.Telford Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .294 xvii

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185.Telford Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .294 186.Nutall Rise water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .297 187.Nutall Rise bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .297 188.Waldo Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .299 189.Waldo Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .300 190.DeLeon Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .304 191.DeLeon Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .305 192.Volusia Blue Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .307 193.Volusia Blue Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .307 194.Cray's Rise water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .310 195.Cray's Rise bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .310 196.Newport Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .312 197.Newport Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .312 198.Sheppard Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .314 199.Sheppard Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .314 200.Spring Creek Springs Group water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .316 201.Spring Creek Springs Group bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .317 202.Wakulla Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .319 203.Wakulla Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .320 204.Morrison Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .323 205.Morrison Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .323 206.Beckton Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .326 207.Beckton Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .326 208.Brunson Landing Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .328 209.Brunson Landing Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .328 210.Cypress Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .330 211.Cypress Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .331 212.Washington Blue Spring Choctawhatchee water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . .333 213.Washington Blue Spring Choctawhatchee bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . .334 214.Washington Blue Spring Econfina water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .336 215.Washington Blue Spring Econfina bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .337 216.Williford Spring water quality analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .339 217.Williford Spring bacteriological analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .340 xviii

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SPRINGS OF FLORIDAby Thomas M. Scott (PG #99), Guy H. Means, Rebecca P. Meegan, Ryan C. Means, Sam B. Upchurch, R. E. Copeland, James Jones, Tina Roberts, Alan WilletINTRODUCTION The bank was dense with magnolia and loblolly bay, sweet gum and gray-barked ash. He went down to the spring in the cool darkness of their shadows. A sharp pleasure came over him. This was a secret and a lovely place. Marjory Kinnan Rawlings, The Yearling , 1938 Mysterious, magical, even "awesome" springs elicit an emotional response from nearly everyone who peers into their crystalline depths. The clear, azure waters of Florida's springs have long been a focus of daily life during the humid, hot months of the year. Many Floridians have a lifetime of memories surrounding our springs. Florida's often warm, humid weather rendered the state's springs a welcome relief from the effects of the climate. Many children, on a hot summer day, begged their parents to take them to those cool, clear inviting pools so that, after hours in the water, the air's warmth actually felt good! The draw of the mysterious, pristine water issuing from caves and sand boils was unmistakable. Visit any spring during the muggy months and you will find people of all ages partaking of Nature's soothing remedy spring water! Marjory Stoneman Douglas, the grandame of Florida environmentalists, stated that " Springs are bowls of liquid light ." Writer and author Al Burt observed that " Springs add a melody to the land ." Springs and spring runs have been a focal point of life from prehistoric times to the present. Undoubtedly, the ancient flow of cool, fresh water attracted animals now long absent from Florida's landscape. Many a diver has recovered fossil remains from the state's spring runs and wondered what the forest must have looked like when mastodons and giant sloths roamed the spring-run lowlands. Human artifacts, found in widespread areas of the state, attest to the importance of springs to Florida's earliest inhabitants. The explorers of Florida, from Ponce de Leon to John and William Bartram and others, often mentioned the subterranean discharges of fresh water that were scattered across central and northern Florida. As colonists and settlers began to inhabit Florida, springs continued to be the focus of human activity, becoming sites of missions, towns and steamboat landings. Spring runs provided power for gristmills. Baptisms were held in the clear, cool waters and the springs often served as water supplies for local residents. Today, even bottled water producers are interested in utilizing these waters. Some springs have been valued for their purported therapeutic effects, and people flocked to them to soak in the medicinal waters (Figure 1). Recreational opportunities provided by the state's springs are numerous. Swimming, snorkeling, diving and canoeing are among the most common activities centering around Florida's springs. The springs and spring runs are magnets for wildlife and, subsequently, BULLETIN NO. 66 1

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FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 2 Figure 1. Old Florida spring photos and momentos. Clockwise from top left, interior of bath house at White Springs, Hamilton County, 1920s; exterior of bath house at White Springs; Silver Springs, Marion County, auto decal, 1950s; Warm Mineral Springs, Sarasota County, brochure, 1950s; Sulphur Spring, Hillsborough County, early 1900s; boating at Troy Spring, Lafayette County, 1960s; cars at Silver Springs, 1930s; Panacea Mineral Springs Motel, Wakulla County 1930s.

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draw many individuals and groups to view these animals in their natural surroundings. The economic impact of the springs has been well documented (Bonn and Bell, 2003). Ichetucknee, Wakulla, Homosassa and Volusia Blue Springs alone generated more than $65 million in 2002. Spring water is a natural discharge that comes primarily from the Floridan aquifer system, the state's primary aquifer. The springs provide a "window" into the aquifer, allowing for a measure of the health of the aquifer. Chemical and biological constituents that enter the aquifer through recharge processes may affect the water quality, flora and fauna of springs and spring runs. As water quality in the aquifer has declined, the flora and fauna associated with the springs and cave systems have been negatively affected. The change in water quality is a direct result of Florida's increased population and changed land-use patterns. The state's population has increased from approximately two million in 1940 to more than 17 million in 2004 and is projected to exceed 24 million by 2030. These changes and the subsequent degradation of our springs have led to the efforts to protect and restore Florida's treasured springs. In 1947, the Florida Geological Survey (FGS) published the first Springs of Florida bulletin which documented the major and important springs in the state (Ferguson et al., 1947). This publication was revised in 1977, with many previously undocumented springs and many new water-quality analyses being added (Rosenau et al., 1977). The Florida Geological Survey's report on first magnitude springs (Scott et al., 2002) was the initial step in once again updating and revising the Springs of Florida bulletin. The new bulletin includes the spring descriptions and water-quality analyses from Scott et al. (2002). Nearly 300 springs were described in 1977. As of 2004, more than 700 springs have been recognized in the state and more are reported each year. To date, 33 first magnitude springs (with a flow greater than 100 cubic feet per second or approximately 64.6 million gallons of water per day) have been recognized in Florida, more than any other state or country (Rosenau et al., 1977). Our springs are a unique and invaluable natural resource. A comprehensive understanding of the spring systems will provide the basis for their protection and wise use. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors wish to acknowledge a number of individuals and thank them for their assistance in creating this volume. Gary Maddox, Laura Morse, Gail Sloane, Margaret Murray, Tom Biernacki, Cindy Cosper, Andy Roach, Paul Hansard, and Jay Silvanima from the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP), Division of Water Resource Management, Bureau of Watershed Management guided the spring water analyses effort. Without their knowledge and experience, the sampling, analyses and data quality and delivery could not have been accomplished within the requisite timeframe. We would also like to acknowledge the efforts of numerous people from various water management districts and state parks who were so helpful in either collecting or helping to collect data for this project. In particular, the authors wish to thank David Hornsby from the Suwannee River Water Management District for contributing his time and expertise. We also thank Angela Chelette, Tom Pratt, Tony Countryman and Nick Wooten from the Northwest Florida Water Management District; Eric DeHaven, David DeWitt, Joe Haber, BULLETIN NO. 66 3

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and Chris Tomlinson from the Southwest Florida Water Management District; David Toth, Jim Peterson and Bill Osburn from the St. John's River Water Management District; Will Ebaugh from the U.S. Forest Service; Richard Harris from Blue Springs State Park; Sandy Cook from Wakulla Spring State Park; Larry Arrant from Suwannee River State Park; Sally Lieb from Manatee Spring State Park; Alvin and Edith Hamlin, Lafayette Blue Spring; Steve Davenport from Fanning Springs State Park; Mike Jacobs from Weeki Wachee Springs; Steve Specht, Bob Gallager and Mike Young from Silver Springs; Guy Marwick from the Silver River Museum; Robert LaMont from the Silver Springs State Park; Mark Ludlow and Bill Maphis from Florida Caverns State Park; Boyd Blihovde and Rick "Bubba" Owen from Wekiwa Springs State Park; the staff at Silver Glen Springs, Alexander Spring, Juniper Spring and Fern Hammock Springs in the Ocala National Forest; Mark Wray of Ginnie Springs Resort; Celeste and Hoch Shitama (Running Springs); the Branham family (Bugg Spring); Amos Philman (Hart Spring); Ed Olman (Warm Mineral Spring); Jeffrey and Trudy Williams (Manatee Mineral Spring); Harold Vickers (Cypress and Beckton Springs); Jeffrey DiMaggio from Waccasassa Bay State Preserve; the land owners at Crystal Springs and Meg Andronaco, who provided access to Crystal Springs. Joe Follman and Richard Buchanan's Springs Fever website was a great help to us, and we appreciate their willingness to help. There are many other anonymous individuals whose efforts benefited this project. Several individuals gave a significant amount of their personal time to lead FGS staff into remote areas. William Shirling spent several days guiding us along Holmes Creek and showing us the multitude of springs in that region. William Barton also spent time with FGS springs teams, leading us to the Spring Lake area. To both of these individuals we are greatly indebted. Joe Follman, author of Springs Fever , graciously provided his editorial expertise. Many thanks go to staff members of the Florida Geological Survey. Frank Rupert organized the text, figures, tables and photographs into the digital format for publication. John Marquez, Alan Baker, Andrew Rudin and Jim Cichon, provided cartographic expertise. Walt Schmidt, Jon Arthur, Rodney DeHan, Rick Green, Tom Greenalgh, Jackie Lloyd, Frank Rupert and Steve Spencer reviewed the text and data, offering many suggestions and corrections. Kenji Butler and James McClean spent time in the field with the springs teams. Many FDEP employees assisted with this project. They are: Division of Resource Assessment and Management, Bureau of Laboratories Sampling Training: Russel Frydenborg, Tom Frick. Bureau of Laboratories Chemistry and Biology Analyses: Yuh-Hsu Pan, Kate Brackett, Maria Gonzalez, Amzad Shaik, Harrison Walker, Chris Armour, Tom Ebrahimizadeh, Chris Morgan, Colin Wright, Matt Curran, Dave Avrett, Rick Kimsey, Latasha Fisher, Elena Koldacheva, Keith Tucker, Elliot Healy, Dawn Dolbee, Blanca Fach, Ping Hua, Anna Blalock, Patsy Vichaikul, Akbar Cooper, Richard Johnson, Paula Peters, Gary Dearman, Virginia Leavell, Ceceile Wight, Travis Tola, Dale Simmons, Latasha Fisher, Rob Buda, Melva Campos, Karla Whiddon, and Daisys Tamayo. Bureau of Watershed Management, Watershed Monitoring and Data Management Section: Tracy Wade, Thomas Seal. Division of Waste Management: Bill Martin, David Meyers. We appreciate the efforts of all these individuals. We would also like to thank individuals from the United States Geological Survey: Stuart Tomlinson, Donna Schiffer, David Dale, Yvonne Stoker, Jack Regar, Hal Davis, FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 4

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Brian Katz and Trudy Phelps. FGS would also like to thank the current and past members of the Florida Springs Task Force. In particular we would like to thank Mike Bascom, new Chair of the Springs Task Force and Coordinator of the Florida Springs Initiative for his continued support. Finally, the Florida Geological Survey Springs Team Members wish to thank Jim Stevenson for his tireless dedication to Florida's springs. Jim retired from the FDEP and the Florida Springs Task Force as Chair during the course of this study. Jim's long career with the Department ended much like it began, with a passion for protecting Florida's natural resources for future generations of Floridians to enjoy. Governor Jeb Bush and the former FDEP Secretary, David Struhs recognized Jim's achievements and honored him by naming the highest award given to FDEP employees the Jim Stevenson Resource Manager of the Year Award. Without Jim, our springs would not have a voice. Thank you, Jim! DEFINITIONS AND TERMS Many terms relating to hydrogeology and springs may be unfamiliar. Copeland (2003) compiled a glossary of springs terms which is included in Appendix A. FLORIDA SPRINGS TASK FORCE In 1999, David Struhs, Secretary of the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP), directed Jim Stevenson of FDEP to form a multi-agency Florida Springs Task Force (the first Springs Task Force TF I) to recommend strategies to protect and restore Florida's springs. The Task Force, consisting of 16 Floridians who represented one federal and three state agencies, four water management districts, a state university, a regional planning council, the business community, and private citizens, met monthly from September 1999 to September 2000. These scientists, planners, and other citizens exchanged information on the many factors that impact the viability of Florida's springs and the ecosystems that the springs support. They listened to guest speakers with expertise in topics relating to springs health. They discussed the conflicting environmental, social, and economic interests that exist in all of Florida's spring basins. During the months that the Task Force met, members developed recommendations for the preservation and restoration of Florida's rich treasury of springs. The implementation of the recommendations will help ensure that Florida's "bowls of liquid light" will sparkle for the grandchildren of the children who play in Florida's springs today. The Task Force produced a report for the Secretary entitled Florida's Springs, Strategies for Protection and Restoration (Florida Springs Task Force, 2000). Armed with this report, Governor Jeb Bush requested funding from the 2001 Florida Legislature to begin the Florida Springs Initiative. Funding in the amount of $2.5 million was approved to support projects for springs restoration, research and protection. The Florida Springs Initiative is funded through the Florida Department of Environmental Protection where projects in research and monitoring, public education and outreach, and landowner assistance are coordinated. The Governor's Springs Initiative is based on the 2000 Florida Springs Task Force report. In February 2000, the Springs Task Force sponsored the Florida Springs Conference, BULLETIN NO. 66 5

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Natural Gems Troubled Waters, attended by over 300 people, including scientists, business owners, representatives of environmental groups and residents from all over Florida. The meeting was such a success that it was held again in February 2003, drawing even more attendees. Future conferences are planned for every other year, the next one being in 2005. The makeup of the Task Force has changed since its original members published the Task Force Report. Less emphasis was placed on having members from the Florida Department of Environmental Protection. As such, the second Springs Task Force (TF II) was created and meeting frequency was reduced to quarterly. The meetings were held at different spring locations around the state and served as a forum for exchanging information on ongoing projects and discussing future goals for the Florida Springs Initiative. In June 2003, Jim Stevenson retired from FDEP and the Task Force. Mike Bascom succeeded Jim Stevenson as the Springs Initiative Coordinator and Chairman of the Task Force. Mike implemented several changes to the Task Force membership and created the current Task Force III (TF III)(Figure 2). Ms. Colleen Castille succeeded David Struhs as the Secretary of FDEP in March 2004. Ms. Castille continues the support of the Florida Springs Initiative by the department. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 6 Figure 2.Florida Springs Task Force at Salt Springs in 2003 (photo by T. Scott).

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Task Force Members and Advisors Task Force Chairman Jim Stevenson, Division of State Lands, FDEP. TF I,II current citizen member TF III Mike Bascom, Division of State Lands, FDEP, TF III Technical Writer and Editor Frances M. Hartnett, Technical and Creative Writing Services Task Force Members Dianne McCommons Beck, FDEP, TF I Jeff Bielling, Florida Department of Community Affairs, TFI, II, III Greg Bitter, Withlacoochee Regional Planning Council, TF I Bruce Day, Withlacoochee Regional Planning Council, TF I Hal Davis, U.S. Geological Survey, TF I, II, III Russel Frydenborg, Division of Resource Assessment and Management, FDEP, TF I, current advisor Jon Martin, University of Florida, TF I, II, III Gregg Jones, Southwest Florida Water Management District, TFI, II Jack Leppert, Citizen, TF I Gary Maddox, Division of Water Resource Management, FDEP, TFI, current advisor Pam McVety, Division of Recreation and Parks, FDEP, TFI, II, and currently a citizen advisor Dana Bryan, Division of Recreation and Parks, FDEP, TF III Doug Munch, St. Johns River Water Management District, TF I, II, III Tom Pratt, Northwest Florida Water Management District, TF I, II, III Tom Scott, Florida Geological Survey, FDEP, TF I, current advisor Wes Skiles, Karst Environmental Services, TF I, II III Gary Maidhof, Citrus County, TF II, III Brian McCord, Danone Waters of North America, TF II Meg Andronaco, Zephyrhills, TF III Kirk Webster, Suwannee River Water Management District, TF I, II, III Kent Smith, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, TF II, III Sam Upchurch, SDII Global Corporation, TF II, III Kim Davis, Blue Spring Park, Inc., TF II Don Bennink, North Florida Holsteins, Inc., TFII Doug Shaw, The Nature Conservancy, TF II, III Chuck Edwards, poultry farmer, TFIII Technical Advisors Florida Department of Environmental Protection Karl Kurka, Office of Water Policy Kathleen Toolan, Office of General Counsel Joe Hand, Division of Water Resource Management Jennifer Jackson, Division of Water Resource Management Jim McNeal, Division of Water Resource Management Harley Means, Florida Geological Survey Florida Department of Community Affairs Richard Deadman BULLETIN NO. 66 7

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Florida Department of Health Tim Mayer Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission Kent Smith Karst Environmental Services Tom Morris St. Johns River Water Management District David Miracle Bill Osburn Suwannee River Water Management District David Hornsby US Fish and Wildlife Service Jim Valade CLASSIFICATION OF SPRINGS There are two general types of springs in Florida, seeps (water-table springs) and karst springs (artesian springs). Rainwater, percolating downward through permeable sediments, may encounter a much less permeable or impermeable formation, forcing the water to move laterally. Eventually the water may reach the surface in a lower-lying area and form a seep (for example the steephead seeps along the eastern side of the Apalachicola River). Karst springs form when groundwater discharges to the surface through a karst opening. Seeps may form in karst areas when water flow from the aquifer is more diffuse. The vast majority of Florida's more than 700 identified springs and all of the first magnitude springs are karst springs. Springs are most often classified based upon the average discharge of water. Individual springs exhibit variable discharge depending upon rainfall, recharge and groundwater withdrawals within their recharge areas. One discharge measurement is enough to place a spring into one of the eight magnitude categories. However, springs have dynamic flows. A spring categorized as being a first-magnitude spring at one moment in time may not continue to remain in the same category. This can result in a spring being classified as a first magnitude spring at one point in time and a second magnitude at another. A spring assigned a magnitude when it was first described continued with that magnitude designation even though the discharge may have changed considerably through time. The Florida Geological Survey has suggested that the historical median of flow measurements be utilized in classifying spring magnitude. Therefore, the magnitude of the spring is to be based on the median value of all discharge measurements for the period of record and a historical category is defined in the Florida Springs Classification System (Copeland, 2003). The location of a discharge measurement is critical for defining the magnitude of a spring. Whenever possible, a discharge measurement should be restricted to a vent or seep; however, this is often impractical or logistically impossible. For example, the only place to take a measurement may be in a spring run downstream where multiple springs have discharged into the run. For this reason, whenever a discharge measurement or water sample is taken, the springs (vents or seeps) included in the measurement need to be reported. The exact location of the discharge measurement (using a Global Positioning System with approved locational specifications) and a standardized locational reference point for each measurement is encouraged (Copeland, 2003). FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 8

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The flow-based classification listed below is adapted from Meinzer (1927): MagnitudeAverage Flow (Discharge) 1 100 cfs or more (64.6 mgd or more)cfs = cubic feet per second 2 10 to 100 cfs (6.46 to 64.6 mgd)mgd = million gallons per day 3 1 to 10 cfs (0.646 to 6.46 mgd) gpm = gallons per minute 4 100 gpm to 1 cfs (448 gpm)pint/min = pints per minute 5 10 to 100 gpm 6 1 to 10 gpm 7 1 pint to 1 gpm 8 Less than 1 pint/min Current Florida Geological Survey springs tabulations list 720 springs including 33 first magnitude, 191 second magnitude and 151 third magnitude springs (Figure 3). The list includes individual springs, spring groups, karst windows and river rises (Appendix B). Wilson and Skiles (1989) believe this listing has created some confusion due to the grouping of hydrogeologically unrelated springs into groups and the inclusion of river rises and karst windows. Often, individual springs comprising a group do not have the same water source region or spring recharge basin (springshed) and are not hydrogeologically related. The individual spring vents within a group may not discharge enough water to be classed as first magnitude. Wilson and Skiles (1989) recommended grouping only hydrogeologically related springs into spring groups. However, for the purposes of this report, spring groups are used in the report as presented by Rosenau et al. (1977) and by the Florida Springs Task Force (2000). River rises are the resurgence of river water that descended underground through a sinkhole some distance away. Wilson and Skiles (1989) state that the resurging water may contain a significant portion of aquifer water but is primarily river water and therefore should not be classified as a spring. Due to the inclusion of a significant addition of groundwater, river rises have continued to be considered as springs for this report. Karst windows form when the roof of a cave collapses exposing an underground stream for a short distance. Four karst windows are included in this report. Future springshed (spring recharge basin) delineations will identify the hydrogeological relationships between springs, facilitating changes in the springs list. The identification of these hydrogeological relationships will be carried out considering the recommendations put forth by Wilson and Skiles (1989) and by hydrogeologists representing government agencies, the private sector and academia. The Florida spring classification system (Copeland, 2003) (Table 1) is based on an assumption that karst activities have influenced almost all springs in Florida. Thus the system is based on geomorphology. Because of the simplicity of the system, the use of spring descriptors is encouraged. Under this system, all springs in Florida can be classified into one of four categories, based on the spring's point of discharge. Is the point of discharge a vent or is it a seep and BULLETIN NO. 66 9

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is the point of discharge located onshore or offshore? Since all springs are either vents or seeps, the classification can be simplified into the following: Vent Seep Onshore Onshore Offshore Offshore Spring throat opening size is an extremely important characteristic of Florida springs. A spring vent is defined as an opening that concentrates ground-water discharge to the Earth's surface, including the bottom of the ocean. The opening is significantly larger than that of the average pore space of the surrounding aquifer matrix. As an example, a vent occasionally is considered to be a cave, and ground-water flow from the vent is typically turbulent. On the other hand, a spring seep is composed of one or more small openings in which water discharges diffusely (or "oozes") from the ground-water environment. The diffuse discharge originates from the intergranular pore spaces in the aquifer matrix. Flow is typically laminar. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 10 Figure 3. Location of Florida's springs.

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Using this scheme, individual springs type can be accurately classified by defining the type of spring and the magnitude. Historically, there have been inconsistencies in the naming of springs. We have attempted to make names more precise in this volume. For example, a spring site that physically has one vent is no longer referred to as springs Wakulla Springs becomes Wakulla Spring. Also, if a river rise or a karst window was called a spring, the term river rise or karst window now replaces "spring" in the name. There are many "Blue Springs" in Florida. FDEP scientists have adopted the convention of referring to these springs with the county name placed before the name "Blue Spring." Thus, Blue Spring in Jackson County becomes Jackson Blue Spring. ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND PALEONTOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF SPRINGS Archaeological research has shown that Florida's springs have been important to human inhabitants for thousands of years. Prehistoric peoples exploited the concentration of resources found in and around springs. Fresh water, chert, clay, fish and game animals were all available in and near springs. Florida's first people, called paleoindians, left behind evidence of their culture in the form of chert, bone and ivory tools that date to more than 12,000 years before present (Figure 4) (Dunbar et al., 1988). These people coexisted with large, now extinct, megafaunal animals including mastodon, mammoth, ground sloth, giant beaver and giant armadillo. During the latest Pleistocene Epoch, 10,000 to 12,000 years ago, sea level was approximately 115 to 148 ft (35 to 45 m) below present levels (Balsillie and Donoghue, in preparation, 2004). Deep springs and sinkholes may have been some of the only sources of fresh water in parts of ancient Florida. Investigations at Wakulla Spring, Hornsby Springs, BULLETIN NO. 66 11 Table 1. Florida's Spring Classification System. (from Copeland, 2003) OnshoreOffshore VentOnshore Vent Offshore Vent Examples:Examples: Karst springOffshore karst spring Resurgence (River Rise)Unnamed offshore vent Estavelle (intermittent resurgence or exsurgence) Offshore estavelle vent Subaqueous riverine vent Subaqueous lacustrine vent Sand boilSeepOnshore Seep Offshore Seep Examples:Examples: Subaerial riverine seepUnnamed offshore seep Subaqueous lacustrine see p Offshore estavelle seepSPRING

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Ichetucknee Springs, Silver Springs and the Wacissa River to name a few have shown that paleoindians lived around springs and utilized the resources of these areas (Tesar and Jones, 2004; Neill, 1958; Balsillie et al., in press). Silver Springs has long drawn curious visitors to its shores (Schmidt, 2001). Before glass-bottom boat tours and water slides invaded this magnificent spring, prehistoric people had discovered its beauty and abundant resources. Evidence of their occupation lies buried in sediments in and around the spring. W. T. Neill (1958) discovered the tools of ancient people in sand that was being excavated near the spring for use in the park. An excavation of the site produced a stratified column with paleoindian artifacts at the base and evidence of younger cultures on top. This is one of many such excavations that have taken place around the state at different springs and documents the long history of human occupation at springs. Divers and spring visitors have reported finding chert tools and fossils in and around Florida's numerous springs and spring runs for many years. In 1927, the Simpson family began to investigate the bottom of the Ichetucknee River (Simpson, 1935). The Simpsons recovered thousands of stone and bone artifacts along with numerous remains of extinct Pleistocene animals. In the 1950s the sport of SCUBA diving made the aquatic world accessible. With this new technology, legendary diver Ben Waller began to survey the bottom of many of central Florida's spring-fed rivers (Waller, 1983). He recognized quickly that these springs and spring runs contained a long prehistoric record of human occupation spanning some 12,000 years. After Ben's pioneering work, many others have followed and continue to do so today. More evidence of prehistoric human utilization of springs comes from Warm Mineral FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 12 Figure 4. Native American artifacts from Florida springs (from the Coastal Plains Institute collection -photo by H. Means).

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Springs, located in Sarasota County. Archaeologists recovered human remains from a ledge located 43 ft (13 m) below the current water level that contained preserved brain material. The remains were radiocarbon dated and produced an age of 10,000 +/200 years before present (Royal and Clark, 1960). Other archaeological material and fossils were recovered from this site, which has proven to be one of the most important archaeological sites in the southeastern United States. Florida's abundance of springs does not stop at its present shoreline. Florida has an undocumented number of offshore springs that provided resources to prehistoric people and wildlife when sea level was lower. Evidence for occupation of offshore sites has been discovered by researchers from the Florida State University Department of Anthropology. Dr. Michael Faught and his students have conducted offshore surveys at and near some offshore springs and have recovered an abundance of chert tools (Faught, in prep.). Although offshore springs may be discharging brackish to saline water today, they almost certainly discharged fresh water during times of lowered sea levels when prehistoric human occupation occurred at these sites. Further investigation of Florida's offshore springs is needed to assess the role that these springs play in the hydrogeology and archaeology of the state. As the Pleistocene Epoch came to a close in Florida, many environmental changes were taking place. The large megafaunal animals that once had roamed the Florida landscape were becoming extinct. Global weather patterns changed, and sea level began to rise. As these drastic changes occurred, Florida's human inhabitants had to adapt. As water tables rose, springs became more abundant and people continued to exploit the resources in and around the springs. Prehistoric peoples living around springs built large shell middens and mounds as they disposed of the inedible portions of their food items and other waste. Numerous examples of these mounds exist throughout the state with some of the best examples being located along spring runs that drain into the St. John's River, the King's Bay Spring Group near Crystal River and the spring-fed Wacissa River system. Abundant supplies of fresh water, aquatic food sources, chert and clay sources made Florida's springs highly desirable habitation sites. Sediments in and around Florida's springs are time capsules that contain valuable information about our environmental and cultural past. Prehistoric Floridians valued our state's spring resources and now modern Floridians are the stewards of a tradition that has lasted for more than 12,000 years. As our state's population continues to grow, more and more people will be putting demands on our natural resources. It is our modern society's responsibility to see that Florida's springs are preserved in their natural beauty and ecological health for future generations. HYDROGEOLOGY OF FLORIDA SPRINGS Florida enjoys a humid, subtropical climate throughout much of the state (Henry, 1998). Rainfall, in the region of the major springs, ranges from 50 inches (127 cm) to 60 inches (152 cm) per year. As a result of this climate and the geologic framework of the state, Florida has an abundance of fresh groundwater. Scott and Schmidt (2000) and Scott (2001) estimated that more than 2.2 quadrillion gallons of fresh water are contained within the Floridan aquifer system (FAS) in Florida. Only a very small percentage of the fresh water is available as a renewable resource for human consumption. BULLETIN NO. 66 13

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The Florida peninsula is the exposed portion of the broad Florida Platform. The Florida Platform, as measured between the 200 meter below sea level contour (more than 600 ft), is more than 300 miles (483 km) wide. It extends more than 150 miles (240 km) westward under the Gulf of Mexico offshore from Crystal River, and more than 70 miles (113 km) under the Atlantic Ocean from Fernandina Beach. The present day Florida peninsula is less than one half of the total platform. The Florida Platform is composed of a thick sequence of variably permeable carbonate sediments, limestone and dolostone, lying on older igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. The Cenozoic carbonate sediments may exceed 4,000 ft (1,220 m) thick. A sequence of sand, silt and clay with variable amounts of limestone and shell overlie the carbonate sequence (see Scott [1992 a, b] for discussion of the Cenozoic sediment sequence and the geologic structure of the platform). In portions of the west-central and north-central peninsula and in the central panhandle, the carbonate rocks, predominantly limestone, occur at or very near the surface. Away from these areas, the overlying sand, silt and clay sequence becomes thicker. As the sediments compacted and were subjected to other geologic forces, fractures formed. These fractures allowed water to move more freely through the sediments and provided the template for the development of Florida's many cave systems. There are three major aquifer systems in Florida, The Floridan, the Intermediate and the Surficial Aquifer Systems, all of which are very complex (Southeastern Geological Society, 1986; Scott, 1992a). The Floridan aquifer system (FAS) occurs within a thick sequence of permeable carbonate sediments (see Miller [1986] and Berndt et al. [1998] for discussion of the FAS). In some areas, it is overlain by the intermediate aquifer system and confining unit (IAS) which consists of carbonates, sand, silt and clay. The surficial aquifer system (SAS) overlies the IAS, or the FAS where the IAS is absent, and is composed of sand, shell and some carbonate. The vast majority of Florida's springs result from discharge from the FAS. Natural recharge to the FAS by rainwater, made slightly acidic by carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and organic acids in the soil, dissolved portions of the limestone and enlarged naturally occurring fractures. The dissolution enhanced the permeability of the sediments and formed cavities and caverns. Sinkholes formed by the collapse of overlying sediments into the cavities. Occasionally, the collapse of the roof of a cave creates an opening to the land surface. See Lane (1986) for a description of sinkhole types common in Florida. Karst springs occur both onshore and offshore in Florida. Currently, little is known about the offshore springs with the exception of the Spring Creek Group the largest spring group in Florida averaging more than one billion gallons of water discharged per day (maximum flow estimated at more than two billion gallons of water per day [Rosenau et al., 1977]) (Lane, 2001). In order to better understand the water resources of the state, a water budget needs to include a comprehensive assessment of the total amount of recharge and discharge occurring to and from the aquifer. To aid in this characterization, the FGS has initiated a program to investigate the occurrence, discharge and water quality of the offshore springs. Florida's springs occur primarily in the northern two-thirds of the peninsula and the FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 14

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central panhandle where carbonate rocks are at or near the land surface (Figure 5). All of these springs produce water from the upper FAS (Berndt et al., 1998) which consists of sediments that range in age from Late Eocene (approximately 38 36 million years old [my]) to mid-Oligocene (approximately 33 my). Miocene to Pleistocene sediments (24 my to 10,000 years) often are exposed in the springs. The geomorphology (physiography) of the state, coupled with the geologic framework, controls the distribution of springs. The springs occur in areas where karst features (for example, sinkholes and caves) are common, the potentiometric surface of the FAS is high enough and the surface elevations are low enough to allow groundwater to flow at the surface. These areas are designated karst plains, karst hills and karst hills and valleys on Figure 6. The state's springs occur primarily within the Ocala Karst District and the Dougherty Karst Plain District (Scott, in preparation, 2004). Other springs, including Alexander, Silver Glen and Volusia Blue, occur in the Central Lakes District (Scott, in preparation, 2004). Springs generally occur in lowlands near rivers and streams. There are a number of springs known to flow from vents beneath rivers and many more are thought to exist. Hornsby and Ceryak (1998) identified many newly recognized springs that occur in the channels of the Suwannee and Santa Fe Rivers. Springs that have yet to be described have been found beneath the Apalachicola River between Gadsden and Jackson Counties (H. Means, personal communication, 2004). Recharge to the FAS occurs over approximately 55% of the state (Berndt et al., 1998). Recharge rates vary from less than one inch (2.54 cm) per year to more than ten inches (25.4 cm) per year. Recharge water entering the upper FAS that eventually discharges from a spring has a variable residence time. Katz et al. (2001) and Katz (2004) found that water flowing from larger springs had an average ground-water residence time of more than 20 years and may reflect the mixing of older and younger waters. Discharge, water quality and temperature of springs remain reasonably stable over extended periods of time (Berndt et al., 1998). However, because discharge rates are driven by the rate of recharge, climatic fluctuations often have a major effect on spring flow. During 1998 2002, Florida suffered a major drought with a rainfall deficit totaling more than 50 inches (127 cm). The resulting reduction in recharge from the drought and normal withdrawals caused a lowering of the potentiometric surface in the FAS. Many first magnitude springs experienced a significant flow reduction. Some springs, such as Hornsby Spring, ceased flowing completely. The flow data given for each first order magnitude spring (see individual spring descriptions) reflect the drought-influenced flows. Some springs may reverse flow in response to river water levels. Higher river levels may cause a reversal of flow that introduces river water into the aquifer. Once river levels drop, the spring flow resumes, pumping dark, tannic water until the river water is forced from the aquifer. The appearance of the springs also changed during the drought as river and lake levels declined reducing the size of the spring water body and exposing more sediments along the banks. Factors affecting quality and quantity of spring water include the distribution of karst features within a springshed, thickness of confining units, soil characteristics, topography, potentiometric surfaces, as well as others. The Florida Geological Survey is currently developing a Geographic Information System (GIS) model to estimate the relative vulneraBULLETIN NO. 66 15

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FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 16 Figure 5. Generalized geologic map of Florida (modified from Scott et al., 2001).

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BULLETIN NO. 66 17 Figure 6. Karst areas related to first magnitude springs (modified from Scott, in preparation).

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FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 18 bility of Florida's aquifer systems: the Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment (FAVA). FAVA uses a statistical method, called Weights of Evidence, to quantify relationships between spatial layers with measured contaminant occurrences. This yields a data-driven predictive model or relative probability map of the aquifer being assessed. The model utilizes many of the following spatial layers: depth to water table, thickness of confining units, soil drainage and spatial distribution of karst features. FAVA will replace a formerly used model and will more accurately define areas that are highly vulnerable to ground-water contamination. FAVA will be a powerful tool for identifying highly vulnerable areas within springsheds and is designed to assist land managers and urban planners in making informed decisions about land use and ground-water resource conservation (Figure 7). Figure 7. Example of the Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment (FAVA).

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Springsheds There has been increased emphasis in the last few years on the drainage basins that supply water to Florida's springs as a result of awareness of increasing trends in contaminants, such as nitrate (Figure 8). The amount of water and the nature and concentrations of chemical constituents that discharge from a spring are functions of the geology, hydrology, and land uses within the groundand surface-water drainage basins that collect water for discharge from the spring. Ground-water basins are traditionally identified through either (1) construction of a flow net and identifying divergent flow lines that delineate the hydraulic divides of the spring drainage system, (2) particle tracking within a computer-generated ground-water flow model, or (3) dye or chemical tracing to identify sources that contribute to the spring discharge. All of these methods have uncertainties. For example, delineation of a basin boundary from a flow net or potentiometric surface map is limited to the accuracy and resolution of the map and the flow lines which are subject to change with variations in rainfall, land use, and ground-water withdrawals. The accuracy of the computer model and our understanding of the aquifer system limit the accuracy of particle-tracking procedures. Dyes and other chemicals can be used to identify sources within a basin, but the chemicals may not be detected if they are (1) too diluted in the aquifer, (2) removed from the water BULLETIN NO. 66 19 Figure 8. Median nitrate concentrations in 13 selected first magnitude springs in Florida.

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(movement is retarded) by chemical interactions with aquifer materials, (3) transported to an un-monitored conduit system, or (4) travel times may be so slow that monitoring may not be feasible. A spring recharge basin, or springshed, consists of "those areas within groundand surface-water basins that contribute to the discharge of the spring" (DeHan, 2002; Copeland, 2003). The spring recharge basin consists of all areas where water can be shown to contribute to the ground-water flow system that discharges from the spring of interest. Because karst systems frequently include sinking streams that transmit surface water directly to the aquifer, the recharge basin may include surface-water drainage basins that bring water into the spring drainage from outside of the ground-water basin. This concept is important because contaminated surface water may be introduced to the springshed from sources well outside of the ground-water basin by streams that originate outside the basin. The scenario shown in Figure 9 illustrates some possible contribution areas within a spring recharge basin. Two components of the springshed are shown: the ground-water basin and a surface-water basin. A portion of the ground-water basin is located within a karst plain where recharge is rapid through features such as sinkholes. Another portion extends under a highlands area where fine-grained sediments overlying the aquifer retard recharge and cause surface runoff and stream development. Because of the area of aquifer confinement, the active recharge portion of the ground-water basin is limited to unconfined portions of the basin. The surface-water basin may or may not extend outside the groundwater basin. The stream that originates on the highlands discharges onto the karst plain where it recharges the aquifer through a swallet. The hypothetical springshed (Figure 9) suggests that a springshed may be subdivided into at least three recharge-potential categories. The semi-confined area of the ground-water basin has low recharge potential and, therefore, low risk of ground-water contamination. The areas nearest the spring, where flow lines converge and transport times from recharge points (i.e., sinkholes) are short, and areas associated with swallets that receive surface water are highly vulnerable to ground-water contamination. Finally, the portions of the karst plain within the ground-water basin that are distant from the spring have an intermediate risk of contributing contamination to the spring discharge because of possible long travel times of water to the spring and a high probability of dilution or retardation of constituents. The stream is a special problem because storm water and permitted discharges upstream can cause contamination issues down gradient of the swallet. Similarly, water sources that originate outside of the springshed can cause potential contamination. For example, a sewage treatment plant that collects water from outside of the basin and disposes of the treated wastewater by land application can constitute a source that effectively extends the springshed to those portions of the wastewater collection system outside of the springshed. The Suwannee River Water Management District has developed high-resolution monitoring programs for a number of first-magnitude spring systems, including the Ichetucknee Spring Group (Upchurch et al., 2001). High-resolution monitoring for water levels and water quality involves placement of a large number of monitoring wells within the spring basin. The number and spacing of the wells is determined by statistical methods (Upchurch, et al., 2001; Upchurch and Champion, 2003). As a result of the numerous monitoring wells, contour maps with higher resolution than normal (i.e., 1-foot contour intervals as opposed to 5-foot intervals) can be prepared. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 20

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BULLETIN NO. 66 21 Figure 9. Idealized springshed delineation.

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Figure 10 is an example that incorporates many of the features of the hypothetical springshed with a high-resolution potentiometric surface map used as a basis for delineation of the ground-water basin. This map, prepared for data collected in September 2003, shows the ground-water basin as defined by the potentiometric surface map of the upper FAS. Maps prepared for other time periods suggest that the basin boundaries change slightly over time. The zone where the isopotential lines are close together is the transition from the unconfined karst plain (Ocala Karst District) to the highlands where the FAS is confined. Up gradient from this transition zone, aquifer vulnerability is low; down gradient it is high. Aquifer vulnerability is particularly high in the transition zone where streams coming off the highlands discharge into swallets in the karst plain. The hatchered portion represents the drainage basins of the more important of those streams. Lake City is located on this transition zone and runoff from portions of the city as well as from a wastewater land application area enters the shaded area. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 22 Figure 10. Potentiometric map of a springshed.

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Delineation of groundand surface-water portions of springsheds, identification of major swallets that receive storm water, and identification of land uses that may lead to contributions of nutrients or other constituents into the ground-water system are important steps in protecting Florida springs. High-resolution monitoring is an important aspect of this effort where the margins of the ground-water basin may include significant contamination sources or ground-water withdrawals. In addition, it allows for recognition of vulnerable recharge areas and potential jurisdictional issues. Spring Water Natural Factors Affecting Water Quality In order to fully understand the water quality of Florida's springs, a rudimentary understanding of the origin and chemistry of Florida's groundwater is needed. Most people are aware that Florida is surrounded on three sides by salt water. Many are unaware however, that salt water also underlies the entire state. The reason for this is that the Florida Platform consists of carbonate rocks that were deposited in a shallow ocean. At the time of deposition of the rocks under the ocean, salt water existed in their intergranular pore spaces. Gradually over geologic time, sea level was lowered relative to its position when the carbonate sediments were deposited. Through compaction and downwarping of sediments on both sides of the Platform, a series of complex fracture patterns developed. The patterns are often reflected at land surface and have actually influenced the pathways of many of Florida's streams. As sea level lowered, the central portion of the Florida Platform was exposed to the atmosphere. Over time, rainfall percolated downward and eventually replaced the upper portion of salt water in the carbonates with a fresh water "lens." Today, the "lens" is generally deepest in the central portion of the state and becomes narrower toward Florida's coastline. The lens is over 2,000 feet thick at its maximum (Klein, 1975). It should be understood that the base of the lens is transitional rather than a sharp boundary. Groundwater in the deeper portion of the lens, and along our coasts, is mixed and has relatively high concentrations of saline indicators such as sodium (Na), chloride (Cl), and sulfate (SO4). Water discharging from Florida's springs has its ultimate source from rainfall. Much of the rainfall reaching land surface flows overland to surface-water bodies, evaporates or is transpired by plants. However, a portion of the rainfall percolates downward through the sediments where it recharges our aquifers. During its travel downward from land surface to the water table, and while water resides within Florida's aquifer systems, many factors affect the water chemistry. Residence time is the length of time that water is in contact with a particular portion of an aquifer system (Upchurch, 1992). A long residence time may allow sufficient time for chemical reactions between the water and the aquifer rock. As such, water chemistry reflects the composition of the aquifer rock. Typical residence times range from several days to thousands of years depending on the nature of the flow system (Hanshaw et al., 1965). A second factor affecting ground-water chemistry is its flow path, which is the length and depth of the path that the groundwater follows as it flows through an aquifer BULLETIN NO. 66 23

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(Upchurch, 1992). In general, shallow, short flow paths, which are characteristic of the SAS, result in low residence times for chemical reactions. Consequently, the total dissolved solid (TDS) content is less than in longer flow-path systems. If the flow path is long (on the order of tens of kilometers), such as commonly occurs in the FAS, reactions between rock and water become more probable and the TDS content of the water increases as a result of continued rock-water chemical reactions. Because of its residence time and flow path, spring water quality is typically reflective of the interactions of the major rock types of the source aquifer and water within it. A third factor that is of particular interest is intergranular porosity (pores through which water passes between the individual rock matrix grains). Even though Florida's karst features suggest the existence of large, secondary cavernous pores spaces, most of the pores tend to be small (Upchurch, 1992). Fortunately, whenever the pore throats are very small, they act as filters for microbes, small organic substances, and clay minerals. In general, this results in very clean groundwater that is extremely desirable for both drinking water and recreational purposes. Unfortunately, some contaminants originating from our land use activities are not always removed and contaminate groundwater. Indicators of Water Quality Problems Spring water, when it is in the aquifer, is considered to be groundwater. However, once spring water exits from the spring vent onto the earth's surface, it is considered to be surface water. Because of this change, the question arises whether scientists and regulators should apply ground-water or surface-water quality standards to the water. Contaminant criteria thresholds may exist for an analyte while the water is considered groundwater, but not for surface water; or vice versa. Nitrate (NO3+ NO2as N) is a good example. Based on drinking water criteria, nitrate has a groundwater threshold value of 10 mg/l (FDEP, 1994). However, no nitrate criteria exist for surface water. The FDEP Division of Water Resource Management is currently developing criteria for spring water. Until legal criteria are established, it should be understood that any reference to threshold values in the following text simply infers potential water-quality problems. One of the more disturbing aspects about Florida's spring water quality has been the documented steady increase of nitrate over the past several decades (Jones et al., 1996; Champion and DeWitt, 2000; Means et al., 2003). Figure 8 displays the nitrate increase in 13 selected first-magnitude springs (Alexander, Chassahowitzka Main, Fanning, Ichetucknee Main, Jackson Blue, Madison Blue, Manatee, Rainbow Group composite, Silver Main, Silver Glen, Volusia Blue, Wakulla, and Wacissa #2 Springs) between the 1970s and the early 2000s. Of the 125 spring vents sampled in 2001-2002, none had nitrate concentrations exceeding the 10 mg/l threshold for drinking water. The natural background nitrate concentrations in groundwater in Florida are less than 0.05 mg/l (Maddox et al., 1992). Of the spring vents sampled, 52 had nitrate concentrations exceeding 0.50 mg/l (42%) and 30 (24%) had concentrations greater than 1.00 mg/l. Thus, over 40% of the sampled springs have at least a ten-fold increase in nitrate concentrations above background and approximately one quarter of them have at least a 20-fold increase. The effect of the increased concentrations of nitrate in surface water is not fully understood. Increasing nitrate concentrations may adversely affect the aquatic ecosystem in springs and spring runs. Further research is still FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 24

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needed and is currently being sponsored by the Springs Initiative. The FDEP is aware of the nitrate issues and has worked with other governmental agencies to develop a series of steps to reduce nitrate concentrations in our groundwater and springs in the middle Suwannee River Basin where many of Florida's springs are located (Copeland et al., 2000). The FDEP Bureau of Watershed Management and the Florida Department of Community Affairs are active in coordinating the development of springs protection measures. In addition, in September 2003, Governor Bush and the Florida Cabinet voted unanimously to strengthen protection for Florida's freshwater springs. Improvements to the Florida Springs Rule, currently being proposed by FDEP, are designed to increase protection for water quality, flow and habitats. Another spring-water quality concern is the influence of saline water. Sixteen of the sampled springs are "salty." Of these 16 springs, 13 had concentrations of chloride (a saline indicator) exceeding the 250 mg/l threshold for drinking water. Springs with this type of water tend to be located along Florida's coast and along the St. Johns River. The ultimate source of the saline indicators is from naturally occurring saline water within the FAS (Klein, 1975). The saline water may cause water-quality changes in spring water as the result of natural circumstances such as drought and upwelling within the FAS. The changes may also be attributed to ground-water withdrawal. Bacteria, such as enterococci and fecal coliform, represent a third concern regarding spring water quality. It is generally believed that these bacteria originate in fecal matter from warm blooded animals (Center for Disease Control, 2004). Fecal coliform concentrations in 23 springs (18%) exceed the drinking water threshold (FDEP, 1994) of four colonies per 100 ml. However, because it has been determined that these bacteria can complete their normal life-cycle outside of warm-blooded animals, especially in a warm environment as in parts of Florida (Fjuioka and Byappanahalli, 2004), the concentrations of fecal coliform may not necessarily represent a direct link to warm-blooded animal pathogens. Further research is needed before definitive conclusions can be made regarding the source of the fecal bacteria. FDEP encourages the development of best management practices (BMPs). BMPs are land use strategies designed to reduce pollution to our environment. In an effort to reduce nitrate concentrations in spring water FDEP cooperates with over 20 government and private organizations to develop and implement BMPs for the middle Suwannee River Basin where many of Florida's springs are located. It is believed that the net result of the BMPs will ultimately result in a reduction of nitrate concentration in spring water in the region. The Florida Springs Initiative addresses the nitrate and microbiological issues by providing funds for the monitoring of nitrate in springs and by sponsoring research on the microbiology of caves and spring water. The FDEP also works very closely with the water management districts in monitoring salt-water intrusion and in the establishment of minimum flows for our streams and minimum levels for our aquifers. Florida law (Chapter 373, Florida Statutes ) requires Florida's water management districts to establish minimum flows and levels (MFLs) for water courses, water bodies, and aquifers. The goal of the minimum flows and levels program is "to establish minimum flows and levels in accordance with Chapter 373.042, Florida Statutes , to protect Florida's water resources from significant harm caused by water withdrawals or diversions." Minimum flows and levels are designed to assure adequate quantities of water for our streams and springs. This statute also proBULLETIN NO. 66 25

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vides authority to reserve water from permit allocation to protect fish and wildlife (Chapter 373.223(4) Florida Statutes ). These water reservations provide the highest level of protection allowed by law and will aid in protecting historical spring flows. Offshore Springs Offshore or submarine springs are known to exist off Florida's Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coastlines. These springs are most common in the offshore portion of the Florida Platform from Tampa north and west to the Ochlocknee River south-southwest of Tallahassee. Offshore springs have also been identified off the northern and southwestern parts of the peninsula and the western panhandle (Rosenau et al., 1977) (Figure 11). Waterquality data from some of these springs indicate that, at best, the water is brackish. Anecdotally, there are reports of "fresh water" flowing from offshore springs. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 26 Figure 11. Offshore springs (from Rosenau et al., 1977).

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The area offshore from Tampa to the Ochlocknee River has carbonate rocks of the FAS exposed on the sea bottom or slightly buried. At lower sea levels, particularly during the Pleistocene, this area was exposed and dissolution created numerous karst features. Many of these sinkholes are known to fisherman and divers (Figure 12). Some offshore karst features are springs but how many of the karst features discharge water is not known. However, to fully understand the water budget of the FAS, the determination of the flows is necessary. The FGS, along with SRWMD and SWFWMD, are investigating offshore springs to determine flow characteristics and water quality. Results of these investigations will be published in the near future. WATER QUALITY Methodology One hundred eleven springs, two submarine springs, eight river rises, and four karst windows were sampled from September 2001 through August 2003 (Figure 13). Tidally influenced springs were sampled at low tide to minimize the influence of salt water on the water-quality samples. Standard FDEP sampling protocols were followed for each sampling event (Watershed Monitoring Data Management Section, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, 1991). Any mention of brand names does not imply an endorsement by the Florida Geological Survey or the Florida Department of Environmental Protection. BULLETIN NO. 66 27 Figure 12. Known offshore springs in the Florida Big Bend Region.

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Field Parameters Temperature, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, and pH were measured using either a Hydrolab Quanta or a YSI data sonde (model no. 6920) and data logger (model no. 6100). Instruments were calibrated at the beginning of each sampling day. A check was performed at the end of each day to ensure calibration remained accurate throughout the sampling events. If the end of the day check failed, field data were qualified for all vents sampled that day. For quality assurance purposes, field reference standards were analyzed and equipment blanks were submitted every five to ten samples throughout the sampling period. To begin each sampling event, two or three stainless steel weights were attached to polyethylene tubing (3/8" O.D. x 0.062" wall) which was then lowered into the spring vent opening, ensuring the intake line was not influenced by surrounding surface water. Masterflex tubing was attached to the opposite end, run through a Master Flex E/S portable peristaltic pump (model no. 07571-00), and the discharge line was fed directly into a closed system flow chamber. The datasonde was inserted into the flow chamber and water was pumped through with a constant flow rate between 0.25 and 1 gallon/minute. No purge was required because springs are considered already purged. The field parameter values were recorded after the field meter displayed a stable reading (approximately 10 min.). The tubing was adequately flushed with spring water during the gathering of field parameters. The flow chamber was removed and sampling was conducted directly from the masterflex tubing discharge line. Two exceptions to this sampling method occurred at Wakulla Spring and Homosassa Springs. Both springs have pre-set pipes running down into the cave systems where the spring vents are located. In the case of Homosassa Springs, tubes from the three vents converge at an outlet box with three valves inside, one for each vent. Sampling was conducted from these valves. At Wakulla Spring, the pipe runs to a pump on shore from which sampling is conducted. The Northwest Florida Water Management District (NWFWMD) (Wakulla Spring) and Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 28 Figure 13. The FGS Spring Sampling Team, 2001.

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(Homosassa Springs) designed and operated the sampling systems. Each tube was purged for 10 minutes, as there are gallons of water remaining in tubes from the last sampling effort. FDEP standard operating procedures were followed for water quality sampling Water Samples Seven to ten bottles and three Whirl-pack bags were filled with water from spring vents and analyzed by the FDEP Bureau of Laboratories following Environmental Protection Agency or Standard methods. All containers, with the exception of the Whirl-pak bags, were pre-rinsed with sample water prior to filling. Four to seven bottles and three Whirl-pak bags were filled with unfiltered water samples. A GWV high capacity in-line filter (0.45 um) was attached to the microflex tubing and the remaining three bottles were filled with filtered water samples. The number of bottles filled and the types of analytes sampled varied between the first magnitude springs sampling effort and the second and third magnitude spring sampling effort. The analytes sampled for each event are shown in Table 2. Whirl-pak bags were placed on ice immediately after filling. Bottles for filtered and unfiltered nutrients were preserved with sulfuric acid followed by acidification of bottles for filtered and unfiltered metals using nitric acid. Narrow range pH litmus paper was used to confirm acidity of pH = 2. All water samples were placed on ice and delivered to the FDEP Bureau of Laboratories within 24 hours. New tubing and filters were used at each sample site. Additional Data General descriptions of each spring vent were made and included the aquatic, wetland, and upland (where applicable) surroundings. Water depth was measured using a hand held Speedtech sonar depth gauge. Distances were measured with a Bushnell Yardage Pro 500 range finder. Secchi depth (visibility depth) was obtained using a secchi disk. A Trimble XR Pro GPS system with a TDC1 data logger was used to record latitudinal and longitudinal coordinates. Field parameters, weather conditions, sampling times, water and secchi depth, and micro-land use information were also input into the GPS unit. Micro-land uses within 300 ft of spring vents were identified and sketched. Discharge Measurement Every effort was made to collaborate with various agencies to obtain the most recent discharge rate for each spring. Discharge rates of the remaining springs were measured by the FGS using either the Price-AA meter or the Marsh McBirney Flo-Mate. The source of each discharge measurement is denoted in the spring descriptions with a superscript. The legend is as follows: (1) Rosenau et al. 1977 (2) Florida Geological Survey (3) Northwest Florida Water Management District (4) Suwannee River Water Management District (5) Southwest Florida Water Management District (6) St. Johns River Water Management District (7) U.S. Geological Survey BULLETIN NO. 66 29

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The FGS employed the discharge measurement methodology of Buchanan and Somers (1969) and the DEP SOP for discharge measurement was also followed (FDEP, 2002). It should be noted that the FGS Springs Teams visited, sampled and measured discharge during the last phase of a major drought and early in the return to normal rainfall. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 30 INDICATO R SAMPLE TYPE Alkalinity Total Alkalinity (First magnitude only)Total; Filtered AmmoniaTotal Ammonia (First magnitude only)Total; Filtered Biological Oxygen DemandTotal Chloride Total Chloride (First magnitude only)Total; Filtered Color Total E. coli (First magnitude only) Total EnterococciTotal Fecal ColiformTotal Fluoride Total Fluoride (First magnitude only)Total; Filtered Metals = Arsenic, Boron, Calcium, Cadmium, Chromium, Cobalt, Copper, Iron, Lead, Magnesium, Manganese, Nickel, Potassium, Selenium, Sodium, Strontium, Tin, Zinc (First magnitude only) Total Metals = Aluminum, Arsenic, Boron, Cadmium, Calcium, Cobalt, Chromium, Copper, Iron, Lead, Magnesium, Manganese, Nickel, Potassium, Radium 226, Radium 228, Selenium, Sodium, Strontium, Tin, Zinc (Second and third only) Total Metals = Arsenic, Aluminum, Cadmium, Calcium, Chromium, Copper, Iron, Lead, Magnesium, Manganese, Nickel, Potassium, Selenium, Sodium, Zinc (First magnitude only) Filtered Metals = A rsenic, Calcium, Cadmium, Chromium, Copper, Iron, Manganese, Magnesium, Nickle, Lead, Potassium, Sodium, Selenium, Zinc (Second and third magnitude only) Filtered Nitrite-NitrateTotal Nitrite-Nitrate (First magnitude only)Total; Filtered OrthophosphateFiltered Orthophosphate (First magnitude only)Total Specific Conductance Total Sulfate Filtered Sulfate (First magnitude only)Total; Filtered Total Dissolved SolidsFiltered Total Dissolved Solids (First magnitude only)Total Total Kjeldahl NitrogenTotal; Filtered Total Organic CarbonTotal Total PhosphorusTotal; Filtered Phosphorus (First magnitude only)Total Total Suspended SolidsTotal Turbidity Total Table 2. Laboratory analytes and sample tests. Analyses performed by FDEP.

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Characteristics of Spring Water Spring water discharges provide a means of determining the quality of water in the aquifer as well as the degree of human impact in the springshed. Upchurch (1992) states that a number of factors influence ground-water chemistry. These include the precipitation chemistry, surface conditions at the site of recharge, soil type in the recharge area, mineralogy and composition of the aquifer system, nature of aquifer system porosity and structure, flow path in the aquifer, residence time of the water in the aquifer, mixing of other waters in the aquifer system, and aquifer microbiology. Refer to Upchurch (1992) for a detailed discussion of the factors affecting the chemistry of groundwater. Descriptions of Analytes Water quality of springs was determined by collecting and analyzing water samples (Figure 13). A series of field measurements were taken on site during sample collection. When combined, field and analytical data give a snapshot of water quality at that point in time. Comparing similar data, taken over time, can yield information about how water quality changes over time and what may be causing these changes. Analyte descriptions are summarized in Champion and Starks (2001), Hornsby and Ceryak (1998), Jones et al. (1998), Maddox et al. (1992), and Smith (1992). Table 3 gives the units of measure for each analyte. Physical Field Parameters Field measurements were collected prior to water sampling. They include dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance, water temperature and discharge. Other observations and data recorded in the field include local geology, weather conditions and adjacent land use practices. Dissolved Oxygen Oxygen readily dissolves in water. The source of oxygen can be atmospheric or biological. Typically, springs that discharge water from a deep aquifer source have a low dissolved oxygen content. On the other hand, relative to springs, the dissolved oxygen content in river rise water is high. This is due to a greater exposure to the atmosphere and an increase in biological activity. pH pH measures the acidity or alkalinity of water. It is defined as the negative log of the activity of the hydrogen ion in a solution. Values range between 0 and 14. A low pH (below 7) represents acidic conditions, and a high pH (above 7) represents alkaline conditions. A pH of 7 indicates the water is near neutral conditions. As raindrops form they incorporate dissolved carbon dioxide, forming weak carbonic acid. The resulting rain has a low pH. In Florida, as rainwater passes through soil layers it incorporates organic acids and the acidity increases. When acidic water enters a limestone aquifer, the acids react with calcium carbonate in the limestone and dissolution occurs. Generally, most spring water falls within a pH range of 7 to 8. During heavy rain events, spring water can drop in pH as tannic acids from nearby surface waters are flushed into the spring system. It should be noted that sampled river rises tend to have a lower pH than the clear-water spring systems, due to the surface-water component of the river rise water. BULLETIN NO. 66 31

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Specific Conductance Specific conductance is a measure of the ability of a substance, in this case spring water, to conduct electricity. The conductance is a function of the amount and type of ions in the water. The variability of the specific conductance of spring water can be quite high when the spring is discharging saline water or when the spring is discharging into the marine environment. Water Temperature Geologic material is characteristically a good insulator. Rocks and sediments tend to buffer changes in the temperature of spring water. Thus, spring water temperature does not vary much and tends to reflect the average annual air temperature in the vicinity of the spring. In Florida, this temperature can range from 68°F to 75°F (20° C to 24° C), plus or minus several tenths of a degree. Temperature plays a role in chemical and biological activity within the aquifer and can help in determining residence time of the water in the aquifer. Discharge Discharge, or spring flow, is controlled by the potentiometric levels in the FAS. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 32 AnalyteAbbreviation Unit of Measure AnalyteAbbreviation Unit of Measure Temperature -oC Calcium Ca mg/L Dissolved Oxygen DO mg/L Potassium K mg/L pH units Sodium Na mg/L Specific Conductance Sp. Cond. µ S/cm at 25 oC Magnesium Mg mg/L Biochemical Oxygen BOD mg/ L Arseni c As µ g/L Barium Ba µg/L Boron B µg/L ColorPlatinum Cobalt Units CadmiumCdµg/L Alkalinity as CaCO3mg/L Cobalt Co µg/L Total Dissolved Solids TDSmg/L Chromium Cr µg/L Total Suspended Solids TSSmg/L Copper Cu µg/L Chloride Clmg/L Iron Fe µg/L Sulfate SO4mg/L Manganese Mn µg/L Fluoride F mg/L Nickel Ni µg/L Total Organic Carbon TOC mg/L Lead Pb µg/L Total Nitrogen NO3 + NO2mg/L Selenium Se µg/L Total Ammonia NH3 + NH4mg/L Tin Sn µg/L Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen TKNmg/L Strontium Sr µg/L Total PhosphorusPmg/L Zinc Zn µg/L Orthophosphate as P PO4mg/L TurbidityJTU (Historical) NTU (Current)**JTU and NTU are approximately equivalent though not identical Table 3. Units of measurement.

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Discharge generally changes slowly in response to fluctuations in the water levels in the aquifer. Discharge is measured in cubic feet per second or gallons per day. Other Field Data During sample collection, total water depth, sample depth, local geology, adjacent land use and current weather conditions are noted at each spring. This generalized information can be useful in helping to determine certain water quality-related issues of the spring. The aquatic vegetation conditions were noted along with the occurrence of algae. For specific information on the native and invasive aquatic vegetation, there is an annual aquatic plant survey of public waters conducted by FDEP's Bureau of Invasive Plant Management. For information on the survey, contact the Bureau at 850-245-2809. Secchi Depth A measure of the cloudiness or turbidity of surface water. This method utilizes a Secchi disk, a disk divided into black and white quarters, used to gauge water clarity by measuring the depth at which it is no longer visible from the surface. Laboratory Analytes Alkalinity The alkalinity of spring water is affected primarily by the presence of bicarbonate, hydroxide and carbon dioxide. Highly alkaline waters are usually associated with high pH, dissolved solids and hardness which, when combined, may be detrimental to the aquatic environment. Biochemical Oxygen Demand Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is a measure of the quantity of molecular oxygen utilized in the decomposition of organic material, during a specified incubation time, by microorganisms such as bacteria. When the BOD is high, the depletion of oxygen can have a detrimental effect on aquatic organisms. BOD is measured in mg/l. Chloride (Cl) Chloride is the most abundant constituent in seawater. Springs that are tidally influenced may have high chloride concentrations. Chloride is added to the atmosphere via marine aerosols from the ocean. In most Florida's springs, chloride is introduced to the spring system via rainfall. Chloride is chemically conservative and reacts very little with spring water. Color The color of spring water can be affected by factors such as the presence of metallic ions, tannic acids, biological activity and industrial waste. Generally, spring water in Florida is clear. Color measurements are made on filtered water samples so the true color of the water is determined. Color is reported in either color units or Platinum Cobalt units (Pt/Co). Nitrate + Nitrite (NO3+ NO2) as N Nitrate and nitrite are both found in spring water in Florida. Nitrate contamination recently has become a problem in Florida's springs. Nitrate found in spring water originates from fertilizers, septic tanks and animal waste that enter the aquifer in the spring recharge area. Nitrate, being a nutrient, encourages algal and aquatic plant growth in spring water, which may lead to eutrophication of the spring and the associated water body. Nitrite, which is much less of a problem, can originate from sewage and other organic waste products. BULLETIN NO. 66 33

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Organic Carbon Natural and non-naturally occurring organic carbon are present in varying concentrations in spring water in Florida. The primary source of naturally occurring organic carbon is humic substances (decaying plant material). Synthetic organic carbon represents a minor component. Orthophosphate (PO4) Phosphate is an essential nutrient and occurs in spring water in Florida. Unfortunately, an excess of phosphate can cause run-away plant growth and the eutrophication of surface waters. The Hawthorn Group, a geological unit in Florida, is the most important source of phosphate in spring water. Other sources include organic and inorganic fertilizers, animal waste, human waste effluent and industrial waste. Potassium (K) Potassium occurs in trace amounts in Florida's spring water and is derived primarily from seawater. Therefore, it occurs in higher concentration along the coast. The weathering of mica, feldspar and clay minerals can contribute potassium to spring water. In addition, because potassium is an essential nutrient, it is a component of fertilizers. Radium 226 & 228 (Ra226& Ra228) Radium is a naturally occurring radioactive element that is produced when uranium and thorium minerals decay ("break down") in the environment. Radium itself decays into other elements, and eventually to lead (Pb), but exists in the environment long enough to be of concern in groundwater. Radium is of similar size and nature to phosphorus and often substitutes for it. Consumption of radium isotopes can lead to the incorporation of radium into bone and other body systems. Radium is a known carcinogen. Uranium-bearing minerals, the natural source of radium, are found in all of Florida's aquifer systems in varying, usually minor, amounts. Sodium (Na) In Florida, sodium occurring in spring water has several sources. Marine aerosols, mixing of seawater with fresh water and the weathering of sodium-bearing minerals like feldspars and clays are the primary sources. Sulfate (SO4) Sulfate is commonly found in aquifer waters in Florida and has several sources. The two most common sources are from seawater and the dissolution of gypsum and anhydrite (naturally occurring rock types within Florida's aquifer systems). Sulfate is often used as a soil amendment to acidify soils, and thus is associated with agricultural activities. Finally, disposal and industrial waste activities release sulfate to groundwater. Sulfate-rich spring water can potentially be toxic to plants. In higher concentrations it affects the taste of drinking water. Total Ammonia (NH3+ NH4) Ammonia (NH3) occurs in groundwater primarily as the ammonium ion (NH4) because of the prevalent pH and reduction-oxidation potential (Upchurch, 1992). Microbial activity within the soil and aquifer can convert other nitrogenous products to ammonium. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) Total dissolved solids is a measure of the dissolved chemical constituents, primarily ions, in spring water. Concentrations in Florida's spring water vary widely. Since most of Florida's spring water issues from carbonate aquifers, the total dissolved solid concentrations are fairly high. Higher concentrations are found in springs that are tidally influenced and springs that discharge into the marine environment. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 34

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Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen This is a measure of the sum of the ammonia nitrogen and organic nitrogen in the spring water sample. The ammonia nitrogen, mainly occurring as ammonium (NH4), occurs in trace amounts in spring water (see ammonia [NH3] above). Organic nitrogen originates from biological sources including sewage and other waste. FDEP regulates nitrogen, in the form of nitrates and nitrites, in drinking water in Florida (see previous descriptions above). Total Nitrogen The amount of nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, and organic nitrogen, when summed, gives the total nitrogen content of spring water. Total Suspended Solids This refers to the amount of solid material suspended in the water column. As opposed to turbidity, total suspended solids does not take into account the light scattering ability of the water. Total suspended solids are filtered out of the water sample and are measured in mg/l. Turbidity Turbidity is a measure of the colloidal suspension of tiny particles and precipitates in spring water. High turbidity water impedes the penetration of light and can be harmful to aquatic life. Most Florida springs discharge water low in turbidity. Turbidity is measured in Nephlometric Turbidity Units (NTU's). Trace Metals Trace metals analyzed for this report include: aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), boron (B), calcium (Ca), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), fluoride (F), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), phosphorous (P), selenium (Se), strontium (Sr), tin (Sn) and zinc (Zn). Trace metals, when present in spring water, are found in very low concentrations and are measured in parts per billion (ppb), or micrograms per liter ( m /l). In Florida, calcium and magnesium occur in higher concentrations and are therefore measured in milligrams per liter. The naturally low abundance of trace metals in Florida's groundwater can be attributed to several factors including: low natural abundance in aquifer rocks, low solubility of metalbearing minerals, high adsorption potential of metal ions on clays and organic particulates and precipitation in the form of sulfides and oxides (Upchurch, 1992). Many biochemical processes require small amounts of some trace metals; however, higher concentrations can be toxic. Industrialization and increased demand for products containing trace metals have overwhelmed the natural biogeochemical cycle, and anthropogenic sources of trace metals now far outweigh natural sources (Smith, 1992). In Florida, lead, mercury and arsenic are among metal contaminants locally found in groundwater that are most detrimental to human health. These contaminants, along with other metals, can be distributed throughout the ecosystem within the atmosphere, water, and geological materials (soils, sediments and rocks). Atmospheric pollutants, such as mercury, are often the primary source of waterborne metals. These pollutants are introduced into the atmosphere by mining operations, smelting, manufacturing activities and the combustion of fossil fuels (Smith, 1992). Historically, contamination of groundwater by lead was caused primarily by combustion of fossil fuels containing lead additives. Lead additives were phased out of fuels in the U.S. and Canada by 1990. Other sources of contamination still persist. Lead bioaccumulates in BULLETIN NO. 66 35

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aquatic organisms, affecting the higher trophic levels the most. In humans, lead causes severe health problems including metabolic disorders, neurological and reproductive damage and hypertension. In Florida, the Primary Standard for lead in drinking water is 15 g/L. When trace metals are released into the environment, they are characteristically not biodegradable and tend to stay in the environment accumulating in foodwebs and impact ecosystems. Trace metals such as arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and silver can have adverse effects on aquatic and terrestrial environments at low concentrations. Biological Analytes Spring water samples were analyzed for total coliform, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli ( E. coli ), and Enterococci. These analytes are used to assess the sanitary quality of spring water and to determine the potential for waterborne diseases (bacterial and viral). The primary source of these contaminants is fecal waste from warm-blooded animals. When spring water samples were analyzed for total coliform, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Enterococci bacteria. These analytes are used to assess the sanitary quality of spring water and to determine the potential for waterborne diseases (bacterial and viral). The primary source of these contaminants is fecal waste from warm-blooded animals. When detected in numbers that exceed the maximum contaminant level (MCL), coliforms may indicate that the spring has been contaminated by domestic sewage overflow or non-point sources of human and animal waste. Measurements made on these biological analytes are reported in colonies per 100 milliliters. Total coliform bacteria are a group of closely related, mostly harmless bacteria that live in the digestive tract of animals. The extent to which total coliforms are present in spring water can indicate general water quality and the amount of fecal contamination. By further examining fecal coliforms, E. coli and Enterococci, it is possible to estimate the amount of human fecal contamination of the sample. Human contact with water that is contaminated with fecal wastes can result in diseases of the digestive tract including gastroenteritis and dysentery. Typhoid fever, hepatitis A, and cholera are also related to contact with fecally contaminated water. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 36

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DESCRIPTIONS OF INDIVIDUAL SPRINGS AND RESULTS OF ANALYSES The FGS Springs Teams created brief descriptions for each spring group, spring, river rise and karst window visited during 2001-2003. Data for the descriptions were derived from field visits to the springs by FGS Springs Teams, FGS Bulletin 31 Revised (Rosenau et al., 1977) and the Florida Springs website http://www.tfn.net/springs/. More elaborate descriptions and links to maps are available on the websites listed in Springs Information Resources on the Web in this volume. The size, shape and appearance of the springs can vary in response to rainfall and river and lake levels. During the FGS effort to visit and describe springs, the state was in the last phase of a major drought. As a result, springs often appeared different than had been previously described by Rosenau et al. (1977), Hornsby and Ceryak (1998) and others. Many springs were visited and described but not sampled for water quality. These descriptions and the entire printed volume are provided on the enclosed CD. The mileage in the springs location information was determined using ArcView version 3.2. NOTE : The legend for the discharge measurements is: (1) Rosenau et al., 1977, Springs of Florida: FGS Bulletin No. 31 (Revised) (2) Florida Geological Survey (3) Northwest Florida Water Management District (4) Suwannee River Water Management District (5) Southwest Florida Water Management District (6) St. Johns River Water Management District (7) U.S. Geological Survey Water Quality-Analyses were conducted by the Florida Geological Survey and the Florida Department of Environmental Protection Bureau of Laboratories. Historical measurements were obtained from Bulletin No. 31, revised (Rosenau et al., 1977). BULLETIN NO. 66 37 Figure 14. SCUBA diver in Silver Springs (photo by G. Maddox).

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ALACHUACOUNTY FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 38 Figure 15. Springs visited by FGS in Alachua County.

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Hornsby Spring Location Lat. 29° 51’ 01.3" N., Long. 82° 35’ 35.5" W. (NE ¼ NE ¼ SE ¼ sec. 27, T. 7 S., R. 17 E.). Hornsby Spring is located in Camp Kulaqua 1.5 miles (2.4 km) north of High Springs. From the US 441/41 and CR 236 (Main Street) intersection in High Springs, drive north on US 441/41 approximately 1.5 miles (2.4 km) to Camp Kulaqua which will be on the east (right) side of the road. Turn east (right) at Camp Kulaqua sign and follow road approximately 1 mile (1.6 km) to campground entrance. The spring is located inside the campground about 300 ft (91.4 m) northwest of the camp entrance. Description Hornsby Spring has a circular spring pool measuring 155 ft (47.2 m) north to south and 147 ft (44.8 m) east to west. Its depth at the vent is 34.5 ft (10.5 m). The water is clear and slightly greenish blue. The spring has an underwater limestone ledge on the north side under a floating walkway. Algae patches are growing on limestone substrate. The spring run is approximately 0.9 miles (1.5 km) long, 15 ft (4.6 m) wide and up to 5 ft (1.5 m) deep. It flows generally westward into the Santa Fe River. During the first FGS visit, the spring was not flowing. The FGS sampled the spring during a subsequent visit when a small spring boil was visible near the wooden walkway. This spring is situated on the edge of the lowland floodplain of the Santa Fe River. The floodplain is forested with cypress, gum, and maple. High ground on the east side of the spring rises steeply to 6 ft (1.8 m) above water level, then gently rises to approximately 15 ft (4.6 m) and is a rolling sand hills terrain. The uplands are open and grassy. An underwater cave system has been mapped at Hornsby Spring. BULLETIN NO. 66 39 Figure 16. Hornsby Spring (photo by T. Scott)

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Utilization Hornsby Spring is the central feature of the privately-owned Camp Kulaqua. The spring is developed into a swimming and recreation area. There are numerous boardwalks over and around the spring. A slide leads into the spring pool on the north side. Full facilities are located nearby. Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. April 19, 1972250(1)April 25, 197576(1)October 16, 200114.1(4)October 2, 20020.0(2) FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 40 Table 4. Hornsby Spring water quality analyses. Table 5. Hornsby Spring bacteriological analyses.

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Poe Spring Location Lat. 29° 49' 32.58" N., Long. 82° 38' 56.30" W. (SW ¼ NW ¼ NE ¼ sec. 6, T. 8 S., R. 17 E.). Poe Spring is located within Poe Springs County Park, 3 miles (4.8 km) west of High Springs. From the junction of US 441/41 and US 27 in High Springs, drive southwest on US 41/27 for 0.6 miles (1 km). Turn west (right) on SR 340 (Poe Springs Road) and travel 2.9 miles (4.7 km), then turn north (right) into the park at the park sign. The spring is down a foot path along the Santa Fe River. Description Poe Spring is bordered by a man-made retaining wall. It forms a circular pool 120 ft (36.6 m) in diameter. The vent is on the south side of the pool at the bottom of a conical depression where there is exposed limestone. The depth measures 18.7 ft (5.7 m) over the vent and a boil is present on the spring surface. The water is clear with a bluegreenish hue. The spring has an exposed sand bottom resulting from heavy use. Aquatic vegetation and algae are sparse within the spring. A steep, underwater limestone ledge is on the east side of the vent. The spring run is swift and short, flowing approximately 75 ft (22.9 m) northwest into the Santa Fe River. The river in this vicinity is choked with exotic aquatic vegetation, but none occurs within the spring or its run. Pavilions and picnic tables are on the east side of the spring. A wooden boardwalk is on the south side of the pool. Land around the spring is low-lying river flood plain. Dense mesic hardwood forest occurs to the south and west of the spring. Utilization Poe Spring is in a county recreational area with full facilities. BULLETIN NO. 66 41 Figure 17. Poe Spring (photo by R. Means).

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FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 42 DissolvedTotal Field MeasuresTemperature --22 DO--pH-7.38.2 Sp. Cond. --Lab Analytes BOD---0.36I Turbidity ---0.05U Color-55-5UAlkalinity --170-179 Sp. Cond.-368380388.0TDS204210212-259 TSS---4U Cl76.87-15 SO4101716 -35 F-0.10.2-0.17 Nutrients TOC---1.4I NO3 + NO2 as N --0.27 -0.20 NH3 + NH4---0.01U TKN---0.1I0.075I P---0.11A0.100 PO4--0.110NO3 -0.50.27 -Metals Ca64656568.767.2 K5.70.90.610.96 Na5.74.44.79.39.1 Mg4.76.45.37.87.6 Al----50U As---3U3U B ----21I Cd---0.5U0.5U Co ----0.75U Cr---2U2U Cu---3U3U Fe5070-25U25U Mn---89.888.9 Ni---2U2U Pb---3U5U Ra-226 ----0.3 Ra-228 ---0.9U Se---4U4U Sn----7U Sr---361.0 Zn---15U2UA=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit2002 Analytes 437 22.48 0.38 7.41 1972 1946 1924 Table 6. Poe Spring water quality analyses.

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Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. February 19, 191786.5 (1)January 31, 192975.1 (1)March 14, 193231.2 (1)December 13, 194184.0 (1)July 22, 194675.3 (1)May 2, 195639.2 (1)October 17, 196091.7 (1)April 18, 1972 93.1 (1)June 26, 199750.59 (4)May 14, 20026.1(2) BULLETIN NO. 66 43 Anal y teValu e Enterococci1AKQ Fecal Coliform1AKQ Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 7. Poe Spring bacteriological analyses.

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Santa Fe River Rise Location -Lat. 29° 52’ 26.0" N., Long. 82° 35’ 29.9" W. (SW¼ SW¼ SW¼ sec. 14, T. 7 S., R. 17 E.). Santa Fe River Rise is located within O'Leno State Park/River Rise Preserve State Park. From the junction of US 441/41 and US 27 in High Springs, head north on US 441/41 approximately 6 miles (9.7 km) to O'Leno State Park entrance on the east (right) side of the road. Directions to the river rise via park roads can be obtained at the park entrance. Description -Santa Fe River Rise is the re-emergence of the underground Santa Fe River. The spring pool measures 175 ft (53.3 m) east to west and 165 ft (50.3 m) north to south. There is a vertical limestone ledge on the northeast side of the pool. The depth just south of the ledge measures 49 ft (14.9m). The water color is typically that of the Santa Fe River, which may be tannic or clear depending mainly on rainfall. No boil was observed during the October 2001 visit. The river flows southward from the vent and is approximately as wide (east to west) as the spring pool. There is a narrow band of cypress growing around the pool perimeter. There are patches of duckweed around the periphery of the pool, and no aquatic vegetation could be seen through the tannic water. Several hundred yards of the Santa Fe River below Santa Fe Rise is choked with water hyacinth, and boat access to the rise is nearly impossible. Land around the river rise quickly rises to approximately 8 ft (2.4 m) above water level and levels off into a flat mesic hardwood hammock. Utilization The Santa Fe River Rise is a pristine, state-owned natural area. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 44 Figure 18. Santa Fe River Rise (photo by T. Scott).

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Discharge January 2, 2002: less than 75 ft3/s (D. Hornsby, pers. comm.). BULLETIN NO. 66 45 UnfilteredFilteredUnfilteredFiltered Field MeasuresMetalsTemperature Ca35A28.2 DOK2.2A1.9 pHNa15.1A12.8 Sp. Cond. Mg8.3A6.6 Lab Analytes Al-630A BOD1.80 -As3U3U Turbidity1.90 -B 33IColor250.00 -Cd0.75U0.75UAlkalinity 43J42.0Co 0.75Sp. Cond.260.00Cr2U2U TDS228.00 -Cu2.5U3.5I TSS4U -Fe810A570.0 Cl3132Mn43.7A33.5 SO43434 Ni 2U2U F0.120.12Pb5U4U Nutrients Se4U4U TOC361USn20UNO3 + NO2 as N0.058J0.059 Sr 388ANH3 + NH40.051J0.06 Zn 6.7I5U TKN1.2J1.2A P0.230.22A PO40.2A=Average Value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value shown is less than the practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value 2002 22.50 3.50 6.67 259.0 2002 AnalytesAnalytes Table 8. Santa Fe River Rise water quality analyses. Anal y teValu e Escherichia coli 8Q Enterococci12Q Fecal Coliform6Q Total Coliform60Q Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 9. Santa Fe River Rise bacteriological analyses.

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Treehouse Spring Location -Lat. 29° 51’ 17.6" N., Long. 82° 36’ 0.4" W. (SW¼ NE¼ NW¼ sec. 27, T. 7 S., R. 17 E.). Treehouse Spring is approximately 2 miles (3.2 km) north of High Springs on the east bank of the Santa Fe River. The spring can be accessed by boat from a public boat ramp downstream from the spring. From the junction of US 441/41 and CR 236 (Main Street) in High Springs, drive north on US 441/41 approximately 1.2 miles (1.9 km). Turn west (left) at public access boat sign just before the Santa Fe River. The spring is 0.6 miles (1 km) upstream from the boat ramp on the southeast side of the river. Description Treehouse Spring is in a circular cove on the southeast side of the Santa Fe River. The spring discharges westward into the adjacent river. Spring pool diameter measures 125 ft (38.1 m) north to south and 175 ft (53.3 m) east to west. Pool depth over the vent is 31 ft (9.4 m). Water color was tannic, and there was no spring boil during October 2001. Water hyacinth was the only non-native plant species observed in the spring pool. No other vegetation could be seen through the dark water. Land adjacent to this spring is a forested lowland flood plain. The nearest high ground is approximately 150 ft (46 m) to the east, and it rises 10-12 ft (3-3.7 m) higher than the flood plain and is forested with mixed hardwoods and pines. Treehouse Spring is also published as ALA112971 (Hornsby and Ceryak, 1998). Utilization -the land surrounding this spring is privately owned and is pristine. There is a small rope swing on the east side and the spring is a local swimming spot. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 46 Figure 19. Treehouse Spring (photo by J. Stevenson).

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Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. May 26, 1998405.96 (4)October 30, 2001 39.9 (4) BULLETIN NO. 66 47 Unfilt.FilterUnfilt.Filter Field MeasuresMetals Temperature 21.88-Ca31.932.8 DO2.09-K1.91.8 pH7.31-Na1211.8 Sp. Cond. 279-Mg6.87 Lab Anal y tes As3 U3 U BOD0.2 UA-Al-370 Turbidity1.4-B 28 IColor250-Cd0.75 U0.75 UAlkalinity 5756Co 0.75 USp. Cond.280-Cr2 U2 U TDS225-Cu2.5 U2.5 U TSS4 U-Fe510490 Cl2727Mn25.223.6 SO43737 Ni 1.5 U2 U F0.140.12Pb5 U4 U Nutrients Se8.8 U4 U TOC38-Sn20 UNO3 + NO20.0910.091 JSr370NH3 + NH40.0340.028 AZn5 U5 U TKN1.11.1 P0.20.19 PO40.19-A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value Q= exceeded holding time limitAnalytes 2001 Analytes 2001 Table 10. Treehouse Spring water quality analyses. Anal y teValu e Escherichia coli 14Q Enterococci46Q Fecal Coliform20Q Total Coliform180Q Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 11. Treehouse Spring bacteriological analyses.

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BAY COUNTY FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 48 Figure 20 Springs visited by FGS in Bay County

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Gainer Springs Group Group Location Lat. 30° 25’ N., Long. 85° 32’ W. (southern half of sec. 4, T. 1 S., R. 13 W.). Gainer Springs Group is located 0.4 miles (0.6 km) downstream from the SR 20 bridge over Econfina Creek. It is best accessed by canoe, however, there is a gated dirt track on Northwest Florida Water Management District (NWFWMD) land that leads to the springs group on the east side of the creek. From the intersection of US 231 and SR 20 head west on SR 20 approximately 7 miles (11.3 km) to Econfina Creek Group Description At least five known springs associated with Gainer Springs Group are along both sides of Econfina Creek. The uplands surrounding this group are high rolling sand hills that are forested with sand pine and patches of longleaf pine-turkey oak community. High ground adjoining the west side of the creek near Spring No. 2 and Spring No. 3 rises to 27 ft (8.2 m) above the water surface and is densely forested with mixed hardwoods and pines. The creek floodplain is forested with cypress and hardwoods. Land on the west side of the Econfina Creek at Gainer Springs is privately owned. The east side of the creek is owned and managed by the NWFWMD. GAINER SPRING NO. 1C Lat. 30° 25’ 39.6" N., Long. 85° 32 45.83" W. (SW¼ NW¼ SE¼ sec. 4, T. 1 S., R. 13 W.). Gainer Spring Nos. 1A, 1B, and 1C form a 820 ft (249.9 m) long spring run that enters Econfina Creek on the east side directly across from Spring No. 2. Spring No. 1C is the first spring encountered approximately 495 ft (150.9 m) upstream from the creek, and its pool is adjacent to the run on the southeast side. Spring pool dimenBULLETIN NO. 66 49 Figure 21. Gainer Springs Group Vent 1C (photo by T. Scott).

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sions are approximately 72 ft (21.9 m) east to west and 33 ft (10.1 m) north to south. Water issues from a vertical tunnel in the limestone. Shell and sand particles are suspended in the spring flow. Pool depth is 20 ft (6.1 m) measured over the vent. There is very little aquatic vegetation; however, algae patches in spring pool are common. The adjoining, swampy lowlands are heavily forested with cypress and mixed hardwoods. The nearest uplands to the southeast support a mixed hardwood and pine forest. There is no high ground adjacent to the spring pool. These springs are also known as McCormick Springs. GAINER SPRING NO. 2 Lat. 30° 25’ 38.61" N., Long. 85° 32’ 53.95" W. (SW¼ NE¼ SW¼ sec. 4, T. 1 S., R. 13 W.). This spring, also known as Emerald Spring, is located directly across from the mouth of Gainer Spring No. 1 run along the west side of Econfina Creek. Spring water issues from the base of the riverbank and forms a pool along the edge of the creek. Pool diameter is approximately 60 ft (18.3 m) east to west and 62 ft (18.9 m) north to south. Pool depth over the vent is 5 ft (1.5 m). Vent diameter is approximately 5 ft (1.5 m). There is little or no aquatic vegetation, but patches of dark green algae are present. The water is clear and light greenish blue. A concrete wall forms the south side of the spring pool. Two parallel pipes that extract drinking water run from inside the spring vent toward the top of the bluff and beyond. There are at least three other smaller vents issuing from the bank just above this spring. A 23 ft (7 m) high bluff meets the Econfina Creek at Spring No. 2. A mixed hardwood and pine forest inhabits the bluff face and high ground. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 50 Figure 22. Gainer Springs Group Vent 2 (photo by T. Scott).

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GAINER SPRING NO. 3 Lat. 30° 25’ 44.30" N., Long. 85° 32’ 53.9" W. (NE¼ NE¼ SW¼ sec. 4, T. 1 S., R. 13 W.). This spring is located along the west side of Econfina Creek, and is about 655 ft (199.6 m) upstream of Spring No. 2. It is at the head of a 325 ft (99.1 m) long spring run. There are at least three vent complexes in the combined spring pool. The depression is large and mostly shallow with a sand bottom and limestone boulders. The combined spring pool diameter is about 305 ft (93 m) east to west and 125 ft (38.1 m) north to south. There is a forested island in the center of the combined spring pool. Some emergent vegetation exists along the pool's shores, but there is very little aquatic vegetation. Dark green algal mats are ubiquitous throughout the bottom of the spring pool. The western vent issues out of a limestone sidewall and has a small boardwalk nearby. The north vent, where water quality was sampled, is the largest and deepest. This spring is about 15 ft (4.6 m) south of a wooden wall presumably constructed for shore erosion management. Clear, light greenish blue water issues from the bottom of a 16 ft (4.9 m) diameter conical depression and produces a boil at the surface. The depression is 7.4 ft (2.3 m) deep over the vent. Vent diameter is about 1.5 ft (0.5 m). On the eastern side of the combined spring pool, there are at least three other vents. Uphill to the north, there are picnic tables under a pavilion in a grassy opening. The rest of the uplands adjoining the spring pool to the west are forested with mixed hardwoods and pines. In the surrounding forested area, there are karst windows, dissolutionally-enlarged fractures and other karst features. Utilization The uplands around Gainer Spring No. 2 are privately owned. Econfina Creek flows into Deerpoint Lake, which is a public water supply utilized by Panama City. Land around the spring group is privately owned and is pristine and forested. Swimming and canoeing occur frequently in all of Gainer Springs. Discharge Discharge reported here represents the total flow of the Gainer Springs complex. All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. April 11, 1962150(1)September 11, 1962174(1)January 30, 1963159(1)October 14, 2002 128.2(3).January 5, 2004192.8(3) BULLETIN NO. 66 51 Figure 23. Gainer Springs Group fracture (photo by H. Means).

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FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 52 Anal y teVent No. 1Vent No. 2Vent No. 3 Escherichia coli 10Q6Q4Q Enterococci10Q18Q8Q Fecal Coliform14Q18Q12Q Total Coliform100Q10080Q Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 13. Gainer Springs Group bacteriological analyses. Unfilt.FilterUnfilt.FilterUnfilt.Filter Field Measures Temperature -21.021.54-21.122.021.4-21.121.521.6DO -2.82.12-2.52.27-3.02.18pH7.47.98.00-7.37.88.19-7.27.88.20Sp. Cond. 115127142-82108113-115125121Lab Anal y tes BOD -0.2 U-0.2 U-0.2 UTurbidity -0.25-0.2-0.1Color255 U-755 U-2105 U-Alkalinity 5755666738485252 A53545656 Sp. Cond. -160-130 A-130TDS -79-60-61TSS -4 U-4 U-4 UCl2.52.52.52.51.52.02.32.33.03.02.92.8 SO41.60.02.42.50.40.02.32.30.80.02.12 F0.10.10.034 I0.035 I0.10.10.03 I0.029 I0.20.10.03 I0.029 I Nutrients TOC -1.1 I-0.01.2 I-1 UNO3 + NO2 -0.100.170.16 -0.190.210.21 -0.090.190.18 NH3 + NH4 -0.0380.01 U --0.0350.01 U -0.01 U0.01 U TKN -0.06 U0.06 U --0.06 U0.06 U -0.06 U0.06 U P -0.0140.014 -0.020.013 A 0.013 -0.0130.012 PO40.08-0.015-0.480.020.012-0.15-0.012Metals Ca191922.722.5131617.517.2181718.117.8 K0.20.30.260.260.20.20.250.250.10.20.240.25 Na2.01.81.641.441.71.41.451.341.91.81.681.61 Mg2.82.92.72.81.82.42.42.43.22.82.92.9 As -3 U3 U -103 U3 U -3 U3 U Al --75 U ---75 U --75 U B -10 U--10 U-10 UCd -0.75 U0.5 U -00.75 U0.5 U -0.75 U0.5 U Co -0.75 U-00.75 U-0.75 UCr -0.7 U0.5 U -00.7 U0.5 U -0.7 U0.5 U Cu -2 U2 U -02 U2 U -2 U2 U Fe -25 U20 U -3025 U20 U -25 U20 U Mn -0.5 U0.5 U -00.5 U0.5 U -0.5 U0.5 U Ni -1.5 U1.5 U -1.5 U1.5 U -1.5 U1.5 U Pb -5 U3 U -25 U3 U -5 U3 U Se -3.5 U3.5 U -3.5 U3.5 U -3.5 U3.5 U Sn -9 U-9 U-9 USr -8076.1-7041.5-5042.4Zn -4 U3.5 U -304 U3.5 U -4 U3.5 U A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value Q=exceeding holding time limit 19621972 2001 19621972 2001 19621972 2001 Analytes Vent #1Vent #2Vent #3 Table 12. Gainer Springs Group water quality analyses.

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BRADFORDCOUNTY BULLETIN NO. 66 53 Figure 24. Springs visited by FGS in Bradford County. Spring description provided on enclosed CD.

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FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 54 Figure 25. Springs visited by FGS in Calhoun County. Spring descriptions provided on enclosed CD. CALHOUNCOUNTY

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CITRUSCOUNTY BULLETIN NO. 66 55 Figure 26. Springs visited by FGS in Citrus County.

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Chassahowitzka Springs Group FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 56 Figure 27. Chassahowitzka Main Spring (photo by R. Means). Figure 28. Chassahowitzka No. 1 (photo by R. Meegan).

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Group Location Lat. 28 42’ N., Long. 82 34’ W. (Both spring vents are located in the center of sec. 26, T. 20 S., R. 17 E.). The springs are 5.8 miles (9.3km) southwest of Homosassa Springs on the Chassahowitzka River. From Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Park, drive south on US 98/19 5.8 miles (9.3 km). Turn west (right) on CR 480 and drive about 1.8 miles (2.9 km) to the public boat access area, Group Description Chassahowitzka Springs form the headwaters of the Chassahowitzka River, which flows westerly to the Gulf of Mexico approximately 6 miles (9.7 km) through low coastal hardwood hammock and marsh. Rosenau et al. (1977) report as many as five springs flow into the upper part of the river and many more springs are known to exist in the lower portion. The entire river is tidally influenced. CHASSAHOWITZKA MAIN SPRING Lat. 28 42’ 55.87" N., Long. 82 34’ 34.33" W. (NE NE SW sec. 26, T. 20 S., R. 17 E.). Chassahowitzka Main Spring is 360 ft ( 110 m) northeast of the boat ramp and is in the middle of the run. This spring is at the head of a large pool that measures 147 ft (44.8 m) north to south and 135 ft (41.1 m) east to west. The depth measured over the vent is 13.5 ft (4.1 m). The spring has a sand bottom. No limestone was exposed. Water is clear and greenish. The spring run from Chassahowitzka No. 1 Spring flows into the Chassahowitzka Main Spring pool from the east. There is a boat ramp with facilities on the southwest side of the pool. Aquatic vegetation is common, including exotic aquatic vegetation and algae. A boil is visible at low tide. The spring is surrounded by lowland hardwood swamp forest with mixed hardwoods, cypress, and palm. CHASSAHOWITZKA NO. 1 Lat. 28 42’ 58.24" N., Long. 82 34’ 30.32" W. (NW NW SE sec. 26, T. 20 S., R. 17 E.). Chassahowitzka # 1 is at the head of a spring run that flows into the Chassahowitzka River from the north approx 250 ft upstream from Chassahowitzka Main or 550 ft upstream from the boat ramp. This spring issues from a small cavern in bedrock limestone. The spring pool measures 69 ft (21 m) north to south and 81 ft (24.7 m) east to west. There are two closely spaced openings through which the flow issues. The depth over the vents is 8.3 ft (2.5 m). The water is clear and light blue. A small tannic stream flows into the northeast side of the spring pool. There is a thin layer of algae covering most of the limestone bottom of the spring pool. The surrounding land is low lying and heavily forested with hardwoods and palm. The spring run flows southwest approximately 350 ft (106.7 m) into Chassahowitzka Main Spring pool. There are several other spring vents along the spring run about half way to the Chassahowitzka Main Spring pool. Utilization Chassahowitzka Springs and River are used for fishing, swimming, snorkeling, and pleasure boating. Manatees frequent the springs and river year round, but are especially common in winter. Discharge Current discharge estimate is provisional. All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. Average 1930 1972138.5(1)(81 measurements) Maximum (May 18, 1966)197.0(1)Minimum (July 8, 1964) 31.8(1)October 15, 2001 53(2) BULLETIN NO. 66 57 Anal y teMainNo. 1 Escherichia coli 1 KQ1 KQ Enterococci1 KQ1 KQ Fecal Coliform1 KQ1 KQ Total Coliform1 KQ20Q Bacteria Results (in #/100ml) Table 14. Chassahowitzka Springs Group bacteriological analyses.

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FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 58 -----1 8 8 I6U2 U U U -----U U U 1----U U U----U UUnfilt.FilterUnfilt.Filter Field Measures Temperature 23.926.024.523.522.222.9-23.2 DO -6.1 -5.43.68-4.10 pH7.58.27.68.2-7.65-7.71 Sp. Cond. 47050053013705642790-1080 Lab Analytes BOD -0.22.5 -0.2 U -0.2 AU Turbidity -32 -1.3-0.45 Color810101010 5 U 5 U Alkalinity -140140140130 150 152 150152 A Sp. Cond. -2800 1100 A TDS 1470 562 TSS 4 4 Cl537079320110 680 680 220200 SO41313165621 1101103940 F0.10.20.30.20.2 0.13 J0.11 0.12 J0.11 Nutrients TOC 1 NO3 + NO2 -0.26 -0.45 J0.46 J0.49 J0.5 J NH3+NH4 -0.01 U0.0250.01 U0.011 I TKN -0.12 I0.12 I0.086 I0.1 I P -0.0330.020.0180.018 PO4 -0.021-0.021 Metals Ca494648554765.263.454.552.8 K1.51.61.86.32.514.714.34.84.5 Na29364018060393411131121 Mg131113291354.554.223.522.3 As 3 3 U 7 3 Ba75 U B 6 Cd -0.75 U0.75 U0.75 U0.75 U Co -0.75 U-0.75 UCr2 U 22 Cu -2.5 U2.5 U2.5 U2.5 U Fe-92 I38 I35 U35 U Mn -4.11.5 I0.5 U0.5 U Ni -1.5 U1.5 U1.5 U 1.5 U Pb54U 5 4 Se 8.6 U 4 U8.6 U4 U Sn -20 U-20 USr -200200800310 511 262 Zn ---5 U 5 U5 U5 U Analytes 2001 A=Average Value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value shown is less than the practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value No. 1 1946 Main 2001 19721975 19701971 --------------U Table 15. Chassahowitzka Springs Group water quality analyses.

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Citrus Blue Spring Location Lat. 28° 58' 09.60" N., Long. 82° 18' 52.34" W. (SW ¼ NE ¼ SW ¼ sec. 33, T. 17 S., R. 20 E.). Citrus Blue Spring is located along the Withlacoochee River approximately 10 miles (16 km) southeast of Dunnellon. From the US 41 bridge over the Withlacoochee River in Dunnellon travel south on US 41 approximately 1.3 miles (2.1 km) to the intersection with CR 39. Head east (left) on CR 39 and travel approximately 7.6 miles (12.2 km) to the intersection with CR 200. Head northeast (left) and travel 0.1 mile (.2 km) to the bridge over the Withlacoochee River at Stokes Ferry. A boat launch is on the southeast side of the river. The spring can be accessed by boating 3 miles (4.8 km) upstream from the CR 200 bridge in Stoke's Ferry. The spring is situated on the south (right) side of the river. Description Citrus Blue Spring has a roughly circular pool that measures 120 ft (36.6 m) in diameter. The east side of the spring pool is partly enclosed by a man-made, five foot high dike. The spring depression is relatively shallow and uniform except at the vent in the center where depth measures 22 ft (6.7 m). A slight boil was observed over the vent during October 2002. The color of the water is bluish-green, and the sand bottom has substantial aquatic grass cover with sparse algae. Spring flow is directed northwestward through a 30 ft (9.1 m) wide man-made canal, eventually discharging into the Withlacoochee River approximately 0.4 miles (0.6 km) downstream. The canal has a sand bottom with abundant detritus as well as abundant aquatic vegetation. Before the dike was constructed, the spring apparently discharged eastward approximately 150 ft (45.7 m) into the river. The spring is within the forested Withlacoochee River floodplain. The spring reportedly has an extensive cavern system that opens southward to a depth of at least 180 ft (54.9 m) below the spring surface (Rosenau et al., 1977). BULLETIN NO. 66 59 Figure 29. Citrus Blue Spring (photo by R. Means).

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Utilization Citrus Blue Spring is surrounded by private property and is used locally for swimming. Discharge A ll discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. March 15, 193211.1(1)March 7, 196117.7(1)June 19, 196119.6(1)May 25, 197215.1(1)October 16, 200216.3(2) FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 60 DissolvedTotalDissolvedTotal Field MeasuresMetalsTemperature 23Ca5862.861.4 DO-K0.20.2A0.17 pH7.9Na2.53.27A2.84 Sp. Cond. -Mg2.12.7A2.7 Lab Analytes Al--10U BOD--0.2UAs-3U3U Turbidity--0.1B --10U Color--5UCd-0.5U0.5UAlkalinity 140-146Co -1U Sp. Cond.302318.0-Cr-2U2U TDS164-172Cu-2U4U TSS--4UFe-5.1I7U Cl6-5.2Mn-0.25U0.5U SO46.8 -13.0 Ni1U2U F0.2-0.064IPb-5U5U Nutrients Ra-226--0.5 TOC--1URa-228--1.1U NO3 + NO2 as N 0.04 -0.51 Se5U7U NH3 + NH4-0.01U Sn-26U TKN-0.09I0.06USr140-135 P-0.032Q0.033Zn-10.65.4I PO40.04NO3 0.18 --A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit2002 AnalytesAnalytes 2002 1975 1975 333 22.65 1.4 7.33 Anal y teValu e Enterococci1KQ Fecal Coliform1KQ Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 16. Citrus Blue Spring water quality analyses. Table 17. Citrus Blue Spring water bacteriological analyses.

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Homosassa Springs Group Group Location Lat. 28° 47’ 56.65" N., Long. 82° 35’ 18.70" W. (NE ¼ SW ¼ NE ¼ sec. 28, T. 19 S., R. 17 E.). The springs are located within the Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Park and form the headwaters of the Homosassa River. Coming from the north on US 19/98 into Homosassa Springs, turn west (right) on CR 490A and travel 0.5 mile (0.8 km). Turn south (left) on access road to Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Park and travel 0.3 mile (0.5 km) to park entrance. The spring pool, into which all three vents issue, is just below the underwater viewing platform in the manatee rehabilitation area. Group Description Homosassa Springs Group forms the head of the Homosassa River, which flows west approximately 6 miles (9.7 km) to the Gulf of Mexico. Downstream from the head springs about a mile, the spring-fed Halls River flows in from the north. The entire river system is tidally influenced. HOMOSASSA SPRINGS NOS. 1, 2, and 3 All three vents issue into the same spring pool. The pool measures 189 ft (57.6 m) north to south and 285 ft (86.9 m) east to west. The depth for each of the vents is 67, 65, and 62 ft (20.4, 19.8, and 18.9 m) for spring nos. 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The springs issue from a conical depression with limestone exposed along the BULLETIN NO. 66 61 Figure 30. Homosassa Springs Group (photo by H. Means).

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FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 62 Unfilt.FilterUnfilt.FilterUnfilt.Filter Field Measures Temperature 23.5-23.523.523.4-23.3-23.6DO -4.3-3.97-3.86-4.09pH8.27.56.97.97.67-7.62-7.81Sp. Cond. 25902900237037405250-63301980Lab Anal y tes BOD --0.1-0.68 I-0.86 I-0.76 ITurbidity --1-1.3-0.5-0.25Color300105 U-5 U-5 U-Alkalinity 110110120110120115120117110112 Sp. Cond. -5200-6200-2000TDS -2830-3310-1020TSS -4 U-4 U-4 UCl68078064011001500150019001900520510 SO495111841502202202602607472 F0.30.22.00.140.120.140.130.10.093 I Nutrients TOC -0 -1 U-1 U-1 UNO3 + NO2 -0.260.200.510.51 J0.50.5 J0.530.55 J NH3 + NH4 -0.0280.02 I0.0340.0260.01 I0.012 I TKN -0.15 I0.12 I0.13 I0.12 I0.091 I Q 0.11 I P -0.02 -0.028 I0.029 I0.034 I0.029 I0.048 Q0.026 I PO4 -0.01 -0.018 J-0.021 J-0.011 JMetals Ca5455486569.27075.877.347.646.3 A K18122028.829.835.535.59.840.45 Na-4203406008158149729862673.7 Mg5657488610010312312439.137.5 A As -0 -3 U3 U3 U3 U3 U3 U B -60 -344 -422 -125 Al ---75 U-75 U-75 U Cd -0 -0.75 U0.75 U0.75 U0.75 U0.75 U0.75 U Co -0 -0.75 U-0.75 U-0.75 UCr -0 -2 U2 U2 U2 U2 U2 U Cu -0 -2.5 U2.5 U2.5 U2.5 U2.5 U2.5 U Fe-10 -30089 I19052 I37035 U Mn -0 -21.413.55.84.919.90.5 U Ni -1.5 U1.5 U1.5 U1.5 U1.5 U1.5 U Pb -0 -5 U4 U5 U4 U5 U4 U Se4 U4 U4 U4 U4 U4 U Sn -10 U-10 U-10 USr --4905000858-1030-372Zn -10-5 U5 U5 U5 U5 U5 U 1966 1972 (April) A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value shown is less than the practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value 200120012001 1972 (Oct.) No. 1No. 2No. 3 Analytes1956 Table 18. Homosassa Springs Group water quality analyses.

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sides and bottom of the spring pool. The pool is teeming with salt water and freshwater fishes. Water is clear and light blue. There is a large boil in center of pool. Surrounding land is Gulf Coastal Lowlands with thick hardwood-palm forest cover. Approximately 1,000 ft (304.8 m) downstream, a fence spans across the river to keep boats out of the spring pool. There also is a barrier immediately outside the spring area which keeps the captive manatees in the spring pool. Manatees frequent the spring pool and river year round, but are especially common in winter. The springs are tidally influenced year round, especially in winter. Utilization The main spring pool and adjacent lands are within Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Park. The area is developed into an interpretive center for manatee and Florida wildlife education. There is a floating observation deck in the spring pool with a submerged aquatic observation room. Injured and rehabilitating manatees are captive in the spring pool for year round observation. Swimming is not allowed. Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. Average 1931 1974106(1)(90 measurements) Maximum (August 18, 1966)165(1)Minimum (September 19, 1972)80 (1)October 16, 2001 87(2)(Estimate is provisional) BULLETIN NO. 66 63 Anal y teNo. 1No. 2No. 3 Escherichia coli 1 KQ1 KQ1 KQ Enterococci1 KQ1 KQ1 KQ Fecal Coliform1 KQ1 KQ1 KQ Total Coliform1 KQ1 KQ1 KQ Bacteria Results (in #/100ml) Table 19. Homosassa Springs Group bacteriological analyses.

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Kings Bay Springs Group FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 64 Figure 31. Kings Bay Springs Group, Hunter Spring (photo by R. Meegan). Figure 32. Kings Bay Springs Group, Tarpon Hole Spring (photo by R. Means).

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Group Location Lat. 28° 53 ’ N., Long. 82° 35’ W. (sections 20, 21 and 28, T. 18 S., R. 17 E.). The Kings Bay Springs Group is located in Kings Bay west of Crystal River. Coming into Crystal River from the north on US 19/98, King's Bay can be accessed via numerous boat landings north and south of the Bay. Group Description There are about 30 known springs, including Tarpon Hole and Hunter Spring, that either issue from the bottom of Kings Bay or flow into the bay from side creeks. Their combined flow feeds Crystal River, which flows approximately 7 miles (11.3 km) northwest to the Gulf of Mexico. Surrounding land is coastal lowlands with brackish marsh and hardwood-palm hammock to the west and the City of Crystal River to the east. The whole system is tidally influenced, and Kings Bay is brackish. Rosenau et al. (1977) referred to these springs as the Crystal River Springs Group. HUNTER SPRING Lat. 28° 53’ 40.0” N, Long. 82° 35’ 33.0” W (NW ¼ SW ¼ SE ¼ sec. 21, T. 18 S, R. 17 E). This spring issues vertically from the bottom of a conical depression near the head of a side creek channel feeding the eastside of Kings Bay. Another spring is at the head of the channel. Hunter Spring pool is circular and measures 210 ft (64 m) in diameter. Depth measured over the vent is 13 ft (4 m). The spring has a sand bottom with some limestone near the vent. The spring bottom is choked with dark green filamentous algae, and some Hydrilla is present. Water is clear and bluish. There is a large boil in pool center. Land on the north rises to approximately 4 ft (1.2 m) above water and is a county maintained recreational park. Land on all other sides of spring pool is extensively developed with apartments and houses. A concrete sea wall entirely surrounds the pool except for outflow and inflow. There is a square swimming dock floating in the center of the spring pool. This spring was closed to swimming during summer 2001 due to high coliform bacteria levels detected in the water (Eric Dehaven, SWFWMD, pers. comm.). TARPON HOLE SPRING Lat. 28° 52’ 54.64" N., Long. 82° 35’ 41.33" W. (NW ¼ NW ¼ SW ¼ sec. 28, T. 18 S., R. 17 E.). This spring issues from a deep, conical depression in Kings Bay on the south side of Banana Island. The spring pool measures approximately 450 ft (137.2 m) north to south and 550 ft (167.6 m) east to west. The depth measured over the vent is 58 ft (17.7m). Water is typically clear and bluish, but can be cloudy during high tide. There is a large boil present in center of pool. Visibility was low when visited in October 2001. Algae cover limestone substrates. The vent is a large circular hole in limestone. Nearby islands to the north are part of the Crystal River National Wildlife Refuge and have marsh grasses and hardwood-palm hammock vegetation. Land to the east is privately owned with many houses and a marina. This spring is a favorite scuba diving location and manatee observation area. Utilization All of Kings Bay and most of its springs are used for swimming, manatee observation, pleasure boating, and scuba diving. The west side of Kings Bay and some islands are part of the Crystal River National Wildlife Refuge. The city of Crystal River nearly adjoins the east side of Kings Bay. Discharge Kings Bay Group1965-1977: 975 ft3/s(7)average BULLETIN NO. 66 65

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FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 66 Unfilt.FilterUnfilt.FilterUnfilt.FilterUnfilt.Filter Field MeasuresMetals Temperature 22.9-23.0-Ca52.853.930.631 A DO2.09-5.09-K10.210.32.12 A pH7.72-8.02-Na28929054.952.9 A Sp. Cond. 2130-541-Mg39.44010.410.3 A Lab Anal y tes As3 U3 U3 U3 U BOD0.2 U-0.2 AU-Al-75 U-75 U Turbidity6.8-0.95-B128-33 IColor5 U-5 U-Cd0.75 U0.75 U0.75 U0.75 U Alkalinity 1241238787Co 0.75 U-0.75 USp. Cond.2200-530-Cr2 U2 U2 U2 U TDS960-263 Q-Cu2.5 U2.5 U2.5 U2.5 U TSS4 U-4 U-Fe130 I35 U35 U35 U Cl5405509694Mn13.47.20.5 U0.5 U SO478812020 Ni2 U2 U2 U2 UF0.091 I0.12 A0.065 I0.071 IPb5 U4 U5 U4 U Nutrients Se4 U4 U4 U4 U TOC1 U-1 U-Sn10 U-10 UNO3 + NO20.170.18 J0.40.39 J Sr 362-131NH3 + NH40.01 U0.014 I0.01 U0.01 U Zn 5 U5 U5 U5 UTKN0.084 I0.12 I0.06 U0.06 U P0.0420.033 I0.0230.024 PO40.029-0.028Analytes Tarpon HoleHunter Analytes A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value shown is less than the practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value Tarpon HoleHunter 2001200120012001 Table 20. Kings Bay Springs Group water quality analyses. Anal y teTarpon HoleHunte r Escherichia coli 1KQ1KQ Enterococci1KQ1KQ Fecal Coliform1KQ1KQ Total Coliform1KQ1KQ Bacteria Results (in #/100ml) Table 21. Kings Bay Springs Group bacteriological analyses.

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CLAY COUNTY BULLETIN NO. 66 67 Figure 33 Springs visited by FGS in Clay County.

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Green Cove Spring Location Lat. 29° 59' 36.24" N., Long. 81° 40' 40.48" W. (Land Grant 38, T. 6 S., R. 26 E.). Green Cove Spring is located within the town of Green Cove Springs. From the intersection of SR 16 and US 17 in Green Cove Springs, drive one block north on US 17. Turn east (right) on Spring Street and drive one block to the city park. The spring is within a historic city park. Description Green Cove Spring is entirely enclosed by a circular brick wall that measures 15 ft (4.6 m) in diameter. Spring depth is 28 ft (8.5 m). The spring vent consists of a deep vertical cave whose walls are visible through clear, slightly greenish water. No vegetation or algae are observed in the spring pool, and the spring water emits a sharp hydrogen sulfide odor. Spring water is channeled into a concrete swimming pool. A narrow spring run exits the swimming pool, cascading over a 3 ft (0.9 m) tall wall, and travels approximately 450 ft (137.1 m) eastward into the St. Johns River. The 5 ft (1.5 m) wide spring run has a sand bottom. There is a view of the nearly 2 mile (3.2 km) wide St. Johns River to the east. To the west, high ground rises into downtown Green Cove Spring 10 ft (3.1 m) higher than the spring surface. There are several piers and boat docks on the river near the spring mouth. Picnic tables, walkways, benches, and shade trees abound in the park. The City Hall and a bathhouse are on the north side of the swimming pool. The spring has an extensive cavern and cave system associated with it. Rosenau et al. (1977) report that a cavern can be accessed through a 2 ft (0.6 m) wide orifice in the bottom of the spring. The cavern extends northeastward toward the St. Johns River. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 68 Figure 34. Green Cove Spring (photo by T. Scott).

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BULLETIN NO. 66 69 DissolvedTotal Field MeasuresTemperature --25.0 DO--pH-7.38.0 Sp. Cond. --Lab Analytes BOD---0.6AI Turbidity ---0.05U Color-05-5UAlkalinity --79-86A Sp. Cond.-289290270.0TDS170171199-165.0 TSS----4U Cl5.76.16.0-6.4 SO4495155 -55 F-0.20.4-0.27 Nutrients TOC----1U NO3 + NO2 as N ---0.004U NH3 + NH4---0.038 TKN---0.06U0.076I P---0.015U0.015U PO4--0.005INO3 ---Metals Ca28282827.928.6 K1.81.21.31.41.4 Na2.44.64.34.84.04 Mg16151614.815 Al----10U As---3U3U B ---11I Cd---0.5U0.5U Co ---1U Cr---2U2U Cu---3.5U4U Fe3060-5U7U Mn---0.25U0.5U Ni---2U2U Pb---5U5U Ra-226 ----0.5 Ra-228 ---0.9U Se---8U8U Sn----11I Sr---1230 Zn---2.5U4UA=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit2003 Analytes 294 24.36 0.4 7.55 192419461972 Table 22. Green Cove Spring water quality analyses.

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Utilization Green Cove Spring is located within a city park and is a popular swimming area. No swimming is allowed in the actual spring. Water from the spring directly supplies the water for the swimming pool. In the 19th century, the spring was a popular health spa. Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s February 12, 19295.4(1)April 18, 19464.42(1)November 4, 19504.15(1)June 18, 19542.68(1)April 25, 19562.74(1)October 19, 19603.52(1)March 8, 19723.03(1)January 8, 2003 2.79(2) FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 70 Anal y teValu e Enterococci1KQ Fecal Coliform1KQ Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 23. Green Cove Spring bacteriological analyses.

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COLUMBIA COUNTY BULLETIN NO. 66 71 Figure 35 Springs visited by FGS in Columbia County.

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Columbia Spring Location Lat. 29° 51’ 14.80” N., Long. 82° 36’ 43.03” W. (NW¼ SE¼ NE¼ sec. 28, T. 7 S., R. 17 E.). Columbia Spring is located 2 miles (3.2 km) northwest of High Springs on the Santa Fe River and can be accessed by small boat. From the junction of US 441/41 and CR 236 in High Springs, drive north on US 441/41 approximately 1.2 miles (1.9 km). Turn west (left) at public access boat sign just before the Santa Fe River. Spring is in a cove on the northeast bank of the river, 900 ft (274.3 m) downstream from the boat ramp. Description Columbia Spring has an oval-shaped pool that measures 75 ft (23 m) north to south and 150 ft (45.7 m) east to west. The depth at the vent is 25 ft (7.6 m). Water is typically clear, but was tannic in October 2001. It has a 30 ft (9.1 m) wide spring run that flows approximately 600 ft (182.9 m) westward to the Santa Fe River. There are native aquatic grasses in the spring run and some algae are present on most substrates. The spring run has a jagged limestone and sand bottom. There is a 1-2 ft (0.3 0.6 m) tall manmade line of rocks that stretches across the spring run about 90 ft (27.4 m) west of the vent. The entire spring and spring run are within the lowland flood plain of the Santa Fe River. The flood plain in this area is heavily forested with cypress and other swamp inhabiting hardwoods. The nearest high ground is approximately 600 ft (182.9 m) east of the spring, and it rises to nearly 10 ft (3 m) above the flood plain. It is generally forested with mixed hardwoods and pines. A house sits on the high ground to the east of the spring. Utilization The land surrounding the spring is privately owned. The spring is a local swimming hole with pristine surroundings. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 72 Figure 36. Columbia Spring (photo by D. Hornsby).

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Discharge November 1, 2001:39.5 ft3/s(4) BULLETIN NO. 66 73 Unfilt.FilterUnfilt.Filter Field MeasuresMetalsTemperature 22.39-Ca33.631.5 DO2.29-K21.8 pH7.19-Na12.712 Sp. Cond. 270-Mg7.16.6 Lab Anal y tes As3 U3 U BOD0.23 I-Al-530 Turbidity2.1-B29 IColor250-Cd0.75 U0.75 U Alkalinity 5454Co 0.75 USp. Cond.270-Cr2 U2 U TDS217-Cu2.5 U2.5 U TSS4 U-Fe640500 Cl2827Mn30.323.9 SO43434 Ni 1.5 U2 U F0.140.12Pb5 U4 U Nutrients Se8.8 U4 U TOC39-Sn20 UNO3 + NO20.0890.088 JSr358NH3 + NH40.0620.038Zn5 I5 U TKN1.31.1 P0.30.21 PO40.19-A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value Q=exceeded holding time limitAnalytes 2001 Analytes 2001 Table 24. Columbia Spring water quality analysis. Anal y teValu e Escherichia coli 26Q Enterococci158Q Fecal Coliform38Q Total Coliform340Q Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 25. Columbia Spring bacteriological analysis.

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Ichetucknee Springs Group FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 74 Figure 37. Ichetucknee Springs Group, Ichetucknee Head Spring (photo by T. Scott). Figure 38. Ichetucknee Springs Group, Blue Hole Spring (photo by T. Scott).

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Group Location Lat. 29° 59’ N., Long. 82° 45’ W. (sections 12 and 13, T. 6 S., R. 15 E. and section 7, T. 6 S., R. 16 E.). The Ichetucknee Springs Group is located within the Ichetucknee Springs State Park which is approximately 10 miles (16.1 km) northeast of Branford. From the bridge over the Suwannee River in Branford, drive east on US 27/129 for 7 miles (11.2 km). Turn north (left) onto CR 137 and continue for 1.3 miles (2.1 km). Turn east (right) and go 4.2 miles (6.8 km) through the north park entrance to the parking area. Group Description These springs comprise a group of nine named and many unnamed springs along the upper 2.5 mile (4 km) stretch of the Ichetucknee River. The most northerly spring forms the head of the river and is named Ichetucknee Head Spring. From here, the river flows about 1.5 miles (2.4 km) south, then 4 miles (6.4 km) southwest to discharge into the normally darker tannic water of the Santa Fe River. Of the springs sampled for water quality, all are located within Columbia County except for Ichetucknee Head Spring, which is located just inside Suwannee County. ICHETUCKNEE HEAD SPRING Lat. 29° 59’ 03.10” N., Long. 82° 45’ 42.73” W. (SE ¼ NE ¼ NE ¼ sec. 12, T. 6 S., R. 15 E.). This spring forms the head of the Ichetucknee River. The spring pool measures 102 ft (31.1 m) east to west and 87 ft (26.5 m) north to south. The depth measures 17 ft (5.2 m) over the vent. Water is clear and light blue and issues from a fracture in the limestone forming a visible boil. A thin layer of algae carpets most of the bottom of the spring. The spring has sand and limestone bottom with little or no aquatic vegetation. North and east shorelines have thick emergent grass and shrubs, and the west shore is near high ground sloping to approximately 15 ft (4.6 m) above water. All surrounding land is densely forested. Restroom facilities are about 200 ft (61 m) west. This spring is easily accessed by a path and is a popular swimming hole. BLUE HOLE Lat. 29° 58’ 49.91” N., Long. 82° 45’ 30.44” W. (SW ¼ SW ¼ NW ¼ sec. 17, T. 6 S., R. 15 E.). This spring is located in the spring run channel of Cedar Head Spring, which is north of Blue Hole. The spring pool and outflow greatly widens the incoming spring run, and the combined run flows south a short distance to the Ichetucknee River. The spring pool measures 87 ft (26.5 m) east to west and 117 ft (35.6 m) north to south. The depth measured over the vent is 37 ft (11.3 m). The water is clear and light blue, and a boil is visible on the pool surface. Water issues from a cavern in limestone. The pool has a sand and limestone bottom with abundant aquatic grass and some algae. The land around the spring is heavily forested with mixed hardwoods and palm. The spring run is fenced off approximately 100 ft (30.5 m) south of vent. This is a swimming spot with a wooden boardwalk for spring access. A foot path leads to the spring from the north. CEDAR HEAD SPRING Lat. 29° 58’ 59.88” N., Long. 82° 45’ 31.32” W. (SW ¼ NW ¼ NW ¼ sec. 7, T. 6 S., R. 15 E.). This is a small spring at the head of a stream that flows south into Blue Hole Spring. The spring pool diameter is approximately 20 ft (6.1 m) east to west. The depth measures 6 ft (1.8 m) over the vent. No boil was present on the pool surface during the October 2001 visit, although outflow stream was flowing. The bottom is covered with sand, logs and organic matter. Water is clear but does not appear blue due to dark particulate layer on bottom. The vent is a small upwelling in the sand. A steep bank occurs along the west side of the spring and rises to 8 ft (2.4 m) above water level. There is higher ground 150 ft (45.7 m) east of spring across a small lowland flood plain. Cypress, gum, and maple forest occur in lowlands near water with mixed hardwood forest on higher BULLETIN NO. 66 75

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FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 76 Unfilt.FilterUnfilt.FilterUnfilt.FilterUnfilt.Filter Field Measures Temperature 22.221.021.95-21.9-21.9-21.8DO -4.53.52-2.01-2.98-0.63pH7.77.67.91-7.49-7.41-7.91Sp. Cond. 329290319-287-299-312Lab Anal y tes BOD -2.00.2 UJ-0.2 UJ -0.2 UJ-0.2 UAJTurbidity -10.05 U-0.1 -0.05 U-0.05 UColor015 U-5 U -5 U-5 UAlkalinity -140154154145145151151148147 Sp. Cond. -320-290-300-310TDS -183-171 -168-172TSS -04 U-4 U -4 U-4 UCl3.64.43.63.74.34.33.93.95.45.4 A SO48.46.98.38.54.84.95.35.48.78.8 A F0.10.40.10.097 I0.110.11 A0.10.091 I0.140.13 Nutrients TOC -0.01 U-1 U-1 U-1 UNO3 + NO2 -0.370.830.840.70.720.860.890.510.53 NH3 + NH4 -0.015 I0.012 I0.011 I0.01 U0.011 I0.011 I0.01 U0.019 I TKN -0.06 U0.06 U0.06 U0.06 U0.06 U0.06 U0.06 U0.06 U P -0.050.0230.022 J0.0480.048 J0.0330.034 J0.0590.05 JA PO4-0.050.02-0.044-0.027-0.056Metals Ca585254.552.547.948.45451.249.748.6 K0.30.30.150.140.310.330.220.220.460.48 Na3.13.42.122.022.672.452.372.263.653.53 Mg6.66.05.85.84.74.85.35.26.36.4 As -13 U3 U3 U3 U3 U3 U3 U3 UAl -75 U-75 U-75 U-75 U B--25 U-25 U-25 U-25 UCd -00.75 U0.75 U0.75 U0.75 U0.75 U0.75 U0.75 U0.75 U Co -0.75 U-0.75 U-0.75 U-0.75 UCr -2 U2 U2 U2 U2 U2 U2 U2 UCu -32.5 U2.5 U2.5 U2.5 U2.5 U2.5 U4.4 I2.5 U Fe3034035 U20 U35 U20 U35 U20 U35 U20 U Mn -200.5 U0.5 U0.5 U0.5 U0.5 U0.5 U0.5 U0.5 U Ni -01.5 U1.5 U1.5 U1.5 U1.5 U1.5 U1.5 U1.5 U Pb -75 U4 U5 U4 U5 U4 U5 U4 USe -4 U4 U4 U4 U4 U4 U4 U4 U Sn -10 U-10 U-10 U-10 USr -170156-76-105-107Zn 05 U5 U5 U5 U5 U5 U5 U5 U1975 Main 2001 Blue HoleCedar HeadMission I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value Q=exceeded holding time limit 200120012001 A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit Analytes1946 Table 26. Ichetucknee Springs Group water quality analyses.

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ground. Access is limited to an obscure foot path from the west. The spring is not used for swimming because of its low water level and limited access. ROARINGSPRING Lat. 29° 58’ 34.44” N., Long. 82° 45’ 28.44” W. (SE ¼ NW ¼ SW ¼ sec. 7, T. 6 S., R. 15 E.). Roaring Spring is the largest spring in a complex of springs often referred to as Mission Springs. Roaring Spring along with Singing Spring and other small springs emanate from the base of high banks about 250 ft (76.2 m) east of the Ichetucknee River. Roaring Spring discharges out of a cavern in a limestone ledge on the north side of the island into the northwest flowing run. Its spring pool measures 10 ft (3 m) east to west and 15 ft (4.6 m) north to south. The depth measured near the limestone ledge is 3 ft (0.9 m). The ledge rises steeply to approximately 12 ft (3.7 m) above the water level. Water is clear and bluish. Algae coat the aquatic grasses in the spring run. There are two small runs; one flows to the northwest and the other flows southwest. Both meet the river approximately 250 ft (76.2 m) from each other. At this point, the trickling northwest run becomes a turbulent run with swaying aquatic grasses. The uplands east of the spring rise to nearly 20 ft (6.1 m) above the springs and are heavily forested with mixed hardwoods at lower elevations and pines on the hilltops. An historic Spanish mission once stood on the high ground approximately 200 ft (61 m) east of the springs. Utilization The springs, river, and surrounding forested land are part of Ichetucknee Springs State Park from the US 27 bridge northward. The park is a high quality natural area that is partly developed and whose heavy public use is highly regulated in order to minimize damage to the environment. Camping, hiking, swimming, tubing, and canoeing are some of the activities that are offered in the state park. Discharge -All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. Discharge is measured for the entire group. May 17, 1946197.2 ft3/s(1)October 3, 2001186 ft3/s(4) BULLETIN NO. 66 77 Anal y teMainBlue HoleCedar HeadMission Escherichia coli 1KQ1KQ2Q1AKQ Enterococci1KQ1KQ42Q1AKQ Fecal Coliform1KQ1KQ2Q1AKQ Total Coliform1KQ1KQ20Q1AKQ Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 27. Ichetucknee Springs Group bacteriological analyses.

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Santa Fe Spring (formerly COL61981) Location -Lat. 29° 56’ 05.30” N., Long. 82° 31’ 49.51” W. (NW¼ SE¼ SE¼ sec. 29, T. 6 S., R. 18 E.). Santa Fe Spring is located approximately 8 miles (12.9 km) northeast of High Springs on the west bank of the Santa Fe River. From the intersection of US 441/41 and CR 236 in High Springs head north on US 441/41 approximately 6.2 miles (10 km) to the O'Leno State Park sign on the east (right) side of US 441/41. Turn east (right) onto an access road, which parallels US 441/41 and travel 0.3 miles (0.5 km) to a dirt road on the east (right) side of the road, just past the O'Leno State Park entrance. Turn east (right) onto the dirt road and travel approximately 3.3 miles (5.3 km) to a boat landing just upstream from the I-75 bridge. The road makes a series of 90 degree turns to the north and east before finally bearing southeast to the Santa Fe River. The spring is 2 miles (3.2 km) upstream from the I-75 bridge over the river. At this point, a narrow spring run comes in from the north. The spring is approximately 90 ft (27.4 m) up the spring run at the head. Description -This spring, formerly named COL61981 (Hornsby and Ceryak, 1998), is a large circular depression with steep sides. Spring pool diameter measures 192 ft (58.5 m) north to south and 215 ft (65.5 m) northeast to southwest. Spring depth is 83 ft (25.3 m). The water color is typically clear and tinged greenish blue though it was tannic in October 2001. No boil was observed during the October 2001 visit. The spring run is approximately 90 ft (27.4 m) long and flows southeasterly into the Santa Fe River. Some algae are present on limestone substrate in the spring run. No other aquatic vegetation could be seen through the dark water. Very little emergent vegetation is present. Cypress trees are common along the water line. The spring pool is surrounded by 15-20 ft (4.66.1 m) high steep, FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 78 Figure 39. Santa Fe Spring (photo by T. Scott).

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sandy banks. The uplands around the pool are generally forested with live oaks and pines. Utilization -The uplands around this spring are privately owned. At least five cabins are evenly distributed around the pool on the high banks. Discharge -All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. June 1, 1998149.99(4)November 1, 200147.9(4) BULLETIN NO. 66 79 Unfilt.FilterUnfilt.Filter Field MeasuresMetalsTemperature Ca39.338.2 DOK1.31.3 pHNa5.55.57 A Sp. Cond. Mg7.97.8 Lab Anal y tesB 25 UBOD0.2 U-Al-200 I Turbidity0.8-As3 U3 U Color120-Cd0.75 U0.75 UAlkalinity 107107Co 0.75 USp. Cond.270-Cr2 U2 U TDS193-Cu2.5 U2.5 U TSS4 U-Fe250210 Cl109.9Mn4139.8 SO41818 Ni 1.5 U2 U F0.20.17Pb5 U4 U Nutrients Se4 U4 U TOC22-Sn10 UNO3 + NO20.0230.018 JSr276NH3 + NH40.0570.051Zn5 U5 U TKN0.760.62 P0.20.19 PO40.19-A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value Q= Exceeded holding time limitAnalytes 2001 Analytes 2001 22.69 0.78 7.40 271 Table 28. Santa Fe Spring water quality analysis. Anal y teValue Escherichia coli 1KQ Enterococci1KQ Fecal Coliform2Q Total Coliform10Q Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 29. Santa Fe Spring bacteriological analysis.

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DIXIE COUNTY FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 80 Figure 40 Springs visited by FGS in Dixie County.

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Copper Spring Location Lat. 29° 36’ 50.45” N., Long. 82° 58’ 25.89” W. (SE ¼ SE ¼ NW ¼ sec. 13, T. 10 S., R. 13 E.). Copper Spring is located 1 mile (1.6 km) northeast of Old Town and flows into the Suwannee River from the west. The spring is surrounded by private property. It can be accessed by boat. From the intersection of US 19/27A/98 and CR 349 in Old Town, travel north on CR 349 approximately 5.6 miles (9 km) to the intersection with Purvis Landing Road. Turn east (right) onto Purvis Landing Road and travel approximately 2.1 miles (3.4 km) to the boat landing. The spring run is 3 miles (4.8 km) downstream from the Purvis Landing Road boat ramp. Description – Copper Spring consists of a group of 3 springs: Spring No. 1, Spring No. 2, and Spring No. 3. Spring No. 2 was sampled. Copper Spring No. 2 has a roughly circular spring pool measuring 126 ft (38.4 m) north to south and 84 ft (25.6 m) east to west. The Spring No. 2 vent is 5.3 ft (1.6 m) deep and is located on the north side of the pool, discharging from a small cavern at the base of 12 ft (3.7 m) high banks. A prominent boil is seen on the pool surface. The water is clear to slightly turbid with a bluish-green tint. There is a sharp hydrogen sulfide odor near the vent, and a copper-colored, iron-rich deposit coats plants and tree bases along the edge of the spring and run. The spring has a soft sand and silt bottom. The spring run exits the southeast side of the pool and flows slowly southeastward about 500 ft (152.4 m) to the dark-colored Suwannee River. The two additional springs, Spring No. 1 and Spring No 3, are located northeast of Spring No. 2. Spring No. 1 is a circular vent in a pool 28 ft (8.5 m) deep and 34 ft (10.4 m) in diameter located on the BULLETIN NO. 66 81 Figure 41. Copper Spring No. 2 (photo by R. Means).

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FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 82 DissolvedTotalDissolvedTotal Field MeasuresMetalsTemperature 21.5Ca7.476.878.5 DO1K0.20.26J0.24 pH7.1Na3.53.4I3.3I Sp. Cond. 390Mg3.73.94.0 Lab Analytes Al--50U BOD--0.2AUAs-1715.0 Turbidity20-29B --10U Color0-80Cd-0.5U0.5UAlkalinity 200-201Co --0.75U Sp. Cond.390358A-Cr-2U2U TDS228-224Cu-3U3U TSS--6IFe110025902640 Cl6.2-6.3Mn-51.453.4 SO43.5 -3.7 Ni2U2U F0.1-0.08IPb-3U5U Nutrients Ra-226--1.0 TOC5-1.8IRa-228--0.9U NO3 + NO2 as N -0.004U Se4U4U NH3 + NH40.03 -0.1 Sn-7U TKN-0.16I0.17ISr200-160 P0.030.039A0.039AZn15U4.4U PO40.032NO3 0 --A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit21.74 0.24 7.26 420 2002 2002 AnalytesAnalytes1975 1975 Table 30. Copper Spring water quality analysis. Anal y teValu e Enterococci1KQ Fecal Coliform1KQ Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 31. Copper Spring bacteriological analysis.

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south side of two houses. Discharge is through a narrow run approximately 40 ft (12.2 m) south to the run from Spring No. 3, which is in a low swampy area to the west. The combined flow is then eastward about 135 ft (41.2 m), discharging through two culverts into Spring No. 2 pool, the main spring pool (Rosenau et al., 1977). Two houses on stilts are located on the bank west of Copper Spring. An old concrete slab is directly on the banks just west of Copper Spring (Spring No. 2). An area of abundant cypress knees is adjacent south of Copper Spring. These springs are situated in the forested floodplain of the Suwannee River. Copper Spring may also be locally known as Old Town Spring (Rosenau et al., 1977). Utilization – Copper Spring is surrounded by private property and is undeveloped. Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s May 12, 193218.8(1)November 18, 196031.9(1)November 11, 197525.4(1)September 22, 199720.73(1)July 16, 2002 13.60(2) BULLETIN NO. 66 83

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Guaranto Spring Location – Lat. 29° 46’ 47.27” N., Long. 82° 56’ 23.85” W. (NW ¼ NW ¼ NW ¼ sec. 20, T. 8 S., R. 14 E.). Guaranto Spring is located within a county park along the west bank of the Suwannee River, 12.5 miles (20 km) south of Branford. Travel west from the Suwannee River bridge in Branford on US 27 for 1.3 miles (2.1 km). Turn south (left) on SR 349 and travel 11.8 miles (19 km). Turn east (left) on CR 353 (Rock Sink Church Road) at the flashing lights. The road turns sharply to the south (right) just in front of the church, follow the road approximately 2.5 miles (4 km) to the county park. Description – Guaranto Spring, also locally known as “Gronto” or “Gornto” Spring, is an impounded swimming hole along the west side of the Suwannee River. An earthen dam blocks the outflow channel adjacent to the river, creating an oblong spring pool. The pool measures 240 ft (73.2 m) northwest to southeast and 87 ft (26.5 m) northeast to southwest. The depth over the vent is 11.5 ft (3.5 m). A slight boil is present on the northwest end of the pool directly over the vent. The water is clear and greenish. The spring has a sand bottom. Limestone is exposed at the vent. Algae are abundant, but there is virtually no aquatic vegetation. Two wooden access structures are built into the pool on the north and south sides. The north shore has bluish clay banks, and the spring’s steep banks rise to approximately 12 ft (3.7 m) above the water level. The land around the spring is developed into a county recreation park. The spring discharges through a 5 ft (1.5 m) diameter culvert in the dam directly into the Suwannee River. Utilization Guaranto Spring is within a county park and is a popular swimming area. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 84 Figure 42. Guaranto Spring (photo by R. Means).

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There is a boat ramp and access area on the nearby Suwannee River. There are limited facilities. Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. May 12, 193212.4(1)March 9, 19623.41(1)November 2, 197212.0(1)July 21, 199712.76(4)July 16, 20029.33(2) BULLETIN NO. 66 85 DissolvedTotalDissolvedTotal Field MeasuresMetalsTemperature 22Ca6064.164.0 DO2.5K0.20.690.67 pH6.8Na2.32.9I2.7I Sp. Cond. -Mg43.93.9 Lab Analytes Al--50U BOD0.5-0.2UAs-3U3U Turbidity--0.35B --10U Color0-5UCd-0.5U0.5U Alkalinity 153-183Co --0.75U Sp. Cond.343380.0-Cr-2U2U TDS182-200Cu-3U3U TSS--4UFe-25U35I Cl4-6.0Mn-1.9I2.9 SO45.6 -6.1 Ni -2U2U F0.1-0.093IPb-3U5U Nutrients Ra-226--0.2 TOC--1.5IRa-228--0.9U NO3 + NO2 as N 1.14 -0.78 Se -4U4U NH3 + NH4-0.01U Sn --7U TKN-0.06U0.06USr400-164.0 P-0.009I0.012Zn-1.5U3U PO40.006INO3 0.6 --A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit2002 2002 AnalytesAnalytes1973 1973 22.75 1.10 7.06 371 Table 32. Guaranto Spring water quality analysis. Anal y teValu e Enterococci1K Fecal Coliform1K Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 33. Guaranto Spring bacteriological analysis.

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Steinhatchee River Rise Location —Lat. 29° 46’ 11.68” N., Long. 83° 19’ 30.13” W. (NE ¼ NW ¼ SE ¼ sec. 21, T. 1 S., R. 12 E.). The Steinhatchee River Rise is located between Perry and Cross City off US 19/27A/98. From the intersection of US 98 and US 19/27 in Perry, travel south on US 19/27A/98 approximately 28 miles (45 km) to the Steinhatchee River bridge. After crossing bridges over the Steinhatchee River, veer south (right) into grassy area beside the road. Follow to a small dirt road marked by a Public River Access #5 sign. This dirt road ends at the river rise. Description -Steinhatchee River Rise is the re-emergence of the Steinhatchee River from underground. There was very little flow during October 2001 visit. Spring pool measures 72 ft (21.9 m) north to south and 30 ft (9.1 m) east to west. The depth is 12 ft (3.7 m). Tannic water flows northwest out from underneath a limestone ledge. Algae are present on limestone substrate. Some cypress trees are near water’s edge. The area around the rise has nearby sink depressions and elongated fissures in limestone that run into the Steinhatchee River from its banks. Uplands both north and south of the rise have planted pines. The uplands rise steeply to 10-12 ft (3-3.7 m) above water level on both sides of river channel. This river rise is located in a river flood channel. High water would bring river water flowing over the rise depression from the southeast. Utilization -Land owned by SRWMD and public access granted. No development, planted pines nearby. Discharge July 6,1999: 350 ft3/s(4) FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 86 Figure 43. Steinhatchee River Rise (photo by R. Means)

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BULLETIN NO. 66 87 Unfilt.FilterUnfilt.Filter Field MeasuresMetalsTemperature Ca108 A101 DOK0.26 A0.25 pHNa4.15 A4.01 Sp. Cond. Mg8.3 A7.9 Lab Anal y tes As3 U3 U BOD0.4 AI-Al-75 U Turbidity1.8-B 25 UColor50 A-Cd0.75 U0.75 UAlkalinity 279279Co 0.75 USp. Cond.560-Cr2 U2 U TDS322-Cu2.5 U2.5 U TSS4 U-Fe450 A130 I Cl7.67.2Mn186 A173 SO41111 Ni 1.5 U1.5 U F0.120.12 APb5 U4 U Nutrients Se4 U4 U TOC12 A-Sn10 UNO3 + NO20.0560.053 Sr 165 ANH3+NH40.0380.042 Zn 5 U5 U TKN0.41 A0.16 J P0.055 A0.027 A PO40.03A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Estimated Q=Exceeding holding time Analytes 2001 Analytes 2001 21.1 1.07 6.98 504 Table 34. Steinhatchee River Rise water quality analysis. Anal y teValue Escherichia coli 6Q Enterococci34Q Fecal Coliform6Q Total Coliform100Q Bacteria Results (in #/100ml) Table 35. Steinhatchee River Rise bacteriological analysis.

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FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 88 Figure 44. Spring visited by FGS in Duval County. Spring description provided on enclosed CD. DUVAL COUNTY

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BULLETIN NO. 66 89 Figure 45. Spring visited by FGS in Franklin County. Spring description provided on enclosed CD. FRANKLIN COUNTY

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FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 90 Figure 46. Spring visited by FGS in Gadsden County. Spring description provided on enclosed CD. GADSDEN COUNTY

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GILCHRIST COUNTY BULLETIN NO. 66 91 Figure 47. Springs visited by FGS in Gilchrist County.

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Devil’s Ear Spring Location -Lat. 29° 50’ 07.26” N., Long. 82° 41’ 47.76” W. (SE¼ SW¼ NE ¼ sec. 34, T. 7 S., R.16 E.). Devil’s Ear Spring is located among a complex of springs on the south bank of the Santa Fe River. The spring is approximately 6.5 miles (10.5 km) northwest of High Springs and can be accessed either by river or through the privately owned Ginnie Springs Resort. From the junction of US 441/41 and US 27 in High Springs, drive southwest on US 41/27 for FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 92 Figure 48. Devil's Ear Spring (photo by H. Means).

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0.8 miles (1.3 km). Turn west (right) on SR 340 (Poe Springs Road), drive 6.6 miles (10.6 km) west on SR 340. Following the signs to Ginnie Springs, turn north (right) on a graded road and go 1.2 miles (1.9 km) to the Ginnie Springs Resort entrance. Follow the road around to the back of the office and towards the river. Turn right just before the bathhouse and follow the sand road to the parking area. Devils Ear Spring is part of a complex of three vents and is the vent nearest the Santa Fe River. BULLETIN NO. 66 93 Unfilt.FilterUnfilt.Filter Field MeasuresMetalsTemperature 22.57-Ca6262.5 DO3.09-K0.430.44 pH7.21-Na3.844.05 Sp. Cond. 372-Mg6.56.4 Lab Anal y tes As3 U3 U BOD0.36 I-Al-75 U Turbidity0.05 U-B25 UColor5 U-Cd0.75 U0.75 U Alkalinity 175 A175Co 0.75 USp. Cond.380-Cr2 U2 U TDS215-Cu2.5 U2.5 U TSS4 U-Fe35 U35 U Cl6.96.9Mn0.5 U0.5 U SO41313 Ni 2 U2 U F0.110.094 IPb5 U4 U Nutrients Se8.8 U4 U TOC1 U-Sn20 UNO3 + NO21.3 J1.4Sr151NH3 + NH40.013 I0.032Zn5 U5 U TKN0.06 U0.1 I P0.0470.098 PO40.047-A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value Q=exceeded holding time limitAnalytes 2001 Analytes 2001 Table 36. Devil's Ear Spring water quality analysis. Anal y teValu e Escherichia coli 1AKQ Enterococci2AQ Fecal Coliform1AQ Total Coliform25AQ Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 37. Devil's Ear Spring water quality analysis.

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Description -Devil’s Ear Spring is situated at the mouth of a 375 ft (114.3 m) long spring run that enters into the Santa Fe River from the south side. It is an elongated limestone fissure that discharges directly into the adjacent Santa Fe River. The spring pool measures approximately 105 ft (32 m) east to west and 60 ft (18.3 m) north to south. The vent is an oval shaped opening in limestone with steep sides leading down to a depth of 34 ft (10.4 m). There is a large boil over the spring vent. Dark water from the river contrasts distinctly with clear, bluish water issuing from the spring along the side of the river. Native aquatic grasses are common around the vent opening, and some algae are on grass blades and limestone walls. The banks on the south side of the river rise steeply to approximately 3 ft (0.9 m) above water level, then levels off. On top of the bank, a mesic hardwood forest with interspersed clearings is present. An underwater cave system has been mapped at Devil’s Ear Spring. Utilization -Devil’s Ear Spring is part of the privately-owned Ginnie Springs Resort. The spring is heavily used for swimming and scuba diving and is a hotspot for cave diving. Full facilities are located nearby to the east. Discharge —Devil’s Ear Spring complex total: September 5, 2001: 206.59 ft3/s(4) FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 94

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Gilchrist Blue Spring Location – Lat. 29° 49’ 47.64” N., Long. 82° 40’ 58.27” W. (NW ¼ SW ¼ SE ¼ sec. 35, T. 7 S., R. 16 E.). Gilchrist Blue Spring is located within Blue Springs Park and Campground, a privately run facility 3.5 miles (5.6 km) west of High Springs. From the junction of US 441/41 and US 27 in High Springs, drive southwest on US 41/27 for 0.8 miles (1.3 km). Turn west (right) on SR 340 (Poe Springs Road), travel west on SR 340 (Poe Springs Road) 4.6 miles (7.4 km). Turn north (right) onto Blue Spring Road and continue 1.1 miles (1.8 km) to the parking area just south of the spring. Description – Gilchrist Blue Spring has a circular spring pool that measures 132 ft (40.2 m) in diameter. The depth at the vent is 18.9 ft (5.8 m). Water issues from a cave under a submerged limestone ledge on the northwest side of the spring pool. No boil was observed on the pool surface in May 2002. The water is clear and blue. A wooden platform is on the northwest side of the spring pool directly over the vent. The spring pool is shallow with a sand bottom, except for limestone near the vent. The pool is enclosed by a wooden retaining wall. An elevated wooden boardwalk runs along the south side of the pool and the east side of the run to the Santa Fe River. The spring run flows north approximately 1,100 ft (335.3 m) to the river under a forest canopy through the river floodplain. Exotic aquatic vegetation is abundant in the run and much of the spring pool. Three additional springs enter Gilchrist Blue Spring Run. Little Blue Spring discharges from the west and Naked Spring and Johnson Spring discharge from the east into the run approximately 100 ft (30.5 m) and 500 ft (152.4 m) downstream from the spring pool. Gilchrist Blue Spring is along the south edge BULLETIN NO. 66 95 Figure 49. Gilchrist Blue Spring (photo by R. Means).

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of the Santa Fe River flood plain at the base of sandy slopes. The hillside rises gently to the south and west to about 12 ft (3.7 m) above water level, leading up to a concession area and picnic tables. Utilization The spring is operated as a private recreation area with full facilities. Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. April 28, 197570.4(1)(Combined, 28.3 of which is Naked Springs) April 27, 199879.98(4) FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 96 DissolvedTotalDissolvedTotal Field MeasuresMetalsTemperature 22.5 Ca5460.4A60.5 DO-K0.20.39A0.36 pH7.4Na2.93.1I3.1I Sp. Cond. -Mg56.3A6.3 Lab Analytes Al--50U BOD--0.21IAs-3U6U Turbidity2-0.05UB --10U Color5-5UCd-0.5U0.5U Alkalinity 148-173Co --0.75U Sp. Cond.340317.0-Cr-2U2U TDS176-198.0Cu-3U3U TSS--4UFe-25U25U Cl6.2-5.4Mn-0.5U0.5U SO47.9-11.0 Ni -2U2U F0.1-0.11Pb-3U5U Nutrients Ra-226--0.5 TOC--1URa-228--1U NO3 + NO2 as N--1.7 Se -4U4U NH3 + NH4--0.01U Sn --7U TKN-0.06U0.06USr230-153.0 P-0.0340.035Zn-15U2U PO4-0.037NO3 ---A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit2002 AnalytesAnalytes 2002 19751975 358 22.69 4.26 7.49 Table 38. Gilchrist Blue Spring water quality analysis. Anal y teValu e Enterococci1KQ Fecal Coliform1KQ Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 39. Gilchrist Blue Spring bacteriological analysis.

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Ginnie Spring Location – Lat. 29° 50’ 10.82” N., Long. 82° 42’ 00.44” W. (SE ¼ SE ¼ NW¼ sec. 34, T. 7 S., R. 16 E.). Ginnie Spring is located within a privately-operated park and resort, called Ginnie Springs Outdoors, approximately 6.5 miles (10.5 km) northwest of High Springs on the south side of the Santa Fe River. From the junction of US 441/41 and US 27 in High Springs, drive southwest on US 41/27 for 0.8 miles (1.3 km). Turn west (right) on SR 340. Drive 6.6 miles (10.6 km) then turn north (right) on a graded road. Travel 1.2 miles (1.9 km) to the Ginnie Springs Resort entrance. Follow the road behind the office, turn north (left) at the bathhouse, and continue down to the spring. Description – The Ginnie Spring pool is roughly circular, measuring 90 ft (27.4 m) in diameter and 12.2 ft (3.7 m) deep in the center. Clear, bluish water issues from a cavernous vent underneath a limestone ledge on the east side of the pool. No boil was visible in May 2002. The spring has a sand and limestone bottom. Some aquatic vegetation occurs in both the spring and its run. There are two scuba diving/swimming access platforms along the south side of the spring pool. The pool is otherwise surrounded by cypress and hardwood trees. The spring run is approximately 35 ft (10.7 m) wide, 3 ft (0.9 m) deep and flows east about 500 ft (152.4 m) under a forest canopy into the Santa Fe River. The spring and run are situated entirely within the river floodplain. The Santa Fe River was crystal clear during the May 2002 visit; however, it normally is tea-colored. Exotic aquatic vegetation is abundant BULLETIN NO. 66 97 Figure 50. Ginnie Spring (photo by H. Means).

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in both the spring run and nearby Santa Fe River. Rosenau et al. (1977) report that an extensive cave system extends well beyond the vent underneath the limestone ledge to the east and south. The cave system includes some 1,100 ft (335.3 m) of known passages (Rosenau et al. 1977). Cavern diving is popular in Ginnie Spring; however, the cave system is blocked with a gate to prevent divers from entering beyond the light zone. Several other springs that are open to cave diving occur within the park. Utilization Ginnie Spring is within the privately-owned Ginnie Springs Outdoors Resort. The resort is extensive, has full facilities, and is a major scuba diving attraction offering open water and cave diving. Discharge – All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. April 28, 197545.8(1)November 4, 199758.19(4) FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 98 DissolvedTotalDissolvedTotal Field MeasuresMetalsTemperature 22.5Ca4858.8A60.7A DO-K0.20.34A0.34A pH7.7Na2.72.9I3I Sp. Cond. -Mg56A6.2A Lab Analytes Al--50U BOD--0.2AUAs-3U3U Turbidity--0.05UB --10U Color3-5UCd-0.5U0.5UAlkalinity --159.0Co --0.75U Sp. Cond.-321.0-Cr-2U2U TDS160-180.0Cu-3U3U TSS--4UFe1025U25U Cl3.6-5.2Mn-0.5U0.5U SO47.8-10.0 Ni -2U2U F0.2-0.11Pb-3U5U Nutrients Ra-226--0.3 TOC--1URa-228--1.1U NO3 + NO2 as N--1.30 Se -4U4U NH3 + NH4--0.01U Sn --7U TKN-0.06U0.06USr150-141A P-0.0370.046Zn-1.5U3U PO4-0.036NO3 ---A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit2002 2002 AnalytesAnalytes1974 1974 22.51 3.49 7.52 337 Table 40. Ginnie Spring water quality analysis. Anal y teValu e Enterococci2Q Fecal Coliform1KQ Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 41. Ginnie Spring bacteriological analysis.

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Hart Springs Location – Lat. 29° 40’ 32.67” N., Long. 82° 57’ 06.16” W. (SW ¼ NE ¼ NW ¼ sec. 30, T. 9 S., R. 14 E.). Hart Springs is located within a county recreation area 6.5 miles (10.5 km) northwest of Fanning Springs. After crossing over the Suwannee River on US 98/27A heading east, turn north (left) on SR 26 and drive approximately 1.4 miles (2.2 km) to the town of Wilcox. In Wilcox, SR 26 makes a 90 degree bend to the east (right). At this bend continue north (straight) onto CR 232. Drive 4.1 miles (6.6 km) and turn west (left) on CR 344. Travel 1.6 miles (2.6 km), then turn north (right) into the recreation area. Description – The head of Hart Springs Run has three merging spring runs. In April 2002, the only significantly flowing spring in this system was at the head of the middle channel and was the one sampled for water quality. The middle spring pool measures 51 ft (15.6 m) north to south and 45 ft (13.7 m) east to west. The depth of the pool measured over the vent was 19.9 ft (6.1 m). The water was clear and greenish. In the center of the spring pool, a prominent boil is produced on the surface by spring discharge. The vent is a vertical limestone fissure with 15 ft (4.6 m) high walls. The spring pool has a nearly rectangular shape and is enclosed by a 4 ft (1.2 m) high metal retaining wall. The metal wall extends several hundred feet southward and forms the perimeter of the entire southernmost spring and its run. The bottom is sand in the swimming area where the three spring channels merge. The northern run was not flowing, but the southernmost spring had slight flow with no boil on its surface. Exotic aquatic vegetationis abundant in the spring pool. Algae are abundant in the pool and the run. Other aquatic plants occur on the edges of the pool. From the swimBULLETIN NO. 66 99 Figure 51. Hart Springs (photo by T. Scott).

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FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 100 DissolvedTotal Field Measures Temperature 2322.0 DO-2.7 pH7.37.2 Sp. Cond. -Lab Analytes BOD-0.2-0.54I Turbidity---0.20 Color50-5UAlkalinity -170-191 Sp. Cond.355330440.0TDS-208-244.0 TSS---4U Cl3.86.0-7.1 SO412 16-25.0 F00.2-0.096I Nutrients TOC---1.2I NO3 + NO2 as N 0.8-1.10 NH3 + NH4--0.01U TKN--0.06U0.06U P--0.0820.080 PO4-0.074NO3 2.3 3.5-Metals Ca676677.877.3A K0.60.20.690.69A Na22.43.23I Mg4.84.25.45.6A Al---50U As--3U3U B ---10U Cd--0.5U0.5U Co ---0.75U Cr--2U2U Cu--3.5U3.5U Fe-35U35U Mn--1.2I1.6I Ni--2U2U Pb--3U5U Ra-226---0.6 Ra-228---0.9 Se--8.4U4U Sn---7U Sr060-96.8A Zn--1.5U3UA=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit22.17 0.99 7.03 431 2002 Analytes19461972 Table 42. Hart Spring water quality analysis.

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ming area at the confluence of the spring runs, Hart Springs Run flows northwest approximately 850 ft (259.1 m) into the Suwannee River from the east. The springs are situated within the forested river floodplain. A 0.3 mile (0.5 km) long wooden boardwalk follows along the north side of the spring run and the east side of the river, and footbridges cross over both the northernmost and main spring runs. An underwater cave system occurs at Hart Springs. Utilization The spring is within a county recreation area that provides full facilities. Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. March 14, 193240(1)May 12, 193262.1(1)July 24, 194658.6(1)April 27, 195658.6(1)November 23, 1960152(1)November 1, 197279.4(1)June 26, 199751.28(4) BULLETIN NO. 66 101 Anal y teValu e Enterococci1KQ Fecal Coliform1KQ Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 43. Hart Spring bacteriological analysis.

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Otter Spring Location Lat. 29° 38’ 41.29” N, Long. 82° 56’ 33.91” W (NW ¼ SE ¼ NE ¼ sec. 6 (irregular section shape), T. 10 S., R. 14 E.). The spring is located 4.5 miles (7.2 km) north of Fanning Springs on the east side of the Suwannee River. After crossing over the Suwannee River on US 98/27A heading east, turn north (left) on SR 26 and travel north on SR 26 approximately 1.4 miles (2.2 km) to the town of Wilcox. In Wilcox, SR 26 makes a 90 degree bend to the east (right). At this bend continue north (straight) onto CR 232. Once on CR 232 continue north to the intersection with CR 334 approximately 1.7 miles (2.7 km). Turn west (left) onto CR 334 and drive approximately 2.3 miles (3.7 km) to the boat ramp. The spring run enters the river 0.5 miles (0.8 km) upstream from the CR 334 boat ramp. Description – Otter Spring has a nearly circular, bowl-shaped spring pool measuring 68 ft (20.7 m) in diameter. It is surrounded by a concrete bag retaining wall. The spring issues from a vertical fissure in limestone. The depth over the fissure measures 27.5 ft (8.4 m). There was a very slight boil on the pool surface in April 2002. The water is clear and greenish. There is very little aquatic vegetation within the spring; however, algae cover the entire spring depression. A small, limestone, man-made dam stretches across the outflow channel on the west side of the pool. A distinct hydrogen sulfide odor was present at the spring in April 2002. The flow is southwest approximately 110 ft (33.5 m) into a larger, apparently man-made, circular pool having a diameter of about 130 ft (39.6 m). The larger pool averages 10 ft (3 m) deep and is utilized as a swimming area. Otter Spring discharges westward 0.8 miles (1.3 km) where it joins the Suwannee River. Its shallow, sand bottomed run is FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 102 Figure 52. Otter Spring (photo by H. Means).

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approximately half as wide as the spring. The run flows through the heavily forested river floodplain. Land surrounding the spring is relatively low and rises to approximately 5 ft (1.5 m) above water level. Most of the uplands are covered in large grassy areas with interspersed live oak trees. Private residences are visible from the spring several hundred feet (90 plus meters) to the east through oak trees. Utilization The spring is surrounded by private property and was previously operated as a private campground and swimming area. Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. March 14, 19325.0(1)May 12, 19325.45(1)November 1, 197216.1(1)September 19, 199721.24(4)July 16, 2002 4.80(2) BULLETIN NO. 66 103 DissolvedTotalDissolvedTotal Field MeasuresMetalsTemperature 22.5Ca6679.7A81.3 DO3.8K0.20.64A0.63 pH7.5Na2.52.8I2.9I Sp. Cond. -Mg5.26.5A6.5 Lab Analytes Al--50U BOD0.3-0.73AIAs-3U3U Turbidity--11.0B --10U Color0-40.0Cd-0.5U0.5U Alkalinity 160-209.0Co --0.75U Sp. Cond.330480.0-Cr-2U2U TDS215-264.0Cu-3U3U TSS--58AFe-25U26I Cl8-8.2Mn-0.88I0.99I SO420 -29.0 Ni -2U2U F0.2-0.10Pb-3U5U Nutrients Ra-226--0.4 TOC--1IRa-228--1.0 NO3 + NO2 as N 1.08 -1.10 Se -4U4U NH3 + NH4-0.01U Sn --7U TKN-0.06U0.06USr60-124.0 P-0.0650.078Zn-3.4U3U PO40.062NO3 4.4 --A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit2002 22.63 1.47 1972 451 2002 AnalytesAnalytes 6.88 1972 Table 44. Otter Spring water quality analysis. Anal y teValu e Enterococci4Q Fecal Coliform1KQ Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 45. Otter Spring bacteriological analysis.

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Rock Bluff Springs Location Lat. 29° 47’ 56.70” N., Long. 82° 55’ 7.11” W. (SE ¼ NE ¼ SW ¼ sec. 9, T. 8 S., R. 14 E.). Rock Bluff Springs are located 11 miles (18 km) south of Branford. The springs can be accessed by boat. From the bridge over the Suwannee River in Branford head west on US 27 approximately 1.3 miles (2.1 km) to the intersection with CR 349. Turn south (left) on CR 349 and travel approximately 10.5 miles (16.9 km) to the intersection with CR 340. Turn east (left) onto CR 340 and travel approximately 3.3 miles (5.3 km) to Rock Bluff boat landing on the east side of the river. The 750 ft (228.6 m) spring run flows into the east side of the Suwannee River approximately 0.25 miles (0.4 km) upstream from Rock Bluff Landing. Description – The Rock Bluff Springs pool measures 250 ft (76.2 m) north to south and 171 ft (52.1 m) east to west. Numerous vents feed the large shallow spring pool, and the most prominent vent discharges from a deep vertical limestone fissure on the north end of the pool. The depth over the fissure measures 27.8 ft (8.5 m). The water is clear with a greenish tint, and the bottom is exposed limestone and sand. Water quality was sampled from a smaller, circular vent opening in limestone 20 ft (6.1 m) south of the main vent. The circular opening measures approximately 1.5 ft (0.5 m) in diameter. Discharge over the sampled vent creates a prominent boil on the pool surface. A rock retaining wall is constructed along the north shore of the spring pool. There are numerous cypress trees both in the spring pool and along the perimeter of the spring. The spring run flows southwest approximately 750 ft (228.6 m) before entering the Suwannee River from the east about 0.25 miles (0.4 km) upstream from Rock Bluff. The surrounding land is forested lowland floodplain. There is a cleared sandy area on the north shore above the rock retaining wall. Rosenau et al. (1977) report that two smaller springs enter Rock Bluff Springs Run about 100 ft (30.5 m) downstream from the spring pool. An underwater cave system has been mapped at this spring. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 104 Figure 53. Rock Bluff Springs (photo by H. Means).

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BULLETIN NO. 66 105 DissolvedTotal Field MeasuresTemperature 23.921.722 DO--3.2 pH7.57.57.5 Sp. Cond. --Lab Analytes BOD--0.2-0.2AU Turbidity ----0.1 Color500-5UAlkalinity --120-129.0 Sp. Cond.250249230290.0TDS137146142-157.0 TSS----4U Cl436-4.6 SO479.210 -12.0 F0.10.20.1-0.07I Nutrients TOC---1.6I NO3 + NO2 as N-0.48 -0.59J NH3 + NH4---0.012I TKN---0.06U0.06U P---0.0790.077 PO4---0.070NO3 0.322.1 -Metals Ca46494548.550A K0.20.10.20.490.49A Na221.82.2I2.3I Mg2.76.22.63.43.5A Al----50U As---3U3U B ---10U Cd---0.5U0.5U Co ---0.75U Cr---2U2U Cu---3U3U Fe---25U25U Mn---2.12.2A Ni---2U2U Pb---3U5U Ra-226 ----0.4 Ra-228 ---0.9U Se---4U4U Sn----7U Sr--60-45.9A Zn---1.5U3UA=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than p ractical q uantitation limit J=Est value Q =Exceedin g holdin g time limit2002 Analytes195619601972 22.00 0.27 7.20 281 Table 46. Rock Bluff Springs water quality analysis.

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Utilization The springs are surrounded by private property and are locally used for swimming. Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. December 8, 194242.1(1)April 19, 195625.0(1)April 28, 195623.8(1)November 23, 196040.3(1)November 2, 197339.3(1)July 17, 199727.64(4) FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 106 Anal y teValu e Enterococci8Q Fecal Coliform2Q Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 47. Rock Bluff Springs bacteriological analysis.

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Siphon Creek Rise Location -Lat. 29° 51’ 22.29” N., Long. 82° 43’ 58.98” W. (SW¼ SW ¼ SE¼ sec. 20, T. 7 S., R. 16 E.). Siphon Creek Rise is approximately 4 miles (6.4 km) south of Fort White on the Santa Fe River. From the intersection of US 27 and SR 47 in Ft. White, drive south on SR 47 approximately 4.5 miles (7.2 km) to the boat launch on the northwest side of the Santa Fe River. The river rise is upstream approximately 0.75 mile (1.2 km) on the south of the river at the mouth of Siphon Creek. Description -Siphon Creek Rise is the reemergence of Siphon Creek that discharges from a single vent along the west bank of the Santa Fe River in the mouth of Siphon Creek. The spring pool measures 45 ft (13.7 m) north to south and 90 ft (27.4 m) east to west. Spring pool depth is 11.8 ft (3.6 m). The water is tannin colored, like that of the adjacent Santa Fe River. There is a voluminous boil over the vent. Native aquatic grass grows in the vicinity of the vent and sways back and forth in the powerful current. The adjacent west riverbank rises steeply to 2 ft (0.6 m) above the water, and fresh water shell marl is exposed. All land adjacent to the spring is lowland river floodplain with cypress, gum, and maple. Utilization -Land around Siphon Creek Rise is pristine and owned by the SRWMD. Discharge — October 11, 2001120 ft3/s(4) BULLETIN NO. 66 107 Figure 54. Siphon Creek Rise (photo by T. Scott).

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FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 108 Unfilt.FilterUnfilt.Filter Field MeasuresMetals Temperature 22.46-Ca56.356.4 DO3.96-K0.790.84 pH7.39-Na6.297.4 Sp. Cond. 325-Mg6.46.7 Lab Anal y tes As3 U3 U BOD0.43 I-Al-80 I Turbidity0.9-B 25 UColor50 A-Cd0.75 U0.75 UAlkalinity 146147Co 0.75 USp. Cond.370-Cr2 U2 U TDS215-Cu2.5 U2.5 U TSS4 U-Fe110 I84 I Cl1313 AMn16.39.9 SO42424 A Ni 1.5 U1.5 U F0.130.11Pb5 U4 U Nutrients Se4 U4 U TOC6.9-Sn10 UNO3 + NO20.70.7 Sr 245NH3+NH40.026 J0.027 Zn 5 U5 U TKN0.34 JA0.24 P0.090.086 PO40.092A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value shown is less than the practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value Analytes 2001 Analytes 2001 Table 48. Siphon Creek Rise water quality analysis. Anal y teValu e Escherichia coli 20Q Enterococci80Q Fecal Coliform24Q Total Coliform260Q Bacteria Results (in #/100ml) Table 49. Siphon Creek Rise bacteriological analysis.

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Sun Springs Location Lat. 29° 42’ 17.05” N., Long. 82° 56’ 00.70” W. (SE ¼ NE ¼ NW ¼ sec. 17, T. 9 S., R. 14 E.). Sun Springs is approximately 7.8 miles (12.6 km) north of Fanning Springs within a private community and not accessible to the public by land. Fromthe intersection US 98/19 and SR 26 in Fanning Springs travel north on SR 26 approximately 1.4 miles (2.2 km) to the town of Wilcox. In Wilcox, SR 26 makes a 90 degree bend to the east (right). At this bend continue north (straight) onto CR 232 and travel approximately 6.2 miles (9.9 km) to the intersection with SW 25 th Street. Head west (left) on SW 25 th Street and go approximately 0.8 mile (1.3 km) to the boat ramp. The spring run flows into the Suwannee River from the east approximately 0.35 miles (0.6 km) upstream from the boat ramp. Description – Sun Springs is situated in a bowl-shaped depression. The spring pool measures 99 ft (30.2 m) north to south and 132 ft (40.2 m) east to west. Maximum depth of the pool measures 14.2 ft (4.3 m). There are two vents. The main vent, which was sampled for water quality, is roughly in the center. The other, smaller vent is situated on the south side of the pool upslope from the main vent. The bottom of the spring is sand with some limestone exposed near both vents. The water was clear with a greenish tint in April 2002. No boil was present on the water surface at this time, but there was noticeable current in the shallow spring run. There are concrete terraces along the east side of the pool. The spring BULLETIN NO. 66 109 Figure 55. Sun Springs (photo by H. Means).

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has a fence around the southern portion near the dirt access road. The spring run averages about 15 ft (4.6 m) wide and 2 ft (0.6 m) deep. It flows north then west a total distance of approximately 1,900 ft (579.1 m). At the time of the visit, there was relatively little aquatic vegetation in the spring pool and run, but both harbored abundant algal mats. However, two months earlier, there was abundant Hydrilla and water lettuce (Follman, personal communication, 2004). High banks of the spring and run rise to approximately 15-18 ft (4.65.5 m) above the water level. The surroundings consist of private residences and hardwood trees on the banks and some cypress trees along spring and run edges. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 110 DissolvedTotalDissolvedTotal Field MeasuresMetalsTemperature 22.2Ca536968.3 DO3K0.20.550.54 pH7.3Na1.92.92.7I Sp. Cond. Mg3.65.05.0 Lab Analytes Al--50U BOD0.2-0.39AIAs-7U3U Turbidity-0.15B --10U Color0-5UCd-0.5U0.5U Alkalinity 120-166.0Co --0.75U Sp. Cond.312400.0-Cr-2U2U TDS168-217.0Cu-3.5U3.5U TSS--4UFe-35U35U Cl4.0-6.2Mn-0.5U0.5U SO414-24.0 Ni -2U2U F0.1-0.077IPb-3U5U Nutrients Ra-226--0.3 TOC--1URa-228--0.9 NO3 + NO2 as N0.55-1.80 Se -4U4U NH3 + NH4--0.01U Sn --7U TKN-0.06U0.06USr60-65.7 P-0.0660.064Zn-1.5U3U PO4-0.061NO3 2.4--A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit2002 2002 AnalytesAnalytes1972 1972 22.61 0.99 7.12 390 Table 50. Sun Springs water quality analysis. Anal y teValu e Enterococci1KQ Fecal Coliform1KQ Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 51. Sun Springs bacteriological analysis.

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Utilization The spring is developed into a private swimming area for local residents and is not open to the public. In April 2002, water levels in the spring run were too low to allow spring access through the run; however, access would be possible during higher water levels. Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. November 2, 197227.6(1)September 19, 199731.15(4)July 16, 2002 7.00(2) BULLETIN NO. 66 111

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HAMILTON COUNTY FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 112 Figure 56 Springs visited by FGS in Hamilton County.

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Alapaha River Rise Location -Lat. 30° 26’ 20.29” N., Long. 83° 05’ 22.42” W. (NW ¼ SW ¼ SE ¼ sec. 35, T. 1 N., R. 12 E.). The Alapha River Rise is approximately 19 miles (30.6 km) southeast of Madison on the north side of the Suwannee River. From the bridge over the Withlacoochee River on SR 6, drive 8.7 miles (14 km) east and turn south (right) on CR 751. Drive 3.5 miles (5.6 km) to a park and boat launch on the north side of the Suwannee River. The spring is approximately 0.3 miles (0.5 km) upriver to the east on the north side. Description -The Alapaha River Rise is the re-emergence of a portion of the Alapaha River. The spring is composed of a single vent at the head of a circular depression. The spring pool measures 75 ft (22.9 m) southeast to northwest and 108 ft (32.9 m) north to south. Pool depth is 71 ft (21.6 m). Some algae are present on submerged limestone substrates. The water is dark and tannic. There is no visible boil; however, the run flows swiftly to the Suwannee River. The river rise flows south for approximately 900 ft (274.3 m) until reaching the Suwannee River. At low water levels in the Suwannee River, the run from the river rise is shallow with exposed limestone, making it difficult to take a boat into the rise. This depression has deeply scalloped vertical limestone sidewalls that are estimated to rise 30 ft (9.1 m) above water level. High ground around the spring is densely forested with pines and oaks. Utilization -Land around the river rise is privately owned and in pristine condition. BULLETIN NO. 66 113 Figure 57. Alapaha River Rise (photo by T. Scott).

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Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. November 25, 1975508(1)April 2, 1976699(1)April 27, 1976594(1)May 21, 1976632(1)August 2001594(4) FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 114 Unfilt.FilterUnfilt.Filter Field MeasuresMetals Temperature 19.021.3Ca 3339.834.7 DO 1.50.48K 0.71.31.1 pH 7.67.11Na 4.25.684.87 Sp. Cond. 225242Mg 5.06.55.6 Lab Anal y tes As -3 U3 U BOD -0.56 I -Al--75 U Turbidity -1.2 B -25 U Color 60100 Cd -0.75 U0.75 U Alkalinity 8393 J92 Co -0.75 U Sp. Cond. -240Cr -2 U2 U TDS -160 -Cu -2.5 U2.5 U TSS -4UFe -310370 Cl 5.36.7 A6.6 Mn -29.625.2 SO41820 A19 N i -1.5 U1.5 U F 0.20.150.12 Pb -5 U4 U Nutrients Se -4 U4 U TOC -12Sn -10 U NO3 + NO2 -0.4 J0.4 Sr 9063 NH3 + NH4 -0.024 J0.038 A Zn -5 U5 U TKN -0.43 J0.4 P -0.130.13 PO4-0.14 A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value Q= Exceeded holding time limit 2001 Analytes1975 2001 1975 Analytes Table 52. Alapaha River Rise water quality analysis. Anal y teValue Escherichia coli 1 KQ Enterococci1 KQ Fecal Coliform1 KQ Total Coliform1 KQ Bacteria Results (in #/100ml) Table 53. Alapaha River Rise bacteriological analysis.

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Holton Creek Rise Location -Lat. 30° 26’ 16.51” N., Long. 83° 03’ 27.41” W. (NE¼ SE¼ SW¼ sec. 31, T. 1 N., R. 13 E.). The Holton Creek Rise is 11 miles (17.7 km) northwest of Live Oak on SRWMD land. From the intersection of US 90 and CR 249 in Live Oak, drive northwest on CR 249 (Noble’s Ferry Road) approximately 12 miles (19.6 km) to the bridge over the Suwannee River. From the bridge travel approximately 0.3 (0.5 km) mile to the second right graded road. Follow SRWMD signs to Holton Creek. The spring is at the head of the creek. Description The spring pool measures 225 ft (68.6 m) northwest to southeast and 177 ft (53.9 m) northeast to southwest. Along the north shore, a vertical limestone ledge drops quickly off to a depth of 100 ft (30.5 m); however, the bottom is highly irregular in the rest of the depression. The water is dark and tannic (water was reported as clear in Rosenau et al., 1977). There is very little aquatic and emergent vegetation in the spring pool. No boil was observed during October 2001. The spring has steep sandy banks that rise to approximately 25 ft (7.6 m) above water level, and the high ground is forested with pines and oaks. Holton Creek Rise discharges through Holton Creek, a run that meanders generally southeast approximately 1 mile (1.6 km) to the Suwannee River. Utilization -Land around the spring is pristine and owned by the SRWMD. The Florida National Scenic Trail winds along the north side of Holton Creek. BULLETIN NO. 66 115 Figure 58. Holton Creek Rise (photo by T. Scott).

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Discharge — All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. February 13, 1976482(1)March 31, 1976313(1)April 28, 197669(1)June 8, 1998167(4)December 7, 20010(2) FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 116 Unfilt.FilterUnfilt.Filter Field MeasuresMetals Temperature 22.1Ca 35.641.7 DO 0.49K 0.851 pH 7.00Na 5.655.3 Sp. Cond. 290Mg 7.59 Lab Anal y tes As 3 U3 U BOD 0.6 AIAl -130 I Turbidity 2B 25 UColor 140Cd 0.75 U0.75 U Alkalinity 115 J115 Co 0.75 USp. Cond. 300Cr 2 U2 U TDS 213Cu 2.5 U2.5 U TSS 4 UFe 420500 Cl 6.66.5 Mn 30.435.8 SO43130 N i 1.5 U1.5 U F 0.170.14 Pb 5 U4 U Nutrients Se 4 U4 U TOC 17Sn 10 UNO3 + NO2 0.004 U0.004 U Sr 101NH3 + NH4 0.13 J0.13 Zn 5 U5 U TKN 0.56 J0.55 A P 0.150.15 PO40.16A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Estimated Q= exceeded hold time limit Analytes 2001 Analytes 2001 Table 54. Holton Creek Rise water quality analysis. Anal y teValue Escherichia coli 1KQ Enterococci12Q Fecal Coliform2Q Total Coliform10Q Bacteria Results (in #/100 ml) Table 55. Holton Creek Rise bacteriological analysis.

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Rossetter Spring Location – Lat. 30° 32’ 40.78” N., Long. 83° 15’ 00.20” W. (NE ¼ NE ¼ SE ¼ sec. 30, T. 2 N., R. 11 E.). Rossetter Spring is on the east side of the Withlacoochee River approximately 11 miles (18 km) northeast of Madison. From the intersection of SR 53 and SR 6 in Madison, travel east on SR 6 approximately 11.6 miles (18.6 km) to the intersection with CR 143, which is approximately 1.5 miles (2.4 km) past the bridge over the Withlacoochee River. Turn north (left) onto CR 143 and travel approximately 4.1 miles (6.6 km) to the intersection with Florida Campsite Road. Turn west (left) and travel approximately 3 miles to the boat landing. The spring can be accessed by boating approximately 4.2 miles (6.8 km) upstream from the boat ramp off CR 143 and Florida Campsite Road. Description – Rossetter Spring emerges directly from a small cave at the base of 25 ft (7.6 m) high limestone and sand banks. The small, circular pool is 15 ft (4.6 m) in diameter. The depth of the spring measured near the cave opening is 4.5 ft (1.4 m). The water was slightly turbid, greenish colored, and had abundant filamentous algae in August 2002. The shallow run is L-shaped and it flows 60 ft (18.3 m) south then turns sharply west, flowing another 60 ft (18.3 m) until reaching the river. It has a sand and rock bottom with some detritus deposition. There is a 3 ft (0.9 m) high, man-made, limestone wall at the mouth of the spring run intended to capture water for swimming. During the August 2002 visit, the Withlacoochee River was at historically low levels, and the rock wall was entirely exposed BULLETIN NO. 66 117 Figure 59. Rossetter Spring (photo by H. Means).

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with only a small amount of spring water trickling through the cracks. State-owned land around the spring supports a well managed pine forest. Utilization – The spring is undeveloped and surrounded by state land. Discharge – No discharge measurements are available. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 118 DissolvedTotalDissolvedTotal Field MeasuresMetals Temperature 3935.8J DOK2.62.3 pHNa30.127.1 Sp. Cond. Mg6.45.9 Lab Analytes Al-5U BOD-0.2AUAs3U3U Turbidity-0.60B -22 Color-5.0Cd0.5U0.5UAlkalinity -131.0Co -1U Sp. Cond.384A-Cr2U2U TDS-224.0Cu2.6U2U TSS-4UFe2340 Cl-9.1Mn5.796.8 SO4-50.0 Ni 1U1.5U F-0.18Pb5U5U Nutrients Ra-226-TOC-3.2IRa-228-NO3 + NO2 as N-0.16 Se 13I7U NH3 + NH4-0.015I Sn -28U TKN0.12I0.15ISr-75.4 P0.140.130Zn2.2U2U PO40.13NO3 --A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit390 24.75 0.45 7.08 2002 AnalytesAnalytes 2002 Ca Table 56. Rossetter Spring water quality analysis. Anal y teValu e Enterococci8 Fecal Coliform1K Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 57. Rossetter Spring bacteriological analysis.

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HERNANDO COUNTY BULLETIN NO. 66 119 Figure 60. Springs visited by FGS in Hernando County.

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Gator Spring Location Lat. 28° 26’ 02.75” N., Long. 82° 39’ 05.61” W. (SE ¼ SE ¼ SE ¼ sec. 36, T. 23 S., R. 16 E.). Gator Spring is located 0.8 miles (1.3 km) west of Aripeka near the head of the south fork of Hammock Creek. Description – Gator Spring has an elongated spring pool measuring 114 ft (34.7 m) northeast to southwest and 195 ft (59.4 m) north to south. The spring pool ranges from 3 ft (0.9 m) to 7 ft (2.1 m) deep. This spring bottom is sand. The pool has been altered to form a swimming pond; however, there is no evidence of recent use. There was no boil over the spring vent in the west side of the pool in January 2003. The water is clear with a greenish hue. Algae are both suspended in the water and attached to substrates. There is aquatic and emergent vegetation in and around the spring pool. There is a small culvert on the northwest side of the pool that drains the meager flow from the spring and channels the water through an earthen dam into the spring run. Some limestone boulders occur near the culvert and the vent. Gator Spring Run is a small, narrow, sand-bottomed stream that flows southwest for approximately 350 ft (106.7 m) and enters upper Magnolia Spring Run, just below Magnolia Spring. There is a private residence approximately 350 ft (106.7 m) west of Gator spring, or 300 ft (91.4 m) north of Magnolia Spring. Formerly cleared land surrounding Gator Spring is now overgrown with dense brush. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 120 Figure 61. Gator Spring (photo by R. Means).

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Utilization – The spring is located on private property and is inaccessible to the public. Discharge – January 7, 20030.36 ft3/s(2) BULLETIN NO. 66 121 DissolvedTotalDissolvedTotal Field MeasuresMetals Temperature 44.5A45.3 DOK0.32A0.32 pHNa5.24.68 Sp. Cond. Mg3.7A3.7 Lab Analytes Al-10U BOD-0.29IAs3U3U Turbidity-0.25B -10U Color-5UCd0.5U0.5UAlkalinity -115Co -1U Sp. Cond.256.0-Cr2I2.5I TDS-149.0Cu3.5U4U TSS-4UFe5U7U Cl-10Mn0.63I0.5U SO4-9.8 Ni 2U2U F-0.064Pb5U5U Nutrients Ra-226-0.7 TOC-1URa-228-0.9U NO3 + NO2 as N-0.49 Se 8U8U NH3 + NH4-0.041 Sn -4U TKN0.092I0.06USr-226 P0.015U0.015UZn2.5U4U PO40.006INO3 --A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit272 18.63 4.69 8.12 2003 AnalytesAnalytes 2003 Ca Table 58. Gator Spring water quality analysis. Anal y teValu e Enterococci2Q Fecal Coliform8Q Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 59. Gator Spring bacteriological analysis.

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Little Spring Location Lat. 28° 30’ 48.47” N., Long. 82° 34’ 51.70” W. (NE ¼ NW ¼ SW ¼ sec. 2, T. 23 S., R. 17 E.). Little Spring is located within the town of Weeki Wachee, approximately 0.5 miles (0.8 km) southeast of Weeki Wachee Main Spring. The spring is located in back of the main parking lot adjacent south of Weeki Wachee Main Spring. A sand track leads to the spring beyond a locked gate. The spring is surrounded by a locked chain link fence and is not accessible to the public. Description – Little Spring is also known as Twin Dees Spring. The spring pool measures 36 ft (10.9 m) east to west and 75 ft (22.8 m) north to south. Two vent openings occupy the oval spring pool. The spring measures 13 ft (3.9 m) deep over the south vent. The spring water is clear and blue-greenish. There was a moderate boil on the water surface over the south vent where water samples were taken in March 2003. The north vent was not flowing during either of the visits. Two spring runs that eventually merge exit the spring pool and flow generally northward into the Weeki Wachee River. The smaller of the two runs exits the pool on the west, and the larger exits on the north side. The surroundings to the east are recently cleared upland sand hills. To the west is a dense swamp forest along the Weeki Wachee River. In the Spring of 2002, Little Spring was not flowing, and the spring run was dry. By March 2003, the spring was again flowing, and the spring run averaged about 10 ft (3.0 m) wide and 1.5 ft (0.5 m) deep. An underwater cave has been mapped in this spring. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 122 Figure 62. Little Spring (photo by R. Means).

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BULLETIN NO. 66 123 DissolvedTotal Field Measures Temperature --24.523.5 DO---pH7.88.07.7Sp. Cond. ---Lab Analytes BOD----0.2U Turbidity ----0.15 Color230--5U Alkalinity 160130130--140 Sp. Cond.268265260286316.0TDS168---176.0 TSS-----4U Cl5.04.05.06.0-7.8A SO46.86.46.8-9A F0.10.10.1--0.12I Nutrients TOC-----1U NO3 + NO2 as N ---0.71 NH3 + NH4----0.01U TKN---0.086I0.06U P---0.0110.01 PO4---0.01INO3 0.001.00.10-Metals Ca484748-52.8A54.1 K0.20.30.4-0.32A0.33 Na3.23.03.0-3.8I4.1 Mg3.95.04.5-5.4A5.5 Al-----22U As----3U 9.6U B -----17I Cd---0.5U0.5U Co -----1U Cr----2U2U Cu---3.5U4U Fe----29I37I Mn---1.04A0.62I Ni----2U2U Pb----5U5U Ra-226 -----0.3 Ra-228 ----0.9U Se----8U8U Sn-----4U Sr----194 Zn---2.5U4UA=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit315 23.65 1.45 7.55 19651972 2003 Analytes19621964 Table 60. Little Spring water quality analysis.

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Utilization The spring is undeveloped and surrounded by SWFWMD land. There is no public access. Discharge – All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. December 15, 19727.8 (1)December 11, 197514.7 (1)March 5, 2003 5.22 (2) FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 124 Anal y teValu e Enterococci1KQ Fecal Coliform1KQ Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 61. Little Spring bacteriological analysis.

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Magnolia Spring Location Lat. 28° 26’ 01.93” N., Long. 82° 39’ 08.96” W. (SW ¼ SE ¼ SE ¼ sec. 36, T. 23 S., R. 16 E.). Magnolia Spring is located 0.7 miles (1.1 km) west of Aripeka at the head of the south fork of Hammock Creek. Description – Magnolia Spring sits in an oval depression measuring 45 ft (13.7 m) north to south and 54 ft (16.5 m) east to west. The spring pool is shallow, averaging 4 ft (1.2 m) deep. The water is clear and light blue, with little aquatic vegetation covering a sand bottom. There is a private residence approximately 300 ft (91.4 m) to the north. At least a dozen small sand boils are visible on the spring bottom. Gator Spring Run enters Magnolia Springs Run from the northeast approximately 75 ft (22.9 m) downstream from the spring head. Magnolia Springs Run is clear and sand-bottomed. It averages 20 ft (6.1 m) wide and 3 ft (0.9 m) deep with frequent constrictions and shallow areas. There is a small private boat/canoe shack standing on the northwest side of the spring pool. The spring and its run are within a heavily wooded, lowland swamp. The two springs form the headwaters of the south fork of Hammock Creek. Utilization – The spring is located within private property and is inaccessible to the public. BULLETIN NO. 66 125 Figure 63. Magnolia Spring (photo by R. Means).

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FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 126 DissolvedTotal Field Measures Temperature --24 DO--pH8.27.5Sp. Cond. --Lab Analytes BOD----0.2U Turbidity----0.1 Color1030--5UAlkalinity 110110--112 Sp. Cond.388395450453.0TDS230---266.0 TSS----4U Cl525365-75 SO41313-19 F0.10.1--0.066I Nutrients TOC----1U NO3 + NO2 as N ---0.54 NH3 + NH4---0.01U TKN---0.093I0.06U P---0.015U0.015U PO4--0.055NO3 0.201.1-Metals Ca4342-42.744.7A K1.21.8-1.71.6A Na2929-42.837.2A Mg5.25.6-88.2A Al----10U As---3U3UB ----20I Cd---0.5U0.5UCo ----1U Cr---2U2U Cu---3.5U4U Fe21060-5U7U Mn---0.25U0.5U Ni---2U2U Pb---5U5U Ra-226----0.5 Ra-228----1.1 Se---8U8U Sn----5.5I Sr----290 Zn---2.5U4UA=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit2003 Analytes 499 23.51 1.15 7.67 196419651972 Table 62. Magnolia Spring water quality analysis.

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Discharge – All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. April 30, 196411.0(1)July 24, 19647.92(1)September 13, 19649.12(1)February 4, 19659.35(1)August 5, 196510.0(1)December 12, 19720.86(1)January 7, 2003 0.47(2) BULLETIN NO. 66 127 Anal y teValu e Enterococci1KQ Fecal Coliform1KQ Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 63. Magnolia Spring bacteriological analysis.

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Hernando Salt Spring Location Lat. 28° 32’ 46.75” N., Long. 82° 37’ 08.28” W. (NW ¼ NE ¼ NE ¼ sec. 29, T. 22 S., R. 17 E.). Hernando Salt Spring is located 3 miles (4.8 km) northwest of Weeki Wachee. From the intersection of US 19 with SR 50 and SR 550 in Weeki Wachee head west on SR 50/550 (Cortez Boulevard) approximately 3.4 miles (5.5 km) to the intersection with SR 595. Continue west (straight) 0.2 miles (0.3 km) west of the T-shaped intersection with SR 595. The spring is 200 ft (61 m) south (left side) of SR 50/550. Description – Hernando Salt Spring, at the head of Salt Creek, has a circular spring pool with a diameter of 60 ft (18.2 m). The pool is 46.5 ft (14.2 m) deep. The spring emerges from a cavern in limestone. Exposed limestone in the spring has a soft, chalky texture. Most limestone and sand substrates are covered in thick iron-reducing bacterial mats and algae. Another smaller vent is located at the north end of the pool. The saline water is blue-greenish with slight murkiness. Several logs are submerged within the spring pool, and one of the logs has the remains of an old platform. The spring is tidally influenced, and the size of the boil in the center may fluctuate depending on tides. The spring run flows southwest for about 1 mile (1.6 km) into Mud River and averages approximately 30 ft (9.1 m) wide and 4 ft (1.2 m) deep. Land surrounding Hernando Salt Spring is low-lying, and the spring is situated within a subtropical hardwood and palm hammock. An underwater cave system occurs at Hernando Salt Spring. Depths within the cave system reach 170 ft (51.8 m) (Rosenau et al., 1977). Utilization – The spring is undeveloped and surrounded by privately owned lands. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 128 Figure 64. Hernando Salt Spring (photo by R. Means).

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BULLETIN NO. 66 129 DissolvedTotal Field Measures Temperature -2524.0 DO--pH7.67.3Sp. Cond. --Lab Analytes BOD---0.2U Turbidity ---31.0 Color25--20.0 Alkalinity -130--129.0 Sp. Cond.32801800643017000.0TDS2180---8000Q TSS----31A Cl10004901900.0-5600.0 SO414073 --750.0 F0.20.1--0.22 Nutrients TOC----1U NO3 + NO2 ---0.38J NH3 + NH4---0.052 TKN---0.260.23 P---0.14J0.031I PO4---0.017NO3 0.40.5 --Metals Ca6456-149167.0 K219.8-112113.00 Na540260-29903020.0 Mg6843-338344.0 Al----50U As---3.7I18.0 B 1290.0 Cd---0.5U0.5U Co 0.75U Cr---2U2.7I Cu---3U3U Fe---1423200.0 Mn---2.329.2 Ni---2U2U Pb---3U5U Ra-226 ----4.4 Ra-228 ----1.7 Se---4U4U Sn----7U Sr---2590.0 Zn---24U26UA=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit1.27 7.31 15500 1972 2002 Analytes 23.86 1965 1962 Table 64. Hernando Salt Spring water quality analysis.

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Discharge – All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. January 18, 196124.7(1)December 8, 196538.9(1)June 30, 196628.4(1)December 14, 197231.9(1)December 11, 197531.2(1)Annual Mean 1988-198933.0(5) FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 130 Anal y teValue Enterococci1KQ Fecal Coliform1KQ Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 65. Hernando Salt Spring bacteriological analysis.

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Weeki Wachee Spring Location -Lat. 28° 31’ 01.89” N., Long. 82° 34’ 23.40” W. (NE ¼ SW ¼ NE ¼ sec. 2, T. 23 S., R. 17 E.). The spring is located in the town of Weeki Wachee on the west side of US 19. From the intersection of US 19 and SR 50, drive south 0.2 miles (0.3 km). Turn west (right) into Weeki Wachee Springs Park parking lot. The spring vent is in the large pool used for mermaid shows. Description -Weeki Wachee Spring discharges from the bottom of a conical depression with gentle side slopes. The spring pool measures 165 ft (50.3 m) east to west and 210 ft (64 m) north to south. Spring depth is 45 ft (13.7 m) over the vent in the center of the pool. Bare limestone is located near the vent, but none is exposed around the pool edges. The water is clear and light greenish blue, and a boil is visible in the center of the pool. Thick, filamentous algae cover the majority of the spring bottom, and there are some native aquatic grasses in the spring pool. The spring is rich with fresh and salt water fishes and aquatic turtles. The Weeki Wachee River flows westward approximately 5 miles (8 km) into the Gulf of Mexico. The river flows through low-lying, densely forested swamp. The nearest high ground east of the spring is rolling sand hills terrain and gently rises to 15 ft (4.6 m) above the water level. All uplands and land adjacent to spring are developed. U.S. 19 is approximately 225 ft (68.6 m) east of the spring. Utilization -Weeki Wachee Spring is extensively developed into a tourist attraction that features underwater mermaid shows with a submerged observation area. It was recently BULLETIN NO. 66 131 Figure 65. Weeki Wachee Spring (photo by R. Means).

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purchased from private ownership by the Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD). The District leases the land to a private firm for the continuation of the mermaid shows. Shops and facilities are located all around the spring. Discharge —Historically, discharge for Weeki Wachee Springs was measured at the Weeki Wachee River and include the flow of Weeki Wachee Springs, Little Springs, Unknown Spring No. 3, and flow from the bed of the river and the run from Little Springs. All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. Average 1917 – 1974176(1)(364 measurements) Maximum (October 19, 1964)275(1)Minimum (24, 1956)101(1)October 18, 2001161(7)estimate is provisional. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 132 Unfilt.FilterUnfilt.Filter Field MeasuresMetals Temperature -24.021.523.7Ca 44485049.550.7 DO -2.0-1.3K 0.35.00.60.310.32 pH 7.98.07.77.7Na 3.03.24.03.783.93 Sp. Cond. 262275284320Mg 7.85.06.05.96 Lab Anal y tes As --73 U3 U BOD ---0.76 I Al ----75 U Turbidity ---0.4 B ---25 U Color 3515UCd --00.75 U0.75 U Alkalinity 130130140147147 Co ---0.75 USp. Cond. ---320Cr ---2 U2 U TDS ---176 Cu --12.5 U2.5 U TSS ---4U-Fe 0101035 U35 U Cl 4.08.04.66.76.6 A Mn --00.5 U0.5 U SO46.49.67.49.29.2 A N i --142 U2 U F 00.10.10.084 I0.1 Pb --15 U4 U Nutrients Se ---4 U4 U TOC ---1USn ---10 UNO3 + NO2 ---0.670.66 J Sr --150174NH3 + NH4 ---0.01 U0.01 U Zn --05 U5 U TKN ---0.06 U0.06 U P ---0.005 I0.007 I PO4---0.005 I1974 2001 A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit 2001 Analytes19641969 I=Value shown is less than the practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value Q=Exceeding holding time limit Analytes196419691974 Table 66. Weeki Wachee Spring water quality analysis. Anal y teValue Escherichia coli 1KQ Enterococci1KQ Fecal Coliform1KQ Total Coliform1KQ Bacteria Results (in #/100ml) Table 67. Weeki Wachee Spring bacteriological analysis.

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HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY BULLETIN NO. 66 133 Figure 66. Springs visited by FGS in Hillsborough County.

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Buckhorn Main Spring Location Lat. 27° 53’ 21.81” N., Long. 82° 18’ 09.80” W. (NE ¼ SE ¼ NE ¼ sec. 9, T. 30 S., R. 20 E.). The Buckhorn Main Spring is located approximately 1.6 miles (2.6 km) northeast of Riverview. The spring run flows into the Alafia River from the north 2.7 miles (4.3 km) upstream from the US 301 bridge in Riverview. Description – Buckhorn Main Spring pool is roughly circular and has a diameter of approximately 45 ft (13.7 m). It is 8.3 ft (2.5 m) deep. The vent consists of a cave entrance in limestone on the northwest side of the spring depression. Limestone and sand form the pool bottom. The water is clear and bluish. A prominent boil was present in April 2002. There is a rich aquatic plant community within the spring. The spring pool perimeter is entirely lined with concrete bags for erosion control, and there is a chain link fence around the pool and across the 15 ft (4.6 m) spring run. The spring is on the northwest side of Buckhorn Creek. Upstream from Buckhorn Main Spring, Buckhorn Creek was slightly tannic during the sampling visit. Downstream of the spring, Buckhorn Creek takes on a clear water spring run appearance, with a swift current and a sand bottom with exposed limestone. From Buckhorn Main Spring, Buckhorn Creek travels approximately 0.4 miles (0.6 km) to the Alafia River. There are two other springs in the vicinity of Buckhorn Springs called Buckhorn Tributary Spring and Buckhorn Tributary Spring 3. All three springs are northwest of Buckhorn Creek and north of the Alafia River (Rosenau et al., 1977). Land rises steeply north of the spring to approximately 12 ft (3.7m) above spring water level, and a residence is visible a few hundred feet away. Land to the south is forested lowland associated with Buckhorn Creek. Buckhorn Main Spring has a water pumping facility owned by a ferFLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 134 Figure 67. Buckhorn Main Spring (photo by R. Means).

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BULLETIN NO. 66 135 DissolvedTotal Field MeasuresTemperature 23.523.5 DO-pH7.38 Sp. Cond. -Lab Analytes BOD---0.2U Turbidity---0.3 Color55-5U Alkalinity 110100-122 Sp. Cond.424416484.0TDS258250-262 TSS---4U Cl2926-25.0 SO46764 -62.0 F0.20.3-0.2A Nutrients TOC---1U NO3 + NO2 as N -2J NH3 + NH4--0.01U TKN--0.06U0.06U P--0.0441.9A PO4-0.044NO3 1.14.9 -Metals Ca565056.863.9 K0.80.80.670.7 Na16141213.1 Mg111210.911.8 Al---50U As--3U3UB ---20I Cd-0.5U 0.5UCo ---0.75U Cr--2U2U Cu--3U3U Fe--25U25U Mn--0.5U2I Ni--2U2U Pb--3U5U Ra-226---1.4 Ra-228---1U Se--4U4U Sn---7U Sr-920-836.0 Zn--1.5U3UA=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than p ractical q uantitation limit J=Est value Q =Exceedin g holdin g time limit455 19661972 2002 Analytes 24.70 1.43 7.48 Table 68. Buckhorn Main Spring water quality analysis.

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tilizer company just west of the pool and a platform suspended over the spring with a water extraction tube running into the vent. Utilization – The spring is owned by a fertilizer company that uses a portion of the spring water for industrial purposes. A locked fence surrounds the spring and also blocks access from the spring run, no public access is allowed. Discharge All discharge rates are in ft3/s Maximum15.7(5)Average 11.3(5)June 2, 196610.9(1)June 5, 197215.0(1) FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 136 Anal y teValue Enterococci1KQ Fecal Coliform1KQ Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 69. Buckhorn Main Spring bacteriological analysis.

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Lithia Spring Major Location Lat. 27° 51’ 58.60” N., Long. 82° 13’ 53.29” W. (SW ¼ SE ¼ SW ¼ sec. 17, T. 30 S., R. 21 E.). The spring is within Lithia Springs County Park, 5.5 miles (8.9 km) southeast of Brandon. From the intersection of SR 60 and SR 640, drive south from Brandon on SR 640 (Lithia Rd) approximately 6.4 miles (10.3 km) to the bridge over the Alafia River. Travel 0.6 miles (1.0 km) past the bridge over the Alafia River, and turn west (right) onto Lithia Springs Rd. and follow the road 1.5 miles (2.4 km) to the park. Description – Lithia Spring Major is situated within a large, man-modified, spring pool. The pool measures 168 ft (51.2 m) north to south and 180 ft (54.9 m) east to west, and depth measured over the vent is 8.2 ft (2.5). The water is clear and blue-greenish. The pool bottom is sand with a limited exposure of limestone near the vent. The spring pool has steep retaining walls with several access stairways leading down into the water. The entire bottom of Lithia Spring Major is bare white sand with sparse algae resulting from use. The vent in the center of the pool is covered by a barred metal barricade to prevent entry. Spring water discharges through the bars and a boil was present on the pool surface in April 2002. The clear, sandy spring run exits east and flows approximately 200 ft (61 m), then turns south flowing approximately 750 ft (228.6 m) into the tannic Alafia River. There are some algae and other aquatic vegetation in the run. Land around Lithia Major is a developed county park. Lithia Spring Minor joins the Alafia River approximately 100 ft (30.5 m) downstream from the mouth of Lithia Spring Major. BULLETIN NO. 66 137 Figure 68. Lithia Spring Major (photo by R. Means).

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FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 138 DissolvedTotal Field MeasuresTemperature 2124.524DO---pH-7.57.27.7 Sp. Cond. ---Lab Analytes BOD----0.2U Turbidity ----0.05U Color-5010-5UAlkalinity --100110-121.0 Sp. Cond.-469403468474ATDS331285257284-264A TSS-----4U Cl23212122-26.0 SO493866179 -56.0 F-0.30.60.4-0.22 Nutrients TOC-----1U NO3 + NO2 as N ---2.4 -3J NH3 + NH4----0.01U TKN---0.06U0.06U P---0.055A0.060 PO4---0.059NO3 0.80.76-Metals Ca6562575858.364.1A K-0.90.60.60.760.78A Na-14101211.712.6A Mg14109.6118.69.2A Al-----50U As----3U3U B -----23A Cd---0.5U0.5U Co -----0.75U Cr----2U2U Cu----3U3U Fe150400-25U25U Mn---0.5U0.5U Ni----2U2U Pb----3U5U Ra-226 -----1.0 Ra-228 -----1U Se----4U4U Sn-----7U Sr--11001300-929A Zn---1.5U3UA=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit2002 Analytes 25.1 July 19234/30/19464/23/196810/10/1972 2.01 7.39 457 Table 70. Lithia Spring Major water quality analysis.

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Utilization – The spring is within a county park with full facilities and a lifeguard on duty. Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. Minimum0.73(5)Maximum69.4(5)Average30.5(5) BULLETIN NO. 66 139 Anal y teValue Enterococci1KQ Fecal Coliform1KQ Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 71. Lithia Spring Major water quality analysis.

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Sulphur Spring FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 140 Figure 69. Sulphur Spring circa 1930 (anonymous). Figure 70. Sulphur Spring (photo by R. Means).

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Location Lat. 28° 01’ 16.08” N., Long. 82° 27’ 5.89” W. (NE ¼ SE ¼ NE ¼ sec. 25, T. 28 S., R. 18 E.). Sulphur Spring is located in a city park within the City of Tampa. From the Sligh Avenue exit on I-275, drive 0.12 miles (0.2 km) east on Sligh Avenue to US 41 (Nebraska Avenue). Turn north (left) on US 41 and go 0.8 miles (1.3 km) to Bird Street. Turn west (left) on Bird Street and go 0.1 miles (0.12 km) to the Sulphur Springs parking lot entrance which is on the south side of Bird Street. Description – Sulphur Spring has been highly altered from its natural condition into a circular pool enclosed by concrete walls. The diameter of the pool is 90 ft (27.4 m). The pool is uniformly about 15 ft (4.6 m) deep with a limestone and sand bottom. Rosenau et al. (1977) report a maximum depth of 30 ft (9.1 m). The water is slightly murky and greenish colored. Algae are abundant in the pool. Spring outflow is southeast, cascading over a 7 ft (2.1 m) high weir. The falls continue for approximately 50 ft (15.2 m), and the rest of the run travels approximately 600 ft (182.8 m) to the Hillsborough River. The spring run is sand-bottomed and algae-laden. A hydrogen sulfide odor is associated with the spring. There is a City of Tampa water pumping facility on the west side of the pool where a large metal pipe discharges water forcefully into the spring. The facility pumps a portion of the spring flow for municipal use, and the other portion is rerouted out the pipe into the pool. The spring itself is closed to swimming, but the surrounding area is developed into a swimming and recreation park with a large swimming pool just a few feet east of the spring pool. Park personnel report that the spring’s cave system has been explored by divers and heads northward under the city. Divers have connected the cave system to several nearby sinkholes. No swimming is allowed in the spring or spring run. Utilization The actual spring pool is fenced and a portion of the spring water is extracted for municipal uses. The area around the spring has been developed into an urban recreation area. Discharge – Discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. 15 Year Mean 44(1)May 11, 1971 (Min)3.81(1)August 3, 1945 (Max)163 (1)Annual Mean 199938.9 (7) BULLETIN NO. 66 141 Anal y teValue Enterococci480Q Fecal Coliform180Q Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 72. Sulphur Spring bacteriological analysis.

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FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 142 DissolvedTotal Field MeasuresTemperature ---25.0 DO---pH7.57.47.37.8 Sp. Cond. ---Lab Analytes BOD-----0.2U Turbidity-----0.25 Color10281015-5.0 Alkalinity -120130140-170 Sp. Cond.2591030119012402100.0TDS---700-1180.0 TSS-----4U Cl160200220230.0-490.0 SO4607984 100-170.0 F0.10.20.2-0.150 Nutrients TOC-----3.1I NO3 + NO2 as N --0.53-0.24J NH3 + NH4 ----0.013I TKN----0.280.30 P----0.0940.094 PO4---0.1NO3 1.502.7 2.3-Metals Ca64778493126129.0 K3.4-4.44.499.60 Na86-120140264259.0 Mg1213151828.832.1 Al-----50U As----3U3UB -----73.0 Cd----0.5U0.5UCo -----0.75U Cr----2U2U Cu----5.1I9.4I Fe20200-25U25U Mn----21.624.1 Ni----4U4U Pb----3U5U Ra-226-----2.5 Ra-228-----1U Se----4U4U Sn-----7U Sr---2000-1500.0 Zn----1.5U3UA=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit2190 25.31 4.02 7.01 1956 1946 2002 Analytes1972 1966 Table 73. Sulphur Spring water quality analysis.

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HOLMES COUNTY BULLETIN NO. 66 143 Figure 71. Springs visited by FGS in Holmes County.

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Holmes Blue Spring Location – Lat. 30° 51’ 06.03” N., Long. 85° 53’ 09.05” W. (NE ¼ SE ¼ SE ¼ sec. 12, T. 5 N., R. 17 W.). Holmes Blue Spring is located on the west bank of the Choctawhatchee River 1.4 miles (2.3 km) northeast of the community of Cerrogordo. Exit I-10 at SR 279 and turn north toward Caryville. Go 1 mile (1.6 km) to the intersection of SR 279 and US 90. Turn west (left) and drive 2.5 miles (4 km) to the intersection of US 90 and SR 179A/181. Turn north (right) and follow 179A for 5 miles (8 km) to Cerrogrodo. In Cerrogordo, turn east (right) toward the river and follow signs to boat ramp about 0.5 miles (0.8 km). From the public boat ramp in Cerrogordo, travel 1.5 miles (2.4 km) upstream on the Choctawhatchee River to the mouth of the spring. The narrow spring run flows in from the northwest (left) bank. Description – Holmes Blue Spring has a circular spring pool that measures 30 ft (9.1 m) in diameter. The vent is a deep, vertical, steep-walled opening in limestone over which the depth measures 29.2 ft (8.9 m). The spring sits in a conical, circular depression with 8 ft (2.4 m) high clay banks. Limestone is exposed near the circular vent in the center of the depression. Its waters are bluish and crystal clear. A copious boil emerges over the vent, and water flows approximately 3 in. (7.6 cm) higher that the surrounding spring surface. There are a few sticks and logs on the sand, clay, and limestone bottom. There is no aquatic vegetation in the spring or its run. The short spring run averages 3 ft (0.9 m) deep and flows FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 144 Figure 72. Holmes Blue Spring (photo by R. Meegan).

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150 ft (45.7 m) southeast into the murky brown Choctawhatchee River. Spring-water levels are closely tied to fluctuations of the nearby river. The spring run is under a forest canopy within the heavily wooded river floodplain. Utilization – Holmes Blue Spring is undeveloped and exists in a natural condition. Discharge – Discharge is measured in ft3/s. December 3, 2002 13.67(2) BULLETIN NO. 66 145 DissolvedTotalDissolvedTotal Field MeasuresMetalsTemperature Ca34.234.7 DOK0.380.38 pHNa1.841.80 Sp. Cond. Mg5.15.2 Lab Analytes Al-10U BOD-0.2UAs6U6U Turbidity-0.1B -14U Color-5UCd0.5U0.5UAlkalinity -102Co -1U Sp. Cond.207.0-Cr2U2U TDS-114.0Cu6U4U TSS-4UFe18U7.8I Cl-2.7Mn0.25U0.61I SO4-1.2 Ni 1I2U F-0.075IPb5U5U Nutrients Ra-226-0.3U TOC-1URa-228-0.8U NO3 + NO2 as N-0.46 Se 24U24U NH3 + NH4-0.013I Sn -18U TKN0.074I0.12USr-44 P0.029I0.025IZn1.7I6U PO40.024NO3 --A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit2002 AnalytesAnalytes 2002 211 20.06 4.95 7.79 Table 74. Holmes Blue Spring water quality analysis. Anal y teValue Enterococci2Q Fecal Coliform2Q Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 75. Holmes Blue Spring bacteriological analysis.

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Ponce de Leon Springs Location – Lat. 30° 43’ 16.33” N., Long. 85° 55’ 50.47” W. (NW ¼ SE ¼ SW ¼ sec. 27, T. 4 N., R. 17 W.). The springs are located within the Ponce de Leon State Park in the town of Ponce de Leon. From the I-10 exit at SR 81, travel north on SR 81 for 1 mile (1.6 km) then turn east (right) on US 90and travel 0.6 miles (1 km) to the intersection with CR 181A. Turn south (right) on CR 181A and travel 0.6 miles (1 km) to the state park entrance on the right. Description – Ponce de Leon Springs has a crescent-shaped pool that measures 105 ft (32 m) north to south and 111 ft (33.8 m) east to west. There are at least three spring vents within the spring pool. The sampled vent is located in the northern section of the spring pool. The depth throughout the pool averages approximately 5 ft (1.5 m) deep, but it measures as much as 16.0 ft (4.9 m) deep over the vents. The bottom is sand and limestone is exposed near the vents. The water is clear and light greenish blue. There is a slight boil over the northern vent. There is sparse aquatic vegetation, but thick patches of algae are present on the bottom. Algal strands and particles also are suspended in the water. There are two cypress trees growing in the spring pool north and west of the sampled vent. Flow from the springs discharges over a weir designed to raise water levels in the spring pool suitable for swimming. There is a boardwalk over the weir that leads to hiking trails. The spring run exits the pool to the northwest. After a short distance, it veers back to the south, flowing into Sandy Creek approximately 350 ft (106.7 m) downstream. Land on the east side of the spring is a state recreation area developed for picnicking and swimming. From the FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 146 Figure 73. Ponce de Leon Springs (photo by R. Means).

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BULLETIN NO. 66 147 DissolvedTotal Field MeasuresTemperature -20.5 DO-pH-6.8 Sp. Cond. -Lab Analytes BOD---0.2U Turbidity---0.05U Color-0-5UAlkalinity -100-107 Sp. Cond.-208200.0TDS-118-117.0 TSS---4U Cl2.63.0-2.3I SO43.8 2.0-2.3 F-0.1-0.067I Nutrients TOC---1U NO3 + NO2 as N 0.14-0.24 NH3 as N --0.01U TKN--0.06U0.06U P--0.0220.028 PO4-0.024NO3 0.6-Metals Ca303032.1A31.2 K0.40.40.48A0.46 Na1.91.61.6I1.4I Mg9.27.47.8A7.6 Al---75U As--3U3UB ---15U Cd--0.5U0.5UCo ---0.75U Cr--2U2U Cu--3.5U3.5U Fe0.27-35U130I Mn--0.5I1.1I Ni--4U4U Pb--3U5U Ra-226---0.2U Ra-228---1.5 Se--4U4U Sn---10U Sr-40-44.9 Zn--1.5U2UA=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limi t 2002 Analytes 180 19.88 3.44 7.53 1972 1927 Table 76. Ponce de Leon Springs water quality analysis.

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spring pool, land on this side gently rises to approximately 8 ft (2.4 m) above spring water level. West of the spring, there are walking trails that lead through a heavily forested area associated with Sandy Creek. Utilization The spring is developed within a state park and is a popular swimming and picnic destination. Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. May 20, 194220.7(1)December 9, 194618.1(1)April 19, 197218.8(1)June 28, 2002 8.83(2) FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 148 Anal y teValue Enterococci1KQ Fecal Coliform1KQ Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 77. Ponce de Leon Springs bacteriological analysis.

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JACKSON COUNTY BULLETIN NO. 66 149 Figure 74. Springs visited by FGS in Jackson County.

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Baltzell Spring Location Lat. 30° 49’ 50.16” N., Long. 85° 14’ 03.84” W. (NE ¼ SW ¼ SE ¼ sec. 16, T. 5 N., R. 10 W.). Baltzell Spring is located approximately 3.5 miles (5.6 km) north of Marianna. From the intersection of US 90 and SR 166 (Jefferson Street) in Marianna, travel north for 2.6 miles (4.2 km) on SR 166 to the Florida Caverns State park entrance. Turn west (left) into the Florida Caverns State Park and travel 1.7 miles (2.7 km) to the boat landing on the north (right) side of the road. The spring and spring run are surrounded by private property but may be accessed by traveling 1 mile (1.6 km) upstream from the Florida Caverns State Park boat ramp on the Chipola River. The spring run enters the river from the east. Description – Baltzell Spring is also referred to as Bosel or Bozel Spring. The spring pool measures 75 ft (22.9 m) north to south and 54 ft (16.5 m) east to west. The depth of the spring over the vent measures 14.0 ft (4.3 m). The water is light blue-green with a slight murkiness. Limestone is exposed near the vent and a slight boil is present on the pool surface. There is an old collapsed dock on the east shore of the spring. A small spring run enters the spring pool from the north, and the combined flow from both exits to the south. The spring and its run support rich native aquatic vegetation. Baltzell Spring run flows south, then east for a total distance of approximately 800 ft (243.8 m) (Rosenau et al., 1977), before entering the Chipola River from the east. To the east, the ground rises to approximately 12 ft (4 m) above the water surface. An old house and cleared pasture are visible a short distance to the east. Land west of the spring is comprised of the river and its floodplain swamp forest. There are at least three other springs in close proximity to Baltzell Spring that maybe collectively referred to as the Baltzell Springs Group. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 150 Figure 75. Baltzell Spring (photo by R. Means).

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Utilization The spring is undeveloped and bordered by private lands. Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. August 16, 197372.8(1)March 22, 200248.76(2) BULLETIN NO. 66 151 DissolvedTotalDissolvedTotal Field MeasuresMetalsTemperature 20.5Ca4851.650.7A DO-K0.40.440.42A pH7.6Na2.42.4I2.3I Sp. Cond. -Mg1.41.71.7A Lab Analytes Al--75U BOD--0.2AUAs-3U3U Turbidity--1.2B --15U Color5-5UCd-0.5U0.5UAlkalinity 120-127Co --0.75U Sp. Cond.270300.0-Cr-2U2U TDS144-165Cu-3.5U3.5U TSS--4UFe-35U36I Cl4-5.4AMn-0.78I1.7I SO40.4 -1.7A Ni2U2U F0-0.05IPb-3U5U Nutrients Ra-226--0.2U TOC--1IRa-228--4 NO3 + NO2 as N 0.88 -2.5 Se4U4U NH3 -0.01U Sn-10U TKN-0.11I0.12ISr70-38.7A P-0.0260.028Zn-3.4U2U PO40.024NO3 3.9 --A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit19.81 5.77 7.24 276 2002 AnalytesAnalytes 2002 1973 1973 Table 78. Baltzell Spring water quality analysis. Anal y teValue Enterococci64Q Fecal Coliform14Q Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 79. Baltzell Spring bacteriological analysis.

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Blue Hole Spring Location – Lat. 30° 49’ 12.52” N, Long. 85° 14’ 41.62” W (SW ¼ SW ¼ NW ¼ sec. 21, T. 5 N., R. 10 W.). Blue Hole Spring is located within the Florida Caverns State Park, 3 miles (4.8 km) north of Marianna. From the intersection of US 90 and SR 166 (Jefferson Street) in Marianna, travel north 2.6 miles (4.2 km) on SR 166 to the park entrance on the west (left) side of the road. Follow the park road 0.8 miles (1.3 km) then turn north (right) on Blue Hole Drive. Travel on Blue Hole Drive for 1.8 miles (2.9 km) to the spring and picnic area. Description – Blue Hole Spring pool is elongated and measures 159 ft (48.5 m) east to west and 258 ft (78.6 m) northwest to southeast. The depth of the spring pool is variable and measures up to 26 ft (7.9 m) (Rosenau et al., 1977). The spring has a sand bottom. Thick patches of filamentous green algae cover about half of the spring bottom. The water color is greenish and murky. No boil was visible on the water surface in June 2002. Water lettuce is abundant in the southeast portion of the pool. The west side of the pool has a limestone boulder wall with stairs leading down to a sandy swimming area. The south side of the spring has a wooden footbridge over the outflow channel. The east side has a limestone boulder wall and a wooden swimming dock. On the north side of the main pool, there is another much smaller pool that is separated from the main pool by a narrow land bridge. During the January 2002 visit, the water in the small pool was crystal clear and light blue, contrasting with the murky greenish water of the main spring pool. There is a wooden walkway that leads over the land bridge. The spring run discharges south approximately 1.6 FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 152 Figure 76. Blue Hole (photo by R. Means).

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miles (2.6 km) into the Chipola River through a heavily forested lowland. All immediate surroundings are landscaped with grassy lawns, scattered tall pines, picnic tables, restroom facilities, and parking area. The ground rises gently away from the spring on the west side to approximately 10 ft (3 m) above water level. Blue Hole Spring may be a river rise of an underground channel of the nearby Chipola River. During the January 2002 visit, the physical characteristics of both spring and river water were similar (relatively high DO, low temperature, and similar color). Utilization The spring is a popular swimming area within Florida Caverns State Park. Picnic tables and full facilities are near the spring. The park provides campgrounds, cavern tours, horse trails and boat access to the Chipola River. Discharge Discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. August 8, 197356.8(1)June 28, 2002 1.30(2) BULLETIN NO. 66 153 DissolvedTotalDissolvedTotal Field MeasuresMetals Temperature -Ca4341.2A41.7 DO4.3K0.50.69A0.69 pH7.1Na2.53.8I4.1 Sp. Cond. -Mg2.63.1A3.1 Lab Analytes Al--84I BOD--0.2AUAs-3U3U Turbidity--4.0B --15U Color5-5UCd-0.5U0.5UAlkalinity 130-118Co -3.5U0.75U Sp. Cond.255240.0-Cr-2U2U TDS134-147Cu-3.5U3.5U TSS--4UFe-120I270 Cl6-7.9Mn-7.3A11.1 SO40.4 -2.3 Ni2U2U F0.1-0.063IPb-3U5U Nutrients Ra-226--0.1U TOC--3.1IRa-228--1U NO3 + NO2 as N 0.12 -0.47 Se0.5U4U NH3 + NH4-0.013I Sn-10U TKN-0.1I.14ISr80-47.6 P-0.02A0.032Zn-1.5U7U PO40.02NO3 0.5 --A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit2002 17.87 5.94 1973 219 2002 AnalytesAnalytes 7.21 1973 Table 80. Blue Hole Spring water quality analysis. Anal y teValue Enterococci160Q Fecal Coliform180Q Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 81. Blue Hole Spring bacteriological analysis.

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Hays Spring Location – Lat. 30° 53’ 42.33” N., Long. 85° 13’ 28.15” W. (NE ¼ SW ¼ NW ¼ sec. 27, T. 6 N., R. 10 W.). Hays Spring enters the Chipola River approximately 10 miles northwest of Marianna. The spring run enters the Chipola River from the northeast about 0.3 miles (0.5 km) upstream from the CR 162 bridge over the Chipola River. From Marianna head north on CR 166 (Jefferson Street) approximately 3 miles (4.8 km) to the intersection with CR 167. Turn north (left) on CR 167 and drive approximately 4.2 miles (6.8 km) to the intersection with CR 162. Turn west (left) on CR 162 and travel approximately 2.6 miles (4.2 km) to the bridge over the Chipola River. There is limited small watercraft access to the river south of the bridge on the west bank. Description – Hays Spring pool measures 75 ft (22.9 m) north to south and 100 ft (30.5 m) east to west. Spring bathymetry is dramatic, with limestone cliffs and overhangs near the vent. The spring pool is shallow, except over the elongated vent opening, where depths reach 14.9 ft (4.5 m). Rosenau et al. (1977) report that the bottom is soft and muddy. Hays Spring is bluish and slightly murky. Water lettuce and exotic aquatic vegetation are present. There was no visible boil over the spring during the February 2003 sampling visit. A creek channel comes in on the northwest side of the spring pool. Hays Spring Run exits the pool to the southwest. The upper section of the spring run is approximately 0.5 mi (0.8 km) long and 100 ft (30.5 m) wide. Thereafter, the spring run narrows, is often multi-chanFLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 154 Figure 77. Hays Spring (photo by R. Means).

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neled, and runs for a total length of approximately 2.8 mi (4.5 km) southwestward into the Chipola River. A pipe leads into the Hays Spring from the northeast bank. The northeast side also has a pavilion and cleared boat launch area. The immediate surroundings are forested, with cleared farmland visible through the trees to the east. Utilization – The spring is undeveloped and surrounded by private lands. Discharge – No discharge rate is available. BULLETIN NO. 66 155 DissolvedTotalDissolvedTotal Field MeasuresMetalsTemperature Ca50.952.3A DOK0.360.38A pHNa1.7I1.8I Sp. Cond. Mg1.11.1A Lab Analytes Al-10U BOD-0.4AIAs3U3U Turbidity-0.30B -10U Color-5UCd0.5U0.5UAlkalinity -120Co -1U Sp. Cond.280.0-Cr2U2U TDS-149.0Cu3.5U4U TSS-4UFe5U11I Cl-4.2Mn0.25U1.1I SO4-0.62 Ni 2U2U F-0.05UPb5U5U Nutrients Ra-226-0.4 TOC-1URa-228-0.8U NO3 + NO2 as N-3.10 Se 8U8U NH3 + NH4-0.01U Sn -4U TKN0.06U0.06USr-35.4A P0.021I0.015UZn2.5U4U PO40.018NO3 --A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit2003 AnalytesAnalytes 2003 269 20.45 6.37 7.61 Table 82. Hays Spring water quality analysis. Anal y teValue Enterococci4Q Fecal Coliform1KQ Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 83. Hays Spring bacteriological analysis.

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Jackson Blue Spring FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 156 Figure 78. Jackson Blue Spring (photo by T. Scott). Figure 79. Jackson Blue Spring aerial photo (photo by T. Scott).

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Location —Lat. 30° 47’ 25.85” N., Long. 85° 08’ 24.31” W. (SW ¼ SE ¼ NW ¼ sec. 33, T. 5 N., R. 9 W.). Jackson Blue Spring is about 5 miles (8 km) east of Marianna at the northeast end of Merritts Mill Pond. From the intersection of US 90 and SR 73 in Marianna, head east 1.4 miles (2.3 km) on U.S. 90. Turn north (left) on SR 71 and travel 1.2 miles (1.9 km) to the intersection of SR 164. Turn east (right) and drive 3.3 miles (5.3 km) to the county park entrance on the south (right) side of the road. The spring is 0.1 mile (0.2 km) southeast of SR164 in a county park. Description -Numerous springs feed Merritts Mill Pond. Jackson Blue Spring is the main spring at the head of the pond. It is situated about 10 ft (3 m) west of the diving platform. Spring pool diameter is approximately 240 ft (73.2 m) southwest to northeast and 233 ft (71 m) northwest to southeast. Maximum depth over the vent is 16.5 ft (5 m). The vent is elliptical and approximately 5 ft (1.5 m) high and 25 feet (7.6 m) wide. Limestone is exposed near the vent, and it bears backhoe scars. Clear bluish water issues from the vent. A boil is slightly visible at the surface. There is approximately 40% algae coverage on the pool bottom and very little aquatic or emergent vegetation. The spring pool is a designated swimming area separated from the rest of Merritts Mill Pond by a chain link fence across the channel approximately 300 ft (91.4 m) downstream. The southern shore of the spring pool meets a lowland cypress-gum forest. The northern half of the pool is bordered by high ground sloping upward to nearly 20 ft (6.1 m) above water level. Most of the high ground is cleared and grassy. All nearby uplands are developed. There are buildings and a parking BULLETIN NO. 66 157 Unfilt.FilterUnfilt.Filter Field MeasuresMetals Temperature --20.520.94Ca 43383744.543.6 DO --7.87.26K -0.40.20.290.29 pH -7.57.57.58Na 2.31.71.61.731.54 Sp. Cond. --220243Mg 1.02.12.12.32.1 Lab Anal y tes As --103 U3 U BOD --0.00.2 AU -Al----75 U Turbidity --00.05 U B --030 U Color --05UCd ---0.75 U0.5 U Alkalinity --98108109 Co --00.75 USp. Cond. ---270Cr --12 U2 U TDS ---139 Cu --102 U2 U TSS ---4UFe ---25 U20 U Cl 2.02.52.53.73.8 A Mn ---0.5 U0.5 U SO42.40.90.011.1 A N i ---2 U2 U F -0.00.10.036 I0.035 I Pb --25 U3 U Nutrients Se ---3.5 U3.5 U TOC --0.01 USn ---7UNO3 + NO2 --1.43.33.3 Sr --4032 INH3 + NH4 ---0.01 U0.01 U Zn ---4 U3.5 U TKN ---0.074 I0.06 U P --0.020.0230.022 PO4--0.020.021946 Analytes192419461972 I=Value shown is less than the practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value Q=Exceeding holding time limit 1972 2001 A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit 2001 Analytes1924 Table 84. Jackson Blue Spring water quality analysis.

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area constructed on the uplands. Surrounding the spring, are a concrete retaining wall near shore, slides, a diving board, and picnic tables. An extensive underwater cave system has been mapped at Jackson Blue Spring. Utilization Jackson Blue Spring is a county swimming and recreational park. Discharge Current discharge measurement was calculated at Turner Landing, below the damn on Merritts Mill Pond. All discharge rates are measured in ft 3 /s. January 24, 1929134(1)December 22, 193456(1)May 20, 1942265(1)November 15, 1946178(1)January 30, 1947178(1)August 6, 1973287(1)December 17, 200163.6(2) FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 158 Anal y teValue Escherichia coli 1 K Enterococci1 K Fecal Coliform1 K Total Coliform1 K Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 85. Jackson Blue Spring bacteriological analysis.

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Shangri-La Springs Location – Lat. 30° 47’ 24.60” N., Long. 85° 08’ 34.39” W. (SE ¼ SW ¼ NW ¼ sec. 33, T. 5 N., R. 9 W.). Shangri-La Springs is located near the west bank of Merritts Mill Pond, 5 miles (8 km) east of Marianna. The spring is accessible by canoe or small boat from the public boat ramp on Hunter Fish Camp Road. From Marianna head east on US 90 to the intersection with SR 71, approximately 1.4 miles (2.3 km). Turn north (left) onto SR 71 and travel 1.2 miles (1.9 km) to the intersection with CR 164. Turn east (right) onto CR 164 and travel approximately 1.7 miles (2.7 km) to the intersection with Hunter Fish Camp Road. Turn south (right) on Hunter Fish Camp Road and travel approximately 0.6 mile (1 km) to the public boat landing. The spring vent is approximately 1.5 miles (2.4 km) upstream. Just after passing the recreation area buoys, look to the left. The spring is in a cove adjacent to a vegetated, car-sized boulder. There are a few dozen metal poles that stick out of the water near the vent. Alternatively, the spring is 2,100 ft (640 m) downstream from Jackson Blue Spring and can be accessed using Blue Springs Recreation Area boat launch. Description – Shangri-La Springs is situated between a large boulder and a 20 ft (6.1 m) high vertical limestone bluff on the west side of Merritts Mill Pond and forms a 40 ft (12.2 ft) diameter spring cove with native aquatic vegetation and little algae. Shangri-La Springs vent is 7 ft (2.1 m) deep and sand-bottomed with exposed limestone. Another vent is situatBULLETIN NO. 66 159 Figure 80. Shangri-La Springs (photo by R. Means).

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ed in a limestone fissure 50 ft (15.2 m) to the east. The water is light blue and clear. A prominent boil is seen over the vent near the bluff. A lone scraggly cypress tree stands in the open waters of the mill pond, 100 ft (30.5 m) southeast of the main vent. The bluff face, boulder, and surrounding area are lush with ferns and other vegetation. Merritts Mill Pond is a 5 mile (8 km) long impounded spring run. Several springs feed into the pond along the edges or directly from the pond bottom. Jackson Blue Spring forms the headwaters of Merritt’s Mill Pond. Utilization – The spring is surrounded by private, forested land on one side and Merritts Mill Pond, a popular fishing area, on the other. Discharge – No discharge rate is available at this time. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 160 DissolvedTotalDissolvedTotal Field MeasuresMetalsTemperature Ca53.4A51A DOK0.29A0.29A pHNa1.5I1.87A Sp. Cond. Mg1.8A1.8A Lab Analytes Al-10U BOD-0.2UAs4U7U Turbidity-0.05B -10U Color-5UCd0.5U0.5UAlkalinity -119Co -2U Sp. Cond.263.0-Cr2U2U TDS-168.0Cu5U3U TSS-4UFe15U10U Cl-4.3AMn0.25U1U SO4-1.2A Ni 2U2U F-0.05UPb5U12U Nutrients Ra-226-0.1 TOC-1URa-228-0.9U NO3 + NO2 as N-3.4 Se 8U15U NH3 + NH4-0.01U Sn -11U TKN0.06U0.06USr-39A P0.035I0.032IZn3U3U PO40.021NO3 --A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit275 20.92 6.26 7.54 2003 AnalytesAnalytes 2003 Table 86. Shangri-La Spring water quality analysis. Anal y teValue Enterococci1KQ Fecal Coliform1KQ Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 87. Shangri-La Spring bacteriological analysis.

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Spring Lake Springs The Florida Geological Survey sampled five second magnitude springs that flow into Spring Lake. Spring Lake actually is a 100-200 ft (30.5-61 m) wide spring run that forms at the confluence of Mill Pond Spring and Springboard Springs. Three other named springs enter into the lake (run) downstream, Double Spring and Black Spring from the south, and Gadsen Spring from the north. A low-lying swamp forest buffer surrounds the entire lake basin, and farther upslope becomes cleared farmland. Spring Lake discharges into Dry Creek, a dark water stream that flows approximately 13 miles (21 km) to the Chipola River. From the confluence, Dry Creek is clear and often flows over limestone. Location Spring Lake is located approximately 6.5 miles (10.5 km) southwest of Marianna and has one boat launch that is privately owned but open to the public. Due to extremely shallow spring run conditions, these springs are accessible by canoe or small boat only. From I-10, drive southwest 0.7 miles (1.1 km) on SR 276 to its intersection with SR 167. Turn south (left) on SR 167, travel 4.3 miles (6.9 km). Turn east (left) on Mystery Springs Road and travel 1.4 miles (2.3 km). Turn north (left) on a small track just before the end of the road. Follow this track down to the water and the boat launch. Directions to each spring are given in relation to Black Spring run where this boat launch is located. Black Spring BULLETIN NO. 66 161 Figure 81. Black Spring (photo by R. Means).

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Location – Lat. 30° 41’ 55.40” N., Long. 85° 17’ 40.08” W. (SE ¼ SW ¼ SW ¼ sec. 36, T. 4 N., R. 11 W.). Black Spring is 150 ft (45.7 m) upstream (west) of the boat launch on the south side of Spring Lake. Description – Black Spring is also known as Black Hole (Rosenau et al., 1977). The spring pool is nearly circular, steep-sided, and deep. It measures 150 ft (45.7 m) in diameter, and is 49.1 ft (15.0 m) deep northeast of the pool’s center. Approximately 20 ft (6.1 m) below the surface on the northeast side, a 25 ft (7.6 m) vertical limestone wall leads down to the spring vent. The water is clear to slightly tannic but appears very dark. Black Spring derives its name from its tendency to issue tannic water during times when all other springs associated with Spring Lake may be discharging clear water. This was the case during the March 2002 sampling visit; however, the water of Black Spring was clear and bluish two months later. Abundant aquatic vegetation, including water lettuce, exotic aquatic vegetationand algae , covers the shallow areas around the perimeter of the spring pool. No boil was visible in March 2002. Black Spring flows through three separate stream channels. The main channel flows north, another northeast, and the other east, all under a swamp forest canopy and into Spring Lake. The north-flowing channel is approximately 150 ft (45.7 m) long, the northeast-flowing and smallest channel is approximately 300 ft (91.4 m), and the east-flowing run approximately 350 ft (106.7 m). The runs are up to 50 ft (15.2 m) wide and 5 ft (1.5 m) deep. All immediate surroundings are low-lying with dense hardwood and cypress FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 162 DissolvedTotalDissolvedTotal Field MeasuresMetalsTemperature 21Ca3027.228.4 DO3K0.40.40.4 pH6.8Na1.41.61.5I Sp. Cond. -Mg5.25.15.3 Lab Analytes Al--93I BOD--0.3AIAs-3U3U Turbidity--0.7B --15U Color5-5UCd-0.5U0.5UAlkalinity 90-89ACo --0.75U Sp. Cond.190180.00-Cr-2U2U TDS112-105.0Cu-3.5U3.5U TSS--4UFe-66I100I Cl4-3.0Mn-11.214.1 SO41.2-1.7 Ni2U2U F0.2-0.065IPb-3U5U Nutrients Ra226--0.2 TOC--2.9IRa228--0.7 NO3 + NO2 as N0.09-0.43J Se4U4U NH3 + NH40.019I Sn-10U TKN .083I 0.16I Sr60-32.8 P-0.0160.017Zn-1.5U2U PO40.011-A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit20.64 4.30 7.26 180 2002 2002 AnalytesAnalytes 19731973 Table 88. Spring Lake Springs, Black Spring water quality analysis.

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swamp forest. The nearest high ground is approximately 150 ft (45.7 m) south and gently rises to a height of about 12 ft (3.7 m) above the lowlands. Utilization The spring is undeveloped and surrounded by private land. Discharge Discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. July 18, 197373.2(1)May 23, 200251.60(2)Double Spring Location – Lat. 30° 42’ 13.68” N., Long. 85° 18’ 11.16” W. (NE ¼ NW ¼ SE ¼ sec. 35, T. 4 N., R. 11 W.). The short spring run flows into Spring Lake from the southwest, 0.6 miles (1 km) upstream from Black Spring Run. Description – Double Spring, a karst window, is composed of a spring, a short run, and a siphon, all on the south side of Spring Lake. Double Spring is nearly circular and sits in a bowl-shaped depression measuring 87 ft (26.5 m) in diameter. The depth of the spring pool is 18.0 ft (5.5 m), and the water is somewhat murky with a bluish hue. Limestone can be BULLETIN NO. 66 163 Anal y teValue Enterococci 520Q Fecal Coliform134Q Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 89. Spring Lake Springs, Black Spring bacteriological analysis. Figure 82. Double Spring (photo by R. Means).

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found near the vent and siphon, but the rest of the spring, siphon and run has a soft sand bottom. A moderate boil is present on the water surface. There are large, thick mats of filamentous algae scattered about the pool among native aquatic vegetation with some exotic invasive aquatic plants. The spring discharges through a run as wide as the spring and flows for approximately 75 ft (22.9 m), where it splits into two channels, one flowing north and one flowing east. The majority of flow travels eastward approximately 200 ft (61 m) into a siphon that is estimated to have a depth of 15 ft (4.6 m). The northward run flows through a narrow channel a short distance into Spring Lake. Higher ground on the south side of the spring rises gently to approximately 8 ft (2.4 m) above the water. There is a wooden dock on the south side of the pool, and a private residence can be seen to the southwest on the higher ground. The area around the spring is within in a dense hardwood and cypress swamp forest. Utilization – Double Spring is surrounded by private lands and is used privately for swimming. Discharge Discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. July 17, 197337.5(1)May 22, 2002appeared to be siphoning during the 2002 visit(2) FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 164 DissolvedTotalDissolvedTotal Field MeasuresMetalsTemperature 21Ca4142.638.6A DO4.5K0.40.350.32A pH7.4Na1.81.7I1.8I Sp. Cond. -Mg55.65.3A Lab Analytes Al--75U BOD--0.2AUAs-3U3U Turbidity--1.1B --15U Color5-5UCd-0.5U0.5UAlkalinity 120-121.0Co --.75U Sp. Cond.210240.0-Cr-2U2U TDS144-131.0Cu-3.5U3.5U TSS--4UFe-35U35U Cl4-3.4Mn-1.4U1.4U SO40 -1.9 Ni -2U2U F0.2-0.086IPb-3U5U Nutrients Ra-226--0.1U TOC--1URa-228--1.2U NO3 + NO2 as N 0.2 -0.95 Se -4U4U NH3 + NH4-0.01U Sn --10U TKN-0.06U0.06USr80-44.9A P-0.0190.021Zn-1.5U2U PO40.018NO3 0.9 --A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit250 2002 AnalytesAnalytes 7.46 1973 2002 20.06 5.89 1973 Table 90. Spring Lake Springs, Double Spring water quality analysis. Anal y teValue Enterococci16Q Fecal Coliform2Q Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 91. Spring Lake Springs, Double Spring bacteriological analysis.

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Gadsen Spring Location – Lat. 30° 42’ 12.09” N., Long. 85° 17’ 18.42” W. (NW ¼ NW ¼ SE ¼ sec. 36, T. 4 N., R. 11 W.). Gadsen Spring flows into Spring Lake from the north, 2100 ft (640 m) downstream from Black Spring Run. Description – Gadsen Spring occupies a deep, conical, nearly circular to oval depression 120 ft (36.6 m) north to south and 141 ft (43 m) east to west. The depth of the spring pool measured over the vent is 43 ft (13.1m). The vent is located beneath a vertical limestone ledge that is slightly north of the pool’s center. The water is slightly murky with a greenish blue color. No boil on the pool surface was observed in March 2002. There is abundant native aquatic vegetation with some thick algae mats. Gadsen Spring discharges south 75 ft (22.9 m) through a narrow run that is shallow, approximately 1-3 ft (0.3-0.9 m) deep. The run then widens to about 100 ft (30.5 m) forming a pool that is approximately 150 ft (45.7 m) long and has dense aquatic vegetation. This pool is reported to be a sinkhole that takes some of the water (Rosenau et al., 1977). Continuing downstream southward, the run again narrows and flows swiftly for approximately 800 ft (243.8 m) through low-lying swamp forest until entering Spring Lake. A mowed grassy track accesses the spring on the north side. To the north, land rises very gently to a height of about 10 ft (3.1 m) above the lowlands. There is a small water-filled sinkhole to the north a short distance. All surrounding lands are forested. Utilization The spring is undeveloped and surrounded by private land. BULLETIN NO. 66 165 Figure 83. Gadsen Spring (photo by R. Means).

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Discharge Discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. July 18, 197318.0(1)May 23, 200212.8(2) FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 166 DissolvedTotalDissolvedTotal Field MeasuresMetalsTemperature 20Ca394041.7 DO-K0.30.350.34 pH7.2Na1.71.81.6I Sp. Cond. -Mg5.76.36.5 Lab Analytes Al--75U BOD--0.2UAs-3U3U Turbidity--0.5B --15U Color5-5UCd-0.5U0.5U Alkalinity 120-125Co --0.75U Sp. Cond.220250.0-Cr-2U2U TDS140-134Cu-3.5U3.5U TSS--4UFe-35U35U Cl2-3.6Mn-1.1I2.5 SO40.8 -1.7 Ni -2U2U F0.2-0.084IPb-3U5U Nutrients Ra-226--0.4 TOC--1URa-228--1.2U NO3 + NO2 as N 0.16 -0.84J Se -4U4U NH3 + NH4-0.01U Sn --10U TKN-0.06U0.06USr90-49.7 P-0.020.017Zn-1.5U2U PO40.016NO3 0.7 --A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit2002 2002 AnalytesAnalytes1973 1973 20.54 4.36 7.26 250 Table 92. Spring Lake Springs, Gadsen Spring water quality analysis. Anal y teValue Enterococci4Q Fecal Coliform4Q Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 93. Spring Lake Springs, Gadsen Spring bacteriological analysis.

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Mill Pond Spring Location – Lat. 30° 42’ 13.32” N., Long. 85° 18’ 27.00” W. (NE ¼ NE ¼ SW ¼ sec. 35, T. 4 N., R. 11 W.). Mill Pond Spring flows into the lake from the southwest 0.85 miles (1.37 km) upstream from Black Spring Run. The spring is surrounded by private land. Description – Mill Pond Spring pool measures 126 ft (38.4 m) north to south and 150 ft (45.7 m) east to west. It occupies a conical depression. The depth measured near the center of the pool is 16.8 ft (5.1 m). The sides of the pool are steep and sandy, leading down to a deeper central area with limestone exposed in the spring vent. The water is clear and light blue. No boil was visible on the pool surface during the March 2002 visit. The pool has an abundance of exotic aquatic vegetation, except for the deeper central portion. Mill Pond Spring flows into uppermost Spring Lake on the southwest side via a 600 ft (182.8 m)-long, shallow spring run. The run averages 2 ft (0.6 m) deep. Private residences are present along the northwest side of the spring and the uppermost part of its run. The houses are situated on a gently sloping 8 ft (2.5 m) high ridge. The rest of the land surrounding the spring and its run is densely forested and mostly low-lying. High ground is also adjacent to the spring run on its south side approximately 400 ft (121.9 m) downstream from the spring. Utilization The spring is located on private land and a portion of the water is extracted by a water bottling company. BULLETIN NO. 66 167 Figure 84. Mill Pond Spring (photo by R. Means).

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Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. July 18, 197333.2(1)May 22, 200223.21(2) FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 168 DissolvedTotalDissolvedTotal Field MeasuresMetalsTemperature 20.5Ca3041.437.5 DO6.5K0.40.350.32 pH7.4Na1.51.8I1.5I Sp. Cond. -Mg5.85.45.0 Lab Analytes Al--75U BOD--0.2UAs-3U3U Turbidity--0.2B --15U Color5-5UCd-0.5U1UAlkalinity 97-120Co --0.75U Sp. Cond.180237.0-Cr-2U2U TDS117-130Cu-3.5U3.5U TSS--4UFe-35U35U Cl2-3.4Mn-0.5U0.5U SO40.4 -1.8 Ni -2U2U F0.2-0.082IPb-3U5U Nutrients Ra-226--0.2 TOC--1URa-228--1.2U NO3 + NO2 as N 0.2 -0.97 Se -4U4U NH3 + NH4-0.01U Sn --10U TKN-0.06U0.06USr60-42.3 P-0.020.020Zn-1.5U2U PO40.018NO3 0.9 --A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit2002 20.39 4.17 1973 204 2002 AnalytesAnalytes 7.53 1973 Table 94. Spring Lake Springs, Mill Pond Spring water quality analysis. Anal y teValue Enterococci16Q Fecal Coliform2Q Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 95. Spring Lake Springs, Mill Pond Spring bacteriological analysis.

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Springboard Spring Location – Lat. 30° 42’ 26.64” N., Long. 85° 18’ 23.76” W. (NE ¼ SE ¼ NW ¼ sec. 35, T. 4 N., R. 11 W.). Springboard Spring is on the northwest side of Spring Lake 0.9 miles (1.5 km) upstream from Black Spring run at the head of Spring Lake. At the head of Spring Lake, take the spring run that enters from the north and follow it approximately 1,000 ft (304.8 m) to the spring. Description – Springboard Spring pool measures 78 ft (23.8 m) north to south and 60 ft (18.3 m) east to west. The spring issues from a deep crack in limestone near the center of the spring pool and is 18.4 ft (5.6 m) deep. Its water is clear and bluish. Aquatic vegetation including exotic aquatic vegetation and algae are abundant. A very slight boil was present in March 2002. It has two spring runs, one flowing southwest, and one flowing southeast. The southwest run, approximately 1,000 ft (304.8 m) long, is narrow, averages 2 ft (0.6 m) deep, and merges with Mill Pond Spring run to form upper Spring Lake. The southeastflowing run is approximately 125 ft (38.1 m) wide and averages less than 1 ft (0.3 m) deep. It has a soft sand and detritus-covered bottom with rich aquatic vegetation and freshwater mollusks. Approximately 800 ft (243.8 m) downstream, half of the southeast run flows into a swirling siphon approximately 50 ft (15.2 m) in diameter. The other half flows southward a short distance from the first siphon into another. During higher water levels, water flows past the siphons via an ephemeral stream channel southward to the northwest portion of Spring Lake. This intermittent channel was dry in March 2002. The immediate lands to the north of the spring are all low-lying and densely forested with mixed hardwoods and cypress. BULLETIN NO. 66 169 Figure 85. Springboard Spring (photo by R. Means).

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A forested island surrounded by the two spring runs is south of the spring along the northwest perimeter of Spring Lake. Utilization The spring is remote, undeveloped, and surrounded by private property. Discharge Discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. July 18, 197317.4(1)May 22, 200233.96(2) FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 170 DissolvedTotalDissolvedTotal Field MeasuresMetalsTemperature 21.5Ca3931.3A26.6 DO7.5K0.30.39A0.34 pH7.7Na1.71.6I1.4I Sp. Cond. -Mg4.86.4A5.5 Lab Analytes Al--75U BOD--0.2UAs-3U3U Turbidity-0.20B --15U Color10-5UCd-0.5U0.5UAlkalinity 120-99ACo --0.75U Sp. Cond.240198.0-Cr-2U2U TDS137-110.0Cu-3.5U3.5U TSS--4UFe-35U35U Cl3.0-2.8Mn-0.5U0.5U SO40.8-1.4 Ni -2U2U F0.2-0.07Pb-3U5U Nutrients Ra-226--0.1 TOC--1URa-228--1.2U NO3 + NO2 as N0.2-0.64 Se -4U4U NH3 + NH4--0.011I Sn --10U TKN-0.06U0.06USr100-31.2 P-0.0160.018Zn-1.5U2U PO4-0.018NO3 0.9--A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit245 20.27 4.22 7.34 2002 AnalytesAnalytes 2002 1973 1973 Table 96. Spring Lake Springs, Springboard Spring water quality analysis. Anal y teValue Enterococci1KQ Fecal Coliform1KQ Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 97. Spring Lake Springs, Springboard Spring bacteriological analysis.

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JEFFERSON COUNTY BULLETIN NO. 66 171 Figure 86. Springs visited by FGS in Jefferson County.

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Wacissa Springs Group GroupLocation —Lat. 30° 20’ N., Long. 83° 59’ W. (Sections 2 and 12, T. 2 S., R. 3 E.). The Wacissa Springs Group is approximately 19 miles (30.6 km) southeast of Tallahassee and 1.2 miles (1.9 km) south of Wacissa. From the intersection of Tram Road and SR 59 in Wacissa, travel south on SR 59 approximately 0.7 mile (1.1 km) where SR 59 turns sharply to the west less than 1 mile (1.6 km) south of Wacissa. At this sharp right turn, a paved county road continues south (straight) and ends 0.6 miles (1 km) beyond at a county park and boat ramp situated on the east side of the head of the Wacissa River. GroupDescription -The Wacissa Springs Group consists of at least 12 springs that give rise to the Wacissa River (Rosenau et al., 1977). Several springs are located at the head of the river near the county park. The rest are scattered along the upper 2 miles (3.2 km) of the river. Hornsby and Ceryak (2000) list 16 springs in this group. These include Wacissa, Big, Blue, Buzzer’s Log, Cassida, Garner, Horse Head, Log, Minnow, Thomas, JEF63991, JEF63992, JEF63993, JEF64991, JEF312991, and Acuilla springs. Land along the upper part of the river is low and flat, and it supports a lush mixed hardwood-palm forest. Spring No. 2 —Lat. 30° 20’ 23.59” N., Long. 83° 59’ 29.34” W. (SE¼ SE¼ NE¼ sec. 2, T. 2 S., R. 3 E.). Spring No. 2 is located 15 ft (4.7 m) south of the diving board platform at the county park. There are multiple small vents near this spring. Spring pool diameter measures 45 ft (13.7 m) north to south. The maximum depth of the spring pool measures 8 ft (2.4 m). The spring pool is choked with exotic aquatic vegetation, and algae are present throughout the pool. There are no adjacent uplands. Land near the spring supports cypress FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 172 Figure 87. Wacissa Springs Group, Big Spring (Big Blue Spring) (photo by R. Means).

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BULLETIN NO. 66 173 Unfilt.FilterUnfilt.Filter Field Measures Temperature -20.020.5-20.521.0DO --0.9-3.25.6pH 7.47.97.4-8.07.6Sp. Cond. 320318326-267272Lab Anal y tes BOD -0.31 I-0.60.2 U Turbidity -0.1-10.25Color 255U-55UAlkalinity -150163163120132132 Sp. Cond. -370-300TDS -184-159TSS -4 U-4 UCl 5.15.05.15.16.04.94.9 SO46.76.46.46.65.25.35.4 F 0.10.20.130.130.30.140.14 Nutrients TOC --1I-01INO3 + NO2 -0.160.160.20.410.41 NH3 + NH4 -0.01 U0.01 U -0.01 I0.02 I TKN -0.06 U0.06 U -0.06 U0.078 I P -0.0510.0460.020.0370.036 PO4 -0.0450.020.036Metals Ca 525253.852.93741.440.9 A K 0.80.60.410.410.40.410.41 A Na 3.13.62.942.92 A3.62.812.88 Mg 8.69.88.48.27.98.38.2 A As -3 U3 U2903 U3 U Al --75 U --75 U B -30 U-1030 UCd -0.75 U0.5 U -0.75 U0.5 U Co -0.75 U-0.75 UCr -2 U2 U02 U2 U Cu -2 U2 U02 U2 U Fe -37 I20 U4025 U20 U Mn -7.11.74 -1.9 I0.75 I Ni -2 U2 U -2 U2 U Pb -5 U3 U2.05 U3 U Se -3.5 U3.5 U -3.5 U3.5 U Sn -7 U-7 USr -71.4-14068.4Zn -4 U3.5 U504 U3.5 U 2001 A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value less than practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value Q=exceeding holding time limit Analytes Big SpringSpring No. 2 (Aucilla) 19461960 2001 1972 Table 98. Wacissa Springs Group water quality analysis.

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swamp forest and mesic hardwood forest. A sand and gravel parking lot borders the east side of the spring pool. Big Spring (Big Blue Spring) -Lat. 30° 19’ 39.84” N., Long. 83° 59’ 05.44” W. (NW¼ SE¼ NW¼ sec. 12, T. 2 S., R. 3 E.). Big Spring is located approximately 1 mile (1.6 km) south of Spring No. 2 on the east side of the Wacissa River. It has two spring runs. The larger is about 66 ft (20.1 m) wide and flows 1,300 ft (396.2 m) northwest and west to the Wacissa River. The other run is about 33 ft (10.1 m) wide and it flows southwest 1,000 ft (304.8 m) to the river. Big Spring has one main vent nearly 6 ft (1.8 m) in diameter at the bottom of the circular spring pool. Pool diameter is 150 ft (45.7 m) northwest to southeast, 160 ft (48.8 m) northeast to southwest. Maximum depth of pool is 42 ft (12.8 m). The water is light greenish blue with large suspended particles, and the bottom is barely visible. A boil is present on the pool surface. Exotic aquatic vegetation covers nearly 50% of the depression. Water lettuce and some algae are present. There is no high ground immediately near the spring. The surrounding lowland forest is completely intact and is a mixture of cypress, hardwoods, and cabbage palm. A rope swing is located on the southwest side of the pool, and there is a floating wooden platform near the beginning of the larger spring run. Utilization — Some of these springs are used as swimming and recreation areas, especially Spring No. 2 and Big Spring. The land around Wacissa River was purchased by the State of Florida, Conservation and Recreation Lands (CARL). Discharge —Current discharge measurement is for the Wacissa Springs Group. All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. July 16, 194269.4(1)December 7, 196064.5(1)October 2, 2001293(4) FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 174 Anal y teBi g Sprin g Sprin g No. 2 Escherichia coli 1 KQ2Q Enterococci1 KQ46Q Fecal Coliform1 AQ4Q Total Coliform1 KQ270Q Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 99. Wacissa Springs Group bacteriological analysis.

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LAFAYETTE COUNTY BULLETIN NO. 66 175 Figure 88. Springs visited by FGS in Lafayette County.

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Allen Mill Pond Springs Location – Lat. 30° 09’ 46.23” N., Long. 83° 14’ 35.06” W. (SW ¼ NE ¼ SW ¼ sec. 5, T. 4 S., R. 11 E.). Allen Mill Pond Springs are located on SRWMD land approximately 8.5 miles (14 km) northwest of Mayo. The springs are on the west side of the Suwannee River at the head of Allen Mill Pond. From the intersection of US 27 and SR 51 in Mayo, travel northwest on US 27 for approximately 4.8 miles (7.7 km). Turn north (right) on CR 251B and travel 3.7 miles (6 km) to the SRWMD sign for Allen Mill Pond on the east (right). Follow road to a parking area near the lower section of the spring run. The spring vent is approximately 0.6 miles (1.0 km) upstream from the mouth of the spring run. A footpath follows the west side of the run upstream to the spring. Description – At least three spring vents occupy an elongated limestone fissure that spans 186 ft (56.7 m) east to west. The vent is a 2.5 ft (0.8 m) diameter hole in exposed limestone and has a maximum depth of 8.6 ft (2.6 m). The fissure reaches a maximum width of approximately 40 ft (12.2 m). The banks are exposed limestone. The bottom is dark due to organic debris. The entire elongated spring pool was covered with a thick layer of duckweed in July 2002. Water quality was sampled from the westernmost spring vent in the fissure system. The sampled spring pool is estimated to be 15 ft (4.6 m) east to west and 8 ft (2.4 m) north to south. The depth of the sampled vent is estimated at 8 ft (2.4 m). Allen Mill Pond Springs discharge southeastward from the east end of the fissure through a shallow run that averages about 1 ft (0.3 m) deep and 40 ft (12.2 m) wide. The spring run flows over scalloped limestone and rippled sand. There is an abundance of aquatic vegetation including exotic aquatic vegetation. Spring water is clear. There is a thick algal covering on limestone. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 176 Figure 89. Allen Mill Pond Springs (photo by R. Means).

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Several additional springs feed the upper part of Allen Mill Pond Springs Run. Approximately 100 ft (30.5 m) downstream from the head springs, on the west side of the spring channel, a small spring discharges vertically near the bank. A small vent producing a slight boil also is present out in the middle of the shallow stream channel 20 ft (6.1 m) to the east. Continuing downstream about 100 feet (31 m) farther, another smaller spring run, that is approximately 80 ft (24.4 m) long, feeds in from the east side. At its head is a small spring that has a pool measuring 15 ft (4.6 m) in diameter. From this point, Allen Mill Pond Springs Run continues to flow southeast another 0.6 miles (1.0 km) into the Suwannee River. Utilization – The spring and spring run are within heavily forested SRWMD land. A public access area is located along the west side of the lower part of the spring run. Discharge – All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. November 26, 197321.8(1)September 23, 199711.23(4)July 9, 2002 5.78(2) BULLETIN NO. 66 177 DissolvedTotalDissolvedTotal Field MeasuresMetalsTemperature 21.0Ca4655.356.3 DO1.9K0.50.480.47 pH7.2Na1.92.72.6I Sp. Cond. -Mg1713.814.1 Lab Analytes Al--75U BOD--0.2AUAs-3U3U Turbidity--0.2B --15U Color0-5 UCd-0.5U0.5UAlkalinity 170-194.0Co --0.75U Sp. Cond.377372.0-Cr-2U2U TDS186-208.0Cu-3.5U3.5U TSS--4UFe-35U35U Cl3.2-4.9Mn-24.526.3 SO44.5-4.9 Ni -2U2U F0-0.14Pb-3U5U Nutrients Ra-226--0.4 TOC--2.1IRa-228--1.6 NO3 + NO2 as N-0.52J Se -4U4U NH3 + NH4--0.01U Sn --10U TKN-0.1I0.06USr0-46.0 P-0.0510.046AZn-1.5U2U PO4-0.043NO3 ---A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit379 21.49 0.24 7.06 2002 AnalytesAnalytes 2002 19731973 Table 100. Allen Mill Pond Springs water quality analysis. Anal y teValue Enterococci2Q Fecal Coliform1KQ Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 101. Allen Mill Pond Springs bacteriological analysis.

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Lafayette Blue Spring Location -Lat. 30° 07’ 33.00” N., Long. 83° 13’ 34.08” W. (SW ¼ NE ¼ NW ¼ sec. 21, T. 4 S., R. 11 E.). Lafayette Blue Spring is located 7 miles (11.3 km) northwest of Mayo on the west side of the Suwannee River. Fromthe intersection of US 27 and SR 51 in Mayo, drive northwest on US 27 for 4.9 miles (7.9 km). Turn north (right) on CR 251B and continue for 2.1 miles (3.4 km) on a gravel road. Turn east (right) onto a dirt road and go 0.2 miles (0.3 km) to the county park entrance. Spring vent is east of the parking area in the pool farthest from the river. Description —Lafayette Blue Spring discharges from a single horizontal vent in the south side of the sink depression. The spring pool measures 57 ft (17.4 m) north to south and 102 ft (31.1 m) east to west. Spring depth measures 21 ft (6.4 m). The water is clear and light bluish green. Algae are very thick on limestone and sand substrates within the spring pool and run. The spring run flows east approximately 300 ft (91.4 m) before reaching the Suwannee River. Clear water from the spring contrasts sharply with the tannin-colored water of the river. Limestone is cropped out throughout the spring pool and run. A 20 ft (6.1 m) wide land bridge stretches north to south across the spring run approximately 120 ft (36.6 m) east of the vent. There is a narrow band of a few cypress trees near spring run. The spring pool is steep sided with limestone and sand. Adjacent high ground is approximately 20 ft (6.1 m) above the water level, and it is sparsely forested with a few pines and oaks. Several sinks and karst windows are present in the woods west of the main spring. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 178 Figure 90. Lafayette Blue Spring (photo by T. Scott).

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Utilization -This spring is developed into a county swimming and recreation park with a camping area, boat ramp and other facilities. Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. November 23, 197392.8(1)June 15,1998102(4)October 24, 200145.9(4) BULLETIN NO. 66 179 Unfilt.FilterUnfilt.Filter Field MeasuresMetals Temperature 21.521.7Ca 5467.265.3 DO 2.00.92 K 1.00.840.86 pH 7.27.17Na 4.24.684.88 Sp. Cond. 400382Mg 1111.711.8 Lab Anal y tes As -3 U3 U BOD -0.2 AU Al --75 U Turbidity -0.1 B -25 UColor 55UCd -0.75 U0.75 U Alkalinity 170200200 Co -0.75 USp. Cond. -430 Cr -2 U2 U TDS -233 Cu -2.5 U2.5 U TSS -4UFe -35 U35 U Cl 7.099.2 Mn -3.73.4 SO48.11313 N i -1.5 U1.5 U F 0.00.10.088 I Pb -5 U4 U Nutrients Se -4 U4 U TOC -1USn -10 UNO3 + NO2-1.81.8 S r 094NH3+NH4-0.0590.022 Zn -5 U5 U TKN -0.16 I0.1 I P -0.041 A0.041 PO4-0.045I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value Q=Exceeding holding time limit 1973 2001 A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit Analytes1973 2001 Analytes Table 102. Lafayette Blue Spring water quality analysis. Anal y teValue Escherichia coli 2Q Enterococci10Q Fecal Coliform6Q Total Coliform40Q Bacteria Results (in #/100 ml) Table 103. Lafayette Blue Spring bacteriological analysis.

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Mearson Spring Location – Lat. 30° 02’ 28.84” N., Long. 83° 1’ 30.10” W. (NE ¼ NW ¼ NW ¼ sec. 21, T. 5 S., R. 13 E.). Mearson Springs are located approximately 9 miles (14.5 km) east of Mayo along the southwest bank of the Suwannee River. From the intersection of US 27 and SR 51 in Mayo, head east on US 27 for approximately 6.6 miles (10.6 km) to the intersection with CR 251. Turn east (left) onto CR 251 and drive approximately 2 miles (3.2 km) until the road makes a 90 degree bend to the north. Continue north on CR 251 approximately 0.7 miles (1.2 km) to a boat landing at the end of the road. The spring are 0.8 miles (1.3 km) downstream from the boat ramp on SR 251. Mearson Springs occupy a southwest to northeast-trending cove surrounded by high banks along the southwest bank of the Suwannee River. Description – Mearson Springs pool, which has three vents, measures 75 ft (22.9 m) southwest to northeast and 51 ft (15.5 m) southeast to northwest. The largest spring vent is southernmost, where a cavern opens beneath a limestone shelf. The depth over the largest spring measures 11.8 ft (3.6 m). The bottom is limestone and varying amounts of sand. Spring water is clear and slightly green, contrasting with the dark water of the Suwannee River. There are thick patches of algae but little to no other aquatic vegetation. Three springs producing prominent boils are oriented linearly along a 30 ft (9.1 m) long, north-south trending limestone fissure. On the southwest side, a wooden boardwalk and stairs lead down into the spring from the 15 to 25 ft (4.6 – 7.6 m) high banks. The short spring run discharges northeast about 30 ft (9.1 m) into the river. Land around the spring is privately owned and forested adjacent to the spring. Spring discharge is dictated by Suwannee River stage. Bare limeFLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 180 Figure 91. Mearson Spring (photo by D. Hornsby).

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stone and sand banks that are typically underwater were exposed during the April 2002 visit due to extremely low river levels. The adjacent riverbanks are composed of scalloped limestone, shell marl, and sand. Utilization The spring is surrounded by private land and is used locally for swimming. Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. May 14, 192750.6 (1)December 3, 197562.1 (1)September 15, 199768.52 (4)August 14, 2002 45.02 (2) BULLETIN NO. 66 181 DissolvedTotalDissolvedTotal Field MeasuresMetalsTemperature 21.5Ca525254.3 DO-K0.30.720.73 pH7.6Na2.62.6I2.8I Sp. Cond. -Mg8.19.69.9 Lab Analytes Al--50U BOD--0.2UAs-3U3U Turbidity--0.70B --11I Color5-5UCd-0.5U0.5U Alkalinity 150-167.0Co --0.75U Sp. Cond.317360.0-Cr-2U2U TDS182-199.0Cu-3U3U TSS--4UFe025U25U Cl3.2-5.0Mn-1.6I2I SO48.2-14.0 Ni -2U2U F0.2-0.12APb-3U5U Nutrients Ra-226--0.2 TOC--1.4IRa-228--1U NO3 + NO2 as N--1.5J Se -4U4U NH3 + NH4--0.01UV Sn --7U TKN-0.06UV0.06USr60-67.6 P-0.033A0.035Zn-3.4U3.4U PO4--0.034 NO3 ---A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit21.45 0.53 7.20 357 2002 2002 AnalytesAnalytes1975 1975 Anal y teValue Enterococci1KQ Fecal Coliform1KQ Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 105. Mearson Spring bacteriological analysis. Table 104. Mearson Spring water quality analysis.

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Owens Spring Location – Lat. 30° 02’ 45.39” N, Long. 83° 02’ 28.07” W (NW ¼ SE ¼ SW ¼ sec. 17, T. 5 S., R.13 E.). Owens Spring is located on SRWMD land about 8 miles (12.9 km) east of Mayo. From the intersection of US 27 and SR 51 in Mayo head east on US 27 for approximately 6.8 miles (10.9 km) to the intersection with CR 251. Turn east (left) onto CR 251 and drive approximately 2 miles (3.2 km) until the road makes a 90 degree bend to the north. Continue on CR 251 north approximately 0.7 miles (1.2 km) until the road comes to an end at a boat landing. The spring pool is approximately 0.25 miles (0.4 km) east of the CR 251B boat ramp on the Suwannee River. Description – Owens Spring pool measures 114 ft (34.7 m) north to south and 87 ft (26.5 m) east to west. The pool is shallow, less than 8 ft (2.4 m) deep except in the deepest area at the vent where it measures 31.3 ft (9.5 m) deep. The vent lies beneath a submerged limestone ledge on the southwest side of the pool. The water is clear bluish to slightly tannic. There is very little aquatic vegetation and the bottom is mainly rock and sand. There are thick patches of dark green filamentous algae covering more than half of the pool substrates. Owens Spring has steep limestone and sand banks. Its west and north banks rise vertically to approximately 20 ft (6.1 m) higher than the water surface. In July 2002, the spring had a short run with steep sandy banks. It flowed approximately 125 ft (38.1 m) northeast into a siphon. Also at this time, the spring was barely flowing, crystal clear, and averaged less than 1 ft (0.3 m) deep. During a prior visit in March 2002, the water level was approximately 5 ft (1.5 m) higher, flowing swiftly, and was slightly tannic. At higher water levels, Owens Spring flows overland through a lowland corridor leading to the Suwannee River. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 182 Figure 92. Owens Spring (photo by R. Means).

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This intermittent channel is dotted with sinkholes and karst windows, and limestone frequently is exposed along its course. A gated sand road accesses the spring on the south side where there is a small gravel parking area. All surrounding lands are forested with mixed hardwoods and pines. Utilization – Owens Spring is owned by the SRWMD. Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. September 10, 197351.2(1)June 2, 199890(4)(estimate) July 10, 2002 0.89(2) BULLETIN NO. 66 183 DissolvedTotalDissolvedTotal Field MeasuresMetalsTemperature 21.5Ca4856.157.6 DO2.7K0.23.43.30 pH7.5Na2.45.25.2 Sp. Cond. -Mg8.91010.3 Lab Analytes Al--75U BOD--0.2UAs-3U3U Turbidity--0.25B --15U Color0-5UCd-0.5U0.5U Alkalinity 150-163Co --0.75U Sp. Cond.330381.0-Cr-2U2U TDS181-214ACu-3.5U3.5U TSS--4UFe-35U35U Cl6.0-10.0Mn-18.118.5 SO44.4-15.0 Ni -2U2U F0.1-0.094IPb-3U5U Nutrients Ra-226--0.3 TOC--2.8IRa-228--2.2 NO3 + NO2 as N0.51-1.9J Se -4U4U NH3 + NH4--0.01U Sn --10U TKN-0.19I0.13ISr0-54.7 P-0.0730.073Zn-1.5U2U PO4-0.07NO3 ---A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit384 21.04 0.20 7.14 2002 AnalytesAnalytes 2002 1973 1973 Table 106. Owens Spring water quality analysis. Anal y teValue Enterococci1KQ Fecal Coliform1KQ Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 107. Owens Spring bacteriological analysis.

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Ruth Spring Location – Lat. 29° 59’ 44.78” N., Long. 82° 58’ 36.50” W. (SE ¼ NE ¼ NW ¼ sec. 1, T. 6 S., R. 13 E.). The Ruth Spring is located 4 miles (6.5 km) northwest of Branford within the SRWMD Troy Spring Conservation Area. From the bridge over the Suwannee River in Branford, travel west and northwest for approximately 4.8 miles (7.7 km) on US 27, then turn north (right) on CR 425. Drive 1 mile (1.6 km) and turn east (right) into the Troy Spring Conservation Area. Follow dirt road 1.1 miles (1.8 km), turn north (left) on another dirt road and continue 0.1 mile (0.2 km) to the spring. Description – Ruth Spring pool measures 75 ft (22.9 m) in diameter north to south and 51 ft (15.5 m) east to west. The vent is located beneath a limestone ledge on the west side of the pool, where the depth measured 5.9 ft (1.8 m). There is a wooden erosion control wall built along the west side of the depression approximately 3 ft (0.9 m) higher than the spring water level at the time of the visit. The bottom of the spring pool is mainly exposed sand. Limestone crops out around the pool edge. The water is clear, with a slight greenish hue and a small boil present on the pool surface near the vent. There is very little aquatic vegetation and algae. The shallow, sand-bottomed spring run travels eastward approximately 550 ft (167.6 m) and flows into the Suwannee River. On the south and west sides of the spring, the land rises steeply to approximately 20 ft (6.1 m) above the lowlands that contain the spring and its run. All lowlands and adjacent uplands are forested. There is a dirt access road and small parking area near the west side of the spring. Ruth Spring also is locally known as Sulfur Spring. Local swimmers reported that the spring often has a slight hydrogen sulfide odor, but this was not the case in March 2002. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 184 Figure 93. Ruth Spring (photo by R. Means).

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Utilization The spring is undeveloped, open to the public, and is a popular local swimming area. Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. November 14, 197311.5(1)June 24, 199714.35(4) BULLETIN NO. 66 185 DissolvedTotalDissolvedTotal Field MeasuresMetalsTemperature 21.5Ca5864.863.8 DO1.5K0.72.32.20 pH7.3Na2.54.13.7I Sp. Cond. -Mg6.46.46.4 Lab Analytes Al--19I BOD--0.4AIAs-3U3U Turbidity--0.25B --13I Color10-5UCd-0.5U0.5UAlkalinity 150-167Co --0.75U Sp. Cond.330380.0-Cr-2U2U TDS187-212.0Cu-3.5U3.5U TSS--4UFe-35U35U Cl4.8-7.3Mn-0.5U0.5U SO47.8-13.0 Ni -2U2U F0-0.076IPb-3U5U Nutrients Ra-226--1.2 TOC--2.8IRa-228--1.1U NO3 + NO2 as N--4.00 Se -4U4U NH3 + NH4--0.01U Sn --7U TKN-0.230.2ISr0-248.0 P-0.044J0.045AZn-1.5U3U PO4-0.044NO3 ---A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit2002 AnalytesAnalytes 2002 1973 1973 388 21.58 0.68 6.99 Table 108. Ruth Spring water quality analysis. Anal y teValue Enterococci16Q Fecal Coliform1KQ Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 109. Ruth Spring bacteriological analysis.

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Troy Spring Location — Lat. 30° 00’ 21.69” N., Long. 82° 59’ 51.01” W. (NW ¼ NE ¼ SE ¼ sec. 34, T. 5 S., R. 13 E.). Troy Spring is located within Troy Spring State Park, 5.5 miles (8.8 km) northwest of Branford. From the bridge over the Suwannee River in Branford, travel northwest on US 27 for 4.8 miles (7.7 km).Turn north (right) on CR 425 and travel 1.2 miles (1.9 km) to the state park entrance on the right. Description Troy Spring issues from a depression with vertical limestone walls. The pool diameter measures 138 ft (42.1 m) north to south and 118 ft (36 m) east to west. The pool depth is 61 ft (18.6 m). The spring run is about 325 ft (99 m) long and flows in a straight path eastward to the Suwannee River. A thick layer of dark green filamentous algae covers nearly all aquatic substrates. There is little to no other aquatic or emergent vegetation. Water color is clear and greenish. Limestone is exposed around the spring pool and has a scalloped appearance. High ground surrounds the spring and rises to approximately 18 ft (5.5 m) above water surface. The uplands are generally forested with pines and hardwoods. The Springs Fever website notes that at the lower end of the run lie the keel timbers/ribs of the 19thcentury steamship, Madison, which was purposely sunk in the run during the Civil War to prevent it from falling into Union hands. The ribs resemble railroad ties. There is a nearby cabin to the south. An underwater cave system has been mapped at Troy Spring. Utilization — Troy Spring was recently acquired by the state park system. It has been developed with parking area, restrooms, a cement and wooden ramp leading down to the FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 186 Figure 94. Troy Spring (photo by T. Scott).

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spring and wooden deck surrounding the spring. Troy Spring is a swimming, snorkeling, and scuba diving hotspot. Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. July 17, 1942149(1)November 26, 1960161(1)May 28, 1963148(1)October 16, 1973205(1)October 30, 2001106(4) BULLETIN NO. 66 187 Unfilt.FilterUnfilt.Filter Field MeasuresMetals Temperature 21.721.521.66Ca 545657.359.3 DO -1.40.85K 0.21.30.90.97 pH 7.87.17.49Na 2.42.62.682.45 Sp. Cond. 307358357Mg 6.76.477.3 Lab Anal y tes As --3 U3 U BOD -0.20.25 IAl ---75U Turbidity -10.15B --25 UColor 505UCd -00.75 U0.5 U Alkalinity 150150163164 Co -00.75 USp. Cond. --350Cr -02 U2 U TDS --196Cu -102 U2 U TSS --4UFe --25 U20 U Cl 3.04.05.35.2 Mn --0.73 I0.31 I SO46.05.61212 N i --1.5 U1.5 U F 0.10.10.085 I0.09 I Pb -65 U3 U Nutrients Se --3.5 U3.5 U TOC -0.01.8 ISn --7UNO3 + NO2 -0.962.32.2 Sr -24066.8NH3 + NH4 --0.012 I0.01 U Zn --4 U3.5 U TKN --0.075 I0.067 I P -0.030.034 A0.03 A PO4-0.020.024 J1973 2001 A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value is the method detection limit I=Value less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit Analytes19601973 2001 Analytes1960 Anal y teValue Escherichia coli 1 KQ Enterococci1 KQ Fecal Coliform1 KQ Total Coliform1 KQ Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 110. Troy Spring water quality analysis. Table 111. Troy Spring bacteriological analysis.

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Turtle Spring Location – Lat. 29° 50’ 50.62” N., Long. 82° 53’ 25.03” W. (SE ¼ SW ¼ NW ¼ sec. 26, T. 7 S., R. 14 E.). Turtle Spring is located 8 miles (13 km) southeast of Branford on the west side of the Suwannee River. From the bridge over the Suwannee River in Branford head west on US 27/20 approximately 1.3 miles (2.1 km) to the intersection with SR 349. Head south (left) on SR 349 and drive approximately 7.3 miles (11.7 km) to the second CR 342 intersection with CR 349 (second CR 342 sign – CR 342 loops around and joins CR 349 at two points). Turn east (left) onto CR 342 and drive approximately 5 miles (8 km) to the Simms Landing boat ramp. CR 342 makes several right angle turns prior to the boat landing. The spring is 0.5 miles (0.8 km) downstream from the CR 342 boat ramp. Description – Turtle Spring pool measures 30 ft (9.1 m) north to south and 66 ft (20.1 m) east to west. The depth over the spring vent is 21.4 ft (6.5 m). The vent is an elongated fracture beneath a limestone ledge. The spring pool bottom is sand and limestone. The spring water is clear and greenish. There was a small boil in the center of the pool during May 2002. Algae are abundant on both rock and sand substrates. Several downed logs are inundated within the spring pool. The spring run is shallow, 90 ft (27.4 m) long and 20 ft (6.1 m) wide. It flows into the dark waters of the Suwannee River. Limestone is exposed in the shallow spring run and near the vent. Turtle Spring is situated along the Suwannee River in a cove surrounded by 15-18 ft (4.6-5.5 m) high sandy banks. The surrounding lands are all forested with mixed hardwoods. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 188 Figure 95. Turtle Spring (photo by R. Means).

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Utilization The spring is undeveloped and surrounded by private land. It is locally used for swimming. Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. November 3, 197240.8(1)September 22, 199736.39(4)July 17, 2002 11.43(2) BULLETIN NO. 66 189 DissolvedTotalDissolvedTotal Field MeasuresMetalsTemperature 22.0Ca5870.367.4 DO2.1K0.30.560.58 pH6.6Na2.32.5I2.5I Sp. Cond. -Mg3.44.54.4 Lab Analytes Al--50U BOD0.2-0.23IAs-3U3U Turbidity--0.30B --5U Color0-5.0Cd-0.5U0.5U Alkalinity 150-216.0Co --0.75U Sp. Cond.282378.0-Cr-2U2U TDS181-217.0Cu-3U3U TSS--4UFe-27I28I Cl6.0-5.9Mn-15.716.9 SO49.6-7.2 Ni -2U2U F0.1-0.058IPb-3U5U Nutrients Ra-226--0.2U TOC--1.5IRa-228--0.9U NO3 + NO2 as N0.42-0.36J Se -4U4U NH3 + NH4--0.02I Sn --7U TKN-0.06U0.096ISr320-94.0 P-0.0180.021Zn-7.8U3U PO4-0.016NO3 ---A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit2002 AnalytesAnalytes 2002 1972 1972 394 22.32 1.43 6.90 Table 112. Turtle Spring water quality analysis. Anal y teValue Enterococci18 Fecal Coliform8 Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 113. Turtle Spring bacteriological analysis.

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LAKE COUNTY FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 190 Figure 96. Springs visited by FGS in Lake County.

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Alexander Spring BULLETIN NO. 66 191 Figure 97. Alexander Spring (photo by T. Scott).

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Location -Lat. 29° 04’ 52.68” N., Long. 81° 34’ 33.18” W. (Levy Grant 39, T. 16 S., R. 27 E.). Alexander Spring is approximately 37 miles (59.5 km) east of Ocala in the Ocala National Forest. From the intersection of US 441 (Magnolia Avenue) and SR 40 (Silver Springs Road) in Ocala travel east on SR 40 for approximately 31.8 miles (51.2 km) to the intersection with SR 19. Turn south (right) onto SR 19 and travel approximately 9.4 miles (15.1 km) to the intersection with CR 445. Turn east (left) onto CR 445 and travel approximately 5 miles (8 km) to Alexander Springs Recreation Area on the north (left) side of the road. Follow signs to parking area. Description -Alexander Spring issues from a conical depression and has a large spring pool that measures 300 ft (91.4 m) north to south and 258 ft (78.6 m) east to west. The depth is 25 ft (7.6 m). The bottom is mostly sand with limestone exposed near the vent. A vertical ledge running north to south occurs near the vent. There are multiple vents in a tight cluster. The water is clear and blue. There is a large boil on the pool surface over the vent. Native aquatic grasses are plentiful. Thin algae patches are present on limestone substrate. High ground to the south rises gently to 12 ft (3.7 m) above the water level. A rock wall forms the south shoreline. There is a mixed hardwood and palm forest around the spring. Alexander Spring Run flows east approximately 8 river miles (12.9 km) until reaching the St. Johns River. Alexander Spring is the only 1 st magnitude spring in the federal parks and forests system (Follman, personal communication, 2004). Utilization -Alexander Spring is in the Ocala National Forest. Camping, swimming, scuba diving, and canoeing are available with full facilities. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 192 Figure 98. Alexander Spring aerial photo (photo by H. Means).

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Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. February 12, 1931112(1)February 7, 1933124(1)April 13, 1935162(1)October 15, 193574.5(1)December 3, 1935131(1)April 2, 1946101(1)April 23, 1956136(1)November 16, 1960124(1)June 8, 1960124(1)April 25, 1967146(1)June 22, 1967114(1)July 2, 1969109(1)April 19, 1972103(1)September 12, 200194.2(7) BULLETIN NO. 66 193 Unfilt.FilterUnfilt.Filter Field MeasuresMetals Temperature -24.023.6Ca 414443.4 J43.4 DO --1.13K 2.32.03.93.9 pH 6.97.97.55Na 100130122117 Sp. Cond. 92010501026Mg 18202019.9 Lab Anal y tes As -03 U3 U BOD -0.10.2 AU -Al---75 U Turbidity -0.05 B -18047 IColor 055 U Cd -00.75 U0.75 U Alkalinity -1208282 Co -00.75 USp. Cond. -1000Cr -02 U2 U TDS -547 Cu -02.5 U2.5 U TSS -4 U Fe 301035 U35 U Cl 192230230230 Mn -0.00.5 U1 U SO456606362 N i -2 U2 U F 0.90.50.110.11 Pb -5 U4 U Nutrients Se -4 U4 U TOC -3.01 USn -10 UNO3 + NO2 -0.030.040.044 Sr -722NH3 + NH4 -0.01 U0.01 U Zn -105 U5 U TKN -0.06 U0.074 I P -0.040.0480.044 PO4-0.040.045A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than the practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value Q=Exceeding holding time limit Analytes19461972 2001 Analytes19461972 2001 Table 114. Alexander Spring water quality analysis. Anal y teValue Escherichia coli 1 KQ Enterococci1 KQ Fecal Coliform1 KQ Total Coliform10Q Bacteria Results (in #/100ml) Table 115. Alexander Spring bacteriological analysis.

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Apopka Spring Location – Lat. 28° 33’ 59.77” N., Long. 81° 40’ 50.41” W (NW ¼ SW ¼ SE ¼ sec. 14, T. 22 S., R. 26 E.). Apopka Spring is located on the southwest side of Lake Apopka in Gourd Neck, 2 miles (3.2 km) south of Monteverde and is accessible only by boat. From Clermont head east on SR 50 approximately 3.5 miles (5.6 km) to the intersection with CR 455. Turn north (left) onto CR 455 and travel approximately 4.2 miles (6.8 km) to the town of Monteverde. Turn east (right) once in Monteverde and follow signs to the boat landing approximately 0.5 mile (0.8 km). Description – Apopka Spring occupies an open cove on the northwest side of Gourd Neck of Lake Apopka. The circular spring pool measures 180 ft (54.9 m) in diameter, while the larger spring cove containing the spring measures 450 ft (137.2 m) north to south and 360 ft (109.7 m) east to west. The vent is in the center of the deep, bowl-shaped spring depression where the depth measures 45 ft (13.7 m). The spring bottom is a mixture of sand and dark organic matter. Cloudy lake water quickly turns to clear spring water as the spring is approached. There is some exotic aquatic vegetation along the sandy slopes of the spring depression. The spring produces a large boil, and suspended particles can be seen within the clear water column. The spring cove is shallow around the perimeter with an organic, mucky bottom and emergent vegetation. Gourd Neck is buffered by marsh and lowland swamp forest on its west side before giving way to sand hills with extensive agriculture. The east side of Gourd Neck is bordered by a sand hill peninsula with planted pines. An underwater cave system has been recognized in this spring. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 194 Figure 99. Apopka Spring (photo by R. Means).

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Utilization – The spring is undeveloped and surrounded by private property. Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. May 4, 197128.6(1)Annual Mean 199832.05(6)(7 measurements) Mean 1971-199935.0(6)(22 measurements) Annual Mean 200124.71(6)(2 measurements) BULLETIN NO. 66 195 DissolvedTotalDissolvedTotal Field MeasuresMetalsTemperature 24.5Ca2030.629.3 DO-K0.41.11A pH7.7Na4.45.274.94A Sp. Cond. 162Mg587.9A Lab Analytes Al--10U BOD--0.2UAs-3U3U Turbidity--0.2B --14.0 Color0-5UCd-0.5U0.5U Alkalinity 65-80.0Co --1U Sp. Cond.162249.00-Cr-2U2U TDS108-137.0Cu-2U4U TSS--4UFe-5U7.7I Cl7-12.0Mn-0.25U1.5I SO43.6 -10.0 Ni -1U2U F0.2-.087IPb-5U5U Nutrients Ra226--0.6 TOC--1IRa228--1.1U NO3 + NO2 as N 2.11 -5.10 Se -5U7U NH3 + NH4-.014I Sn --15U TKN-0.14I0.11ISr100-58.6A P-0.0340.033Zn-2I6U PO40.03NO30.2 --A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit24.15 2.07 7.90 249.00 2002 AnalytesAnalytes 2002 19721972 Anal y teValue Enterococci 1KQ Fecal Coliform2Q Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 117. Apopka Spring bacteriological analysis. Table 116. Apopka Spring water quality analysis.

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Bugg Spring Location – Lat. 28° 45’ 07.15” N., Long. 81° 54’ 05.46” W. (SE ¼ NW ¼ NW ¼ sec. 15, T. 20 S., R. 24 E.). Bugg Spring is located 0.4 miles ( 0.6 km) northwest of Okahumpka on privately owned property. Description – Bugg Spring is a large, very deep, circular spring situated south of Lake Denham. The spring pool measures 396 ft (120.7 m) north to south and 372 ft (113.4 m) east to west. There is a vertical limestone ledge a few feet out from the south shore, and depths beyond the ledge eventually reach 170 ft (51.8 m). The water is clear and blue-greenish. No boil was observed on the pool surface during April 2002. There is very little aquatic vegetation, but algae are abundant. A large U.S. Navy platform supporting a laboratory for field instrument calibration is floating in the middle of the spring with a walkway attached to the northeast shore. The slow-moving spring run flows north approximately 0.8 mile (1.3 km) into Helena Run, the outflow of Lake Denham. Lands immediately surrounding the spring are low-lying and densely forested. The landowner’s residence is to the south, where the land begins to rise, eventually becoming rolling sand hills used primarily for agriculture. Utilization Bugg Spring is leased to the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory for underwater sound reference work. The spring is on private property. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 196 Figure 100. Bugg Spring (photo by T. Scott).

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BULLETIN NO. 66 197 DissolvedTotal Field MeasuresTemperature -24 DO-pH7.48 Sp. Cond. -Lab Analytes BOD-0.1-0.25I Turbidity---0.35 Color55-5UAlkalinity 120120-126 Sp. Cond.259260290.0TDS140151-171 TSS---4U Cl6.66-13.0 SO423.2 -9.7 F00.1-0.056I Nutrients TOC---1U NO3 + NO2 as N -0.3 -0.61J NH3 + NH4--0.021A TKN--0.06U0.092I P-0.060.0570.085 PO4-0.02 0.082NO3 0.3-Metals Ca444446.947.1 K0.20.41.21.3 Na4.44.86.56.8 Mg2.92.83.13.2 Al---50U As--3U3UB ---17I Cd--0.5U.5UCo ---0.75U Cr--2U2U Cu--3U3U Fe802025U35I Mn--45.3 Ni--2U2U Pb--3U5U Ra-226---1.0 Ra-228---1U Se--4U4U Sn---7U Sr-50-62.0 Zn-101.5U3UA=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit1.43 7.24 300 2002 Analytes 23.45 19461972 Table 118. Bugg Spring water quality analysis.

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Discharge Measurements are annual means obtained from the landowner and measured in conjunction with the SJRWMD. All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. 194617.6 195610.3 196018.6 196712.4 197210.8 198510.2 19908.5 199111.43 19928.09 19938.61 19949.13 199510.7 199611.67 19978.61 199811.68 19998.95 20008.5 FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 198 Anal y teValue Enterococci18Q Fecal Coliform6Q Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 119. Bugg Spring bacteriological analysis.

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LEON COUNTY BULLETIN NO. 66 199 Figure 101. Springs visited by FGS in Leon County.

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Horn Spring Location – Lat. 30° 19’ 08.89” N., Long. 84° 07’ 43.45” W. (SW ¼ SE ¼ SE ¼ sec. 9, T. 2 S., R. 2 E.). Horn Spring is located 12.5 miles (20 km) southeast of Tallahassee. From the intersection of US 319 (Capital Circle Southeast) and SR 363 (Woodville Highway) in Tallahassee, head south on SR 363 (Woodville Highway) approximately 4.6 miles (7.4 km) to the intersection with Natural Bridge Road in the town of Woodville. Turn east (left) onto Natural Bridge Road and travel approximately 6.2 miles (10 km) to the St. Marks River. The spring run flows southwest into the St. Marks River from the east approximately 3 miles (4.8 km) upstream from the Natural Bridge Battlefield State Historic Site. Access to the spring is by canoe from Natural Bridge. Description – Horn Spring pool is circular and is approximately 100 ft (30.5 m) in diameter. The depth measures 22.0 ft (6.7 m) near the center. The bottom of Horn Spring is covered with logs and sand, and water issues from numerous sand boils. The spring water is clear with a slight greenish hue. Algal particles are suspended in the water. The spring has an abundance of exotic aquatic vegetation. There was no detectable boil on the water surface in February 2002. A hunt camp is situated on the south side of the spring pool. The rest of the pool edge is forested. Horn Spring run discharges west approximately 500 ft (152.4 m) into the tannic upper St. Marks River. About half-way down Horn Springs Run, another smaller spring run feeds in from the south side. Up this feeder run a short distance FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 200 Figure 102. Horn Spring (photo by H. Means).

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is a circular spring covered in duckweed. The smaller spring is approximately 30 ft (9.1 m) in diameter. A second spring run from the smaller spring flows west directly into the St. Marks River downstream from Horn Spring Run. There are planted pine flatwoods to the south and east, and the lowland floodplain forest associated with the river is west. The highest ground is to the south, and it rises gently to approximately 4 ft (1.2 m) above the water. Utilization – Horn Spring is located on private land and is leased to a hunt club. Land access is not open to the public. The spring may be accessed by a canoe. It is used locally for swimming. Discharge – Discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. November 12, 197128.8(1)February 20, 200214.15(2) BULLETIN NO. 66 201 DissolvedTotalDissolvedTotal Field MeasuresMetalsTemperature 19.5Ca344038.7A DO-K0.50.50.48A pH7.5Na3.73.6I3.5I Sp. Cond. -Mg8.598.6A Lab Analytes Al--75U BOD--0.2UAs-3U3U Turbidity--0.4B --15U Color10-5UCd-0.5U0.5UAlkalinity 110-125Co --0.75U Sp. Cond.250250.0-Cr-2U2U TDS151-156Cu-3.5U3.5U TSS--4UFe-35U72I Cl7-5.2AMn-0.5U3.2A SO44 -11A Ni -2U2U F0.2-0.16Pb-3U5U Nutrients Ra-226--0.2U TOC--1IRa-228--1U NO3 + NO2 as N 1.2 -0.34 Se -4U4U NH3 + NH4-0.01U Sn --10U TKN-0.06U0.06USr--92.7A P-0.046A0.046Zn-1.5U2U PO40.045NO3 --A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit2002 2002 AnalytesAnalytes1972 1972 20.21 2.15 7.30 280 Anal y teValue Enterococci4 Fecal Coliform1K Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 121. Horn Spring bacteriological analysis. Table 120. Horn Spring water quality analysis.

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Natural Bridge Spring Location – Lat. 30° 17’ 06.67” N., Long. 84° 08’ 49.64” W. (SW ¼ NE ¼ NE ¼ sec. 29, T. 2 S., R. 2 E.). Natural Bridge Spring is located on private property 13.5 miles (22 km) southeast of Tallahassee, or 0.3 miles (0.5 km) east of the Natural Bridge State Historic Site. Description – Natural Bridge Spring pool measures 66 ft (20.1 m) north to south and 75 ft (22.9 m) east to west and it is situated in a conical depression. Spring depth measured 33.1 ft (10.1 m) out from the north bank. The water is clear and blue-greenish. There is much algae growing on the limestone substrate. The spring run is as wide as the spring pool, averages approximately 6 ft (1.8 m) deep and flows swiftly over limestone and sand bottom. The majority of spring water flows southwest for approximately 0.25 miles (0.4 km), disappearing into a siphon approximately 300 ft (91.4 m) east of Natural Bridge; however, nearly 200 ft (61 m) downstream from the spring, a small channel splits off from the main spring run and travels westward approximately 1,000 ft (304.8 m) into the St. Marks River. At Natural Bridge, the St. Marks River flows into a siphon. The river continues underground to the south. Its underground course is dotted with sinkholes and karst windows for approximately 0.6 miles (1 km) until it re-emerges as St. Marks River Rise (or St. Marks Spring). Natural Bridge Spring flows into a siphon that is approximately 250 ft (76.2 m) east of the St. Marks River siphon. It is suspected that Natural Bridge Spring and the St. Marks River merge underground in the vicinity of Natural Bridge. There may be a cave system associated with this spring. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 202 Figure 103. Natural Bridge Spring (photo by R. Means ).

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BULLETIN NO. 66 203 DissolvedTotal Field Measures Temperature 20.519.5 DO-pH7.47.4 Sp. Cond. 226241 Lab Analytes BOD---0.2AU Turbidity---0.55 Color4035-5UAlkalinity -110-125.0 Sp. Cond.--240.0TDS137147-151.0 TSS---4U Cl55-5.0 SO47.15.6 -6.7 F0.30.2-0.14 Nutrients TOC-0-1.9I NO3 + NO2 as N -0.002 -0.27 NH3 + NH4--0.01U TKN--0.06U0.06U P--0.0490.048 PO4-0.03 0.046NO3 1.2-Metals Ca353440.440.1 K0.540.480.52 Na3.33.33.3I4.3 Mg6.57.28.37.8 Al---75U As--3U3UB ---15U Cd--0.5U0.5UCo ---0.75U Cr--2U2U Cu--3.5U3.5U Fe--35U64I Mn--0.75I2.5 Ni--2U2U Pb--3U5U Ra-226---0.5 Ra-228---1.5 Se--4U4U Sn---10U Sr---75.9 Zn--1.5U2UA=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit272 19461972 2002 Analytes 7.26 20.05 0.91 Table 122. Natural Bridge Spring water quality analysis.

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Utilization The spring is undeveloped and is surrounded by private land. Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. May 19, 1942115(1)May 14, 1946132(1)December 5, 196097(1)May 15, 196379(1)October 6, 1971106(1)April 25, 2002151.98(2) FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 204 Anal y teValue Enterococci1K Fecal Coliform1K Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 123. Natural Bridge Spring bacteriological analysis.

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Rhodes Springs Rhodes Springs are a group of karst windows that may be exposures of the same subterranean conduit system. Flow from all Rhodes Springs moves east and south toward the Natural Bridge area and may converge underground with the subterranean St. Marks River somewhere above St. Marks River Rise. The Florida Geological Survey sampled three of the karst windows within this group. The springs are located on private property approximately 13 miles (21 km) southeast of Tallahassee. From the intersection of SR 363 (Woodville Highway) and Natural Bridge Road in Woodville, head east on Natural Bridge Road approximately 5.6 miles (9 km) to the intersection with Old Plank Road. Turn south (right) onto Old Plank Road and the spring run will be immediately on the west (right) side of the road. There is an unpaved pull out area near the spring run. RHODES SPRING NO. 1 Location – Lat. 30° 17’ 01.79” N., Long. 84° 09’ 18.56” W. (NW ¼ SE ¼ NW ¼ sec. 29, T. 2 S., R. 2 E.). Rhodes Spring No. 1 is located 0.3 miles (0.5 km) southeast of the intersection of Old Plank Road and Natural Bridge Road. Description – Rhodes Spring No. 1 is a karst window that flows 250 ft (76.2 m) from west to east, and is crescent-shaped. The circular spring pool is on the west end and measures BULLETIN NO. 66 205 Figure 104. Rhodes Spring No. 4 (photo by H. Means).

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75 ft (22.8 m) in diameter. The depth at the pool’s center is approximately 15.7 ft (4.8 m). The water is clear and colorless. Half of the surfaces of both the spring and siphon are covered with duckweed. Abundant native aquatic vegetation and some algae occur on the sand and limestone substrates. Exotic aquatic vegetation also is present but not dominant. No boil is present on the surface of the spring pool, but there is swift current in the stream channel. To the west, the ground rises gently to approximately 6 ft (1.8 m) above the water level. The rest of the nearby lands are low-lying and densely forested with mixed hardwoods and cypress. Rhodes Spring No. 1 is located down gradient from Rhodes Springs No. 2 and 4, and is suspected to be a downstream window into the same conduit system. RHODES SPRING NO. 2 Location – Lat. 30° 17’ 11.26” N., Long. 84° 09’ 35.84” W. (SW ¼ NW ¼ NW ¼ sec. 29, T. 2 S., R. 2 E.). Rhodes Spring No. 2 is located 330 ft (100.6 m) southwest of the intersection between Old Plank Road and Natural Bridge Road. Description – Rhodes Spring No. 2 is a karst window system with two springheads (2a and 2b). Rhodes Spring 2a is approximately 100 ft (30.5 m) south of 2b, and it flows eastward for about 50 ft (15.2 m) until the similar-sized No. 2b feeds in on the north side. Rhodes Spring No. 2a has a circular spring pool measuring approximately 35 ft (10.7 m) in diameter. It has a depth of 12.0 ft (3.7 m), and the water is clear. The bottom of the springs and their short runs is sandy with some exposed tree roots in bluish clay. There are small boils on the surface of both spring pools. Combined flow is due east approximately 200 ft (61 m) into a siphon that is adjacent to the west shoulder of Old Plank Road just south of the intersection with Natural Bridge Road. The area is under the dense canopy of a mixed hardwood and pine forest. The surrounding land is low-lying, and numerous sinkholes are located to the north and west of the springheads. Planted pine flatwoods are 300 ft (91 m) northward, on the north side of Natural Bridge Road. Rhodes Spring No. 2 is up gradient from the other karst windows in the Rhodes Spring system. RHODES SPRING NO. 4 Location – Lat. 30° 17’ 00.71” N., Long. 84° 09’ 26.18” W. (NE ¼ SW ¼ NW ¼ sec. 29, T. 2 S., R. 2 E.). Rhodes Spring No. 4 is located 675 ft (205.7 m) west southwest of Rhodes Spring #1. Description – Rhodes Spring No. 4 is a karst window that flows 190 ft (57.9 m) to the southeast. The circular spring pool, at the northwest end of the karst window, measures 45 ft (13.7 m) in diameter. The depth measures 16 ft (4.9 m). The water is clear with a light greenish hue. There are some emergent plants along the shore and a thin layer of algae throughout the pool. The banks rise steeply to approximately 6 ft (1.8 m) above the water level. The surrounding karst plain is flat and heavily forested. Planted pine flatwoods are to the north, and swampy lowland is south. Rhodes Spring No. 4 is the middle karst window of the Rhodes Spring karst window system. Utilization All three springs are undeveloped and surrounded by private lands. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 206

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BULLETIN NO. 66 207 1971 DissolvedTotalDissolvedTotalDissolvedTotal Field MeasuresTemperature 20.5DO0.7 pH7.6 Sp. Cond. Lab Analytes BOD--0.2U-0.2U-0.2U Turbidity--0.3-0.3-0.4 Color--5U-5U-5U Alkalinity 120-127-126.0-127.0 Sp. Cond.259250A-250.0-250.0TDS156-155-153.0-154.0 TSS--4U-4U-4U Cl6-5.0-5.0-5.1 SO412 -9.0-9.0-9.2 F0.2-0.17-0.16-0.15 Nutrients TOC--1.4I-1.8I-1.4I NO3 + NO2 as N 0.2 -0.25-0.26-0.26 NH3 + NH4-0.01U-0.01U-0.01U TKN-0.06U0.06U0.06U0.06U0.06U0.06U P-0.0440.0460.0460.045A0.046A0.046 PO40.046-0.045-0.046NO3 0.7 -----Metals Ca4040.239.6A40.139.74039.9 K0.60.490.46A0.490.480.490.48 Na3.83.3I3.1I3.4I3.3I3.3I3.2I Mg8.48.38.1A8.38.28.38.3 Al--75U-75U-75U As-3U3U3U3U3U3UB --15U-15U-15U Cd-0.5U0.5U0.5U0.5U0.5U0.5UCo --0.75U-0.75U-0.75U Cr-2U2U2U2U2U2U Cu-3.5U3.5U3.5U3.5U3.5U3.5U Fe-35U39I35U35U35U35U Mn-0.81I2.3A0.68I2.00.5U2.1 Ni-2U2U2U2U2U2U Pb-3U5U3U5U3U5U Ra-226--0.3-0.3-0.2 Ra-228--1.5-1.2-1.1U Se-4U4U4U4U4U4U Sn--10U-10U-10U Sr200-85A-86.4-87.8 Zn-1.5U7U1.5U7U1.5U7UA=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit0.95 7.35 278 Rhodes #4 2002 20.21 20.12 0.96 7.33 276 Rhodes #1 Analytes Rhodes #2 2002 2002 21.00 1.29 7.33 278 Table 124. Rhodes Springs water quality analysis.

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Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. Rhodes No. 1 Rhodes No. 2 Rhodes No. 4 October 14, 194115.8(1)May 19, 194213.8(1)May 19, 194221.1(1)May 19, 194222.4(1)December 7, 196019.8(1)October 8, 197115.4(1)October 8, 1971 18.6(1) October 8, 1971 14.0(1) July 19, 2002 12.46(2)July 19, 2002 11.60(2) June 25, 2002 12.41(2) FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 208 Anal y teRhodes #1Rhodes #2Rhodes #4 Enterococci8Q1KQ4Q Fecal Coliform1KQ1KQ1KQ Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 125. Rhodes Springs bacteriological analysis

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St. Marks River Rise Location —Lat. 30° 16’ 33.77” N., Long. 84° 08’ 56.16” W. (NE ¼ SW ¼ SE ¼ sec. 29, T. 2 S., R. 2 E.). St. Marks River Rise is located 0.6 miles (0.9 km) south of Natural Bridge Battlefield Park. The river rise is surrounded by private property but can be accessed by small boat. From the intersection of US 319/SR 263 (Capital Circle Southeast) and SR363 (Woodville Highway), drive south on SR 363 14.7 miles (23.7 km) to US 98. Turn east (left) and go 2.5 miles (4 km) to the public boat ramp sign on the east side of the St. Marks River and north side of US 98. St. Marks River Rise is 6.5 miles (10.5 km) upstream from the boat ramp. Description -St. Marks River Rise issues from an elongated fracture in the limestone. The river rise pool diameter measures 315 ft (96 m) east to west and 195 ft (59.4 m) northwest to southeast. Just south of the vent, the St. Marks River widens to 420 ft (128 m) northwest to southeast. The vent is nearly circular and its diameter is approximately 90 ft (27.4 m). St. Marks River Rise pool depth measures 62 ft (18.9 m). The vent is limestone with almost a sheer drop on northeast side from 18 ft (5.5 m) to 48 ft (14.6 m). Water was clear and colorless to light blue. Area near the vent is choked with exotic aquatic vegetation, and there is abundant native aquatic grass farther downstream. Some water hyacinth is present. Uplands near the spring rise gently to approximately 5 ft (1.5 m) above water level and are generally forested with a mix of pines, oaks, and cabbage palms. Utilization —Land around the river rise is privately owned and access is restricted to dirt 4 x 4 tracks. A pipe leads into the vent from the north. BULLETIN NO. 66 209 Figure 105. St. Marks River Rise (photo by H. Means).

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Discharge December 18, 2001:452 ft3/s(2) FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 210 Unfilt.FilterUnfilt.Filter Field MeasuresMetals Temperature 21.020.43Ca 3942.4 A42.7 DO 1.73.79K 0.50.46 A0.47 pH 7.67.54Na 3.63.263.16 Sp. Cond. 270270Mg 8.28.2 A8.3 Lab Anal y tes As 13U3U BOD 0.30.36 IAl --75 U Turbidity 20.55B -25 U Color 85UCd 30.75 U0.5 U Alkalinity 130131132 Co -0.75 USp. Cond. -280Cr -2 U2 U TDS -164Cu 02 U2 U TSS -4UFe 063 I31 I Cl 5.454.8 Mn 1710.6 A6.64 SO48.89.19.1 N i -1.5 U1.5 U F 0.10.130.14 Pb 275 U3 U Nutrients Se -3.5 U3.5 U TOC 01.7 ISn -7UNO3 + NO2 0.140.21 J0.23 A Sr 10084 ANH3 + NH4 -0.01 I0.043 Zn 34 U3.5 U TKN -0.09 I0.067 I P 0.070.0450.043 PO40.050.041I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value Q=Exceeding holding time limit 1974 2001 A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit Analytes1974 2001 Analytes Anal y teValue Escherichia coli 20Q Enterococci64Q Fecal Coliform28Q Total Coliform130Q Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 127. St. Marks River Rise bacteriological analysis. Table 126. St. Marks River Rise water quality analysis.

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LEVY COUNTY BULLETIN NO. 66 211 Figure 106. Springs visited by FGS in Levy County.

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Fanning Springs Location -Lat. 29° 35’ 15.32” N., Long. 82° 56’ 07.10” W. (SW ¼ NE ¼ NW ¼ sec. 29, T. 10 S., R. 14 E.). Fanning Springs is located in Fanning Springs State Park in the town of Fanning Springs. The park entrance is located on the east side of the Suwannee River on US 19/27/98. It is approximately 0.2 miles (0.3 km) east of the bridge over the Suwannee River. Follow access road to parking lot. The spring vent is southwest of parking area. Description —At Fanning Springs, Big Fanning is in a conical depression with steep sand and limestone banks. The spring pool measures 207 ft (63.1 m) north to south and 144 ft (43.9 m) east to west. The depth of the spring pool measured over the vent is 18 ft (5.5 m). The vent area is nearly funnel shaped, with a sand and limestone bottom and limestone sides, and it issues from the southeast side of the depression. The main vent issues horizontally from a small orifice in the limestone; however, multiple small boils in the sand bottom were present when the spring was visited. Also, there are numerous tiny spring seeps flowing into the spring pool from the limestone banks. The water is bluish and clear. There is native aquatic grass in much of the shallow spring pool. Some patches of algae are present in the spring pool. There are cypress and gum trees along both sides of the spring run. Floating walkways and ropes delineating a swimming area exist in the spring pool. The spring run flows north briefly before turning westward and flowing approximately 450 ft (137.2 m) to the tannic Suwannee River. Boat traffic from the river is not allowed past a floating wooden walkway across spring run. There is sandy high ground on the south and east sides adjacent to the spring. Elevations rise steeply to approximately 20 ft (6.1 m) above water level. The slopes are lush with ferns and mosses. On the high ground, there are pines and hardwoods scattered about. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 212 Figure 107. Fanning Springs (photo by T. Scott).

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Utilization -Fanning Springs is a state park with facilities developed for recreation. Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. October 25, 1930109(1)March 14, 193279.2(1)December 17, 1942137(1)May 1, 195664(1)November 18, 1960111(1)March 27, 196383.4(1)April 25, 197298.7(1)July 31, 1973139(1)October 24, 200151.5(7) BULLETIN NO. 66 213 Unfilt.FilterUnfilt.Filter Field MeasuresMetals Temperature 23.023.022.022.522.7Ca 6664666377.777.5 DO --2.15K 0.60.10.10.22.42.5 pH 7.38.07.98.06.97Na 2.62.72.82.94.154.1 Sp. Cond. 357330344345421Mg 4.85.53.84.15.85.8 Lab Anal y tes As ----3U3U BOD -0.2 UAl ----75U Turbidity -0.05B ----25UColor 214005UCd -0.75 U0.75 U Alkalinity -170 -160193192 Co -0.75 USp. Cond. -440 ACr ----2U2U TDS ----256Cu -2.5 U2.5 U TSS ---4UFe 0.080.01 -35 U35 U Cl 4.04.54.01.08.38.5 Mn -0.5 U0.5 U SO49.91210111920 N i ----2U3U F 0.0-0.30.20.098 I0.12 Pb ----5U4U Nutrients Se ----4U4U TOC -2.01 USn ----20UNO3 + NO2 -3.74.1 Sr -10077NH3 + NH4 -0.01 U0.01 U Zn --5 U5 U TKN -0.06 U0.06 U P -0.0660.063 A PO40.072Analytes194619561960 A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value shown is less than the practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value Q=Exceeding holding time limit 195619601972 2001 1972 2001 Analytes1946 Anal y teValue Escherichia coli 1KQ Enterococci1KQ Fecal Coliform1KQ Total Coliform1KQ Bacteria Results (in #/100ml) Table 129. Fanning Springs bacteriological analysis. Table 128. Fanning Springs water quality analysis.

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Levy Blue Spring Location Lat. 29° 27’ 02.69” N., Long. 82° 41’ 56.28” W. (NE ¼ SE ¼ SW ¼ sec. 10, T. 12 S., R. 16 E.). Levy Blue Spring is located 3.5 miles (5.6 km) west of Bronson in a county park. From the US 27A/ SR 24 intersection in Bronson, travel 2.3 miles (3.7 km) northwest on US 27A to CR 339A. Turn west then southwest (left) on CR 339A (NE 94 th Place or Blue Springs Road) and follow the road 2 miles (3.2 km) down to the park. Description Levy Blue Spring has a roughly circular spring pool measuring 156 ft (47.5 m) in diameter. The depth measures 9 ft (2.7 m) over the deepest point, however, most of the pool is considerably shallower. Several small sand boils can be seen upwelling from the sand spring bottom off from the wooden platform on the north side. There is very little aquatic vegetation within the spring itself, but algae cover much of the spring bottom. A concrete and wooden retaining wall encircles most of the spring pool. There is a grassy lawn with tables and playground equipment around the spring pool on all sides except near the outflow channel. Several access ladders can be found around the pool. The spring run is approximately 40 ft (12.2 m) wide, shallow, slow-moving and contains abundant aquatic and emergent vegetation. The spring run flows through a dense lowland swamp forest toward the southwest until meeting the upper Waccassasa River. At least two small blackwater streams feed into the spring run during its course to the river. Pine flatwoods are to the north and east of the swimming area, and adjacent land outside the park is generally forested with planted pines. LevyBlue Spring is near the headwaters of the Waccasassa River, which flows approximately 30 miles (48 km) southwest into the Gulf of Mexico. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 214 Figure 108. Levy Blue Spring (photo by T. Scott).

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Utilization Levy Blue Spring is located within a county park and is a popular swimming area. Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. Average for 1917-19748.87 (1)(56 measurements) Min (June 28, 1973)4.5 (1)Max (August 3, 1945)22.0(1)December 17, 20021.71(2) BULLETIN NO. 66 215 DissolvedTotalDissolvedTotal Field MeasuresMetalsTemperature Ca35.5A35.4 DOK0.12A0.12I pHNa2.51A2.48 Sp. Cond. Mg5.4A5.1 Lab Analytes Al-10U BOD-0.2UAs3U3U Turbidity-0.2B -10U Color-5UCd0.5U0.5UAlkalinity -110Co -1U Sp. Cond.222.0-Cr2U2U TDS-122QCu2U4U TSS-4UQFe8.6I44U Cl-4.8Mn0.38I0.54I SO4-1.5 Ni 1U2U F-0.079IPb5U5U Nutrients Ra-226-0.3U TOC-1.5IRa-228-0.9U NO3 + NO2 as N-0.51 Se 5U7U NH3 + NH4-0.012I Sn -4.5I TKN0.16I0.18USr-38.3 P0.025I0.045UZn1U2.1I PO40.034NO3 --A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit231 21.0 2.68 7.80 2002 AnalytesAnalytes 2002 Table 130. Levy Blue Spring water quality analysis. Anal y teValue Enterococci8Q Fecal Coliform1KQ Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 131. Levy Blue Spring bacteriological analysis.

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Manatee Spring Location Lat. 29° 29’ 22.20” N., Long. 82° 58’ 36.74” W. (SE ¼ SW ¼ SE ¼ sec. 26, T. 11 S., R. 13 E.). Manatee Spring is approximately 7 miles (11.2 km) west of Chiefland within Manatee Springs State Park. From the US 19/27A and CR 320 intersection in Chiefland, drive west approximately 5.2 miles (8.4 km) on CR 320 to the entrance of the park. Follow park road to the main parking area; the spring is 200 ft (61 m) north of the parking lot. Description Manatee Spring and its run are on the east side of the Suwannee River within a densely wooded, lowland floodplain. The spring discharges into a conical sink depression. The spring pool measures 60 ft (18.3 m) north to south and 75 ft (22.9 m) east to west. The depth of the spring pool is 25 ft (7.6 m). The bottom of the spring pool is sand with numerous submerged logs. There is a limestone ledge 3 ft (0.9 m) below the water surface and a vertical wall on the south side of the spring pool where wooden steps lead down into the water for swimming access. There is a tremendous boil associated with this spring. Thick algae cover approximately 75% of the limestone ledge and wall. The water is sky blue. Native aquatic grasses inhabit the spring run. There are many cypress trees and knees on the north and east shores of the spring pool. The spring run flows southward to the Suwannee River approximately 1200 ft (365.8 m). A boardwalk follows the run to a dock at the mouth of the run on the Suwannee River. Uplands on the south side of the spring rise to approximately 15 ft (4.6 m) above the water level and are developed into a recreation area underneath a thick canopy of live oak and pine. There are numerous walkways and a rock wall along the south shore of the spring pool. The north shore is relatively pristine and wooded. An extensive underwater cave system has been mapped at Manatee Spring. Divers report that entry into the cave against the current is very difficult. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 216 Figure 109. Manatee Spring (photo by T. Scott).

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Utilization -The spring and its surroundings constitute Manatee Springs State Park. The area is developed for camping, hiking, swimming, scuba diving, and nature study. Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. March 14, 1932149(1)December 17, 1942218(1)July 24, 1946137(1)April 27, 1956110(1)November 18, 1960238(1)May 28, 1963145(1)April 19, 1972220(1)April 25, 1972210(1)July 31, 1973203(1)October 23, 2001154(7) BULLETIN NO. 66 217 Unfilt.FilterUnfilt.Filter Field MeasuresMetals Temperature 23.023.022.022.5Ca 75747484.182.4 DO ---1.6K 0.40.20.21.11.1 pH 7.48.08.07.04Na 2.93.13.03.783.64 Sp. Cond. 402390413430Mg 6.37.75.26.56.3 Lab Anal y tes B ---25UBOD ---0.2 AUAl ----75 U Turbidity ---0.2As ---3 U3 U Color 0505UCd ---0.75 U0.75 U Alkalinity -180170198200 Co ---0.75 USp. Cond. ---460Cr ---2 U2 U TDS ---268Cu ---2.5 U2.5 U TSS ---4UFe ---35 U35 U Cl 5.1-4.07.27.3 Mn ---0.5 U0.5 U SO42322253232 N i ---2 U3 U F 00.20.20.09 I0.11 Pb ---5 U4 U Nutrients Se ---4 U4 U TOC ---1USn ---20UNO3 + NO2---1.71.8 S r --100187NH3+NH4---0.011 I0.01 U Zn ---5 U5 U TKN ---0.06 U0.06 U P ---0.0250.023 PO4---0.02719561972 I=Value is less than the practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value Q=Exceeding holding time limit 1972 2001 A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit 2001 Analytes19461956 Analytes1946 Anal y teValue Escherichia coli 8Q Enterococci8Q Fecal Coliform6Q Total Coliform310Q Bacteria Results (in #/100ml) Table 133. Manatee Spring bacteriological analysis. Table 132. Manatee Spring water quality analysis.

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MADISON COUNTY FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 218 Figure 110. Springs visited by FGS in Madison County.

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Madison Blue Spring Location Lat. 30° 28’ 49.57” N., Long. 83° 14’ 39.71” W. (SW ¼ SE ¼ SW ¼ sec. 17, T. 1 N., R. 11 E.). Madison Blue Spring is approximately 10 miles (16 km) east of Madison on the west bank of the Withlacoochee River. From the intersection of US 90 and SR 6 just east of Madison, drive east on SR 6 approximately 8 miles (12.9 km) to the bridge over the Withlacoochee River. Turn south (right) at the park sign just before the bridge. The spring is 525 ft (160 m) south of the highway. Description This spring issues from the bottom of conical depression. The spring pool diameter is about 72 ft (21.9 m) north to south and 82 ft (25 m) northeast to southwest. Pool depth measures 24 ft (7.3 m). The spring has vertical limestone walls. The 100 ft (30.5 m) long and 15 to 25 feet wide (4.6 – 7.6 m) spring run flows swiftly into the tannic Withlacoochee River. There was no visible boil in October 2001. Nearly the entire spring bottom and sides are covered with dark green algae. Sandy high ground surrounds the spring and rises to approximately 20 ft (6.1 m) above water level. Mixed hardwoods and pines occur along with numerous dirt pathways. An underwater cave system has been mapped at Madison Blue Spring. Utilization Madison Blue Spring is state-owned and is managed as a county recreational park with picnic tables, parking lot, and facilities. Swimming and scuba diving occur frequently here. A wooden access platform for scuba diving is located on the north side of the pool. BULLETIN NO. 66 219 Figure 111. Madison Blue Spring (photo by T. Scott).

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Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. March 16, 193275(1)April 24, 195677.8(1)November 15, 1960141(1)May 28, 1963113(1)November 6, 1973139(1)October 23, 200171.4(4) FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 220 Unfilt.FilterUnfilt.Filter Field MeasuresMetals Temperature 21.521.121.021.29Ca 39414041.341.4 DO --2.51.76K 0.70.30.80.470.47 pH 7.67.77.77.75Na 2.42.62.92.772.77 Sp. Cond. 262257261277Mg 8.77.2108.48.5 Lab Anal y tes As --3 U3 U BOD --0.70.29 I Al ----75U Turbidity --4.00.9 B --025 UColor 0055UCd ---0.75 U0.5 U Alkalinity -120120122123 Co --00.75 USp. Cond. ---280Cr --52 U2 U TDS ---155 Cu --42 U2 U TSS ---4U-Fe ---25 U20 U Cl 3.64.04.04.7 A4.7 Mn ---0.91 I0.32 I SO4109.611.014 A14 N i ---1.5 U1.5 U F 0.10.40.10.140.15 Pb --105 U3 U Nutrients Se ---3.5 U3.5 U TOC --0.01 USn ---7UNO3 + NO2 --0.011.31.4 Sr --056.4NH3 + NH4 ---0.013 I0.01 UQ Zn ---4 U3.5 U TKN ---0.06 U0.06 U P --0.030.0410.042 PO4--0.520.03 JA=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit 2001 Analytes19461960 Analytes194619601973 I=Value is less than the practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value Q=exceeding holding time limit 1973 2001 Table 134. Madison Blue Spring water quality analysis. Anal y teValue Escherichia coli 6Q Enterococci8Q Fecal Coliform4Q Total Coliform40Q Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 135. Madison Blue Spring bacteriological analysis.

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Suwanacoochee Spring Location – Lat. 30 ° 23’ 12.02” N., Long. 83 ° 10’ 18.36” W. (NW ¼ SW ¼ NE ¼ sec. 24, T. 1 S., R. 11 E.). The spring flows into the Withlacoochee River near its confluence with the Suwannee River, 13 miles (21 km) northwest of Live Oak. From the intersection with I-10 northwest of Live Oak, drive northwest on US 90 approximately 6 miles (9.7 km) to the Suwannee River. Cross over the river and turn north (right) on NE Drew Way. Follow the road to the Suwannee River State Park Picnic Area Annex. Follow the gated track in the picnic area southeast under the railroad trestle to the spring. Suwanacoochee Spring is situated on the southwest bank of the Withlacoochee River within view of the river’s confluence with the Suwannee River. Description – The single vent opening on the west end of the pool runs down into the bank to a line of sight depth of 10 ft (3 m). The small spring pool has a 15 ft (4.6 m) diameter. Limestone is exposed around the pool and sand covers the bottom. The water is clear and greenish. Algae are prevalent on submerged surfaces. This spring was discharging tannic water during April 2002 in response to a late March heavy rain. The water didn’t entirely clear up until early August 2002, at which time the spring was barely flowing. Suwanacoochee Spring discharges from the base of 25 ft (7.6 m) high banks along the river through the remains of a late 1800’s rock bath house intended to pool the water for swimming. The rock structure has rectangular window openings and has become disfigured with age. Both sides of the river have high forested banks with limestone overlain by sand. Also, in August 2002, the adjacent Withlacoochee River was at a historically low stage and was BULLETIN NO. 66 221 Figure 112. Suwanacoochee Spring (photo by R. Means).

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an estimated 2 ft (0.6 m) below the spring pool surface. Cave divers report that Suwanacoochee and Ellaville Springs are connected by an extensive underwater cave system that extends underneath the Suwannee River bed. Utilization – The spring was historically used for bathing in the 1800’s, but is currently undeveloped on state park property. Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. November 6, 193140.8(1)March 16, 193218.3(1)November 8, 197351.6(1)September 24, 199735.46(4)August 6, 20020.54(2) FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 222 DissolvedTotalDissolvedTotal Field MeasuresMetalsTemperature 21.0Ca5353A53.8 DO1.6K0.61A1.0 pH7.3Na2.411.2A11.2 Sp. Cond. -Mg117.8A7.9 Lab Analytes Al--10U BOD--0.2UAs-0.5U0.75U Turbidity--0.15B --18I Color5-5UCd-0.025U0.025U Alkalinity 160-152Co --2U Sp. Cond.370338.0-Cr-2U2U TDS196-203.0Cu-3U3U TSS--4UFe-21I40U Cl3.6-5.8Mn-27.4A27.6 SO411-27.0 Ni -3.6U2U F0.1-0.14Pb-0.025U0.1U Nutrients Ra-226--0.3 TOC--1.7IRa-228--1U NO3 + NO2 as N--0.48 Se -0.69I1U NH3 + NH4--0.015I Sn --5U TKN-0.065I0.065ISr0-88.0 P-0.064A0.069AZn-2U4U PO4-0.063NO3 ---A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit2002 2002 AnalytesAnalytes1973 1973 21.07 0.25 7.02 360 Anal y teValue Enterococci1KQ Fecal Coliform1KQ Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 137. Suwanacoochee Spring bacteriological analysis. Table 136. Suwanacoochee Spring water quality analysis.

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BULLETIN NO. 66 223 MANATEE COUNTY Figure 113. Spring visited by FGS in Manatee County. Spring description provided on enclosed CD.

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FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 224 Figure 114. Springs visited by FGS in Marion County. MARION COUNTY

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Fern Hammock Springs Location – Lat. 29° 11’ 00.86” N., Long. 81° 42’ 29.50” W. (SE ¼ SE ¼ SE ¼ sec. 17, T. 15 S., R. 26 E.). Fern Hammock Springs are located in the Juniper Springs Recreation Area, adjacent to the Juniper Prairie Wilderness in the Ocala National Forest. The recreation area entrance is on the north side of SR 40, 26 miles (42 km) east of Ocala. From the intersection of SR 40 and CR 326 just east of Ocala in Silver Springs, travel east on SR 40 approximately 20.3 miles (32.7 km) to the Juniper Springs Recreation Area on the north (left) side of the road. Access to the springs is via a hiking trail. Fern Hammock Springs are located downstream from Juniper Springs along Juniper Springs Run. Description The pool measures 75 ft (22.9 m) north to south and 156 ft (47.5 m) east to west. There are at least 20 sandy boils scattered throughout the spring pool. The largest sand-filled boil, located directly under the footbridge, was sampled for water quality. The depth measured over the sampled boil is 5.0 ft (1.5 m), but the rest of the spring pool is shallow, averaging approximately 2 ft (.6 m) deep. The bottom of the pool is sand with abundant patches of native aquatic grasses. The water is clear and has a light bluish tint. Limited exotic aquatic vegetation is present in the spring pool. Algae are present as a thin and patchy coating on the aquatic grasses. The springs are situated in a shallow spring pool that is a widened section of a side channel of Juniper Creek. A clear water channel flows into the pool on the south side. Water exits via a clear stream channel on the northwest side of the pool flowing approximately 600 ft (182.9 m) to Juniper Creek. There are additional small springs along the creek. A wooden footbridge arches over the center of the elongated spring pool. This spring is maintained in a more natural state than the neighboring Juniper Springs. Much of the pool is under a hardwood forest canopy and is within a dense mesic forest of pine, palm, and hardwoods. The banks are pristine, rising steeply to 3 ft (0.9 m) above water level. There is an interpretive pavilion near the northeast shore up in the woods, and two old ceramic drainage pipes lead down into the pool. Utilization The springs are within the Ocala National Forest. Campgrounds are near the springs but swimming is prohibited due to ecological restoration efforts. BULLETIN NO. 66 225 Figure 115. Fern Hammock Springs (photo by T. Scott).

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Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. December 16, 193515.5(1)Annual Mean 193616.8(1)(5 measurements) March 11, 193715.6(1)April 4, 194617.6(1)April 23, 195611.6(1)November 15, 196017.7(1)April 19, 197212.7(1)Annual Mean 198513.6(6)(4 measurements) Annual Mean 199011.0(6)(6 measurements) Annual Mean 199513.0(6)(4 measurements) Annual Mean 200010.9(6)(5 measurements) Annual Mean 200110.6(6)(4 measurements) FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 226 DissolvedTotalDissolvedTotal Field MeasuresMetalsTemperature 21.5Ca1212.512.4 DO-K0.20.260.26 pH8.3Na2.72.4I2.3I Sp. Cond. -Mg4.44.54.4 Lab Analytes Al--20U BOD0-As-3U3U Turbidity--0.15B --15U Color0-5UCd-0.5U0.5UAlkalinity 43-46Co --0.75U Sp. Cond.110120.0-Cr-2U2U TDS63-65.0Cu-3.5U3.5U TSS--4UFe-35U35U Cl4.3-4.0Mn-0.5U0.5U SO45.2-5.8 Ni -2U2U F0.2-0.071IPb-3U5U Nutrients Ra-226--0.1 TOC--1URa-228--1U NO3 + NO2 as N--0.09 Se -4U4U NH3 + NH4--0.015I Sn --10U TKN-0.06U0.06USr90-75.5 P-0.022A0.031Zn-1.5U2U PO4-0.033NO3 0.26--A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit116 22.07 5.84 7.73 2002 AnalytesAnalytes 2002 1972 1972 Table 138. Fern Hammock Springs water quality analysis. Anal y teValue Enterococci1200Q Fecal Coliform88Q Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 139. Fern Hammock Springs bacteriological analysis.

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Juniper Springs Location – Lat. 29° 11’ 01.34” N., Long. 81° 42’ 44.68” W. (SE ¼ SW ¼ SE ¼ sec. 17, T. 15 S., R. 26 E.). Juniper Springs is located in the Juniper Springs Recreation Area adjacent to the Juniper Prairie Wilderness in the Ocala National Forest. The recreation area entrance is on the north side of SR 40, 26 miles (42 km) east of Ocala. From the intersection of SR 40 and CR 326 just east of Ocala in Silver Springs, travel east on SR 40 approximately 20.3 miles (32.7 km) to the Juniper Springs Recreation Area on the north (left) side of the road. Description Juniper Springs has a generally shallow, oval shaped pool with multiple vents. The pool measures 90 ft (27.4 m) east to west and 120 ft (36.6 m) north to south. The vent sampled for water quality is located on the east side of the spring pool. Pool depth measured over the sampled vent is 11.7 ft (3.6 m). A small boil was present over this vent in January 2002. The bottom consists of sand and limestone with patches of native aquatic grasses. Limestone is exposed near the vents. The vent on the west side of the pool is a sandy boil approximately 6 ft (1.8 m) below the surface. Another vent is near the center of the pool. The water is clear and pale blue. Some algae are growing on aquatic grass blades, but overall algal presence is relatively sparse. A limestone wall with multiple accesses surrounds the spring pool. An old millhouse with a spillway is located along the run just downstream and within view of Juniper Springs. Juniper Springs forms the headwaters of Juniper Creek. It flows generally eastward through the Juniper Prairie Wilderness approxBULLETIN NO. 66 227 Figure 116. Juniper Springs (photo by H. Means).

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imately 10 miles (16.1 km) into Lake George. There are many small springs along the run. To the south and west of the spring, higher ground rises to approximately 8 ft (2.4 m) above the water level. All land adjacent to spring pool is landscaped and developed into a recreation area. Utilization – Juniper Springs is located within the Ocala National Forest and is popular for swimming. Camping and full facilities are available. Juniper Springs Run is a superb canoeing and kayaking stream, and boat rentals are available. Motorized boats are not allowed inside the wilderness area. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 228 DissolvedTotalDissolvedTotal Field MeasuresMetalsTemperature 22.0Ca1312.5A12.8A DO-K0.90.26A0.26A pH8.5Na2.72.3I2.3I Sp. Cond. -Mg4.64.3A4.4A Lab Analytes Al--20U BOD--As-3U3U Turbidity--0.1B --15U Color0-5UCd-0.5U0.5UAlkalinity 40-48Co --0.75U Sp. Cond.110120.0-Cr-2U2U TDS68-62.0Cu-3.5U3.5U TSS--4UFe-35U35U Cl5.0-4AMn-0.5U0.5U SO48.4-5.6A Ni -2U2U F0.2-0.069IPb-3U5U Nutrients Ra-226--0.2 TOC--1URa-228--1U NO3 + NO2 as N0.03-0.084 Se -4U4U NH3 + NH4--0.012I Sn --10U TKN-0.06U0.06USr120-78.4A P-0.0280.034Zn-1.5U2U PO4-0.027NO3 0.08--A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit2002 AnalytesAnalytes 2002 1972 1972 115 22.02 6.24 8.03 Table 140. Juniper Springs water quality analysis. Anal y teValue Enterococci1KQ Fecal Coliform1KQ Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 141. Juniper Springs bacteriological analysis.

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Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. February 10, 19310.5(1) (estimated) April 13, 19358.94(1)December 16, 193515.7(1)Annual Mean 193613.1(1)(4 measurements) March 11, 193712.8(1)April 4, 194614.1(1)April 23, 19569.66(1)November 5, 196013.6(1)April 19, 197210.1(1)Annual Mean 198512.2(6)(5 measurements) Annual Mean 19909.12(6)(6 measurements) Annual Mean 199511.96(6)(4 measurements) Annual Mean 20008.81(6)(5 measurements) Annual Mean 20018.24(6)(4 measurements) BULLETIN NO. 66 229

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Orange Spring Location – Lat. 29 ° 30’ 38.34” N., Long. 81 ° 56’ 38.66” W. (SE ¼ NE ¼ NE ¼ sec. 25, T. 11 S., R. 23 E.). Orange Spring is located on Orange Creek approximately 8 miles (12.8 km) southwest of Interlachen. From the intersection of SR 20 and CR 21 just west of Interlachen, head south on CR 21 and travel approximately 8.1 miles (13 km) to the bridge over Orange Creek. The spring is 0.15 miles (0.24 km) northeast of the SR 21 bridge over Orange Creek. Description – Orange Spring sits in a slightly ovoid depression entirely ringed with a rock retaining wall. It measures 99 ft (30.2 m) east to west and 111 ft (33.8 m) northeast to southwest. The bottom is sand with depths ranging from 3 ft (0.9 m) to 12 ft (3.7 m) over the vent. The water color is murky greenish, and there are iron-reducing bacteria, algae, and some aquatic vegetation occurring in the spring. The vent is located in the northwest quadrant of the spring. The Springs Team visiting the spring was told there is a locked gate over the vent preventing access. It is uncertain if limestone is exposed in the vent. A slight boil is visible on the spring surface. There is a sharp odor of hydrogen sulfide emanating from the spring water. The relatively short spring run exits the pool toward the northeast over a 2 ft (0.6 m) high, man-made, limestone waterfall. Past the waterfall, the spring run is then channeled through a narrow concrete chute. The spring run flows approximately 500 ft (152.4 m) and joins the dark waters of Orange Creek. The spring is situated on the south FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 230 Figure 117. Orange Spring (photo by R. Means).

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edge of the heavily forested floodplain of Orange Creek. A water bottling facility and historical house are located to the south of the spring. Historically, Orange Spring attracted people during the 1800’s and early 1900’s for bathing and healing in its mineral-rich waters. Utilization – Orange Spring is owned by a water bottling company, and access is closed to the public. It was formerly used for swimming. Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. September 11, 19727.59(1)January 8, 2003 2.95(2) BULLETIN NO. 66 231 DissolvedTotalDissolvedTotal Field MeasuresMetalsTemperature 24.0Ca3737.738.6 DOK0.90.740.75 pH7.6Na4.44.23.6 Sp. Cond. -Mg9.59.39.3 Lab Analytes Al--10U BOD--0.21IAs-3U3U Turbidity--0.7B --10U Color0-5UCd-0.5U0.5U Alkalinity 120129-Co --1U Sp. Cond.280-255Cr-5U2U TDS169-150.0Cu-3.5U4U TSS--4UFe-5U7.3I Cl6.0-6Mn-3.693.8 SO411 -10 Ni2U2U F0.2-0.2Pb-5U5U Nutrients Ra-226--0.6 TOC--1.2IRa-228--0.9U NO3 + NO2 as N 0.02 -0.004U Se8U8U NH3 + NH4-0.083 Sn-8.8I TKN-0.095I0.24Sr250-204 P-0.0720.078Zn-2.5U4U PO40.085NO3 0.00 --A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit2003 AnalytesAnalytes 2003 1972 1972 279 23.31 0.41 7.45 Anal y teValue Enterococci1KQ Fecal Coliform1KQ Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 143. Orange Spring bacteriological analysis. Table 142. Orange Spring water quality analysis.

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Rainbow Springs Group FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 232 Figure 118. Rainbow Springs Group aerial photo (photo by H. Means). Figure 119. Rainbow Springs Group head spring (photo by T. Scott).

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GroupLocation — Lat. 29° 06’ N., Long. 82° 26’ W. (sections 7, 12, and 18, T. 16 S., R. 18 E.). The Rainbow Springs Group is approximately 3.5 miles (5.6 km) north of Dunnellon and forms the headwaters of the Rainbow River. From the intersection of US 41 and CR 484 in Dunnellon, drive north on US 41 approximately 3.7 miles (6 km) to a large sign on the east (right) side of the road indicating the entrance to the Rainbow Springs State Park, at 83rdPlace Road. Turn east (right) onto 83rdPlace Road and continue 0.8 miles (1.3 km) to the parking area near the head of the Rainbow River. GroupDescription —Rainbow Springs Group forms the Rainbow River, which flows approximately 5.7 miles (9.2 km) south to the tannic Withlacoochee River. Surrounding land has high rolling sand hills with pine forest, agricultural fields and developed areas. Springs, in addition to those at and near the head of the Rainbow River, discharge from numerous limestone crevices and sand boils in the bed of the river and along the banks through the upper 2 miles (3.2 km). RAINBOW NO. 1— Lat. 29° 06’ 08.91” N., Long. 82° 26’ 14.88” W. (SE ¼ NE ¼ SE ¼ sec. 12, T. 16 S., R. 18 E.). Rainbow No. 1 is at the head of the Rainbow River. The spring pool measures 330 ft (10.6 m) north to south and 360 ft (109.7 m) east to west. The large spring pool has multiple vents. The depth over the main vent is 9.9 ft (3 m). The bottom is sand with occasional limestone boulders. Water is clear and blue. A boil is visible over the main vent. Aquatic vegetation is patchy, including some exotic aquatic vegetation. Motorized boats are prohibited, but the area is accessible by canoe or kayak. There is a designated swimming area on the west side of pool. Land around the northern half of the pool rises sharply to approximately 25 ft (7.6 m) above the water. Rainbow Springs State Park facilities are situated on the high ground to the north. Live oak and pines are abundant on high ground. There is a dense hardwood-palm swamp forest along the pool’s east and west edges. BULLETIN NO. 66 233 Figure 120. Rainbow Springs Group rocks underwater (photo by T. Scott)

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FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 234 Unfilt.FilterUnfilt.FilterUnfilt.FilterUnfilt.Filter Field Measures Temperature -22.523.4-23.5-23.4-23.0DO -6.06.61-5.33-5.71-4.45pH -7.97.87.95-7.68-7.65-7.41Sp. Cond. -145121161-251-347-337Lab Anal y tes BOD -0.00.2 U-0.2 U-0.2 U-0.2 U Turbidity -10.05 U-0.05 U-0.1-0.05 U Color -205 U-5 U-5 U-5 U Alkalinity --5367 A67 A115115123123160158 Sp. Cond. -160-250-340-330TDS -89-134-207-192 TSS -4 U-4 U-4 U-4 U Cl 3.03.53.33.93.84.44.46.56.55.45.2 A SO416.04.74.34.84.84.94.844448.27.9 A F -0.00.20.079 I0.095 I0.097 I0.110.120.130.110.13 Nutrients TOC -0.01 U-1 U-1 U-1 UNO3 + NO2 -0.171.21.21.31.30.90.921.11.1 NH3 + NH4 -0.01 U0.013 I0.011 I0.01 U0.01 U0.01 U0.017 I0.01 U TKN -0.06 U0.06 U0.06 U0.06 U Q 0.06 U0.06 U0.06 U0.06 U P -0.0290.0280.0340.0360.0280.0280.0340.037 PO4-0.030.034-0.037-0.026 Q-0.04Metals Ca 21212022.4 J22.939.6 J40.353.8 AJ5457.4 J55.2 K 0.50.40.10.110.110.120.130.28 A0.280.170.16 Na 1.42.92.02.332.312.412.533.74 A3.682.972.85 Mg 5.14.03.13.63.74.956.8 A6.86.36.1 As -3 U3 U3 U3 U3 U3 U3 U3 U Al -30-75 U-75 U-75 U-75 U B -425 U-25 U-25 U-25 UCd -00.75 U0.75 U0.75 U0.75 U0.75 U0.75 U0.75 U0.75 U Co -0.75 U-0.75 U-0.75 U-0.75 UCr -2 U2 U2 U2 U2 U2 U2 U2 U Cu -0.22.5 U2.5 U2.5 U2.5 U2.5 U2.5 U2.5 U5.2 I Fe -035 U35 U35 U35 U35 U35 U35 U35 U Mn -00.5 U0.5 U0.5 U0.5 U0.5 U0.5 U0.5 U0.5 U Ni -32 U2 U2 U2 U2 U2 U2 U2 U Pb -65 U4 U5 U4 U5 U4 U5 U4 U Se -4 U4 U4 U4 U4 U4 U4 U4 U Sn -10 U-10 U-10 U-10 USr -7055-82-423 A-153Zn -05 U5 U5 U5 U5 U5 U5 U5 U A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value shown is less than the practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value Q=Exceeding holding time limit 2001200120012001 Analytes192719461974 No. 1No. 4No. 6Bubbling Table 144. Rainbow Springs Group water quality analysis.

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RAINBOW NO. 4Lat. 29°06’ 06.87” N., Long. 82° 26’ 13.77” W. (SE ¼ NE ¼ SE ¼ sec. 12, T. 16 S., R. 18 E.).Rainbow No. 4is approximately 350 ft (106.7 m) downstream from Spring No. 1. It issues from a conical depression at the bottom of the river. The circular spring pool measures approximately 75 ft (2.9 m) in diameter. The depth measured over the vent is 10.9 ft (3.3 m). Water is clear and pale blue. A boil is not visible. Aquatic grasses sway in the current with very little exotic aquatic vegetation. Algae are present but are not dominant. This spring is located within the State Park no motorized boat zone. Land on both sides of the river is low lying and harbors pristine hardwood swamp forest. RAINBOW NO. 6Lat. 29° 05’ 34.11” N., Long. 82° 25’ 42.83” W. (NE ¼ SE ¼ NW ¼ sec. 18, T. 16 S., R. 18 E.). Rainbow No. 6 is just off the south bank approximately 0.4 miles (0.6 km) downstream from the headwaters. It emerges from the bottom of the Rainbow River between 1 and 1.5 miles (1.6-2.4 km) downstream from the head of the river. It issues from a conical depression nearest the west bank of the river and forms a boil on the river surface. The spring pool measures approximately 60 ft (18.3 m) north to south and 75 ft (22.9 m) east to west. The depth measured over the vent is 16.9 ft (5.2 m). Limestone is evident on the bottom of the spring. River and spring water are clear and pale blue. Aquatic grasses are common in the spring pool. Exotic aquatic vegetation is present on the south side of the pool. Algae occur thinly on limestone substrate. High ground on the west side of the river rises to nearly 20 ft (6.1 m) above the water. There are some pines on the hill top. This spring is downstream from the state park, and private houses are along the west bank. The east side of the river is low-lying and heavily forested state land. BUBBLING SPRINGLat. 29° 06’ 04.46” N., Long. 82° 26’ 05.45” W. (SW ¼ NW ¼ SW ¼ sec. 7, T. 16 S., R. 18 E.). Bubbling Spring flows into the Rainbow River from the east approximately 200 ft (61 m) downstream from Spring No. 4. The spring pool measures 45 ft (13.7 m) north to south and 75 ft (22.9 m) east to west. The shallow spring pool measures only 2.8 ft (0.9 m) over the vent. Water issues from a small crevice in the limestone. The force of the boil pushes the water column approximately 0.5 ft (0.2 m) higher than the surrounding spring pool. The pool bottom is sand and limestone and the water is clear and pale blue. This spring and its run have very rich aquatic vegetation. Algae are thinly present on limestone substrate. Bubbling Spring is at the head of a spring run that is approximately 400 ft (121.9 m) long. Densely forested high ground adjoins the east side of the pool and rises to approximately 15 ft (4.6 m) above water. There is a hardwood forest canopy over the spring pool. The spring is within the state park. Utilization The uppermost portion of Rainbow River is part of Rainbow Springs State Park. It is developed into an interpretive and recreation area with emphasis on preserving the natural quality of the watershed. The east side of the river below the state park is stateBULLETIN NO. 66 235 Anal y teVent No. 1Vent No. 4Vent No. 6Bubblin g Escherichia coli 1 KQ1AKQ1 KQ1 KQ Enterococci1 KQ1AKQ1 KQ1 KQ Fecal Coliform1 KQ1AKQ1 KQ1 KQ Total Coliform1 KQ1AKQ1 KQ1 KQ Bacteria Results (in #/100ml) Table 145. Rainbow Springs Group bacteriological analysis.

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owned and protected. The west side below the state park is subdivided into private lots, often with houses near the riverÂ’s edge. Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. Average 1965 1974763(1)Maximum (October 12, 1964)1230(1)Minimum (October 3, 1932)487(1)October 23, 2001634(7) FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 236

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Salt Springs Location – Lat. 29° 21’ 02.36” N., Long. 81° 43’ 58.05” W. (irregular section 42, T. 13 S., R. 26 E.). Salt Springs are located within the Ocala National Forest in the Salt Springs Recreation Area. From the intersection of SR 40 and CR 314, approximately 12 miles (19.3 km) east of the US 301/SR 40 intersection in Ocala, head north on CR 314 approximately 18 miles (29 km) to the junction with SR 19. From the junction of SR 19 and CR 314 continue north (left) 0.5 miles (0.8 km) to the entrance of Salt Springs Recreation Area which is located on the east (right) side of the road. Description There are several vents located in a large, shallow spring pool. The pool measures approximately 129 ft (39.3 m) northeast to southwest and 189 ft (57.6 m) northwest to southeast. The spring pool averages approximately 2 ft (0.6 m) deep; however, it is deeper over the vents. Some vents are reported to be up to 20 ft (6.1 m) deep (Springs Fever website). The sampled vent is located in the north corner of the spring pool nearest the concrete wall, and the depth there is 8.0 ft (2.4 m). Limestone and sand form the pool bottom. The water is clear and light blue. Native aquatic vegetation is abundant with some exotic aquatic vegetation. Some algae are present as patches and thin layers on limestone and vegetation substrates. Salt Springs Run flows southeast approximately 4 miles (6.4 km) into the northwest corner of Lake George. The north, south, and west sides of the pool are built up with a vertical 5 ft (1.5 m) concrete wall with an accompanying sidewalk. Motorboats are not allowed in the spring pool, but they frequent the run. The surrounding environment consists of rolling sand hills to the north, south, and west, rising steeply to approximately BULLETIN NO. 66 237 Figure 121. Salt Springs (photo by T. Scott)

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FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 238 DissolvedTotal Field MeasuresTemperature --24.0 DO--pH-7.17.8 Sp. Cond. --Lab Analytes BOD---0.2AU Turbidity ---0.20 Color-0--5U Alkalinity ----67 Sp. Cond.-933065006300.0TDS52105850--3440.0 TSS----4U Cl240028001900.0-1800.0 SO4540610 --410.0 F-00-0.10 Nutrients TOC----1U NO3 + NO2 as N -0.12-0.11 NH3 + NH4 ---0.018I TKN---0.17I0.18I P---0.015U0.015U PO4--0.014NO3 -0.53-Metals Ca220240-160160 K-38-29.728.7 Na14001500-925982 Mg140170-102102 Al----75U As---3U3U B ----320 Cd---0.5U0.5U Co ----0.75U Cr---2U2U Cu---3.5U3.5U Fe-100-35U35U Mn---2U2U Ni---2U2U Pb---3U5U Ra-226 ----3.8 Ra-228 ---0.9U Se---4U4U Sn----10U Sr--6000-3490 Zn---7.5U7.5UA=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit2002 Analytes 6070 23.62 2.63 7.33 1972 1946 1924 Table 146. Salt Springs water quality analysis.

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18 ft (5.5 m). The uplands adjacent to the springs are developed and landscaped with grassy lawn and shady live oaks. An old house from the late 1800Â’s sits on a hill to the southwest of the pool. Salt Springs derives its name from its saline waters. Utilization The springs are within Salt Springs Recreation Area. Camping and full facilities are available. Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. February 9, 192987.3(1)September 8, 193081.4(1)Annual Mean 193192.5(1)(5 measurements) March 3, 193273.3 (1)February 7, 193361.8(1)Annual Mean 193569.57(1)(3 measurements) April 4, 194678.7(1)April 24, 195679.9(1)November 16, 196188.2(1)June 8, 1966107.0(1)April 25, 196791.9(1)April 20, 197277.1(1)Annual Mean 198588.51(6)(5 measurements) Annual Mean 199070.22(6)(6 measurements) Annual Mean 199573.43(6)(4 measurements) Annual Mean 200074.83(6)(5 measurements) Annual Mean 200176.38(6)(4 measurements) BULLETIN NO. 66 239 Anal y teValue Enterococci1KQ Fecal Coliform1KQ Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 147. Salt Springs bacteriological analysis.

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Silver Glen Springs FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 240 Figure 122. Silver Glen Springs circa 1930 (anonymous). Figure 123. Silver Glen Springs (photo by T. Scott).

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Location -Lat. 29° 14’ 45.04” N., Long. 81° 38’ 36.50” W. (SE ¼ NE ¼ SE ¼ sec. 25, T. 14 S., R. 26 E.). Silver Glen Springs is in the Ocala National Forest approximately 30 miles (48.3 km) northeast of Ocala. From the intersection of SR 40 and CR 326 just east of Silver Springs, travel east on SR 40 approximately 24.8 miles (40 km). Turn north (left) on SR 19 and travel approximately 6 miles (9.7 km) to Silver Glen Springs Recreation Area located on the east (right) side of SR 19. The spring is south of the parking area. Description -Silver Glen Springs has a large combined spring pool with two vents. Water quality was sampled at the east vent. The combined springs pool measures 200 ft (61 m) north to south and 175 ft (53.3 m) east to west. The depth is 18 ft (5.5 m) at the east vent which is a conical depression. The second vent, often referred to as “Natural Well”, is on the southwestern edge of the pool. It is 12–15 feet (3.7-4.6 m) in diameter and is approximately 40 feet (12.2 m) deep. The west vent is a vertical cave opening in limestone. Much of the pool has a bare sand bottom. Water is clear and light blue. Large boils occur over both vents. Some patches of aquatic grass are in the combined pool. Exotic aquatic vegetation is present, but not common. Algae are common. Native aquatic vegetation is abundant around the “Natural Well.” Two ropes close off the springs pool to boat traffic. Within the main pool, access to “Natural Well” is restricted. There are many large fresh and salt water fishes in both vents but are especially common in “Natural Well”. The spring run is approximately 200 ft (61 m) wide on average and flows east approximately 0.75 mile (1.2 km) to the St. Johns River. The spring run is heavily used and has suffered damage from the boat traffic and recreational use. Uplands rise gently around the springs to approximately 12-15 ft (3.74.6 m). Oak, cedar, and pine are common. An underwater cave system has been mapped at Silver Glen Springs. Utilization -Silver Glen Springs is part of the Ocala National Forest. There are swimming and picnic facilities. Boats are not allowed in the spring pool, however, the spring run may become crowded with hundreds of recreational boats during peak use periods. Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. Average 1931 – 1972112(1)(11 measurements) Maximum (April 12, 1935)129(1)Minimum (February 7, 1933)90(1)September 13, 2001109(7) BULLETIN NO. 66 241 Anal y teValue Escherichia coli 1KQ Enterococci1KQ Fecal Coliform1KQ Total Coliform20Q Bacteria Results (in #/100ml) Table 148. Silver Glen Springs bacteriological analysis

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FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 242 Unfilt.FilterUnfilt.Filter Field MeasuresMetals Temperature 22.823.023.4Ca 877469.770.4 DO -3.66K 10119.19.2 pH 7.47.87.64Na 330290238241 Sp. Cond. 248022201810Mg 463835.635.9 Lab Anal y tes As -03 U3 U BOD -0.10.2 UAl ---75 U Turbidity -00.05 UB -570101Color 005UCd --0.75 U0.75 U Alkalinity -696969 Co -00.75 USp. Cond. -2000Cr -2 U2 U TDS -1050Cu -102.5 U2.5 U TSS --4UFe 80 -35 U35 U Cl 610520470480 Mn -1 U2 U SO4200190170180 N i -2 U2 U F 0.00.20.120.12 Pb -05 U4 U Nutrients Se -4 U4 U TOC -0.01 USn -10 UNO3 + NO2 -0.030.0460.05 Sr -1480NH3 + NH4 -0.011 I0.01 U Zn -205 U5 U TKN -0.093 I0.069 I P -0.020.0250.024 PO4-0.020.028A=Average Value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value shown is less than the practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value Q=Exceeding holding time limit Analytes19461972 2001 Analytes19461972 2001 Table 149. Silver Glen Springs water quality analysis.

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Silver Springs Group BULLETIN NO. 66 243 Figure 124. Silver Springs Group, Main Spring aerial photo (photo by H. Means). Figure 125. Silver Springs Group, Main Spring (photo by Steve Specht).

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GroupLocation —Lat. 29° 12’ N., 82° 03’ W. (sec. 6, T. 15 S., R. 23 E.). The Silver Springs Group is located approximately 6 miles (9.7 km) northeast of Ocala. From the intersection with US 301 and SR 40, drive east on SR 40 for 6.1 miles (9.8 km) to the Silver Springs theme park entrance on the south side of SR 40. Turn onto the access road and continue 0.3 miles (0.5 km) to the parking area. The springs can also be accessed by water. Boats can be launched at a boat ramp on SR 40 at the west end of the bridge over the Oklawaha River approximately 4 miles (6.4 km) east of Silver Springs theme park. GroupDescription — The Silver Springs Group, flowing from numerous vents, forms the headwaters of the Silver River, a major tributary of the Oklawaha River. There are numerous smaller springs in the bed or at the edges of the spring run within about 3,500 ft (1,066.8 m) of the main orifice. The run is usually clear and the bottom at all locations in the springs and run is easily visible. The Silver River flows from its headspring eastward for approximately 5 miles (8 km) through a dense mixed hardwood and cypress swamp to the Oklawaha River. The Oklawaha River flows northward and is a tributary to the St. Johns River. Higher sandy terrain with pine and the Silver Springs community lie to the west of the springs. MAIN SPRINGLat. 29° 12’ 58.34” N., Long. 82° 03’ 09.47” W. (SW ¼ SW ¼ NW ¼ sec. 6, T. 15 S., R. 23 E.). The spring is in a steep-walled depression in the limestone. The main spring is approximately 200 ft (61 m) northeast of the glass-bottom boat loading area. This is the headspring of the Silver River and the largest spring of the group. The spring pool measures 300 ft (91.4 m) north to south and 195 ft (59.4 m) east to west. The depth measured over the vent opening is 33 ft (10.1 m). The vent opening is a horizontal oval-shaped orifice in the base of a limestone ledge on the northeast side of the spring pool. The bottom is sand with limestone pieces that have fallen from the walls. The water is clear and light blue. Aquatic vegetation is abundant across the spring bottom, and a layer of algae covers most substrates. There was no visible boil on the water surface during the October 2001 visit; however, divers observed flow coming out of the vent. Most of the pool edge is a wooden retaining wall. The west side of the pool is developed into glass-bottom boat dock. All nearby uplands to the north, west, and south are developed as parts of the Silver Springs theme park. An underwater cave system has been mapped at the Silver Springs Main Spring. RECEPTION HALLLat. 29° 12’ 52.61” N., Long. 82° 03’ 05.05” W. (NW ¼ NW ¼ SW ¼ sec. 6, T. 15 S., R. 23 E.). Reception Hall is now referred to as The Abyss by most theme park personnel. It is located on the south side of the Silver River approximately 1,000 ft (304.8 m) downstream from Main Spring. It is one of three side springs that form a larger, conjoined spring pool. Reception Hall Spring pool is approximately 30 ft (9.1 m) in diameter and 25 ft (7.6 m) deep. The bottom is sand with limestone exposed near and around the vent. Water discharges from a vertical crack in the limestone. The water is clear and light blue, and sand and shell particles are suspended in the spring flow. No boil was visible on the surface of the spring pool during October 2001. An old boat is wrecked and half buried on the north side of the pool. Aquatic vegetation is common around the outskirts of the spring pool. The area near the vent is bare sand around the limestone orifice. Uplands to the south rise to nearly 6 ft (1.8 m) above the water and are forested with hardwoods. To the north, on the other side of the river, the land is developed by the theme park. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 244

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BLUE GROTTOLat. 29° 12’ 54.91” N., Long. 82° 02’ 59.59” W. (NE ¼ NW ¼ SW ¼ sec. 6, T. 15 S., R. 23 E.). Blue Grotto is the next spring pool east of the conjoined pool with Reception Hall. Blue Grotto is also on the adjacent south side of the Silver River. It is about 300 ft (91.4 m) east of Reception Hall Spring. The circular spring pool measures 105 ft (32 m) in diameter. The depth over the vent is 21.6 ft (6.6 m). Water discharges from a cavity in the limestone. Bare sand surrounds the orifice. Sand and shell particles are suspended in the upwelling. A boil is visible on the water surface. There is aquatic vegetation along the outskirts of the spring pool. During the October 2001 visit, a 10-12 ft (3-3.7 m) alligator was lying on the bottom near the vent with a dusting of sand and shell on its back. The water is clear and light blue. Along the south shore is a thin strip of hardwood and cypress trees. Just past the trees is a man-made spring channel called the Fort King Waterway. It flows parallel to the Silver River and eastward. South of this channel the land rises up to about 15 ft (4.6 m) above water surface. On these banks is an exotic animal zoo. Utilization — Land on the north side of the Silver River near the headspring is part of the Silver Springs theme park which is privately operated. Land along the south side of the Silver River is part of the Silver River State Park. Discharge —Silver Springs Group October 1932 to September 1974:820 ft3/s(1)average Maximum October 7, 13-17, 20, 1960:1,290 ft3/s(1)Minimum May 7, 1957:539 ft3/s(1)November 15, 2001:556 ft3/s(7) BULLETIN NO. 66 245 Anal y teMainBlue GrottoReception Hall Escherichia coli 1KQ48Q1AKQ Enterococci1KQ34Q1AKQ Fecal Coliform1KQ52Q1AKQ Total Coliform1KQ110Q1AKQ Bacteria Results (in #/100ml) Table 150. Silver Springs Group bacteriological analysis.

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FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 246 Unfilt.FilterUnfilt.FilterUnfilt.Filter Field Measures Temperature -23.523.2-23.5-23.6DO --2.38-3.16-3.73pH -7.88.17.20-7.26-7.24Sp. Cond. -401420471-443-468Lab Anal y tes BOD -0.10.2 U-0.2 AU -0.2 UTurbidity -00.05 U-0.05 U -0.05 UColor -405 U-5 U -5 UAlkalinity --170176176153153158157 Sp. Cond. -510-480-500TDS -285-273 -292TSS -4 U-4 U -4 UCl 7.77.88.09.19.28.998.88.9 SO4443439596063647374 F -0.10.20.170.170.150.15 A0.160.16 Nutrients TOC -8.01 U-1 U-1 UNO3 + NO2 -2.61.21.11.51.41.41.4 NH3 + NH4 -0.01 U0.01 U0.01 U0.025 A0.011 I0.01 U TKN -0.06 U0.06 U0.06 U0.06 U0.06 U0.06 U P -0.140.042 A0.0440.0380.0390.0370.038 PO4-0.140.03 J-0.042 J-0.045 JMetals Ca 73686873.376.568.2 A707374.3 K -1.10.20.610.680.650.670.640.68 Na -4.04.35.926.875.91 A6.486.046.39 Mg 9.29.69.310.711.111.3 A11.41212.2 As---3U3U3U3U3U3U Al ---75 U--75 U B -025 U-25 U-25 UCd -00.75 U0.75 U0.75 U0.75 U0.75 U0.75 U Co -00.75 U-0.75 U-0.75 UCr--02U2U2U2U2U2U Cu -02.5 U2.5 U2.5 U2.5 U2.5 U2.5 U Fe -2035 U35 U35 U35 U35 U35 U Mn--01U1U1U1U1U1U Ni---2U2U2U2U2U2U Pb--25U4U5U4U5U4U Se---4U4U4U4U4U4U Sn -10 U-10 U-10 USr -500693-676 A-782Zn -15 U5 U5 U5 U12 I5 U I=Value is less than the practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value Q=Exceeding holding time limit 200120012001 A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit MainBlue GrottoReception Hall Analytes190719461972 Table 151. Silver Springs Group water quality analysis.

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ORANGE COUNTY BULLETIN NO. 66 247 Figure 126. Springs visited by FGS in Orange County.

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Rock Springs Location – Lat. 28° 45’ 23.20” N., Long. 81° 30’ 06.25” W. (NE ¼ NE ¼ NW ¼ sec. 15, T. 20 S., R. 28 E.). Rock Springs is located within Dr. Howard A. Kelly County Park, approximately 6 miles (9.7 km) north of Apopka. From the junction of US 441 and SR 435 in Apopka, travel 5.9 miles (9.5 km) north on SR 435. Turn east (right) on Bay Bridge/Rock Springs Road and travel 0.3 miles (0.5 km) to the park entrance and parking lot. The spring is southeast of the parking area. Description – Rock Springs emerges from a horizontal cave at the base of a 20 ft (6.1 m) high vertical limestone and sand bluff. The water is clear and bluish. For a few hundred feet (approximately one hundred meters), the stream cuts into limestone, and its bottom has sand and marine fossil shells that eroded out of the limestone. There is no vegetation and only minor algal growth. Lush ferns and moss blanket the bluff and upper stream banks. The upper part of the run averages 15 – 20 ft (4.5 – 6.1 m) wide and 5 ft (1.5 m) deep. Rock Springs Run flows north, east, and south, eventually into the Wekiva River approximately 8.6 miles (13.8 km) downstream. Approximately 120 ft (36.6 m) downstream, a boardwalk arches over the stream. About 1,000 ft (304.8 m) downstream from the springhead, the run has been pooled for swimming. The cave and immediate vicinity are closed to use, but the rest of the run serves as a swimming, snorkeling and tubing hotspot. A dense cabbage palm and oak hammock occupies lands adjacent to the cave and upper part of the run. The spring is bordered on all sides by high, rolling sand hills that are owned and maintained as a county park. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 248 Figure 127. Rock Springs (photo by T. Scott)

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BULLETIN NO. 66 249 DissolvedTotal Field MeasuresTemperature 23.923.0 DO-pH7.36.4 Sp. Cond. 222.0240.0 Lab Analytes BOD---0.2U Turbidity---0.05U Color4.00.0-5UAlkalinity -86.0-95A Sp. Cond.--250.0TDS128.0146.0-154.0 TSS---4U Cl6.17.5-8.1 SO417.019.0-19.0 F0.10.2-0.14A Nutrients TOC---1U NO3 + NO2 as N0.071.1-1.30 NH3 + NH4---0.01U TKN--0.06U0.06U P--0.0820.082 PO4--0.09 NO3 0.34.7 Metals Ca29293031.5A K0.60.91.21.3A Na4.34.84.64.8A Mg8.48.299.7A Al---50U As--3U3UB ---12I Cd--0.5U0.5UCo ---0.75U Cr--2U2U Cu--3U3U Fe70-25U25U Mn--0.5U0.5U Ni--4U2U Pb--3U5U Ra-226---0.5 Ra-228---0.9U Se--4U4U Sn---7U Sr-240-177A Zn--2U3UA=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limi t 2002 Analytes1971 1946 23.82 1.02 7.13 256 Table 152. Rock Springs water quality analysis.

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Utilization The spring is developed into a park with swimming, picnicing and camping facilities. Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. Average for 1931-197564.6(1)(68 measurements) Min (March 8, 1932)52(1)Min (June 7, 1945)52(1)Max (October 17, 1960)83(1)Annual Mean 198557.54(6)(6 measurements) Annual Mean 199047.85(6)(6 measurements) Annual Mean 199562.94(6)(5 measurements) Annual Mean 200051.4(7)Mean 1931-200059.6(6)(249 measurements) Annual Mean 200146.38(7) FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 250 Anal y teValue Enterococci2Q Fecal Coliform1KQ Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 153. Rock Springs bacteriological analysis.

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Wekiwa Spring Location – Lat. 28° 42’ 42.79” N., Long. 81° 27’ 37.52” W. (NE ¼ NE ¼ NE ¼ sec. 36, T. 20 S., R. 28 E.). Wekiwa Spring is located within Wekiwa Springs State Park approximately 4 miles (6.4 km) northeast the town of Apopka. From the intersection of US 441 and SR 436 in Apopka, travel 1.5 miles (2.4 km) east on SR 436 (Semoran Boulevard.). Turn north (left) on Wekiva Springs Road and travel approximately 2.5 miles (4 km) to a 90 degree bend to the east. Continue on Wekiva Springs Road approximately 0.4 mile (0.6 km) to the park entrance on the north (left) side of the road. Description – The spring pool is roughly circular and measures 105 ft (32 m) in diameter. The primary vent is in the southeast portion of the pool and is a 35 ft (11 m) long fissure in the limestone oriented east to west. The spring bottom is sand and averages 5 ft (1.5 m) deep. Limestone is exposed near the vent. The depth over the vent measures 13.7 ft (4.2 m). The water is clear bluish green. The boil over the vent is voluminous. A retaining wall 2-3 ft (0.6-0.9 m) high with access steps encloses the pool and extends a short distance down the run. There is no aquatic vegetation in the spring pool, but the Wekiva River supports a rich aquatic plant community but has exotic species present. A sidewalk surrounds the pool and a wooden footbridge crosses the run about 200 ft (61 m) downstream from the pool. Wekiwa Spring is situated at the base of a northeast-sloping, grassy, hillside maintained for sunbathing and picnicking. Wekiwa Spring gives rise to the Wekiva River, which flows northeast through state land approximately 17 miles (27.4 km) into the St. Johns River. BULLETIN NO. 66 251 Figure 128. Wekiwa Spring (photo by T. Scott).

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FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 252 DissolvedTotal Field MeasuresTemperature -23DO--pH-7.9Sp. Cond. --Lab Analytes BOD--0.2-0.2U Turbidity ----0.2 Color-5--5UAlkalinity -98--130.0 Sp. Cond.-250-337.0TDS122150--193.0 TSS----4U Cl810--16.0 SO45.313-20.0 F-0.2--0.17 Nutrients TOC--0-1.2I NO3 + NO2 as N -0.8 0.71-0.29 NH3 + NH4---0.012I TKN---0.12I0.12I P---0.120.120 PO4-0.10.12NO3 -3.4-Metals Ca2830-41.6A39.8 K-1.1-1.71.70 Na4.06.2-9.3210.2 Mg7.19.2-11.511.3 Al----10U As--03U3U B ----44.0 Cd--00.5U0.5UCo --0-1U Cr--02U2U Cu--102U4U Fe--305U7.4I Mn--101.231.9I Ni---1U2U Pb--05U5U Ra-226 ----0.9 Ra-228 ----1U Se---5U7U Sn----22U Sr-170-143.0 Zn--102.1I6UA=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit2002 Analytes 23.38 1972 1971 1924 0.39 7.32 340 Table 154. Wekiwa Spring water quality analysis.

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Utilization Wekiwa Springs State Park is heavily used for swimming, canoeing and camping. The Wekiva River basin is part of a state conservation land called the Wekiva Springs Geopark comprising 110 square miles (285 square kilometers). Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. Average for 1932-197574.2(1)(60 measurements) Min (April 27, 1956)62(1)Max (October 17, 1960)92(1)Annual Mean 198561.18(6)(6 measurements) Annual Mean 199062.23(6)(6 measurements) Annual Mean 199574.91(6)(5 measurements) Annual Mean 200068.93(6)(4 measurements) Mean 1932-200068.51(6)(239 measurements) October 17, 2002 66.46(2) BULLETIN NO. 66 253 Anal y teValue Enterococci1KQ Fecal Coliform1KQ Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 155. Wekiwa Spring bacteriological analysis.

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PASCO COUNTY FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 254 Figure 129. Springs visited by FGS in Pasco County.

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Crystal Springs Location – Lat. 28° 10’ 55.92” N., Long. 82° 11’ 06.53” W. (NE ¼ SW ¼ NW ¼ sec. 35, T. 26 S., R. 21 E.). Crystal Springs flows into the Hillsborough River approximately 3 miles (4.8 km) south of Zephyrhills. The spring is located on private land and access from the river is blocked by a weir/dam structure. Description – Crystal Springs sits in a pool formed by a dam on the southeast side of the Hillsborough River. The pool measures 135 ft (41.1 m) north to south and 276 ft (84.1 m) northwest to southeast. The depth is generally shallow, ranging from 4 to 10 ft (1.2-3 m). There are multiple vents and sand boils scattered about the pool. The main vent sampled for water quality has a stainless steel water extraction pipe and is located in the southeastern portion of the pool. The bottom of the spring pool is limestone and sand with abundant aquatic grass and algae. The water is clear and light blue. The pool edges are entirely enclosed by a sandbag retaining wall that is approximately 5 ft (1.5 m) tall. On the southeast banks of the pool, construction is underway to make an observation platform. The weir/dam on the northwest side of the pool has a boardwalk over it, and water discharges through a culvert into the adjacent Hillsborough River. The clear bluish water from the spring contrasts sharply with the tannic water of the river. The river is approximately 100 ft (30.5 m) wide at the confluence with Crystal Springs. To the southeast, the ground rises gently to approximately 8 ft (2.4 m) above the spring, and the hillside is open and grassy. A residence is located a few hundred feet upslope. The lowlands along the river harbor an intact floodplain forest. BULLETIN NO. 66 255 Figure 130. Crystal Springs (photo by H. Means).

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FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 256 DissolvedTotal Field MeasuresTemperature -242424DO--43.5pH-7.77.77.68 Sp. Cond. -289289291302 Lab Analytes BOD---0.3--0.2AU Turbidity---0--0.1 Color-5005-5UAlkalinity --140130140-154.0 Sp. Cond. ----343.0TDS--176166171-200.0 TSS-----4U Cl5.55.4766-10.0 SO49.37.86.26.48 -10.0 F-0.10.20.20.2-0.11 Nutrients TOC------1U NO3 + NO2 as N 0.090.180.9711.3 -2.10 NH3 + NH4-----0.01U TKN----0.06U0.06U P---0.03-0.0420.050 PO4----0.048NO3 0.40.84.34.45.8 -Metals Ca53524952496263.2 K-0.40.30.20.60.380.41 Na-43.63.54.55.525.18A Mg543.73.44.24.24A Al------32U As---0-3U3UB ---120--18I Cd---0-0.5U0.5UCo ---0--1U Cr---0-2U2U Cu---10-3.6U2U Fe--1010-5U26I Mn--00-0.25U0.5U Ni-----1U 1.5U Pb---0-5U5U Ra-226 ------0.8 Ra-228------0.9U Se-----12U7U Sn------28U Sr--240280280-227A Zn---0-4.4U2UA=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit368 2002 Analytes 6.98 24.16 1.69 7/19/19237/1/19465/1/19684/20/197210/11/1972 Table 156. Crystal Springs water quality analysis.

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Utilization – Previously run as a private recreation area, the spring is now being restored to more natural conditions. It is scheduled to reopen as Crystal Springs Preserve, a learning laboratory and environmental education facility. A portion of the spring flow is extracted by Zephyrhills water bottling company. Discharge – All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. Average for 1923 197460(1)Min (July 1, 1946)20(1)Max (July 19, 1946)147(1) BULLETIN NO. 66 257 Anal y teValue Enterococci1KQ Fecal Coliform1KQ Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 157. Crystal Springs bacteriological analysis.

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PINELLASCOUNTY FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 258 Figure 131. Springs visited by FGS in Pinellas County. Spring descriptions provided on enclosed CD.

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PUTNAM COUNTY BULLETIN NO. 66 259 Figure 132. Springs visited by FGS in Putnam County.

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Beecher Spring Location – Lat. 29° 26’ 55.17” N., Long. 81° 38’ 48.71” W. (NW ¼ SE ¼ SW ¼ sec. 14, T. 12 S., R. 26 E.). Beecher Spring is located within the Welaka National Fish Hatchery. From the east end of the US 17 bridge over the St. Johns River, travel approximately 11.1 miles (17.9 km) east then south and southwest to the junction of US 17 with CR 309. Turn southwest (right) on CR 309 and drive approximately 5.5 miles (8.8 km) to Welaka. The spring is approximately 2.5 miles (4 km) southeast of the community of Welaka on the east side of CR 309. Description – Beecher Spring pool is square-shaped, measuring 129 ft (39.3 m) north to south and 147 ft (44.8 m) east to west. The depth over the vent measures 18 ft (5.5 m). It is bordered on its north and west sides with a concrete retaining wall. The spring bottom is uniform with a soft, organic layer over sand with limestone exposed at the vent. The spring vent is in the northwest side of the pool and issues slightly murky, bluish water, creating a modest sized boil on the pool surface. Algae are abundant. There is an elevated remnant section of pipeline suspended above the pool surface near the vent. The outflow channel flows south for at least 2,500 ft (762 m). Along its course, it is channeled into numerous man-made holding ponds utilized by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as fish hatcheries. The holding ponds occupy a large open field. The spring run eventually enters the St. Johns River. To the north and east of Beecher Spring, forested sand hills rise to approximately 15 ft (4.6 m) higher than the spring surface. The south and west sides are forested swampy lowlands. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 260 Figure 133. Beecher Spring (photo by R. Means).

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Utilization – Water from the spring is used for fish hatchery operations. The spring is not open to the public. Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. November 23, 196012.4(1)April 20, 19729.02(1) BULLETIN NO. 66 261 DissolvedTotalDissolvedTotal Field MeasuresMetalsTemperature 23.5Ca3335.637.7A DO-K1.42.12.1A pH7.9Na4134.237.1A Sp. Cond. -Mg8.38.99.1A Lab Analytes Al--20U BOD--3.2AAs-3U3U Turbidity--1.9B --25I Color10-5.0Cd-0.5U0.5UAlkalinity 92-130Co --1U Sp. Cond.446480.0-Cr-2U2U TDS242-226.0Cu-2U4U TSS--4UFe-3447AJ Cl74.0-69Mn-6.697.2A SO411 -12 Ni -1U2U F0.2-0.13Pb-5U5U Nutrients Ra-226--0.9 TOC--1.8IRa-228--0.8U NO3 + NO2 as N 0.00 -0.004U Se -5U7U NH3 + NH4-5.3 Sn --8.3I TKN-5.45.7ASr280-207A P-0.740.83AZn-1U2U PO40.79NO3 0.00 --A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit2002 AnalytesAnalytes 2002 19721972 501 22.82 0.29 6.68 Table 158. Beecher Spring water quality analysis. Anal y teValue Enterococci1KQ Fecal Coliform2Q Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 159. Beecher Spring bacteriological analysis.

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Welaka Spring Location – Lat. 29° 29’ 40.39” N., Long. 81° 40’ 23.70” W. (SW ¼ NE ¼ SE ¼ sec. 33, T. 11 S., R. 26 E.). Welaka Spring is located on the east bank of the St. Johns River approximately 1 mile (1.6 km) north of Welaka. From the east end of the US 17 bridge over the St. Johns River, travel approximately 11.1 miles (17.9 km) east then south and southwest to the junction of US 17 with CR 309. Turn southwest (right) on CR 309 and drive approximately 5.5 miles (8.8 km) to Welaka. The spring can be accessed by boating one mile downstream on the St. Johns River from the Welaka public boat ramp or by driving 1.2 miles (1.9 km) north on SR 309 from the junction with SR 308B; turn west (left) on a sand trail and bear north for 0.1 mile to the spring pool. Description – The Welaka Spring pool measures 60 ft (18.3 m) north to south and 90 ft (27.4 m) east to west. The spring pool area is relatively shallow, averaging 5 ft (1.5 m) deep. A sizeable double boil can be seen over the spring vent. The bottom is sand with increased organic particle deposition downstream. The water is clear near the spring boil, but dark water from the St. Johns River mixes with spring water a short distance downstream from the spring. This spring emits an odor of hydrogen sulfide. The pool banks on north and east sides are steep, rising to approximately 15 ft (4.5 m) higher than the spring. There are remains of an old dock or jumping platform on the northeast side of the spring pool. The current in the wide run is very slow. The wide, slow-moving spring run is 1,200 ft (365.7 m) FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 262 Figure 134. Welaka Spring (photo by H. Means).

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long and up to 200 ft (60.9 m) wide. It is naturally impounded by the nearby St. Johns River. Land around the spring pool and along the northern side of the spring run is undeveloped and forested. Several private residences are located along the south side of the spring run approximately 500 ft (152.4 m) downstream from the spring. There is a large Native American shell midden at the confluence with the river on the north side of the spring mouth. Utilization – Welaka Spring is privately owned and used for swimming. Discharge – Not available. BULLETIN NO. 66 263 DissolvedTotalDissolvedTotal Field MeasuresMetalsTemperature 24.0Ca4450.152.6 DO-K6.46.87.1 pH7.8Na200244252 Sp. Cond. -Mg2426.427.4 Lab Analytes Al--10U BOD--0.2UAs-3U3U Turbidity--0.6B --72 Color5-5UCd-1U1UAlkalinity 75-84Co --1U Sp. Cond.14701590.0-Cr-2U2U TDS849-849.0Cu-3.5U4U TSS--4UFe-24U31 Cl370-450Mn-1.591.9I SO457 -69 Ni2U2U F0.2-0.1UPb-5U5U Nutrients Ra-226--0.8 TOC--1.3IRa-228--0.9U NO3 + NO2 as N 0.02 -0.07 Se8U8U NH3 + NH4-0.024 Sn-19 TKN-0.094I0.21Sr1000-941 P-0.070.079Zn-2.5U10I PO40.074NO3 0.09 --A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit1720 22.4 1.2 7.38 2003 AnalytesAnalytes 2003 1972 1972 Table 160. Welaka Spring water quality analysis. Anal y teValue Enterococci1KQ Fecal Coliform1KQ Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 161. Welaka Spring bacteriological analysis.

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SARASOTA COUNTY FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 264 Figure 135. Springs visited by FGS in Sarasota County.

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Warm Mineral Spring Location – Lat. 27° 03’ 35.65” N., Long. 82° 15’ 35.83” W. (SE ¼ NW ¼ NE ¼ sec. 25, T. 39 S., R. 20 E.). Warm Mineral Spring is located within the town of North Port approximately 11 miles (18 km) east of Venice. From the River Road exit on I-75, travel 5.7 miles (9.2 km) southeast to the intersection of US 41 and River Road west of North Port. Turn northeast (left) on US 41and travel 2.5 miles (4.0 km) to Ortiz Road. Turn north (left) on Ortiz and go 1.0 mile (1.6 km) to The Springs Spa and Resort. Description – Warm Mineral Spring is within a large sinkhole that measures 252 ft (76.8 m) north to south and 315 ft (96 m) east to west. The bottom of the pool slopes gently to a depth of 17 ft (5.2 m) at about 40 ft (12.2 m) from the shore where it drops off precipitously (Rosenau et al., 1977). Spring depths are reported to reach 230 ft (70 m). Rupert (1994) provides a description of the sinkhole profile. The vent is at the base of the north wall of the sink. The spring has a debris cone of dolostone, limestone and sand on the bottom. The debris cone rises as much as 100 ft (30.5 m) above the deepest part of the sinkhole. The water is yellow-greenish, slightly murky and often has a hydrogen sulfide odor. There is no boil on the water surface. Very little aquatic vegetation or algae live in the spring. A small, narrow spring run exits on the west side and flows southwest approximately 2.3 miles (3.7 km) into the Myaka River. A circular swimming rope on the spring surface keeps the interior deepest water demarcated. Grassy lawn and palm trees cover the surroundings, and BULLETIN NO. 66 265 Figure 136. Warm Mineral Spring (photo by R. Means)

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FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 266 DissolvedTotal Field MeasuresTemperature --30.028.929.5 DO----1 pH--7.07.27.3 Sp. Cond. ----Lab Analytes BOD-----1.4A Turbidity ------0.9 Color--65--5.0Alkalinity ---130130-131 Sp. Cond.---260002700028900.0TDS---19000--17800.0 TSS------7IQ Cl94009600940092009500.0-10000 SO417001700170016001700 -1700 F---2.01.9-1.4 Nutrients TOC----3.02.8IQ NO3 + NO2 as N -----0.013 NH3 + NH4-----0.34 TKN----0.570.56 P---0.010.027I0.019I PO4---0.400.004UNO3 ---1.7-Metals Ca770510640720500493512 K---180150185191 Na---4900520055205260 Mg470630540480580579616 Al------64U As----106U4U B ------1710 Cd----0 0.5U0.5U Co ----0-2.4U Cr----6 4.3I5.7I Cu----20 3.5U15U Fe----405U7U Mn----20 2.772.9 Ni-----20U20U Pb----016U22U Ra-226 -----16.1 Ra-228 ------1.5 Se-----16U24U Sn------22U Sr---31000-35900 Zn----20 2.5U4UA=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit19621972 2003 Analytes192719301943 28700 30.21 0.37 7.06 Table 162. Warm Mineral Spring water quality analysis.

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there are abundant chairs and picnic tables. There is an underwater cave that has been explored and mapped. Utilization – Warm Mineral Spring is located within a private spa and resort. It is a popular tourist destination. The spring is developed into a healing and wellness swimming park. Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. Average for 1942 – 19749.7(1)(10 measurements) March 4, 2003 8.46(2) BULLETIN NO. 66 267 Anal y teValue Enterococci1KQ Fecal Coliform1KQ Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 163. Warm Mineral Spring bacteriological analysis.

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SEMINOLE COUNTY FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 268 Figure 137. Springs visited by FGS in Seminole County.

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Sanlando Springs Location Lat. 28° 41’ 19.32” N., Long. 81° 23’ 43.07” W. (SE ¼ NE ¼ SE ¼ sec. 3, T. 21 S., R. 29 E.). Sanlando Springs is located on private property within “The Springs,” gated community 3 miles (5 km) southwest of Longwood on SR 427. The spring run flows into the east side of the Little Wekiva River 0.4 miles (0.6 km) downstream from the SR 427 bridge over the river. Description – Sanlando Springs sits in a circular, bowl shaped depression that is submerged on the southeast side of a larger, man-made lake that is dammed for swimming. The spring pool is reported to be about 30 ft (9.1 m) in diameter (Rosenau et al., 1977). The depth over the vent measures 14.8 ft (4.5 m). The spring-fed lake measures 200 ft (61 m) north to south and 180 ft (54.9 m) east to west. Limestone is exposed at the vent. The rest of the pool bottom is sand. Algae are abundant on the sandy lake bottom. There was a very slight boil over the vent in May 2002. The vent is surrounded on three sides by a concrete retaining wall, and there is a platform for swimmers use on the east side. The Little Wekiva River flows into the lake on the west side, then the combined flow of the spring and river discharges over a weir on the north side of the lake. The surrounding land rises to approximately 30 ft (9.1 m) above the spring level. Palm trees, sandy beaches, and a concrete retaining wall surround the majority of the lake. The spring is surrounded by suburban development. Utilization The spring is developed into a private recreation area for residents and is not open to the general public. BULLETIN NO. 66 269 Figure 138. Sanlando Springs (photo by R. Means)

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FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 270 DissolvedTotal Field MeasuresTemperature 23.324.0 DO-pH7.27.2 Sp. Cond. -Lab Analytes BOD---0.2AU Turbidity-0Color60-5.0Alkalinity -100-145.0 Sp. Cond.228255360.0TDS123154-200.0 TSS---4U Cl7.810.0-21.0 SO43.3 9.8-13.0 F0.20.3-0.15 Nutrients TOC---1.5I NO3 + NO2 as N 0.43-0.48 NH3 + NH4--0.190 TKN--0.240.24 P-0.160.190.19A PO40.160.2 NO3 0.1 -Metals Ca293043A44.3A K0.611.6A1.6A Na5.86.710.5A10.9A Mg7.98.711.6A12A Al---50U As--3U3UB ---29I Cd--0.5U0.5UCo ---0.75U Cr--2U2U Cu--3U3U Fe90-25U25U Mn--4.8A5A Ni--4U2U Pb--3U5U Ra-226---0.7 Ra-228---1U Se--4U4U Sn---7U Sr-150-86.1A Zn--2U2UA=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit2002 Analytes1972 1946 24.65 0.25 6.64 373 Table 164. Sanlando Spring water quality analysis.

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Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. Average for 1942-197519.0(1)(32 measurements) Min (September 12, 1973)4.3(1)Max (October 18, 1960)33(1)Max (June 24, 1975)33(1)November 14, 20008.99(6)Mean 1941-200019.82(6)(115 measurements) Annual Mean 200113.13(6)(3 measurements) BULLETIN NO. 66 271 Anal y teValue Enterococci1KQ Fecal Coliform1KQ Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 165. Sanlando Spring bacteriological analysis.

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Starbuck Spring Location Lat. 28° 41’ 49.25” N., Long. 81° 23’ 28.22” W. (NE ¼ NW ¼ NW ¼ sec. 2, T. 21 S., R. 29 E.). Starbuck Spring is located on private property within “The Springs” gated community 3 miles (5 km) west of Longwood on SR 427. Description – Starbuck Spring pool is circular with a diameter of 66 ft (20.1 m). The depth in the center measures 7.2 ft (2.1 m). The bottom is sand with limestone exposed in the vent. Milky blue water discharges from an opening in limestone producing a boil on the spring surface. Algae are abundant on the bottom and as floating mats. The pool is enclosed by a sand bag retaining wall. A swift flowing, shallow spring run exits the pool over a weir on the northeast side. The spring run flows 500 ft (152 m) into the Little Wekiva River from the east 1 mile (1.6 km) upstream from the SR 427 bridge over the river. The spring harbors little aquatic vegetation. There are two houses adjacent to the spring pool, and their grassy lawns meet the pool’s edge. Two pvc pipes lead into the pool from each house. Land around the pool is low-lying, but a sandy slope to the west rises to approximately 20 ft (6.1 m) above the lowlands forming the western edge of the Little Wekiva River. Utilization The spring is surrounded by private property and developed for private recreation and water extraction. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 272 Figure 139. Starbuck Spring (photo by R. Means).

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Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. Average for 1944-197516.6(1)(28 measurements) Min (May 30, 1974)12(1)Min (May 1, 1975)12(1)Max (October 18, 1960)21.4(1)Mean 1944-200014.50(6)(109 measurements) BULLETIN NO. 66 273 DissolvedTotalDissolvedTotal Field MeasuresMetalsTemperature 24.0Ca3242.343.8 DO-K0.81.31.40 pH7.5Na8.211.812.1 Sp. Cond. 270Mg9.311.912.4 Lab Analytes Al--50U BOD--0.2UAs-3U3U Turbidity1-0.35B --28I Color0-5UCd-0.5U0.5U Alkalinity 100-127.0Co --0.75U Sp. Cond.361.0-Cr-2U2U TDS155-203.0Cu-3U3U TSS--4UFe-25U25U Cl13.0-22.0Mn-2.52.6 SO415-26.0 Ni -4U2U F0.3-0.18Pb-3U5U Nutrients Ra-226--0.4 TOC--1.3IRa-228--1U NO3 + NO2 as N0.06-0.36 Se -4U4U NH3 + NH4--0.030 Sn --7U TKN-0.082I0.065ISr330-350.0 P0.140.170.170Zn-2U2U PO40.140.17NO3 ---A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit24.48 1.82 6.70 370 2002 2002 AnalytesAnalytes1972 1972 Table 166. Starbuck Spring water quality analysis. Anal y teValue Enterococci1KQ Fecal Coliform1KQ Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 167. Starbuck Spring bacteriological analysis.

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SUMTER COUNTY FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 274 Figure 140. Springs visited by FGS in Sumter County.

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Fenney Spring Location – Lat. 28° 47’ 41.99” N., Long. 82° 02’ 17.21” W. (NE ¼ SE ¼ NE ¼ sec. 31, T. 19 S., R. 23 E.). The spring is located on private property approximately 2 miles (3.2 km) west of Coleman. Description – Fenney Spring is situated in a cow pasture with abundant live oaks. The spring pool measures 84 ft (25.6 m) north to south and 54 ft (16.5 m) east to west. On the south side of the pool beyond a submerged limestone ledge, The depth measures 21.4 ft (6.5 m). The water is clear, but visibility into the spring is limited by a slightly tannic hue and algae-covered substrates. No boil was visible on the pool surface during April 2002. The spring often has dark, tannic water. Steep banks on the south side of the pool are approximately 12 ft (3.7 m) high; the banks along the spring run northward are low-lying. To the west, there is an adjacent water-filled sinkhole roughly the size of Fenney Spring pool. The sink hole measures 27.5 ft (8.4 m) deep. The two water bodies are separated by a 5 ft (1.5 m) wide land bridge. Underneath the land bridge, the two karst features connect. Numerous cow trails run into the spring and along the run. Fenney Spring run is shallow, slow-moving, and slightly narrower than the springhead. It flows north for approximately 150 ft (45.7 m), then turns southwestward, flowing into Shady Brook which eventually flows into Lake Panasoffkee several miles downstream. Utilization The spring is privately owned and surrounded by cattle pasture. BULLETIN NO. 66 275 Figure 141. Fenney Spring (photo by R. Means).

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Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. July 26, 194621.6(1)April 26, 19564.66(1)November 22, 196095.5(1)March 16, 197213.9(1) FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 276 DissolvedTotalDissolvedTotal Field MeasuresMetalsTemperature 20Ca4147.247.6A DO-K0.40.570.59A pH7.5Na6.44.14.5A Sp. Cond. 230Mg3.12.42.5A Lab Analytes Al--50U BOD--0.49IAs-3U3U Turbidity--0.15B --12I Color65-15.0Cd-0.5U0.5U Alkalinity 110-132Co --0.75U Sp. Cond.-280.0-Cr-2U2U TDS175-171Cu-3U3U TSS--4UFe-25U40I Cl1.2-8.4AMn-3.63.8A SO41.6 -5.3A Ni -2U2U F0.3-0.083IPb-3U5U Nutrients Ra-226--0.6 TOC--3.5IRa-228--2.1 NO3 + NO2 as N 0.1 -0.3J Se -4U4U NH3 + NH4-0.01U Sn --7U TKN-0.19I0.22Sr--70.2A P-0.0790.091Zn-1.5U3U PO40.082NO3 0.26 --A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit2002 2002 AnalytesAnalytes1972 1972 23.1 0.24 7.47 290 Table 168. Fenney Spring water quality analysis. Anal y teValue Enterococci8Q Fecal Coliform4Q Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 169. Fenney Spring bacteriological analysis.

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Gum Springs Main Location – Lat. 28° 57’ 31.40” N., Long. 82° 13’ 53.49” W. (NW ¼ NE ¼ NW ¼ sec. 5, T. 18 S., R. 21 E.). Gum Springs Main spring is located approximately 10 miles southwest of Ocala off SR 484. The springs are surrounded by the Marion Oaks subdivision and are not accessible to the public. Description – Gum Springs Main spring pool measures 69 ft (21 m) north to south and 81 ft (24.7 m) east to west. The depth measured over the vent is 9.8 ft (2.9 m). The vent is located just 5 ft (1.5 m) north of an old wooden dock on the south side of the spring. The water color is bluish green and there are suspended algal mats and particles in the spring pool. Two guest houses are situated on high ground to the south and east of the spring, which rises to approximately 10 ft (3 m) above the water. Gum Springs Main forms the headwaters of Gum Slough, which flows southwest into the Withlacoochee River. There are at least seven individual springs along Gum Slough distributed from the head spring up to .8 miles (1.3 km) downstream (Rosenau et al., 1977). Champion and Starks (2001) call the springs in this area the Gum Slough Springs Group. They recognize Wilson Head Spring, Gum Spring Main, Gum Slough #1-4, and Alligator Spring. In April 2002, Gum Spring was barely flowing, nearly stagnant. Gum Slough was less than 1 ft (0.3 m) deep. All the springs were reportedly at historic low water levels, and some were not flowing during the April 2002 visit. Utilization – Gum Springs Main is surrounded by private land and is used privately for swimming. BULLETIN NO. 66 277 Figure 142. Gum Springs Main (photo by R. Means).

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Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. March 15, 193211.1(1)June 13, 197285.8(1)(combined flow from 6 springs) Average 19998.6(5) FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 278 DissolvedTotalDissolvedTotal Field MeasuresMetalsTemperature 23Ca5046.750.1A DO-K0.40.310.33A pH8Na3.33.3I3.4I Sp. Cond. -Mg6.86.36.6A Lab Analytes Al--50U BOD--0.43AIAs-3U3U Turbidity--0.2B --6.2I Color5-5UCd-0.5U0.5U Alkalinity 110-129ACo --0.75U Sp. Cond.358310.0-Cr-2U2U TDS208-175Cu-3U3U TSS--4UFe-25U25U Cl5-6.0Mn-0.5U0.5U SO441 -23.0 Ni -2U2U F0.2-0.12Pb-3U5U Nutrients Ra-226--0.3 TOC--1URa-228--1U NO3 + NO2 as N 0.5 -0.9J Se -4U4U NH3 + NH4-0.027 Sn --7U TKN-.06U0.06USr430-335A P-0.027A0.030Zn-3.4U3U PO40.025NO3 2.2 --A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit2002 2002 AnalytesAnalytes1972 1972 23.10 1.81 7.57 318 Anal y teValue Enterococci4Q Fecal Coliform6Q Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 171. Gum Springs Main bacteriological analysis. Table 170. Gum Springs Main water quality analysis.

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SUWANNEE COUNTY BULLETIN NO. 66 279 Figure 143. Springs visited by FGS in Suwannee County.

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Branford Spring Location – Lat. 29° 57’ 17.53” N., Long. 82° 55’ 42.27” W. (NE ¼ NE ¼ NE ¼ sec. 20, T. 6 S., R. 14 E.). Branford Spring is located within Ivey Memorial Park in the city of Branford, 500 ft (152.4 m) southwest of the junction between US 27 and US 129 on the east side of the Suwannee River. The spring is just east of a dive/bait shop. Description – Branford Spring is situated in a steep-sided depression along the east side of the Suwannee River. The spring pool is nearly circular and measures 90 ft (27.4m) in diameter north to south and 84 ft (25.6 m) east to west. There are small boils on the surface over at least two vents within the spring pool. The depth at the sampled vent measures 12.5 ft (3.8 m). The water is clear and has a blue-greenish hue. This spring has an abundance of long, filamentous algae covering nearly all substrates and waving in the currents. There is very little other aquatic vegetation. Its banks are nearly vertical, rising to approximately 18 ft (5.5 m) above the water, and limestone is exposed in and around the spring. A wooden platform is built along the south and east banks. The shallow spring run travels approximately 100 ft (30.5 m) northward, then turns sharply west and flows 100 ft (30.5 m) into the Suwannee River. The spring run is sand-bottomed, and spills into the river over three consecutive man-made limestone walls. The walls are presumably intended to maintain water levels in the spring pool for swimming. Land around Branford Spring is developed into a city park. Utilization – The spring is within a city park and is a popular local swimming hole. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 280 Figure 144. Branford Spring (photo by T. Scott).

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Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. May 15, 192712.4(1)March 15, 19328.85(1)April 26, 19568.52(1)November 17, 196029.8(1)November 3, 197229.2(1)July 21, 199724.53(4)July 10, 2002 6.63(2) BULLETIN NO. 66 281 DissolvedTotalDissolvedTotal Field MeasuresMetalsTemperature 22.0Ca717474.7A DO2.7K0.31.1A1.1A pH6.8Na2.33.93.9I Sp. Cond. 345Mg77.6A7.7A Lab Analytes Al--26I BOD--0.97IAs-3U3U Turbidity--0.4B --15I Color0-5.0Cd-0.5U0.5UAlkalinity 150-198.0Co --0.75U Sp. Cond.-430.0-Cr-2U2U TDS241-241.0Cu-3.5U3.5U TSS--4UFe-35U37I Cl6.0-6.1Mn-6.8A7A SO422-21.0 Ni -2U2U F0.1-0.088IPb-3U5U Nutrients Ra-226--0.3 TOC--3IRa-228--3.2 NO3 + NO2 as N0.61-0.68 Se -4U4U NH3 + NH4--0.01U Sn --7U TKN-0.12I0.097ISr320-122A P-0.052J0.054Zn-1.5U3U PO4-0.054NO3 2.6--A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit20.85 0.51 6.95 425 2002 2002 AnalytesAnalytes1972 1972 Table 172. Branford Spring water quality analysis. Anal y teValue Enterococci1KQ Fecal Coliform1KQ Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 173. Branford Spring bacteriological analysis.

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Ellaville Spring Location – Lat. 30° 23’ 04.08” N., Long. 83° 10’ 21.02” W. (SW ¼ SW ¼ NE ¼ sec. 24, T. 1 S., R. 11 E.). Ellaville Spring enters the Suwannee River from the east approximately 13 miles (21 km) northwest of Live Oak. From the intersection of I-10 and US 90 northwest of Live Oak, travel about 5.7 miles (9.2 km) northwest on US 90 to just before the bridge over the Suwannee River. The Springs Fever website gives the following directions for accessing the spring from US 90: “turn right on the dirt road that cuts sharply behind the agricultural inspection station on the north side of Highway 90. Turn left on a dirt/grass path just before the railroad tracks and drive about 150 feet toward the river. The spring will be 100 feet (30.5 m) to the west (left).” It is surrounded by private property and can be accessed by traveling downstream from the boat ramp at the Suwannee River State Park approximately 0.3 miles (0.5 km), to just below the confluence of the Withlacoochee River. The spring run flows in from the east side of the river downstream from the railroad trestle. Description – Ellaville Spring discharges from a cave system in the limestone banks of the Suwannee River. The small spring pool is approximately 6 ft (1.8 m) in diameter, and it has vertical limestone walls that reach heights of about 15 ft (4.6m) above water level. In April 2002, the spring water was tannic; however, the water normally is clear and bluish. The spring pool is situated about 80 ft (24.4 m) up an enlarged limestone fracture through which the spring run courses. The spring run is approximately 8 ft (2.4 m) wide and averages 8 ft (2.4 m) deep. Divers report that the spring depth reaches 150 ft (45.7 m) within an extensive cave system associated with Ellaville Spring. The cave system reportedly extends underneath the Suwannee River eventually connecting with Suwanacoochee Spring cave system. Utilization – The spring is undeveloped and located on private property that is adjacent to Suwannee River State Park property. It is a popular cave-diving location. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 282 Figure 145. Ellaville Spring (photo by T. Scott).

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Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. December 9, 194241.2(1)November 16, 196027.9(1)November 8, 197382(1)June 2, 199840.7(4) BULLETIN NO. 66 283 DissolvedTotalDissolvedTotal Field MeasuresMetalsTemperature 21.0Ca5860.361.4 DO1.5K0.50.650.65 pH7.3Na2.56.97.0 Sp. Cond. -Mg128.78.8 Lab Analytes Al--11I BOD--0.2UAs-0.5U0.75U Turbidity--0.10B --16I Color5-5UCd-0.025U0.025U Alkalinity 170-171.0Co --2U Sp. Cond.356350.0-Cr-2U2U TDS199-215.0Cu-3U3U TSS--4UFe-22I40U Cl3.5-5.1Mn-2222.3 SO410-21.0 Ni -3.6U2U F0.1-0.14Pb-0.029I0.1U Nutrients Ra-226--0.4 TOC--1.6IRa-228--1.4U NO3 + NO2 as N--0.39 Se -0.84I1U NH3 + NH4--0.01U Sn --5U TKN-0.064I0.06USr--82.0 P-0.0590.062Zn-2U4U PO4-0.059NO3 ---A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit2002 2002 AnalytesAnalytes1973 1973 22.91 0.37 6.93 374 Table 174. Ellaville Spring water quality analysis. Anal y teValue Enterococci1KQ Fecal Coliform1KQ Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 175. Ellaville Spring bacteriological analysis.

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Falmouth Spring Location -Lat. 30° 21’ 40.19” N., Long. 83° 08’ 05.97” W. (NW ¼ NW ¼ NE ¼ sec. 32, T. 1 S., R. 12 E.). Falmouth Spring is 10 miles (16 km) northwest of Live Oak. From the intersection of I-10 and US 90 northwest of Live Oak, travel about 2.9 miles (4.7 km) northwest on US 90. Enter the Falmouth Spring Recreation Area at the SRWMD sign on the south (left) side of the road. The spring is west of the parking area and is accessed by an interpretive hiking path. Description -Falmouth Spring is a karst window. At the head of the karst window, the pool measures 87 ft (26.5 m) north to south and 81 ft (24.7 m) east to west. The depth is 39 ft (11.9 m). The water discharges from a conical depression. The bottom is sand and limestone. Water is fairly clear, greenish with tiny suspended algal particles. The bottom and sides are thickly covered with dark green filamentous algae. There was no visible boil during the October 2001 visit. Limestone is exposed along sides. High sand banks rise steeply along the karst window to 25 to 30 ft (7.6 to 9.1 m) above water level. Surrounding high ground has mixed hardwood and pine forest. The run flows 450 ft (137.2 m) northeast until disappearing into a siphon. The east side of the karst window has a wooden boardwalk leading down to spring and a foot path along the run. Rosenau et al. (1977) report an underwater cave in this karst window. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 284 Figure 146. Falmouth Spring (photo by T. Scott).

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Utilization —Falmouth Springs is a park owned by SRWMD. Swimming is allowed. Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. A high river stage on the Suwannee River caused a reversal of flow at Falmouth Spring in February 1933. 1908167(1)1913220(1)February 10, 1933365(1)December 9, 194259.6(1)July 22, 1946157(1)November 16, 1960183(1)November 15, 1973159(1)November 13, 2001159(4) BULLETIN NO. 66 285 Unfilt.FilterUnfilt.Filter Field MeasuresMetals Temperature -21.020.7Ca 655363.162.3 DO -1.61.28K 0.40.50.360.34 pH -7.37.10Na 3.12.22.632.45 Sp. Cond. -351373Mg 9.2129.18.8 Lab Anal y tes As --3 U3 U BOD -00.2 AUAl --75 U Turbidity -10.3B --25 UColor -55UCd --0.75 U0.75 U Alkalinity -170187186 Co --0.75 USp. Cond. -400 ACr -2 U0.5 U TDS -210Cu --8.8 I8.8 I TSS --4UFe -39 I35 U Cl 4.03.44.14.1 Mn -9.37.5 SO49.59.51111 N i -1.5 U1.5 U F -0.00.120.12 Pb --5 U4 U Nutrients Se -4 U4 U TOC -5.01.8 ISn -20 UNO3 + NO2 -0.700.390.41 Sr -0.050NH3 + NH4 -0.01 U0.01 I Zn --5 U5 U TKN -0.088 I0.086 IQ P -0.040.038 A0.036 PO4-0.040.033A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than the practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value Q=Exceeding holding time limit Analytes19241973 2001 Analytes19241973 2001 Anal y teValue Escherichia coli 90 Enterococci32 Fecal Coliform74 Total Coliform180 Bacteria Results (in #/100ml) Table 177. Falmouth Spring bacteriological analysis. Table 176. Falmouth Spring water quality analysis.

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Ichetucknee Head Spring See Ichetucknee Springs Group – Columbia County Little River Spring Location – Lat. 29° 59’ 48.71” N., Long. 82° 57’ 58.74” W. (SW ¼ NE ¼ NE ¼ sec. 1, T. 6 S., R. 13 E.). Little River Spring is located 3.5 miles (5.5 km) north of Branford. From the intersection of US 27 and US 129 in Branford, travel north on US 129 for 3.1 miles (5 km). Turn west (left) on CR 248 and travel 1.7 miles (2.7 km). The spring is located on the south (left) side of the road. Description – The Little River Spring pool measures 108 ft (32.9 m) north to south and 93 ft (28.3 m) east to west. The depth over the vent is 11.0 ft (3.3 m). Limestone is exposed in the pool, and there are areas covered by sand. Spring water issues from an elongated fracture in the limestone. The water is clear and greenish blue. Algae cover approximately half the area in the spring and run, and frequent swimming probably keeps the other half cleared. There is a sizeable boil over the vent near the center of the spring pool. The spring discharge flows through a 150 ft (45.7 m) long run southwesterly into the Suwannee River from the east. Steep, sandy banks rise to approximately 18 ft (5.5 m) above the spring, and the land becomes flat on top. A boardwalk leads from a dirt parking area on the northeast side down onto the exposed sandy shores near the spring. Land surrounding the spring is generally forested. An extensive cave system exists below this spring. Cave divers report that the cave system reaches depths of well over 100 ft (30.5 m). FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 286 Figure 147. Little River Spring (photo by R. Means)

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Utilization – Little River Spring is located on SRWMD land and currently is being developed into a recreational area with campground and full facilities. The spring is popular for swimming and cave diving. Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. November 27, 197384.4(1)September 19, 199784.89(4) BULLETIN NO. 66 287 DissolvedTotalDissolvedTotal Field MeasuresMetalsTemperature 22.0Ca5659A61.1 DO5K10.510.50 pH7.3Na2.42.5A2.3I Sp. Cond. -Mg9.57.27.5 Lab Analytes Al--10U BOD--2.2AAs-3U3U Turbidity--0.10B --11I Color0-5UCd-0.5U0.5U Alkalinity 160-163.0Co --0.75U Sp. Cond.352360.0-Cr-2U2U TDS202-197.0Cu-3.5U3.5U TSS--4UFe -35U35U Cl4.1-4.8Mn-0.5U0.5U SO416-17.0 Ni -2U2U F0-0.097IPb-3U5U Nutrients Ra-226--0.5 TOC--1URa-228--2.1 NO3 + NO2 as N--0.90 Se -4U4U NH3 + NH4--0.01U Sn --7U TKN-0.06U0.06USr0-141.0 P-0.023J0.022AZn-1.5U3U PO4--0.022 NO3 ---A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit2002 2002 AnalytesAnalytes 19731973 22.28 1.34 7.20 350 Anal y teValue Enterococci1KQ Fecal Coliform1KQ Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 178. Little River Spring water quality analysis. Table 179. Little River Spring bacteriological analysis.

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Running Springs Location – Lat. 30° 06’ 16.07” N., Long. 83° 06’ 57.32” W. (SW ¼ NE ¼ SE ¼ sec. 28, T. 4 S., R. 12 E.). Running Springs is located on private land, 4.3 miles (6.9 km) northeast of Mayo. From Mayo, drive 3.3 miles (5.3 km) north on SR 51 to the boat ramp. The spring runs flow in from the northeast side of the Suwannee River, 4.3 miles downstream (east) from the boat ramp on SR 51. Description – Running Springs consist of a pair of separate spring areas (East Running Springs and West Running Springs) that discharge from small cavities at the base of an approximately 20 ft (6.1 m) high limestone bank on the northeastern side of the Suwannee River. The two springs occur in depressions in the river bank that are separated by approximately 150 ft (45.7 m). East Running Springs was sampled for water quality and was approximately 2 ft (0.6 m) above the adjacent Suwannee River during the March 2002 visit. The spring pool is oblong and measures 70 ft (21.3 m) north to south and 50 ft (15.2 m) east to west. Its depth ranges from 2 to 6 ft (0.6-1.8 m). The pool bottom is sand and limestone. The water is clear and bluish. There is no aquatic vegetation, and algae occur on portions of the sand and limestone substrates. It has a short southwestward flowing run that is approximately 25 ft (7.6 m) long. The run cascades over a 2 ft (0.6 m) high limestone ledge into the river. East Running Springs has multiple boils within the northeast end of the pool. There are several spring rivulets emerging from the base of the high banks into the northeast end of the pool. There is another spring located in the Suwannee River that creates a prominent boil along the riverbank just 15 ft (4.6 m) upstream of the mouth of East Running Springs. Divers report this spring to be connected to the East Running Springs run through FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 288 Figure 148. East Running Springs (photo by R. Means).

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an underwater cavern. West Running Springs is smaller and has a run that is approximately 150 ft (45.7 m) long. The run flows southwestward under a small land bridge then into the river. Rosenau et al. (1977) report steep limestone walls, natural limestone bridges and numerous vents at these springs. The high ground above Running Springs harbors a mixed hardwood and pine forest with some private landscaping intended to reduce erosion. Utilization The springs are undeveloped and on private property. Land access was recently closed by new landowners who are restoring the natural condition of the uplands surrounding the springs. Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. November 27, 1973 (West Spring)14.2(1)November 27, 1973 (East Spring)62.8(1)July 30, 199722.44(4)July 9, 2002 28.12(2) BULLETIN NO. 66 289 DissolvedTotalDissolvedTotal Field MeasuresMetalsTemperature 21.5Ca4852.151.5 DO2.5K0.50.380.36 pH7.3Na2.12.62.6I Sp. Cond. Mg1714.714.5 Lab Analytes Al--10U BOD--0.2UAs-3U3U Turbidity--0.05UB --10I Color0.0-5UCd-0.5U0.5UAlkalinity 160.0-169.0Co --0.75U Sp. Cond.351370.0-Cr-2U2U TDS181.0-204.0Cu-3.5U3.5U TSS--4UFe-35U35U Cl3.3-4.7Mn-0.5U0.5U SO413.0-19.0 Ni -2U2U F0.1-0.17Pb-3U5U Nutrients Ra-226--0.4 TOC--1URa-228--1.6 NO3 + NO2 as N --2.30 Se -4U4U NH3 + NH4--0.01U Sn --7U TKN-0.075I0.06USr0-56.5 P-0.04J0.040Zn-1.5U4U PO4-0.035 NO3 --A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit22.10 1.23 7.12 376 2002 2002 AnalytesAnalytes1973 1973 Anal y teValue Enterococci1KQ Fecal Coliform1KQ Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 180. Running Springs bacteriological analysis. Table 181. Running Springs water quality analysis.

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Suwannee Springs Location – Lat. 30° 23’ 40.12” N., Long. 82° 56’ 04.34” W. (SE ¼ SW ¼ SE ¼ sec. 17, T. 1 S., R. 14 E.). Suwannee Springs flow into the Suwannee River from the southwest approximately 7.5 miles (12.1 km) northeast of Live Oak. From the I-10 and US 129 intersection north of Live Oak, travel north on US 129 approximately 4.3 miles (6.9 km). Turn northeast (right) on old US 129 at the solid waste collection site. Travel 0.5 miles (0.8 km) and turn east (right) on a graded road that leads to the spring parking area. Description – At least six springs comprise Suwannee Springs. All are clustered in a sandy 100 ft (30.5 m) stretch at the base of a 35 ft (10.7 m) high bank along the south side of the Suwannee River. The main spring, which was sampled for water quality, is within the rock walls of a late 1800’s bath house. The spring pool measures 17 ft (5.2 m) north to south and 25 ft (7.6 m) east to west. The depth near the vent on the south side of the pool is 7.8 ft (2.4 m). Limestone is exposed in the vents and sand covers a large part of the spring pool. Clear, yellow-greenish water is pooled behind the wall and spills out through an opening at the base over algae–covered limestone boulders into the tannic Suwannee River. Algae are abundant in the pool. The spring water exudes a sharp odor of hydrogen sulfide. On the east side of the pool, wooden stairs lead down from a parking lot into the spring. Water levels of both the spring and river were very low in August 2002. The stairs were 10 ft (3 m) above the water level. Remains of the old US 90 bridge over the river are just upstream. Land along the river is forested with hardwoods and pines. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 290 Figure 149. Suwannee Springs (photo by R. Means).

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BULLETIN NO. 66 291 DissolvedTotal Field MeasuresTemperature -21.521.0 DO--4.5 pH-7.57.5 Sp. Cond. --Lab Analytes BOD----0.48I Turbidity----0.45 Color-1510-10.0Alkalinity -140150-149 Sp. Cond.-330333305.0TDS--199-181.0 TSS----4U Cl775.3-4.6 SO42718 17-7.4 F0.20.1-0.170 Nutrients TOC----3I NO3 + NO2 as N ---0.004U NH3 + NH4---0.170 TKN---0.2I0.25 P---0.14A0.150 PO4--0.14NO3 ---Metals Ca53534854.1A54.2 K0.60.410.41A0.44A Na5.544.23.12A3.04 Mg127.2115.3A5.4 Al----5U As---3U3UB ----9.1I Cd---0.5U0.5UCo ----1U Cr---2U2U Cu---1U2U Fe---19I20I Mn---14.3A14.2 Ni---1U1.5U Pb---5U5U Ra-226----0.5 Ra-228----1U Se---5U7U Sn----20U Sr--0-53.9 Zn---4.6U2UA=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit2002 Analytes 306 21.26 0.35 7.03 1973 1966 1924 Table 182. Suwannee Springs water quality analysis.

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Utilization – In the late 1800’s the springs were a popular bathing area, health spa and tourist destination. Today, the spring is located on SRWMD land with public recreation and interpretive areas. Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. Average for 1906-197323.4(1)(52 measurements) Min (April 25, 1956)2.35(1)Max (June 4, 1964)71.5(1)June 24, 199714.07(4) FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 292 Anal y teValue Enterococci1AK Fecal Coliform1A Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 183. Suwannee Springs bacteriological analysis.

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Telford Spring Location – Lat. 30° 06’ 25.38” N., Long. 83° 09’ 56.66” W. (NE ¼ NE ¼ SE ¼ sec. 25, T. 4 S., R. 11 E.). Telford Spring is located on the west bank of the Suwannee River, 4 miles (6.4 km) north of Mayo. The spring is surrounded by private land but was open to the public in April 2002. From the intersection of US 27 and SR 51 in Mayo, drive north on SR 51 for 4.8 miles (7.7 km), crossing over the Suwannee River, and turn east (right) at the flashing lights at Luraville Road in Luraville. From Luraville, turn south (right) onto the first graded road and travel 0.9 miles (1.5 km) to a fork in the road, just before the river. At the fork, turn right and travel 0.1 miles (0.2 km) to the spring. The left fork leads to the boat launching ramp. Description – Telford Spring is situated along the east side of the Suwannee River at the head of a cove surrounded by steep sandy banks. The spring emerges from two caves within scalloped limestone whose passages connect underneath a 5 ft (1.5 m) by 7 ft (2.1 m) wide natural limestone bridge. The natural bridge over the spring was about 1 ft (0.3 m) higher than water level in April 2002. The main pool measures 66 ft (20.1 m) north to south and 51 ft (15.5 m) east to west and has a prominent boil. The maximum depth of the spring pool is 11.3 ft (3.4 m) over the vent. The spring and its run have a sand and limestone bottom. The water color is greenish and clear. Algae are sparse and there is virtually no aquatic vegetation. The short, shallow, 1 ft (0.3 m), spring run flows approximately 75 ft (22.9 m) into the dark, tannic waters of the Suwannee River. Land on the 12-15 ft (3.7-4.6 m) high, eroded banks supports a dense mixed hardwood/pine forest and there is a large unpaved parking area around the perimeter of the spring pool. A sinkhole with a clear water pool is located 150 ft (45.7 m) north of the spring across the sand access road. Spring water levels are directly tied to Suwannee River fluctuations. Utilization Telford Spring is surrounded by private lands and is a heavily used local recreation area. Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. May 14, 192735.1(1)December 12, 194128.0(1)May 29, 194248.2(1)November 17, 196053.5 (1) BULLETIN NO. 66 293 Figure 150. Telford Spring (photo by R. Means).

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November 21, 197333.8 (1)September 17, 199731.15(4) FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 294 DissolvedTotalDissolvedTotal Field MeasuresMetalsTemperature 21.0Ca525756.9 DO3K0.40.630.61 pH7.4Na2.33.4I3.4I Sp. Cond. -Mg2416.716.5 Lab Analytes Al--50U BOD--0.34IAs-3U3U Turbidity--0.30B --12I Color5-5UCd-0.5U0.5UAlkalinity 170-171Co --0.75U Sp. Cond.423440.0-Cr-2U2U TDS244-244.0Cu-3U3U TSS--4UFe-25U25U Cl4.0-5.7Mn-4.45.0 SO442-46.0 Ni -2U2U F0-0.190Pb-3U5U Nutrients Ra-226--0.3 TOC--1.9IRa-228--0.9U NO3 + NO2 as N -1.80 Se -4U4U NH3 + NH4--0.02I Sn --7U TKN-0.09I0.082ISr0-205 P-0.0580.063Zn-3.2U3U PO4-0.054NO3 --A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit2002 AnalytesAnalytes 2002 1973 1973 428 21.22 0.96 7.09 Table 184. Telford Spring water quality analysis. Anal y teValu e Enterococci1K Fecal Coliform1K Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 185. Telford Spring bacteriological analysis.

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TAYLOR COUNTY BULLETIN NO. 66 295 Figure 151. Springs visited by FGS in Taylor County.

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Nutall Rise Location —Lat. 30° 09’ 01.73” N., Long. 83° 57’ 47.82” W. (NE ¼ NW ¼ SE ¼ sec. 7, T. 4 S., R. 4 E.). Nutall River Rise is located on the Aucilla River approximately 28 miles (45.1 km) southeast of Tallahassee. The river rise is surrounded by private property and is best accessed from a public boat ramp off US 98. From the intersection of Capital Circle (US 319) and SR 363 (Woodville Highway) travel south 13.2 miles (21.2 km) to US 98. Head east (left) on US 98 for approximately 16.1 miles (25.9 km) to the bridge over the Aucilla River. Immediately after crossing the Aucilla River, turn north (left) on dirt road marked with a public boat ramp sign. The river rise is located approximately 0.6 miles (1 km) upstream from the boat ramp. Description The Aucilla River emerges from underground at Nutall Rise and begins its last stretch unimpeded toward the Gulf of Mexico. The spring pool measures 220 ft (67 m) northwest to southeast and 282 ft (86 m) northeast to southwest. Pool depth is 53 ft (16.2 m) measured near the vent. The water is typically tannic but can become clear during droughts. There is some emergent vegetation around the pool perimeter, including an occasional water hyacinth mat. The surrounding land is relatively low-lying, with live oak and mixed hardwoods. There is a large dolostone quarry located to the north about 0.6 miles (1 km). Utilization -The entire perimeter of the river rise is bordered by trailers, docks and houses. Discharge -December 19, 2001: 360 ft3/s(2) FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 296 Figure 152. Nutall Rise (photo by R. Means).

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BULLETIN NO. 66 297 Unfilt.FilterUnfilt.Filter Field MeasuresMetals Temperature 21.3Ca 49.849 DO 6.4K 0.50.5 pH 7.5Na 4.614.65 Sp. Cond. 338Mg 11.110.9 Lab Anal y tes As 3 U3 U BOD 0.2 AUAl -75 U Turbidity 0.9B 30 UColor 20Cd 0.75 U0.5 U Alkalinity 155154 Co 0.75 USp. Cond. 340Cr 0.7 U0.5 U TDS 196Cu 2 U2 U TSS 4 UFe 299193 Cl 7.68.1 Mn 33.424.5 SO41414 N i 1.5 U1.5 U F 0.150.14 Pb 5 U3 U Nutrients Se 3.5 U3.5 U TOC 5.1Sn 7 UNO3 + NO2 0.0290.028 Sr 76.1NH3 + NH4 0.0260.022 Zn 4 U3.5 U TKN 0.29 J0.22 A P 0.0470.039 PO40.033A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value less than practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value Q=exceeding holding time limit Analytes 2001 Analytes 2001 Table 186. Nutall Rise water quality analysis. Anal y teValue Escherichia coli 19AQ Enterococci38AQ Fecal Coliform23AQ Total Coliform225AQ Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 187. Nutall Rise bacteriological analysis.

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Waldo Spring Location – Lat. 30° 02’ 57.04” N., Long. 83° 37’ 47.74” W. (NW ¼ SW ¼ NE ¼ sec. 16, T. 5 S., R. 7 E.). Waldo Spring is 5.2 miles (8.4 km) southeast of Perry. The spring is located behind a locked gate on a road surrounded by private timber company land and is currently not accessible to the public. Description – Waldo Spring pool measures 60 ft (18.3 m) north-south and 132 ft (40.2 m) east-west. The maximum depth is 8 ft (2.4 m) at a spring vent near the southern shore. Rosenau et al. (1977) report a limestone floor in the spring pool. Murky, blue-greenish water discharges from the spring vent. The pool surface has large floating brown algae mats. Algae-covered aquatic vegetation occurs within the spring pool. The narrow and heavily canopied spring run flows 200 ft (61 m) northeast into the Fenholloway River from the south. The land surrounding the spring is planted pine flatwoods, with some areas recently clearcut. Live oak trees and grassy banks border the south and west sides of the spring pool. Large limestone boulders form a ring around the pool area, preventing cars from driving directly up to the spring banks. A large sand parking area and dirt access road are beyond to the south. Utilization Waldo Spring is surrounded by privately-owned timber company land. It was until recently a popular local swimming hole, but is currently inaccessible due to a locked gate at the Golf Course Rd. entrance. In addition to logging operations, the land surrounding the spring is leased by a hunt club. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 298 Figure 153. Waldo Spring (photo by R. Means).

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Discharge – No discharge rate is available. BULLETIN NO. 66 299 DissolvedTotal Field MeasuresTemperature 21.021.0 DO-pH7.37.1 Sp. Cond. -Lab Analytes BOD---0.2AU Turbidity---4.2 Color-5-20.0Alkalinity -200-225 Sp. Cond.-415426.0TDS-225-238.0 TSS---4U Cl5.05.0-4.9 SO49.68.8 -5.7 F-0.3-0.21 Nutrients TOC---3.2I NO3 + NO2 as N -0 -0.007I NH3 + NH4--0.089 TKN--0.14I0.18I P--0.0820.077 PO4-0.08NO3 --Metals Ca525260.857.4 K-0.10.140.14 Na-2.93.13.61 Mg201823.923.1 Al---10U As--8U7UB ---14I Cd--0.5U0.5UCo ---2U Cr--2U2U Cu--5U3U Fe--11801170 Mn--44.243.8 Ni--2U2U Pb--5U12U Ra-226---0.5 Ra-228---0.9U Se--8U15U Sn---11U Sr-50-54 Zn--5.6I6.2UA=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit2003 Analytes 458 21.95 0.26 7.09 1972 1946 Table 188. Waldo Spring water quality analysis.

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FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 300 Anal y teValu e Enterococci4B Fecal Coliform1K Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 189. Waldo Spring bacteriological analysis.

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BULLETIN NO. 66 301 UNIONCOUNTY Figure 154. Spring visited by FGS in Union County. Spring description provided on the enclosed CD.

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VOLUSIA COUNTY FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 302 Figure 155. Springs visited by FGS in Volusia County.

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DeLeon Spring Location – Lat. 29° 08’ 03.41” N., Long. 81° 21’ 45.89” W. (SW ¼ SE ¼ SW ¼ sec. 16, T. 16 S., R. 29 E.). DeLeon Spring is located within DeLeon Springs State Park, 8 miles (13 km) northeast of Deland. From the junction of US 17 and US 92 in Deland, travel 5.9 miles (9.5 km) north on US 17. Turn west (left) on paved road marked by sign for DeLeon Springs State Park (Ponce DeLeon Boulevard) and travel 1.1 miles (1.8 km) to the park entrance. Description – DeLeon Spring is situated in a circular, conical depression measuring 189 ft (57.6 m) north to south and 168 ft (51.2 m) east to west. The maximum pool depth measures 28.0 ft (8.5 m) over the vent. The bottom is sand, except at the vent where some limestone is exposed. A single vent issues water from the center of the pool. The water is clear with a light greenish color. There was a visible boil over the vent during January 2002. There are patches of algae on the bottom and suspended algal filaments and particles in the water. No other aquatic vegetation is present in the spring pool. A concrete wall with numerous access ladders and a concrete sidewalk encircle the spring pool. The spring outflow pours through a concrete weir on the west side of the spring pool, then down a 3 ft (0.9 m) drop into the wide, natural spring run. From here, the spring run flows approximately 0.25 miles (0.4 km) westward into Lake Woodruff from the northeast. To the south and east of the spring, high ground gently slopes to approximately 6 to 8 ft (1.8 to 2.4 m) above the spring water level. To the north and west are swampy, forested lowlands of Lake Woodruff and the St. Johns River system. Surrounding land is developed and landscaped as part of the state park. Divers report a small underwater cave at DeLeon Spring (Rosenau et al., 1977). BULLETIN NO. 66 303 Figure 156. DeLeon Spring (photo by T. Scott).

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FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 304 DissolvedTotal Field MeasuresTemperature --2322 DO---pH-7.48.18 Sp. Cond. ---Lab Analytes BOD---0.02Turbidity ----0.15 Color-05--5UAlkalinity --100--121 Sp. Cond.-1030570-790.0TDS1260541326--415 TSS-----4U Cl620230110--150 SO4933518 --28 F-00.2--0.09I Nutrients TOC---0-1.1I NO3 + NO2 as N--0.1 -1.30 NH3 + NH4---0.030 TKN---0.230.28 P---0.0570.065 PO4--0.04 0.059NO3 1.10.8 0.4 -Metals Ca644439-49.350.8 K33043-4.44.40 Na33012060-83.986.2 Mg44179.7-13.113.4 Al-----20U As---03U3U B ----48I Cd---00.5U0.5UCo ---0-0.75U Cr---02U2U Cu---03.5U3.5U Fe15060-035U35U Mn---101.3I1.4I Ni----2U2U Pb---03U5U Ra-226 -----0.5 Ra-228 ----0.9U Se----4U4U Sn-----10U Sr----358.0 Zn---101.5U2UA=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit2002 Analytes 22.93 4/12/1972 3/2/1972 1946 1923 0.46 7.14 803 Table 190. DeLeon Spring water quality analysis.

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Utilization – The spring is within DeLeon State Park which has full facilities. Discharge – All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. Average for 1929-197530.8(1)(87 measurements) Min (March 7, 1932)20(1)Max (April 23, 1946)42(1)Average for 199021.24(6)(6 measurements) Average for 199522.98(6)(4 measurements) Average for 200020.20(6)(5 measurements) Mean 1929-200027.2(6)(244 measurements) BULLETIN NO. 66 305 Anal y teValu e Enterococci1KQ Fecal Coliform1KQ Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 191. DeLeon Spring bacteriological analysis.

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Volusia Blue Spring Location -Lat. 28° 56’ 50.94” N., Long. 81° 20’ 22.52” W. (NW ¼ NW ¼ NE ¼ sec. 8, T. 18 S., R. 30 E.). Volusia Blue Spring is 6 miles (9.7 km) southwest of Deland in Blue Spring State Park. From the junction of US 17/92 and SR 44 in Deland, travel 5.3 miles (8.5 km) south on US 17/92. Turn west (right) on CR 4142 (French Avenue) in Orange City and continue 2.5 miles (4.0 km) to Blue Spring State Park. Follow the park road to the spring parking area. The spring is at the head of Blue Spring Run about .25 miles (0.4 km) north of the parking area and is accessed by an elevated wooden boardwalk along the east bank of the spring run. Description -Volusia Blue Spring has a circular spring pool in a conical depression with a notable boil in the center. The spring pool measures 135 ft (41.1 m) north to south and 105 ft (32 m) east to west. The depth of the spring measured over the vent is 20 ft (6.1 m). The bottom of the spring is limestone and sand. The vent is an elongated fissure in the limestone. The water is clear and blue with a greenish tinge. Algae are ubiquitous in the spring and its run. No other aquatic vegetation was observed during the October 2001 visit. The spring has steep sandy banks that rise to approximately 15 to 20 ft (4.6 to 6.1 m) above water level. The spring run also has steep sandy banks and flows south and west approximately 1,050 ft (320 m) to the St. Johns River through dense hardwood and palm forest. A limited underwater cave system has been mapped at Volusia Blue Spring. Utilization -The spring and its surroundings are owned and managed by the State of Florida. Manatees frequent the spring run during the winter months. It is an excellent FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 306 Figure 157. Volusia Blue Spring (photo by T. Scott).

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place for nature study, swimming, scuba diving, and canoeing. Camping and hiking also are permitted in the park. Full facilities are available. Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. Average 1932 – 1974162(1)(360 measurements) Maximum (November 1, 1960)214(1)Minimum (November 6, 1935)63(1)November 24, 200187(7) BULLETIN NO. 66 307 Unfilt.FilterUnfilt.Filter Field MeasuresMetals Temperature 23.023.023.023.1Ca 76525963.5 J63.2 DO ---0.45K 13.05.57.46.86.9 pH 7.67.57.87.21Na 419128260167170 Sp. Cond. 2840106018001402Mg 5120292323.1 Lab Anal y tes As -03 U3 U BOD -0.30.34 I Al --75 U Turbidity ---2B --76 IColor 5005UCd -20.75 U0.75 U Alkalinity -105121142143 Co -00.75 USp. Cond. -1400Cr---2U2U TDS -744 A Cu -202.5 U2.5 U TSS ---4UFe 70 -7035 U35 U Cl 780245440340340 Mn -02.12 SO411037665452 N i---2U2U F 0.00.20.20.077 I0.074 I Pb -15 U4 U Nutrients Se---4U4U TOC -1.7 ISn---10UNO3 + NO2 -0.050.640.62 Sr -1100827NH3 + NH4 -0.0270.04 Zn --205 U5 U TKN -0.14 I0.2 I P -0.070.0670.064 PO4---0.06319601972 I=Value is less than the practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value Q=Exceeding holding time limit 1972 2001 A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit 2001 Analytes19461960 Analytes1946 Table 192. Volusia Blue Spring water quality analysis. Anal y teValue Escherichia coli 1 KQ Enterococci1 KQ Fecal Coliform1 KQ Total Coliform1 KQ Bacteria Results (in #/100ml) Table 193. Volusia Blue Spring bacteriological analysis.

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WAKULLA COUNTY FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 308 Figure 158. Springs visited by FGS in Wakulla County.

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Cray’s Rise Location – Lat. 29° 59’ 22.20” N., Long. 84° 24’ 28.80” W. (SW ¼ SE ¼ NW ¼ sec. 2, T. 6 S., R. 2 W.). Cray’s Rise is located within the St. Mark’s National Wildlife Refuge and flows into the north side of Ochlocknee Bay approximately 1 mile (1.6 km) downstream from the mouth of the Sopchoppy River. From the intersection of US 98 and CR 372 (Surf Road) drive west 1.7 miles (2.7 km) to a bridge over Cray’s Rise run. There is a marina at the bridge. The spring vent is 1,950 feet (594.4 m) upstream from the bridge. Description – Cray’s Rise spring pool measures 225 ft (68.6 m) north to south and 333 ft (101.5 m) east to west. The spring measures 39.0 ft (11.9 m) deep over the center. The depression profile beneath the water surface is steep-sided and deep with some limestone exposed at the bottom. Cray’s Rise was tea-colored in March 2002, and a prominent boil was visible on the surface in the center of the pool. A thin strip of black needle rush exists around the pool perimeter, indicating a low-energy, brackish environment. The spring run is comma-shaped and runs east, then south for a total distance of approximately 1,800 ft (548.6 m). Three days before the sampling visit, a regional 8 inch (20 cm) rain resulted in the flooding of the Ocklockonee and Sopchoppy Rivers. The sampling crew visited Cray’s Rise twice during February 2002, but could not sample either time. During these prior visits, the spring had only a slightly noticeable boil and murkier water. The surroundings are low-lying pristine pine flatwoods of the St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge. It is suspected that Cray’s Rise is the re-emergence of a subterranean portion of either the Ocklockonee or the Sopchoppy River. BULLETIN NO. 66 309 Figure 159. Cray's Rise (photo by R. Means).

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Utilization – Cray’s Rise is undeveloped and pristine. Discharge – Discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. March 21, 197282.1(1)March 5, 2002164(2) FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 310 DissolvedTotalDissolvedTotal Field MeasuresMetalsTemperature 21Ca120167A157 DO-K72118A116 pH7.5Na20003140A3260 Sp. Cond. -Mg250391A391 Lab Analytes Al--100I BOD--0.2AUAs-3U3U Turbidity--1.1B --1270 Color65-60.0Cd-0.5U0.5U Alkalinity 85-100.0Co --0.75U Sp. Cond.1120018000.0-Cr-2U2U TDS6600-10500.0Cu-3.5U3.5U TSS--8IFe230A290 Cl3600-5200.0Mn-20.9A21.2 SO4520 -790.0 Ni2U2U F0.5-0.26Pb-3U5U Nutrients Ra-226--3.4 TOC--7.1Ra-228--11.6 NO3 + NO2 as N 0.18 -0.12 Se4U4U NH3 + NH4-0.12 Sn-10U TKN-0.470.46Sr--2290 P-0.0860.074Zn-30U30U PO40.075NO3--A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit20.17 0.56 6.95 17200 2002 2002 AnalytesAnalytes1972 1972 Table 194. Cray's Rise water quality analysis. Anal y teValu e Enterococci1K Fecal Coliform1K Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 195. Cray's Rise bacteriological analysis.

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Newport Spring Location –Lat. 30° 12’ 45.70” N., Long. 84° 10’ 42.56” W. (SE ¼ NE ¼ NE ¼ sec. 24, T. 3 S., R. 1 E.). Newport Spring is located approximately 17 miles (27 km) southeast of Tallahassee near the community of Newport. From the intersection of US 319 (Capital Circle Southeast) and SR 363 (Woodville Highway) in Tallahassee, head south on SR 363 (Woodville Highway) approximately 13.2 miles (21.2 km) to the intersection of US 98 and SR 363 (Woodville Hwy). Head east (left) on US 98 for approximately 2.2 miles (3.5 km)to Newport. From US 98 in Newport, just west of the St. Marks River Bridge, travel north (left) on Old Plank Road 0.9 miles (1.5 km). The spring is on the east (right) side of the road. Description – Newport Spring emerges from a vent at the base of a concrete wall along the east side of Old Plank Road. The spring pool measures 50 ft (15.2 m) north to south and 100 ft (30.5 m) east to west (Rosenau et al., 1977). The spring is 6 ft (1.8 m) deep near the vent. The bottom is sand and detritus. Limestone is exposed near the vent. The spring water is yellow-greenish and has a sharp odor of hydrogen sulfide. The walls and pool substrates are thickly coated with algae and iron-reducing bacteria. There is a small boil on the spring surface just out from the wall on the west side of the spring, underneath a rope swing. An old abandoned house is situated to the south approximately 300 ft (91.4 m) from the spring. An old water extraction pipe leads into the spring from the house. The spring pool is under a BULLETIN NO. 66 311 Figure 160. Newport Spring (photo by T. Scott).

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live oak canopy. The spring run flows east approximately 0.5 miles (0.8 km) into the St. Marks River. Approximately 600 ft (182.9 m) downstream from Newport Spring, a small, clear water, limestone-bottomed spring-fed stream comes in on the north side. Newport Spring Run is swift flowing over a sand and limestone bottom with abundant native aquatic vegetation. The spring and run are within forested pine flatwoods and swampy lowlands on the west side of the St. Marks River. Utilization – The spring is undeveloped and is a popular local swimming spot. Land around the spring is in private ownership. Discharge Discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. March 2, 19728.24(1)February 20, 2003 8.35(2) FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 312 DissolvedTotalDissolvedTotal Field MeasuresMetalsTemperature 19.0Ca6474.9A76.4A DO-K0.40.41A0.43A pH7.8Na4.85A5A Sp. Cond. -Mg7.87.6A7.7A Lab Analytes Al--29I BOD--0.64AIAs-3U3U Turbidity--1.6B --10U Color30-20.0Cd-0.5U0.5U Alkalinity 170-184Co --1U Sp. Cond.405438.0-Cr-2U2U TDS228-253.0Cu-3.5U4U TSS--4UFe-14I29A Cl6.0-10Mn-4.44A4.5A SO418 -29 Ni2U2U F0.2-0.14Pb-5U5U Nutrients Ra-226--1 TOC--5.5Ra-228--0.9 NO3 + NO2 as N 1.8 -0.005I Se8U8U NH3 + NH4-0.027A Sn-7.2I TKN-0.18I0.22ISr--124A P0.010.016I0.019IZn-2.5U4U PO40.014NO3 --A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit434 16.58 2.02 7.26 2003 AnalytesAnalytes 2003 1972 1972 Anal y teValu e Enterococci50 Fecal Coliform34 Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 196. Newport Spring water quality analysis. Table 197. Newport Spring bacteriological analysis.

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Sheppard Spring Location –Lat. 30° 07’ 31.08” N., Long. 84° 17’ 07.80” W. (NW ¼ NE ¼ NW ¼ sec. 99, T. 99 S., R. 30 E.). Sheppard Spring is located in the St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge approximately 22 miles (35 km) south of Tallahassee. From the intersection of Capital Circle (US 319) and SR 363 (Woodville Highway), travel south 13.2 miles (21.2 km) to US 98. Turn west (right) and drive 3.4 miles (5.5 km) to Wakulla Beach Road. Turn south (left) and drive approximately 1 mile (1.6 km) to the Florida Trail crossing. Park in the Florida Trail parking area. The spring can be accessed by canoeing/kayaking to the head of Sheppard Spring Creek from Wakulla Beach via Goose Creek Bay. The spring can also be reached by hiking to it on the Florida Trail (access point on Wakulla Beach Road). No roads lead to the spring, however, the Florida National Wild and Scenic Trail system has a spur route leading to the spring from the north. From the Florida Trail parking area along Wakulla Beach Road, walk west on the Florida Trail approximately 3 miles (4.8 km) to the spring. Description – Sheppard Spring pool is slightly ovoid, measuring 90 ft (27.4 m) east to west and 105 ft (32 m) north to south. It is 25 ft (7.6 m) deep near the center, with steep, sand sides. Two vents have been recognized. The water is clear bluish-green. Long filamentous algae cover the majority of the soft sand bottom. The spring has an abundance of fallen logs and a detritus layer covering most of the bottom. No boil was observed on the spring surBULLETIN NO. 66 313 Figure 161. Sheppard Spring (photo by R. Means).

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face during the November 2002 visit. Plants and trees completely surround the spring pool and its run. The spring run averages 2 to 3 ft (0.6 to 0.9 m) deep, 15 ft (4.6 m) wide, and meanders southward for over a mile (1.6 km). It empties into Goose Creek Bay, approximately 4 miles (6.4 km) west of the mouth of the St. Marks River. Sheppard Spring is a pristine, wild spring situated within the St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge. The surrounding Gulf Coastal lowlands are heavily forested with palm, hardwoods, and pine. Utilization – The spring is undeveloped and remote, surrounded by National Wildlife Refuge land. Discharge – November 25, 2002 7.65 ft3/s(2) FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 314 DissolvedTotalDissolvedTotal Field MeasuresMetalsTemperature Ca57A57.4 DOK4.5A4.50 pHNa126A128.0 Sp. Cond. Mg21.6A21.4 Lab Analytes Al-10U BOD-0.2AUAs8U8U Turbidity-0.25AB -57.0 Color-5UCd0.5U0.5UAlkalinity -143.0Co -1U Sp. Cond.1060.0-Cr2U2U TDS-544.0Cu6U4U TSS-4UFe18U29.0 Cl-230.0Mn26.2A26.7 SO4-37.0 Ni 1.2I2U F-0.14Pb5U5U Nutrients Ra-226-0.8 TOC-1.1IRa-228-0.8U NO3 + NO2 as N-0.21 Se 11U7U NH3 + NH4-0.02I Sn -4U TKN0.12I0.12ISr-209.0 P0.0770.074Zn2.3I6U PO40.074NO3 --A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit1088 20.44 1.60 7.56 2002 AnalytesAnalytes 2002 Anal y teValu e Enterococci17A Fecal Coliform1A Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 199. Sheppard Spring bacteriological analysis. Table 198. Sheppard Spring water quality analysis.

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Spring Creek Springs Group GroupLocation — Lat. 30° 04’ 50” N., Long. 84° 19’ 47” W. (Land Grant sections 114 and 115, Hartfield Survey). The Spring Creek Springs Group is surrounded by private land but can be accessed from Apalachee Bay via boat. Spring Creek is 7 miles (11.3 km) southeast of Crawfordville. From the intersection of US 319 and US 98 south of Crawfordville, cross US 98 to CR 375 and drive south then generally east approximately 3.8 miles (6.1 km) to the intersection with CR 365. Turn south (right) on CR 365 (Spring Creek Road) and go 1.5 miles (2.4 km) to a privately owned boat ramp at end of the road. Spring Creek #1 & #2 are north of the boat ramp. GroupDescription Spring Creek is in a tidal marsh typical of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The coast has extensive hardwood hammock and grass-covered sand areas underlain by limestone that is near and occasionally at the surface. There are 14 known springs in the Spring Creek Springs Group (Rosenau et al., 1977). Most, including Spring Creek No. 1 and Spring Creek No. 2, discharge into the widened mouth of Spring Creek as it reaches the Gulf of Mexico. All are tidally influenced. The small fishing community of Spring Creek is situated on the highest available ground on the east side of Spring Creek mouth adjacent to many of the springs. The FGS believes that there is a cave system developed in the Spring Creek Springs Group although it has not been explored. Divers have reported that the flow at some of these springs reverses at high tide. See Lane (2001) for more information on these springs. BULLETIN NO. 66 315 Figure 162. Spring Creek Springs Group (photo by J. Stevenson).

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FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 316 Unfilt.FilterUnfilt.Filter Field MeasuresTemperature 19.522.021.7-21.6DO -1.45-1.45pH8.07.07.07-7.23Sp. Cond. 43004390E-ELab Anal y tes BOD --0.2 AU-0.2 UTurbidity -21-0.65Color602005-5Alkalinity 11067126126125125 Sp. Cond. -16000-10000 ATDS -9340 A-5650TSS -10 I-5 ICl120012005300530032003100 SO4200360730730450440 F0.40.30.320.330.270.26 Nutrients TOC -133.3 I-3.7 INO3 + NO20.180.060.20.21 J0.220.22 J NH3 + NH4 -0.0860.082 A0.017 I0.17 TKN -0.360.32 J0.270.45 J P 0.040.0440.0350.0350.03 PO4-0.030.035-0.03Metals Ca8055141142 A10299.8 K264010697.669.159.5 Na7107302770266018801660 Mg9289351331225204 Al ---75U-100I As-63U3U3U3U B -2201270-829Cd -10.75 U0.75 U0.75 U0.75 U Co -0.75 U-0.75 UCr -02 U0.5 U2 U0.5 U Cu -103.5 I2.5 U2.5 U2.5 U Fe -300110 I35 U15035 U Mn -4011.99.512.63.6 Ni -2 U2 U2 U2 U Pb -45 U4 U5 U4 U Se -4 U4 U4 U4 U Sn -10 U-10 USr -8002110-1360Zn -1025 U14 U25 U5 U E=instrument error A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=exceeding holding time limit No. 2 20012001 Analytes19721973 No. 1 Table 200. Spring Creek Springs Group water quality analysis.

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SPRING CREEK NO. 1 (MAIN)Lat. 30° 04’ 48.64” N., Long. 84° 19’ 47.31” W. Spring Creek No. 1 has a voluminous boil that discharges from a 30 ft (9.1 m) wide cavern in limestone against a seawall northwest of the old Spear’s Seafood Warehouse and adjacent to the dock of the ice house. The spring pool measures 153 ft (46.6 m) north to south and 150 ft (45.7 m) east to west. The depth measured over the vent is 43 ft (13.1 m). Water had slight cloudiness and was somewhat tannic during the October 2001 visit. Algae and a thin layer of silt cover the limestone substrate. Bottom of pool and short spring run are sand and limestone. At low tide, the boil is tremendous, and the current leading into the estuary is swift. At high tide, a boil is often not present. There is a conspicuous drainage pipe discharging directly into the spring pool on the northeast side. High ground to northeast harbors Spring Creek community. SPRING CREEK NO. 2— Lat. 30° 04’ 54.43” N., Long. 84° 19’ 47.63” W. Spring Creek No. 2 is located approximately halfway up a 1,000 ft (304 m) long channel that empties into the east side of Spring Creek north of Rise No. 1. It also has a voluminous boil. Its pool measures 150 ft (45.7 m) north to south and 120 ft (36.6 m) east to west. The depth over the vertical opening in limestone from which water boils measures 75 ft (22.9 m) deep. Its discharge flows southwest into Spring Creek. Current is greatest at low tide. The water had slight cloudiness and was somewhat tannic during the October 2001 visit. The spring run has a sand and clay-scoured bottom with abundant limestone boulders. Other spring runs enter into the spring pool from the northeast and east. The surrounding land is brackish marsh and coastal hardwood-palm hammock. Spring Creek community borders the south side of pool. Utilization -Spring Creek and its springs are regularly used fishing sites. Land near the springs is part of the St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, except for private lands associated with the village of Spring Creek. Discharge May 30, 1974 2000 ft3/s(1)Nov. 1, 1996 307 ft3/s (from Davis, 1996) BULLETIN NO. 66 317 Anal y teNo. 1No. 2 Escherichia coli 1 KQ1AQ Enterococci1 KQ1AQ Fecal Coliform1 KQ1AQ Total Coliform10Q10AQ Bacteria Results (in #/100ml) Table 201. Spring Creek Springs Group bacteriological analysis.

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Wakulla Spring Location -Lat. 30° 14’ 06.64” N., Long. 84° 18’ 09.21” W. (SW ¼ NW ¼ SE ¼ sec. 11, T. 3 S., R. 1 W.). Wakulla Spring is located in Wakulla Springs State Park about 20 miles (32.2 km) south of Tallahassee. From the US 319 (Thomasville Road) exit on I-10 take Capital Circle (US 319) south 12.9 miles (20.8 km). Turn south (right) on US 319/SR 61 (Crawfordville Highway) and travel 1.9 miles (3.1 km). Bear left on SR 61 (Wakulla Springs Road) and go 7.6 miles (12.1 km) to SR 267. Turn east (left) and park entrance is 0.1 miles (0.2 km) on the south side of the road. The spring vent is located below the diving platform, northeast of the parking area. Description -Wakulla Spring is one of the largest and most dramatic of Florida’s springs. The spring pool is roughly circular with a diameter of 315 ft (96 m) north to south. The maximum pool depth is 185 ft (56.4 m). The vent opening is a horizontal ellipse along the south side of the pool bottom and is estimated to measure 50 ft by 82 ft (15.2 m by 25 m). Along with a few smaller springs nearby, including Sally Ward Spring, Wakulla Spring gives rise to the clear Wakulla River. Water clarity of the spring in October 2001 was exceptional and the water was light blue. It should be noted that the water clarity of the spring varies dramatically in response to rainfall. Surface water entering the sinkholes that connect to the Wakulla Spring system greatly reduces the clarity. Exotic aquatic vegetation once covered much of the spring pool and adjacent river bottom, but divers have recently removed large FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 318 Figure 163. Wakulla Spring (photo by T. Scott).

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amounts and herbicides have been used in efforts to control it. The Wakulla River remains choked with exotic invasive plants. Many other aquatic and emergent plant species also are present in the spring pool and river. A mixed hardwood, cabbage palm, and cypress forest inhabits lowlands along the north and east shores of the spring and along the river. Uplands along the western shore of the spring are developed into a state park lodge and facilities. Also, there are hardwoods and large loblolly pines scattered about. A major underwater cave system has been mapped at Wakulla Springs. Utilization — Wakulla Spring is developed into a recreational and wildlife viewing area. The park has a lodge and restaurant. There are regular glass-bottomed riverboat and spring tours, and swimming is allowed in the southeast quadrant of the spring pool. The upper 3 miles (4.8 km) of the Wakulla River is state-owned and is a protected wildlife sanctuary. BULLETIN NO. 66 319 Unfilt.FilterUnfilt.Filter Field MeasuresMetals Temperature -22.820.521.2Ca 39383944.5 A45.1 DO --3.22.39K -0.50.30.58 A0.61 pH -7.97.37.2Na 5.74.03.74.99 A5.01 Sp. Cond. -277279328Mg 9.69.58.710.4 A10.6 Lab Anal y tes As --03 U3 U BOD --0.40.2 AUAl ----75 U Turbidity --10.05 UB ---30 UColor -005UCd --00.75 U0.5 U Alkalinity --130146148 Co --00.75 USp. Cond. ---360Cr --02 U2 U TDS ---183Cu --02 U2 U TSS ---4UFe --1025 U20 U Cl 85.13.47.87.8 A Mn --100.5 U0.5 U SO4119.3179.49.5 A N i ---2 U2 U F -0.10.30.130.12 Pb --35 U3 U Nutrients Se ---3.5 U3.5 U TOC --01USn ---7UNO3 + NO2 --0.250.99 J0.96 Sr --11083.8 ANH3 + NH4 ---0.01 U0.01 U Zn --204 U3.5 U TKN ---0.06 U0.06 U P --0.040.0320.03 A PO4--0.030.03A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value shown is less than the practical quantitation limit J=Estimated value Q=exceeding holding time limit 1946 Analytes1924 2001 1972 2001 Analytes1946 19721924 Table 202. Wakulla Spring water quality analysis.

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Discharge Wakulla Spring has the greatest known range in discharge among Florida’s springs (Rosenau et al., 1977). All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. Average 1907 – 1974390(1)Maximum (April 11, 1973)1910(1)Minimum (June 18, 1931)25.2(1)September 27, 2001128.9(3) FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 320 Anal y teValue Escherichia coli 1 KQ Enterococci1 KQ Fecal Coliform1 KQ Total Coliform1 KQ Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 203.Wakulla Spring bacteriological analysis.

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WALTON COUNTY BULLETIN NO. 66 321 Figure 164. Spring visited by FGS in Walton County.

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Morrison Spring Location – Lat. 30° 39’ 28.38” N., Long. 85° 54’ 14.18” W. (SE ¼ NE ¼ NE ¼ sec. 23, T. 3 N., R. 17 W.). Morrison Spring is approximately 4.9 miles (7.9 km) southeast of Ponce de Leon. From I-10 just south of Ponce de Leon, travel 3.7 miles (6 km) south on SR 81. Turn east (left) on SR 181 and travel 1.7 miles (2.7 km). Turn south (right) on SR 181 A. Travel 0.5 miles then turn east (left) into the park. Description – Morrison Spring occupies a large, bowl-shaped depression and forms a circular spring pool with a diameter of 300 ft (91.4 m). The vent is near the center of the pool at a depth of 46 ft (14 m). The bottom is sand except near the vent where limestone is exposed. The water is light blue and slightly turbid with a prominent boil on the pool surface. However, cave divers report that the water is crystal clear in the cavern and cave system. There is abundant aquatic vegetation and very little algae. The spring run is 150 ft (45.7 m) wide and slow-moving. It flows approximately 0.7 miles (1.1 km) southeastward into the murky Choctawhatchee River. When the river is in flood stage, river water reportedly backs up into the spring pool. On the south side of the spring run, approximately 300 ft (91.4 m) downstream from the pool, high ground meets the run’s shore and rises steeply to 15 ft (4.6 m) above the water. The spring and its run are within the western lowland floodplain of the Choctawhatchee River, in a dense gum and cypress forest. A house and picnic pavilion are east of the spring pool, and a cleared swath leads from the pavilion down to the water’s edge. Rosenau et al. (1977) report that there are 3 cavities at the bottom of the spring pool. One of those cavities reaches an eventual depth of 300 ft (91.4 m). FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 322 Figure 165. Morrison Spring (photo by R. Means).

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Utilization – The spring is a private park operated primarily for swimming and scuba diving. Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. May 27, 1942121(1)(Measured under poor conditions) December 9, 194689(1)November 5, 196354.9(1)April 19, 197262.2(1)September 6, 2002 62.85(2) BULLETIN NO. 66 323 DissolvedTotalDissolvedTotal Field MeasuresMetalsTemperature 21Ca3030.2A30.8 DO3.5K0.40.570.55 pH7.8Na1.82.1I1.7I Sp. Cond. -Mg7.47.7A8.1 Lab Analytes Al--75U BOD0.2-0.2AUAs03U3U Turbidity1-0.05UB 60-15U Color0-5UCd-0.5U0.5U Alkalinity 110-114.0Co 0-0.75U Sp. Cond.240200.0-Cr02U2U TDS119-115.0Cu103.5U3.5U TSS--4UFe-35U35U Cl2.5-2.5Mn-0.5U0.5U SO42.4 -3.3 Ni -2U2U F0.1-0.07IPb53U5U Nutrients Ra-226--0.2 TOC0-1URa-228--1.0 NO3 + NO2 as N 0.13 -0.15 Se -4U4U NH3 + NH4-0.01U Sn --10U TKN-0.06U0.06USr70-57.9 P-0.0250.026Zn-1.5U2U PO40.02 0.029QNO3 0.13 --A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit212 19.90 3.00 7.51 2002 AnalytesAnalytes 2002 1972 1972 Anal y teValu e Enterococci1KQ Fecal Coliform1KQ Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 205. Morrison Spring bacteriological analysis. Table 204. Morrison Spring water quality analysis.

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WASHINGTON COUNTY FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 324 Figure 166. Springs visited by FGS in Washington County.

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Beckton Spring Location – Lat. 30° 38’ 55.13” N., Long. 85° 41’ 37.19” W. (NW ¼ NW ¼ SE ¼ sec. 24, T. 3 N., R. 15 W.). Beckton Spring is located approximately 2 miles (3.2 km) northeast of Vernon. From the intersection of SR 79 and SR 277 in Vernon turn east then northeast on SR 277. Drive 2.2 miles (3.5 km) to Culpepper Lane. Turn northwest (left) on Culpepper Lane and go 0.3 miles (0.5 km) to Big Pine Lane. Turn northwest (left) and go 0.2 miles (0.3 km) to the boat landing. The spring run flows 825 ft (251 m) into Holmes Creek from the northwest, 0.4 miles (0.6 km) downstream from the Big Pine Lane boat ramp. The spring is approximately 0.1 miles (0.2 km) up the spring run. Beckton Spring is surrounded by private property. Description – Beckton Spring has a nearly circular spring pool measuring 180 ft (54.9 m) north to south and 159 ft (48.5 m) east to west. It occupies a bowl shaped depression, and the vent is located in the center of the pool where the depth used to be 20.0 ft (6.1 m). The spring has been deepened to approximately 36 feet (11 m). The bottom is sand with some limestone exposed at the vent. The boil in the center is small, but noticeable. A side channel of Holmes Creek enters the east side of the pool. Holmes Creek is typically darker and more turbid, and the two waters mix into a swirl of clear spring water and cloudy creek water within the spring pool. There is little aquatic vegetation in the spring pool, but grasses and plants are scattered throughout the spring run. There is an old boat ramp on the northwest side of the spring pool. Beckton Spring discharges through a spring run that is BULLETIN NO. 66 325 Figure 167. Beckton Spring (photo by H. Means).

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clear and shallow, averaging about 2 ft (0.6 m) deep. The run flows south approximately 900 ft (274.3 m) into Holmes Creek. High ground borders the spring and its run along the west side. It rises steeply to 12-15 ft (3.7-4.6 m) above the spring eventually leveling to approximately 20 ft (6.1 m). There is a private residence and yard on the hill. The lowland floodplain of Holmes Creek is along the east side of the spring and its run. It is densely forested with cypress and tupelo. Utilization – Beckton Springis surrounded by private land. It is used locally for swimming. Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. May 26, 194249.5(1)June 6, 197233.2(1)October 21, 198723.4(3)October 20, 200025.7(3)October 25, 200130.6(3)June 10, 200226.19(2)May 15, 200322.1(3) FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 326 DissolvedTotalDissolvedTotal Field MeasuresMetalsTemperature 21.5Ca3533.232.9 DO2.5K0.70.510.52A pH8Na106.86.9A Sp. Cond. -Mg6.15.24.9A Lab Analytes Al--75U BOD--1.9As-3U3U Turbidity--0.65B --15U Color5-5UCd-0.5U0.5U Alkalinity 110-108.0Co --0.75U Sp. Cond.275260.00-Cr-2U2U TDS192-125.0Cu-3.5U3.5U TSS--4UFe-35U36I Cl21-11.0Mn-2.84.5A SO4--1.5 Ni2U2U F--0.056Pb-3U2U Nutrients Ra226--0.2 TOC--1URa228--1U NO3 + NO2 as N0.18-0.29 Se0.5U4U NH3 + NH4-0.023 Sn-10U TKN 0.06U.06USr190-81.2A P-0.023A0.024AZn-1.5U2U PO40.024-A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit2002 19.31 4.88 7.80 1972 237.0 2002 AnalytesAnalytes 1972 Anal y teValu e Enterococci 14Q Fecal Coliform60Q Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 207. Beckton Spring bacteriological analysis. Table 206. Beckton Spring water quality analysis.

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Brunson Landing Spring Location – Lat. 30° 36’ 33.22” N., Long. 85° 45’ 30.89” W. (SW ¼ SE ¼ NE ¼ sec. 5, T. 2 N., R. 15 W.). Brunson Landing Spring flows into the north Holmes Creek from the north 3 miles (4.8 km) southwest of Vernon. From the intersection with SR 277 in Vernon, travel 0.4 miles (0.6 km) north on SR 79. Turn west (left) on CR 278 across from the Holmes Creek boat ramp and travel for 3.1 miles (5.0 km). Turn south (left) on Dorch Circle and veer left after 0.1 miles (0.16 km) onto Brunson Landing Road. Follow this road to the boat ramp. The main spring is located 500 ft (152 m) west of the parking area down a small footpath through the woods. Description – Brunson Landing Springs are a group of three springs (Spring Fever website). Two of the springs are seeps and are very shallow, approximately three to six inches (7.6 to 15.2 cm) deep. The main spring pool is circular with a diameter of approximately 30 ft (9.1 m). The spring occupies a steep-walled, bowl-shaped depression that is 15 ft (4.6 m) deep over the vent. The spring bottom is mostly soft sand with limestone and some organic debris. Spring water is bluish and clear. Two small runs exit the spring pool and flow generally southward approximately 350 ft (106.7 m) into Holmes Creek. There is an abundance of algae in the slow-flowing spring and run. The main spring run averages less than 1 ft (0.3 m) deep and 3 ft (0.9 m) wide. Numerous other small seeps feed into the spring runs. This spring is situated within the heavily forested floodplain of Holmes Creek. BULLETIN NO. 66 327 Figure 168. Brunson Landing Spring (photo by R. Means).

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Utilization – Brunson Landing spring is undeveloped and used locally for swimming. There is a platform in a tree over the spring on the south side. Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s May 21, 20035.86(3)combined flow from 3 vents June 5, 2003 5.55(2) main spring vent only FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 328 DissolvedTotalDissolvedTotal Field MeasuresMetalsTemperature Ca35.1A34.1A DOK0.39A0.39A pHNa2.07A2.11A Sp. Cond. Mg5.5A5.6A Lab Analytes Al-10U BOD-0.23IAs5U7U Turbidity-0.1B -10U Color-5UCd0.5U0.5U Alkalinity -107Co -2U Sp. Cond.215.0-Cr2U2U TDS-120.0Cu3U3U TSS-4UFe10U28I Cl-3.2AMn1.1I1.7I SO4-2.2A Ni 1.5U2U F-0.059IPb12U12U Nutrients Ra-226-0.4 TOC-1URa-228-1U NO3 + NO2 as N-0.22 Se 15U15U NH3 + NH4-0.01U Sn -5U TKN0.06U0.06USr-57A P0.027I0.029IZn2U3U PO40.024N O3 --A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit222 20.86 1.25 7.73 2003 AnalytesAnalytes 2003 Anal y teValu e Enterococci1K Fecal Coliform1K Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 209. Brunson Landing Spring bacteriological analysis. Table 208. Brunson Landing Spring water quality analysis.

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Cypress Spring Location – Lat. 30° 39’ 31.49” N., Long. 85° 41’ 03.74” W. (SW ¼ SW ¼ SW ¼ sec. 18, T. 3 N., R. 14 W.). Cypress Spring is surrounded by private property approximately 3.5 miles (5.6 km) northeast of Vernon. From the intersection of SR 79 and SR 277 in Vernon turn east then northeast on SR 277. Drive 2.2 miles (3.5 km) to Culpepper Lane. Turn northwest (left) on Culpepper Lane and go 0.3 miles (0.5 km) to Big Pine Lane. Turn northwest (left) and go 0.2 miles (0.3 km) to the boat landing. The spring can be accessed by boat. From the Big Pine Lane boat ramp, Cypress Spring run enters Holmes Creek from the northwest approximately 0.5 miles (0.8 km) upstream. Description – The Cypress Spring pool is roughly circular, measuring 114 ft (34.7 m) north to south and 132 ft (40.2 m) east to west. The main vent is near the center of the pool with a depth of 26 ft (7.9 m). At least one other vent is present just 30 ft (9.1 m) downstream. The spring occupies a conical depression, and limestone is exposed over much of the bottom with areas of sand. The water is clear and has a light blue color and a large boil is directly over the vent. There are a few small patches of native aquatic grasses and small amounts of algae. The spring run flows south approximately 1,400 ft (426.7 m) into Holmes Creek. The run is swift-flowing and shallow, averaging approximately 2 ft (0.6 m) deep, and it often is wider than the spring pool. A semicircular berm was constructed around the northern half of Cypress Springs in order to divert the flow of Piney Woods Spring Run downstream of BULLETIN NO. 66 329 Figure 169. Cypress Spring (photo by T. Scott).

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Cypress SpringsÂ’ pool for aesthetic purposes. Before the berm existed, Piney Woods Spring Run entered the northwest side of the spring pool. Now, it enters approximately 30 ft (9.1) below on the west side through a culvert. There are wooden entry platforms for divers and swimmers on the northwest side of the pool. The nearest high ground is 450 ft (137.2 m) to the west and it rises steeply to approximately 25 ft (7.6 m) above the lowlands. A privately-owned swimming and diving recreation area including a residence are to the west. Cypress Springs is located within the lowland floodplain of Holmes Creek. The surroundings are heavily forested with cypress and tupelo. Cave divers report that the cave system reaches depths of at least 65 ft (19.8 m). Utilization Previously a private diving/swimming concession, the spring is reportedly in the process of changing ownership in 2004. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 330 DissolvedTotalDissolvedTotal Field MeasuresMetalsTemperature 20.5Ca3033.230.8 DO4.8K0.40.340.4 pH7.2Na42.3I3.8I Sp. Cond. -Mg4.34.54.5 Lab Analytes Al--75U BOD--1.3As-3U3U Turbidity--0.05UB --15U Color15-5UCd-0.5U0.5UAlkalinity 94-106ACo --0.75U Sp. Cond.195230.0-Cr-2U2U TDS113-113Cu-3.5U3.5U TSS--4UFe-35U35U Cl4-3.1Mn-0.5U0.5U SO40.6 -1.3 Ni -2U2U F0.1-0.055IPb-3U5U Nutrients Ra-226--0.2 TOC--1URa-228--1.9 NO3 + NO2 as N 0.15 -0.36 Se -0.5U4U NH3 + NH4-0.012I Sn --10U TKN-0.06U0.06USr60-37.3 P-0.0260.023Zn-1.5U2U PO40.025NO3 --A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit1972 AnalytesAnalytes 2002 2002 1972 206 19.85 4.65 7.77 Table 210. Cypress Spring water quality analysis.

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Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. May 26, 194285(1)June 6, 197270(1)June 28, 1987102(3)May 24, 199479(3)October 20, 200083(3)October 25, 200188(3)December 9, 2002104(3)June 5, 200293.26(3)May 15, 2003101(3) BULLETIN NO. 66 331 Anal y teValu e Enterococci1KQ Fecal Coliform1KQ Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 211. Cypress Spring bacteriological analysis.

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Washington Blue Spring Choctawhatchee Location – Lat. 30° 30’ 47.73” N., Long. 85° 50’ 49.87” W. (NW ¼ NW ¼ NE ¼ sec. 9, T. 1 N., R. 16 W.). Washington Blue Spring Choctawhatchee is surrounded by private land, 5.5 miles (9 km) northwest of Ebro. The spring run enters the Choctawhatchee River from the east side. The spring is accessible by boat. From the intersection of I-10 and SR 79 travel south 17.5 miles (28.2 km) to New Hope. At the intersection of SR 79 and CR 284 in New Hope, drive west (right) on CR 284 for 3.8 miles (6.1 km) and turn south (left) onto CR 284A. Travel 3.6 miles (5.8 km) ending at a boat ramp on Holmes Creek. From the boat landing head downriver approximately 3.5 miles (5.6 km) to the confluence with the Choctawhatchee River. The spring is 0.9 miles (1.4 km) upstream of the confluence. Description – The Washington Blue Spring Choctawhatchee spring pool is nearly circular and measures 111 ft (33.8 m) in diameter from north to south. The vent is near the center of the pool and discharges from a fissure beneath a limestone ledge. The ledge has prominent bedding planes, and the limestone is soft and chalky. The depth measured near the vent is 22 ft (6.7 m). The water is clear and bluish and there is a large boil on the pool surface. Aquatic plants occur within the spring pool. High ground borders the south side of the pool and rises steeply to approximately 20 ft (6.1 m) above the water surface, forming a bluff face with limestone and clay cropping out. A mixed pine and hardwood forest covers the high ground. This region has changed considerably since the USGS topographic maps were updated. The spring run used to flow into lower Holmes Creek in the 1970’s. The Choctawhatchee River has since migrated eastward and captured Boynton Cutoff and lower FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 332 Figure 170. Washington Blue Spring Choctawhatchee (photo by R. Means).

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Holmes Creek. Holmes CreekÂ’s confluence with the Choctawhatchee River is presently farther upstream than the 1982 7 1/2 minute topographic maps depict. The wide spring run flows a total distance of 0.9 miles (1.4 km) southwestward entering the Choctawhatchee River from the east approximately 1.8 miles (2.9 km) downstream from the mouth of Holmes Creek. Deadhead logs, old docks and vessel remains from turn-of-the 19thcentury logging industry are abundant in and along spring run. Exotic aquatic vegetation is present in the spring run. Apple snails also are common. There may be additional springs along the spring run approximately 500 ft (152.4 m) downstream where the run widens and there are deep circular pools along the run; however, there was no visible flow from these pools in August 2002. The authors also heard reports of a spring approximately 0.25 miles (0.4 km) north of the spring run within Mill Lake. Flow from Mill Lake enters the spring run from the north 0.4 miles (0.6 km) downstream from Washington Blue Spring Choctawhatchee. The spring and its run are within the lowland floodplain of the Choctawhatchee River. This floodplain supports a mature cypress and tupelo forest. Utilization The spring is undeveloped and surrounded by private land. It is used locally for swimming. BULLETIN NO. 66 333 DissolvedTotalDissolvedTotal Field MeasuresMetalsTemperature 21Ca2021.321.6 DO1.4K0.40.260.24 pH7.9Na1.51.9I1.5I Sp. Cond. -Mg2.62.62.8 Lab Analytes Al--75U BOD--0.2UAs-3U3U Turbidity--0.05UB --15U Color5-5UCd-0.5U0.5U Alkalinity 60-68ACo --0.75U Sp. Cond.125130.0-Cr-2U2U TDS94-71Cu-3.5U3.5U TSS--4UFe1035U35U Cl2.4-2.1Mn-0.5U0.97I SO40.4 -1.5 Ni2U2U F0.1-0.05UPb-3U5U Nutrients Ra-226--0.1U TOC--1URa-228--1.1 NO3 + NO2 as N -0.054 Se4U4U NH3 + NH4-0.01U Sn-10U TKN-0.06U0.06USr40-47.2 P-0.0170.016Zn-1.5U2U PO40.016NO3 --A=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit21.04 0.71 7.79 132 2002 2002 AnalytesAnalytes1975 1975 Table 212. Washington Blue Spring Choctawhatchee water quality analysis.

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Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s October 15, 194136(1)(estimate) May 26, 194232(1)December 16, 194651(1)June 7, 197244(1)September 4, 2002 39.62(2) FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 334 Anal y teValu e Enterococci1KQ Fecal Coliform1KQ Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 213. Washington Blue Spring Choctawhatchee bacteriological analysis.

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Washington Blue Springs Econfina Location – Lat. 30° 27’ 10.16” N., Long. 85° 31’ 49.33” W. (SE ¼ SE ¼ SW ¼ sec. 27, T. 1 N., R. 13 W.). Washington Blue Springs Econfina is located on NWFWMD land 23 miles (37 km) southwest of the US 231 (Cottondale) exit on I-10. The area is managed as a weekend campground and access may be obtained by calling the NWFWMD district office. Travel south approximately 23 miles (37 km) on US 231 from the I-10 exit to the intersection with SR 20. Turn west (right) on SR 20 and travel 5.8 miles (9.3 km). Turn north (right) on Blue Springs Road and travel 1.3 miles to the gated entrance on the left. Description –Washington Blue Springs Econfina emerges as two small boils from the base of a limestone bluff. Spring water flows southwest into a shallow pool that is 57 ft (17.4 m) north to south and 105 ft (32 m) east to west. The pool averages approximately 2 ft (0.6 m) deep, and is virtually indistinguishable from the upper spring run. Water quality samples were taken at the vent in the northeast end of the pool. The water is clear with a light greenish hue. The spring pool has native aquatic vegetation, a sand bottom, and some algae are present. The northern half of the spring pool area has a concrete retaining wall and steps leading into the water. The run flows generally from northeast to southwest approximately 500 ft (152.4 m) into Econfina Creek. Approximately 150 ft (46 m) downstream from Washington Blue Spring Econfina, another tributary spring, called Washington Blue Spring Econfina No. 2, flows in from the north. The small spring run is 200 ft (61 m) long and flows south into Washington Blue Springs Econfina Run. Spring No. 2 spring emerges as a clear stream from the base of a 15 ft (5 m) high bluff. There is also another spring associated with this cluster of springs called Washington Blue Springs Econfina No. 3, reportedly downstream along Washington Blue Spring Econfina Run, but this was not visited by the authors. Springs Fever website has a map of the spring distribution at Washington Blue Springs Econfina. North of Washington Blue Springs Econfina, high ground rises steeply to approximately 15 ft (4.6 m) above the water level. This high ground is developed into a recreation area. Toward the north and east is mixed hardwood and pine forest. Westward toward Econfina Creek is mixed hardwood and cypress swamp forest. Utilization – The area is managed by NWFWMD as a weekend campground and use area by reservation only. BULLETIN NO. 66 335 Figure 171. Washington Blue Spring Econfina (photo by R. Means).

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FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 336 DissolvedTotal Field MeasuresTemperature 212121.0 DO-33.3 pH7.57.77.9 Sp. Cond. --Lab Analytes BOD---0.2U Turbidity ----0.2 Color2105-5UAlkalinity 52 49-55.0 Sp. Cond.95115105120.0TDS607554-62.0 TSS----4U Cl1.521.5-1.8I SO420 0.8-2.1 F0.10.10.1-0.05U Nutrients TOC----1U NO3 + NO2 as N -0.06 -0.14 NH3 + NH4---0.025 TKN---0.06U0.06U P---0.012A0.014 PO4--0.014NO3 0--Metals Ca1817161816.8A K00.20.30.160.16A Na1.41.31.21.1I1I Mg2.72.82.932.9A Al----75U As---3U3U B ----15U Cd---0.5U0.5U Co ----0.75U Cr---2U2U Cu---3.5U3.5U Fe---35U35U Mn---0.5U1.3I Ni---2U2U Pb---3U5U Ra-226 ----1.0 Ra-228 ----1.3 Se---4U4U Sn----10U Sr-7040-54.3A Zn---1.5U2UA=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit2002 Analytes 117 20.55 2.51 7.94 196219721975 Table 214. Washington Blue Spring Econfina water quality analysis.

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Discharge All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. April 10, 196212.3(1)September 11, 196210.8(1)January 29, 196312.7(1)May 28, 196311.1(1)August 28, 196312.6(1)May 16, 197214.2(1)June 13, 20027.0(2) BULLETIN NO. 66 337 Anal y teValu e Enterococci1KQ Fecal Coliform1KQ Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 215. Washington Blue Spring Econfina bacteriological analysis.

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Williford Spring Location – Lat. 30° 26’ 22.39” N., Long. 85° 32’ 51.29” W. (NE ¼ SE ¼ SW ¼ sec. 33, T. 1 N., R. 13 W.). The spring is located on NFWMD land 23 miles (37 km) southwest of the US 231 (Cottondale) exit on Interstate 10. From I-10, travel south on US 231 approximately 23 miles (37 km) to the intersection with SR 20. Turn west (right) on SR 20 and travel 7.5 miles (12.1 km) to Herman Strickland Rd. Turn north (right) and follow the road 0.8 miles (1.3 km) to the gated spring entrance on the right. Description – Williford Spring has a circular spring pool in a conical depression whose sand bottom is rippled by issuing spring currents. The pool measures 57 ft (17.4 m) in diameter. The vent is under a limestone ledge roughly in the center of the pool, and the depth measured over the vent is 10.1 ft (3.1 m). There is a sizeable boil over the vent, and the color of the water is light blue-green. There is no aquatic vegetation in the pool, and a thin layer of algae covers less than half of the limestone and sand substrates. A wooden entry stairway is located on the north side of the spring with erosion control concrete bags on either side. Williford Spring discharges through a swiftly flowing spring run that travels south for approximately 443 ft (135 m) into Econfina Creek. There are numerous other smaller springs that feed into Williford Spring run immediately downstream. Some of these springs are small trickles from limestone fissures exposed along the banks of the run. To the north and west of Williford Spring, high ground rises to approximately 15 ft (4.6 m) above the water surface. There is a small, cleared parking and picnic area on the adjacent north side of the spring. A lowland forest of hardwoods, cypress and palms hugs the spring and its run. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 338 Figure 172. Williford Spring (photo by R. Means).

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BULLETIN NO. 66 339 DissolvedTotal Field MeasuresTemperature 21.122.222.0 DO--2.9 pH7.27.57.6 Sp. Cond. --Lab Analytes BOD---0.2U Turbidity ---0.05U Color0-10-5UAlkalinity --62-65 Sp. Cond.150128145140.0TDS88-73-69.0 TSS----4U Cl3.02.03.0-2.3I SO40.0-0.0 -1.4 F0.1-0.1-0.05U Nutrients TOC----1U NO3 + NO2 as N --0.10 -0.075 NH3 + NH4---0.014I TKN---0.06U0.06U P---0.016A0.019 PO4--0.014NO3 0.00-0.44 -Metals Ca28-2121.520.2 K0.3-0.20.280.28 Na1.7-1.31.3I1.3I Mg2.4-2.72.92.8 Al----75U As---3U3U B ----15U Cd---0.5U0.5U Co ----0.75U Cr---2U2U Cu---3.5U3.5U Fe---35U35U Mn---0.5U0.5U Ni---2U2U Pb---3U5U Ra-226 ----0.2 Ra-228 ----1U Se---4U4U Sn----10U Sr--60-43 Zn---1.5U2UA=Average value U,K=Compound not detected, value shown is the method detection limit I=Value is less than practical quantitation limit J=Est value Q=Exceeding holding time limit2002 Analytes 135 21.26 0.47 7.88 4/16/19629/11/19621972 Table 216. Williford Spring water quality analysis.

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FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 340 The surrounding rolling sand hills terrain supports mixed hardwood and pine uplands. A hiking trail system is along the north side of the spring run. Utilization – Williford Spring and surrounding uplands are managed by the NWFWMD as a daytime recreation area accessible by permit/reservation only. For information on access to the spring, contact NWFWMD. Discharge – All discharge rates are measured in ft3/s. September 11, 196231.1(1)January 31, 196332.3(1)May 29, 196331.9(1)August 27, 196331.2(1)May 15, 197226.4(1)June 13, 200225.46(2) Anal y teValu e Enterococci1KQ Fecal Coliform1KQ Bacteria Results (in #/100 mL) Table 217. Williford Spring bacteriological analysis.

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SELECTED SPRINGS INFORMATION RESOURCES ON THE INTERNET For the interested reader, there are sources of information concerning FloridaÂ’s springs on the Internet. These include the following: The Florida Department of Environmental ProtectionÂ’s Springs Website: http://www.floridasprings.org and http://www.dep.state.fl.us/springs/ Springs Fever: A field and recreation guide to more than 500 Florida springs, by Joe Follman and Richard Buchanan. This site includes an excellent listing of web links: http://www.tfn.net/springs/ Florida State Parks System: www.dep.state.fl.us/parks/index.asp The Public Broadcasting web site: http://www.pbs.org/wnet/nature/springs/ The Springs of Florida website from Karst Environmental provides numerous links to more springs information: http://www.floridasprings.com/ Sites related to cave diving contain significant amounts of springs information: http://www.cavediver.net/springs/spring_frm.htm http://www.floridacaves.com/ http://www.mejeme.com/dive/index.html http://underwaterflorida.homestead.com/springs.html Link to Florida Geological SurveyÂ’s Springs of Florida Bulletin on-line: http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/springs_of_fl/aaj7320/content.html Link to Florida Springs Map and Guide: http://www.floridasprings.net Florida Springs Database: http://www.thiswaytothe.net/springs/index.shtml Links to Water Management District sites: h ttp://www.state.fl.us/nwfwmd/ http://www.sjrwmd.com/ http://www.srwmd.state.fl.us/ http://www.swfwmd.state.fl.us/ http://www.sfwmd.gov BULLETINNO.66 341

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REFERENCES Baker, A.E., Cichon, J.R., Arthur, J.D., and Rains, G.L., 2002, Florida aquifer vulnerability assessment: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 34, no. 6, p. 346. Balsillie, J., Means, G.H., Dunbar, J. S, and Means, R.C., in press, Geoarchaeological consideration of the Ryan/Harley site (8JE1004) in the Wacissa River northern Florida, Bulletin of the Florida State Museum, Gainesville, Florida. Balsillie, J., and Donoghue, J.F., in preparation, 2004, High resolution sea level history for the Gulf of Mexico since the last glacial maximum: Florida Geological Survey Open-file Report. Bates, R.L., and Jackson, J.A., (eds.), 1984, Dictionary of Geological Terms, third ed.: Garden City, NJ., Anchor Press/Doubleday, 571 p. Berndt, M. P., Oaksford, E. T., and Mahon, G. L., 1998, Groundwater: in E. A. Fernald and E. D. Purdum (eds.), Water Resources Atlas of Florida: Tallahassee, Florida State University p. 38-63. Bonn, M.A., and Bell, F.W., 2003, Economic impact of selected Florida springs on the surrounding local areas: Report for the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Division of State Lands, Florida Springs Task Force, 102 p. Buchanan, T.J., and Somers, W.P., 1969, Chapter A8 – Discharge measurements at gaging stations: in Techniques of water-resources investigations of the United States Geological Survey, p. 1-65. Center for Disease Control, 2004, Center for Disease Control Website: http://ncidod/dbmd/diseaseinfo Champion, K.M., and DeWitt, D.J., 2000, Origin of nitrate in ground water discharging from Crystal Springs; Pasco County, Florida – Draft: Brooksville, Southwest Florida Water Management District Report, 191p. Champion, K.M., and Starks, R., 2001, The hydrology and water quality of springs in westcentral Florida: Brooksville, Southwest Florida Water Management District Report, 148 p. Copeland, R. (compiler), 2003. Florida Spring Classification System and spring glossary: Florida Geological Survey, Special Publication No. 52, 18 p. Copeland, R., Hornsby, D., and Smith, D., 2001, Monitoring the effects of implementing best management practices in a rural watershed in north-central Florida: in Conference Proceedings of the National Water Monitoring Conference – Monitoring for the Millennium, April 25-27, 2000, Austin, Texas, National Water Quality Monitoring Council, p. 89-100. BULLETINNO.66 343

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DeHan, R.S. (compiler), 2002, Workshop to develop blue prints for the management and protection of Florida springs – Proceedings, Ocala, FL., May 8-9, 2002: Florida Geological Survey Special Publication 51, Compact Disk. Dunbar, J.S., Faught, M.K., and Webb, S.D., 1988, Page/Ladson (8JE591): An underwater paleo-indian site in northwestern Florida: Florida Anthropologist, v. 41, p. 442-452. Faught, M.K., in press, Submerged Paleoindian and Archaic sites of the Big Bend, Florida: Journal of Field Archaeology, v. 58. Ferguson, G.E., Lingham, C.W., Love, S.K., and Vernon, R.O., 1947, Springs of Florida: Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 31, 196 p. Field, M.S., 1999, A Lexicon of cave and karst terminology with special reference to environmental karst hydrology: Washington, D.C., U.S. Environmental ProtectionAgency/600/R-99/006, National Center for Environmental AssessmentWashington Division, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 195 p. Florida Department of Environmental Protection, 1994, Groundwater guidance concentrations: Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Water Facilities, Bureau of Drinking Water and Ground Water Resources, 53 p. Florida Department of Environmental Protection, 2002, Standard operating procedures for field activities: DEP-SOP-001/01 (dated January 1, 2002). Florida Springs Task Force, 2000, Florida’s springs: Strategies for protection and restoration: Tallahassee, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, 63 p. Fujioka, R.S., and Byappanahalli, M.N., 2004, Proceedings and report – Tropical water quality indicator workshop, August 2003: University of Hawaii at Manoa Water Resources Research Center, Special Report SR-2004-01. Hanshaw, B.B., Back. W., and Rubin, M., 1965, Radiocarbon determinations for estimating ground-water flow velocities in central Florida: Science, v. 148, p. 494-495. Henry, J.A., 1998, Weather and climate: in: Fernald, E. A. and Purdum, E. D., (eds.), Water Resources Atlas of Florida:Tallahassee, Florida State University, p. 16-37. Hornsby, D. and Ceryak, R., 1998, Springs of the Suwannee River Basin in Florida: Live Oak, Suwannee River Water Management District WR 99-02, 178 p. Hornsby, D. and Ceryak, R., 2000, Springs of the Aucilla, Coastal, and Waccasassa Basins in Florida: Live Oak, Suwannee River Water Management District WR 00-03 66 p. Huntoon, P.W., 1995, Is it appropriate to apply porous media groundwater circulation models to karst aquifers?: in: Aly El-Kadi (ed.), Groundwater Models for Resources Analysis and Management: Boca Raton, Lewis Publishers, p. 339-358. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 344

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Jones, G.W., Upchurch, S.B., and Champion, K.M., 1996, Origin of nitrate in ground water discharging from Rainbow Springs, Marion County, Florida: Brooksville, Southwest Florida Water Management District Report, 155 p. Jones, G.W., Upchurch, S.B., and Champion, K.M., 1998 (Revised), Origin of nutrients in ground water discharging from the King’s Bay Springs: Ambient Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Program, Brooksville, Southwest Florida Water Management District Report, 158 p. Katz, B.G., 2004, Sources of nitrate contamination and age of water in large karstic springs of Florida: Environmental Geology, in press. Katz, B.G., Bohlke, J.K., and Hornsby, H.D., 2001, Timescales for nitrate contamination of spring waters: Chemical Geology, v. 179, Issues 1-4, p. 167-186. Klein, H., 1975, Depth to base of potable water in the Floridan aquifer, revised: Florida Geological Survey Map Series 42. Lane, B.E., 1986, Karst in Florida: Florida Geological Survey Special Publication 29, 100 p. Lane, B.E., 2001, The Spring Creek submarine springs group, Wakulla County, Florida: Florida Geological Survey Special Publication 47, 34 p. Maddox, G.L., Lloyd, J.M., Scott, T.M., Upchurch, S.B., and Copeland, R., (eds.), 1992, Florida’s Ground Water Quality Monitoring Program, Background Geochemistry: Florida Geological Survey Special Publication 34, 364 p. Means, G.H., Copeland, R.E., and Scott, T.M., 2003, Nitrate trends in selected second magnitude springs of Florida (abs.): Program with abstracts, South-Central and Southeastern Section Geological Society of America meeting, Memphis, TN, v. 35, no. 1, p. 61. Meinzer, O.E., 1927, Large springs in the United States: U.S. Geological Survey WaterSupply Paper 557, 94 p. Miller, J.A., 1986, Hydrogeologic framework of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina: U.S. Geological Survey, Professional Paper 1403-B, 91 p., 33 maps. Monroe, W.H., 1970, A Glossary of karst terminology: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1899, 26 p. Neill, W.T., 1958, A stratified early site at Silver Springs, Florida, The Florida Anthropologist, v. 11, n. 2, p. 33 – 53. Odum, H.T.,1957,Trophic structure and productivity of Silver Springs, Florida: Ecological Monographs, v. 7, Issue 1, p. 55-112 BULLETINNO.66 345

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Romero, J.C., 1970, Movement of bacteria and viruses through porous media: Ground Waters, v. 8, no. 2, p. 37-48. Rosenau, J.C., Faulkner, G.L., Hendry, C.W., Jr., and Hull, R.W., 1977, Springs of Florida: Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 31 Revised, 461 p. Royal, W.D., and Clark, E., 1960, Natural preservation of human brain, Warm Springs, Florida: American Antiquity 26, p. 285-287. Schmidt, W., 2001, Silver Springs, Florida, USA: in: LaMoreaux, P.E. and Tanner, J.T. , (eds.) 2001, Springs and bottled waters of the world – Ancient history, source, occurrence, quality and use: New York, Springer-Verlag, p. 137-141. Scott, T.M., 1992a, A geological overview of Florida (upgraded and extended): Florida Geological Survey Open File Report 50, 78p. Scott, T.M., 1992b, Chapter III Hydrostratigraphy: in: Maddox, G.L., Lloyd, J.M., Scott, T.M., Upchurch, S.B., and Copeland, R. (eds.), 1992, Florida’s Ground Water Quality Monitoring Program, Background Geochemistry: Florida Geological Survey Special Publication 34, p. 6-11. Scott, T.M., 2001, Water sustainability in Florida – Research, policy and geologist’s responsibilities: Abstracts with program, Geological Society of America annual meeting, v. 33, no. 6, p. A-200. Scott, T.M., in preparation, Geomorphic map of Florida: Florida Geological Survey Map Series. Scott, T.M., Campbell, K.M., Rupert, F.R., Arthur, J.D., Green, R.C., Means, G.H., Missimer, T.M., Lloyd, J.M., Yon, J.W. and Duncan, J.G., 2001, Geologic map of Florida: Florida Geological Survey Map Series no. 146. Scott, T.M., Means, G.H., Means, R. C., and Meegan, R.P., 2002, First magnitude springs of Florida: Florida Geological Survey Open File Report 85, 138 p. Scott, T.M., and Schmidt, W., 2000, Water sustainability: Geological perspectives on the Everglades water supply problem: Pre-conference papers, Kansas Geological Survey Open-file Report 2000-51, p. 69-80. SDII Global Corporation, 2002, Glossary of terms: Tampa, SDII Global Corporation, 9 p. Simpson, H.H., 1935, untitled, Hobbies, v. 40, no. 4, p. 93-94. Smith, R.P., 1992, A primer of environmental toxicology: Health Sciences, p. 142-150. Southeastern Geological Society, 1986, Hydrogeological units of Florida: compiled by Southeastern Geological Society ad hoc committee: Florida Geological Survey Special Publication 28, 8 p. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 346

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Tesar, L.D. and Jones, C.B., 2004, Wakulla Springs lodge site (8WA329) in Edward Ball Wakulla Springs State Park, Wakulla County, Florida: A summary of eleven projects and management recommendations: Tallahassee, State of Florida, Division of Historical Resources, Bureau of Archaeological Research Report, 184 p. Triola, M.F., 1998, Elementary statistics, 7 th ed: Reading, Addison-Wesley, 791 p. Upchurch, S.B., 1992, Quality of water in Florida’s aquifer systems: in: Maddox, G.L., Lloyd, J.M., Scott, T.M., Upchurch, S.B. and Copeland, R. (eds.), Florida’s ground water quality monitoring program – Background hydrogeochemistry: Florida Geological Survey Special Publication 34, p. 1263. Upchurch, S.B., and Champion, K.M., 2003, Geostatistical analysis of water-level and water-quality data for the Ichetucknee springshed: SDII report to Suwannee River Water Management District, 15 p. Upchurch, S.B., Hornsby, D., Ceryak, R. and Zwanka, W., 2001, A strategy for the characterization of first magnitude springs: Suwannee River Water Management District, WR01/02-01, 86 p. Waller, B.I., 1983, Florida Anthropologist interview with Ben Waller, The Florida. Anthropologist, v. 36, p. 31-39. Watershed Monitoring Data Management Section, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, 1991, Springs initiative monitoring standard operating procedures, 21 p. Wilson, W. L., and Skiles, W. C., 1989, Partial reclassification of first-magnitude springs in Florida: in: Beck, B. F., (ed.), The proceedings of the 3rdmultidisciplinary conference on sinkholes and the environmental impacts of karst: Rotterdam, A. A. Balkema, p. 65-72. Yobbi, D. and Knochenmus, L., 1989, Effects of river discharge and high-tide stage on salinity intrusion in the Weeki Wachee, Crystal, and Withlacoochee River estuaries, Southwest Florida: U.S. Geological Survey WRI Report, 88-4116, 63 p. BULLETINNO.66 347

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APPENDIX A GLOSSARY The Florida Springs Nomenclature Committee (FSNC) believes that only a minimum number of terms should be included (see Copeland, 2003). Most definitions used in the glossary were either taken or modified from the following resources: (1) the Lexicon of Cave and Karst Terminology with Special Reference to Environmental Karst Hydrology (Field, 1999), (2) the Dictionary of Geological Terms by the American Geological Institute (AGI) (Bates and Jackson, 1984), (3) the Sinkhole Glossary (SDII Global Corporation, 2002), and (4) Glossary of Karst Terminology (Monroe, 1970). On occasion other sources were used and are noted in the glossary. Often, the FSNC made its own definition, or modified definitions from the other sources. If a definition was generated or significantly modified by the committee, it appears in the glossary as (Copeland, 2003). The FSNC believes the meanings of key spring terms and an understanding as to how they differ are extremely important for the hydrogeology community in its efforts to better appreciate the dynamics of Florida’s springs. These special terms (underlined in the glossary) are listed below in alphabetical order: karst window, offshore spring, onshore spring, seep (or spring seep), spring, spring group, spring magnitude, spring run, springshed (or spring recharge basin), and vent (or spring vent). alluvial sinkhole – An alluvial sinkhole is an ancient or relict sinkhole (paleosinkhole) that has been filled with soil and/or sediment. It may or may not have a surficial expression. See also paleosinkhole and relict sinkhole (SDII Global Corp., 2002). artesian – A modifier that describes a condition in which the potentiometric surface is above elevation of the top of the aquifer (Modified from Field, 1999). It is synonymous with confined . aquifer –A body of soil, sediment, or rock that is saturated with water and sufficiently permeable to allow production of water from wells (SDII Global Corp., 2002). blind valley – A stream valley that terminates abruptly at a sinkhole, swallow hole, or swallet (where the stream disappears underground) (SDII Global Corp., 2002). caliche – See duricrust . cave – A natural underground opening or series of openings and passages large enough to be entered by an adult person (Modified from Monroe, 1970). cavern – A cave or conduit system with larger than average size that has been created by the dissolution of limestone or other soluble rock (SDII Global Corp., 2002). cavernous porosity – A pore system having large, cavernous openings; the lower size BULLETINNO.66 349

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limit, for field analysis, is practically set at approximately the smallest opening that an adult person may enter (Field, 1999). chert – limestone replaced by quartz (silica). Used by Native Americans for a variety of implements including knives and projectile points. Also known as flint. “chimney” sink – A cover-collapse sinkhole that forms near a vertical shaft or “chimney,” typically developing where bedrock is near land surface. These features are common in the Gainesville area of Florida (Modified from SDII Global Corp., 2002). collapse sinkhole – A type of sinkhole formed by collapse of the cover materials (soil, sediment, or rock) into an underground void created by the dissolution of limestone or dolostone. See rockcollapse sinkhole and cover-collapse sinkhole (SDII Global Corp., 2002). conduit; karst conduit – Large dissolutional voids, including enlarged fissures and tabular tunnels. In some usage, the term is restricted to voids that are water-filled. Conduits may include all voids greater than 10 mm (one cm) in diameter, but another classification scheme places them between arbitrary limits of 100 mm to 10 m. Whichever value is accepted in a particular context, smaller voids are commonly termed subconduits (Field, 1999). conduit flow; karst conduit flow – Underground water flow within conduits. Conduit flow is generally turbulent, but can also be laminar (Field, 1999). confined – See artesian . cover – Materials consisting of soil, sediment, or rock that overlies the soluble rock (limestone, dolostone, etc.) in a karst terrane. In Florida, the cover includes the sand and clay deposits that overlie the limestone (Modified from SDII Global Corp., 2002). cover-collapse sinkhole – A sinkhole formed by cover materials (sand, clay, etc.) raveling into a void in the underlying limestone (Modified from SDII Global Corp., 2002). cover-subsidence sinkhole – A collapse sinkhole that forms when the upper surface of the limestone is dissolved away, and the cover materials slowly subside to occupy the space once occupied by limestone. Voids may not be well developed in cover-subsidence sinkholes because of the continued downward movement of cover materials. See also solution sinkhole and sag depressions (SDII Global Corp., 2002). diffuse flow – Ground-water flow conditions that are generally slow-moving, may be laminar (Reynolds number much less than 1.0), have uniform discharge, and a slow response to storms (Modified from Field, 1999). discharge – The rate of flow at a given instant in terms of volume per unit of time (Modified from Bates and Jackson, 1984). It is synonymous with flux. doline – A bowlor funnel-shaped hollow in limestone topography, ranging in diameter from a few meters to a kilometer, and in depth up to several hundred meters (Modified from Monroe, 1970). A doline is synonymous with sinkhole . dolostone – A sedimentary rock composed predominantly of the mineral dolomite (Ca,Mg(CO3)2). While soluble, dolostone is less likely to contain well developed karst features than limestone (Modified from SDII Global Corp., 2002). duricrust – A deposit of precipitated minerals, mainly calcite, formed in the soil or nearsurface layers in arid or semi-arid zones at the horizon where ascendant capillary water evaporates and salts held in solution are deposited. In Florida, seasonal rainfall and intense FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 350

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evaporation may form similar semi-concreted soils within the epikarst (Modified from Field, 1999). epikarst – 1 . The zone of weathering that penetrates the upper surface of a limestone stratum. Weathering of limestone results in development of rubble, fine-grained, carbonate-rich silt, clay, and karren (including pinnacles and valleys in the limestone rock surface) (Modified from SDII Global Corp., 2002). 2 . An intensely dissolved zone consisting of an intricate network of intersecting roofless, dissolution-widened fissures, cavities, and tubes dissolved into the uppermost part of the carbonate bedrock. The dissolution features in the epikarst zone are organized to move infiltrating water laterally to down-gradient seeps and springs or to collector structures such as shafts that conduct the water farther into the subsurface (Huntoon, 1995). estavelle – 1 . A spring that reverses flow because of relative changes in the elevation of ground-water potentials and stream stage (SDII Global Corp., 2002). 2 . An intermittent spring resurgence or exsurgence, active only in wet seasons (Modified from Field, 1999). Generally, an estavelle is located near streams or rivers. When the water level of the stream is high (e.g., during flood stage), surface water directly recharges the aquifer. exsurgence – A spring or seep in karstic terrane not clearly connected with swallets (or ponors ) at a higher level (Field, 1999). fissure –Any discontinuity within the rock mass that is either initially open or capable of being opened by dissolution to provide a route for water movement. Fissures in this sense, applied generally in karst, therefore include the primary sedimentary bedding planes as well as tectonic faults and joints. More specifically, the term has been used to describe voids with an average width dimension of 10 to 100 mm (Modified from Field, 1999). fracture – Cracks formed in soils, sediment or rocks by natural stresses. In Florida, many fractures have been developed to relieve stress caused by Earth tides (SDII Global Corp., 2002). It is synonymous with joint . fracture trace – A confirmed pattern observed through remote sensing (aerial photography or satellite imagery) that owes its origin to jointing or fracturing in the underlying soils, sediments or bedrock. See photolineament (SDII Global Corp., 2002). groundwater level – the measurement, in feet, of the elevation of the top of an aquifer, as measured in a network of groundwater monitoring wells and/or supply wells. The level can fluctuate in response to aquifer recharge and groundwater withdrawals. grotto – A cave chamber or room preceded by a narrower passage (Modified from Field, 1999). Hydrilla – an invasive, exotic, aquatic plant that is growing rampant in many springs and rivers. hydrogeology – the study of subsurface waters in their geologic context. impermeable – not permitting the passage of fluids. In the case of geologic formations, an impermeable layer of earth is one through which groundwater cannot pass. joint – See fracture . karren – Features that develop on the upper surface of a limestone or other soluble rock as it is weathered. These features are prevalent in the Quilin area in China and in western Ireland. In Ireland they are sometimes referred to as burren. In Florida, karren are usuBULLETINNO.66 351

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ally buried under the cover materials and consist of pinnacles and depressions in the rock surface. The depressions may or may not be related to sinkhole activity (Modified from SDII Global Corp., 2002). karst – A term describing landforms that have been modified by dissolution of soluble rock (limestone or dolostone) (Modified from SDII Global Corp., 2002). karstterrane – A terrane, generally underlain by limestone or dolostone, in which the topography is chiefly formed by the dissolution of rocks, and which may be characterized by springs, sinkholes, sinking streams, closed depressions, subterranean drainage, and caves. karst window – 1 . A depression opening that reveals portions of a subterranean flow, or the unroofed portion of a cave (a vertical window). 2 . An opening in natural limestone walls, formed by the joining of subterranean karst grottos as a result of dissolution processes (a horizontal window). Both terms are modified from Field (1999). Note also that the FSNC believes that flow through an exposed conduit in the aquifer is different from flow onto the Earth’s surface. For this reason, the FSNC does not consider a karst window to be a spring . It is an exception to the definition of a spring (See spring ). karstic aquifer – An aquifer containing soluble rocks with a permeability structure that includes abundant interconnected conduits dissolved from the host rock. The interconnected conduits are organized and facilitate the circulation of fluid in the down-gradient direction, wherein the permeability structure evolved as a consequence of dissolution by fluid (Modified from Huntoon, 1995). laminar flow – Flow in which the head loss is proportional to the first power of velocity. Water flowing in a laminar manner will have streamlines that remain distinct and the flow direction at every point remains unchanged with time. Darcy’s Law strictly applies under laminar flow conditions only (Modified from Field, 1999). limestone – A sedimentary rock primarily composed of the mineral calcite (CaCO3). Limestone is soluble and often develops karst features when weathered (Modified from SDII Global Corp., 2002). magnitude – See Spring magnitude . nonartesian A condition in which the upper surface of the zone of saturation forms a water table under atmospheric pressure. The term is synonymous with unconfined (Field, 1999). offshore spring – The point of discharge of the spring is seaward of the mean low-tide level. onshore spring – The point of discharge of the spring is landward of the mean low-tide level. overflow stream – A stream valley that is down-gradient of a swallow hole, swallet, or blind valley and that carries water only when the recharge capacity of the swallow hole is exceeded. In Florida, the term is sometimes used to identify an overflow, or paleo-overflow, stream valley (Modified from SDII Global Corp., 2002). paleokarst – This term describes either an ancient karst terrane or the presence of features associated with an ancient karst terrane. The term is used to describe old sinkholes and other karst features that are no longer actively forming. In west-central Florida, the term is used to refer to sinkholes that formed decades to millions of years ago and are no longer FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 352

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active (Modified from SDII Global Corp., 2002). paleosinkhole – An ancient sinkhole that is no longer active. See relict sinkhole and alluvial sinkhole (SDII Global Corp., 2002). photolineament – A natural linear feature on the land surface that has been identified from aerial photographs or other images. Photolineaments are identified by alignments within or between lakes and wetlands, sinkholes, stream segments, soils, and vegetation patterns. Photolineaments are also known as photolinears . Note that photolinears may or may not represent geologic features, so the term is not synonymous with fracture trace. See fracture trace (Modified from SDII Global Corp., 2002). pipe – In karst terminology, a semi-circular conduit through which water and soil can pass. Pipes are often nearly vertical and have steep (nearly vertical) sides (SDII Global Corp., 2002). polje – A large flat-bottom sinkhole complex formed by the coalescence of several smaller sinkholes. Poljes are flat-bottomed because of subsequent sedimentation, usually by a lake. Payne’s Prairie in Alachua County is an example (Modified from SDII Global Corp., 2002). ponor – Hole in the bottom or side of a closed depression through which water passes to or from an underground channel (Field, 1999). It is synonymous with swallow hole . raveling –The process by which water transports soil particles downward into cavities in the underlying strata. Because sand is typically damp and the grains are angular, in Florida they do not easily ravel without moving water. Because of their cohesiveness, clay-rich strata are more difficult to ravel than sandy soils (SDII Global Corp., 2002). relict sinkhole – A relict (or relic) sinkhole is an ancient sinkhole that is no longer active. It may be expressed as a sinkhole lake, depression in the land surface, or loose soils in the subsurface. See paleosinkhole and alluvial sinkhole (Modified from SDII Global Corp., 2002). resurgence – re-emergence of groundwater through a karst feature, a part or all of whose waters are derived from surface inflow into ponors at higher levels (Modified from Field, 1999). river rise – see resurgence (Field, 1999). rock-collapse sinkhole – A collapse sinkhole formed when the limestone, or other soluble rock, cavern ceiling fails and collapses into a void (Modified from SDII Global Corp., 2002). rubble – In the context of karst, rubble describes the gravel-like debris that forms as limestone is weathered (Modified from SDII Global Corp., 2002). sag depression – A sag depression is often the surficial manifestation of a solution or cover subsidence sinkhole. As the underlying bedrock is dissolved away, the cover materials slowly sag, creating a depression. Owing to the shallow water table, sags often become small, circular wetlands (SDII Global Corp., 2002). sand boil – A spring in which the vent has been filled in with sand. Spring discharge continuously suspends the sand particles that cover the spring. Thus the spring has a “boiling” appearance. seep – 1 . To move slowly through small openings of a porous material (Field, 1999). 2 . With regard to springs in Florida, a seep is also a noun that infers one or more small openings in which water discharges diffusely (“oozes”) from the ground-water environment. Discharge is from intergranular pore spaces in the matrix and flow is typically laminar. BULLETINNO.66 353

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seepage – The infiltration or percolation of water through rock or soil to or from the Earth’s surface and is usually restricted to the very slow movement of groundwater (Field, 1999). sink – See sinkhole . sinkhole – A landform created by subsidence of soil, sediment, or rock as underlying strata are dissolved by groundwater. Sinkholes can form by collapse into subterranean voids created by dissolution of limestone or dolostone or by subsidence as these strata are slowly dissolved away (Modified from SDII Global Corp., 2002). siphon – 1 . In speleology, a cave passage in which the ceiling dips below a water surface (Monroe, 1970). 2 . A flooded cave passage. A gallery (conduit) in the form of a “U” with water moving only under pressure when the siphon is completely filled (Field, 1999). 3 . Site and origin of an intermittent spring; section of a flooded cave or sump flooded passage (Field, 1999). soil piping – Laterally limited, vertical areas of loose soil often caused by downward vertical movement of the soil (raveling). See pipe (Modified from SDII Global Corp., 2002). solution sinkhole – Sinkhole formed by the slow subsidence of soil or sediment as the upper surface of the underlying, water-soluble sediment or rock is removed by dissolution. See cover-subsidence sinkhole (SDII Global Corp., 2002). source aquifer – The aquifer from which the water in a spring originates. spring – A point where underground water emerges onto the Earth’s surface (including the bottom of the ocean). The image of a trickle of water springing from a hillside hardly matches that of a vast cave pouring forth a river, but both are called springs. Springs may be exsurgences or resurgences, depending upon the source of their water. They may also be part-time exsurgences and part-time resurgences. In some usages “spring” is restricted to the water that outflows, in other usages the word can refer to the water, the outlet, or the locality of the outflow (Field, 1999). Note that the FSNC believes that flow through an exposed conduit in an aquifer is different from flow onto the earth’s surface. For this reason, the FSNC does not consider a karst window to be a spring . It is an exception to the definition of a spring. springboil – Variable discharge from a spring in which hydrostatic pressure is great enough to cause a turbulent discharge that is visible at the water surface (modified from Field, 1999). spring complex – See Spring Group . The FSNC encourages the use of spring group anddiscourages the use of this term. spring group – A collection of individual spring vents and seeps that lie within a discrete spring recharge basin (or springshed). The individual vents and seeps of onshore spring groups almost always share a common spring run, or a tributary to the run. Spring group vents and seeps are often spread over an area of several square miles. It should be emphasized that the term spring group will be restricted to those vents and seeps that discharge a well-defined spring recharge basin. The spring vents or seeps within a springshed may be referred to as springs. As an example, the Rainbow Springs Group will include several spring vents that drain the Rainbow Springs Group basin, and discharge into the Rainbow River spring run. Note that a spring recharge basin is defined only by potentiometric data and not by chemical or other physical characteristics of the spring discharge. However, chemical and additional physical data can, and should, be used to better define individual FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 354

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spring vent basins within a spring group basin. This type of mapping was conducted for the Rainbow Springs Group in Marion County by Jones et al. (1996). Not all springsheds have been mapped. Therefore, if a springshed is not mapped, then it is acceptable to use the term “springs” to refer to multiple vents discharging into a common spring run. spring magnitude – A category based on the volume of flow from a spring per unit time. Notes regarding magnitude – One discharge measurement is enough to place a spring into one of the eight magnitude categories. However, springs have dynamic flows. A spring categorized as being a first-magnitude spring at one moment in time may not continue to remain in the same category. Therefore, the magnitude of the spring is to be based on the median value of all discharge measurements for the period of record. The median of a set of scores is the middle value when the scores are arranged in increasing (or decreasing) order (Modified from Triola, 1998). It is recognized that historically, many springs in Florida have kept one magnitude category, even though the discharge may have changed considerably from when it was first assigned a magnitude. For this reason, a historical category is acceptable in the Florida Springs Classification System. For example, the discharge of a spring may have been taken in 1946. At that time it was classified as a first-magnitude spring. No other measurement was taken until 2001. During that year, three discharge measurements were taken. The median value of all four measurements reveals that the spring should be re-classified to a second-magnitude spring in 2001. Nevertheless, it can still be considered a historical firstmagnitude spring. The term “historical” refers to the period of time prior to the adoption of the Florida Springs Classification System (2003). The location of a discharge measurement is critical for defining the magnitude of a spring. Whenever possible, a discharge measurement should be restricted to a vent or seep. However, this is often impractical. For example, the only place to take a measurement may be in a spring run downstream where multiple springs have discharged into the run. For this reason, whenever a discharge measurement or water sample is taken, the springs (vents or seeps) included in the measurement need to be reported. The exact location of the discharge measurement (using a Global Positioning System with approved locational specifications) and a standardized locational reference point for each measurement is encouraged. spring pool – A small body of water, either artificially impounded or naturally occurring, that encompasses one or more spring vents. It contains spring discharge that flows into a spring run. spring recharge basin – Those areas within groundand surface-water basins that contribute to the discharge of the spring. The position of the divide is orthogonal to isopotential lines. It is synonymous with springshed . Note that the position of the recharge basin boundary is time-dependent. That is, the boundary is representative of a “snapshot” in time, rather than permanent. Thus, the boundaries of springsheds are dynamic and vary as a result of a changing potentiometric surface. If a spring is found to drain one springshed during times of high potentiometry, and another basin during low times, then the spring should be connected with two spring basins in the spring database. Whenever practical, descriptive aspects of the recharge basin should be noted in the spring database. The following are examples. The relative recharge to groundwater within the basin should be noted. Those portions of the basin where confined and unconfined groundwater conditions exist should also be recorded. Finally, groundwater vulnerability within BULLETINNO.66 355

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the springshed should be noted if possible. A potential tool to predict vulnerability is the Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment (FAVA) model (Baker et al., 2002). spring run – 1 . A body of flowing water that originates from a karst spring (Field, 1999). 2 . A stream (river, creek, etc.) whose primary (>50%) source of water is from a spring, springs, or spring group. For example, the Wakulla River, where the predominant source of water is from Wakulla Spring, is a spring run. However, farther down stream, where surface water tributaries, contribute 50% or greater of the flow, the Wakulla River is no longer considered a spring run. A detailed hydrogeologic (e.g., the collection of discharge and seepage data) study may be needed in order to identify boundaries of a spring run. spring seep – See seep . spring vent – See vent . Springs – Multiple spring vents or seeps located in proximity to each other. The usage of this term is discouraged, but for pragmatic reasons, it cannot be entirely dropped. For example, several vents may discharge into a common spring run and the collection of scientific data (e.g. water samples or discharge measurements) cannot be obtained from individual vents located in the run. However, it may be practical to obtain a composite water sample or composite flow measurement representing several vents. Under this situation, the term springs is acceptable. However, a list of each vent or seep represented by the composite sample should be recorded by the sampler, and ultimately placed into the spring database. steephead – A deeply cut valley, generally short, terminating at its upslope end in an amphitheater, at the foot of which a stream may emerge (e.g., ocean, lake, river, or stream) (Field, 1999) . springshed – See spring recharge basin . subaqueousspring – A spring that discharges below the surface of a water body (Field, 1999). The term infers a pre-existing receiving surface-water body and is synonymous with submerged . submerged – See subaqueous . submarine spring – See offshore spring . swallet – See swallow hole . swallow hole – A place where water disappears underground in a limestone region. A swallow hole generally implies water loss in a closed depression or blind valley, whereas a swallet may refer to water loss into alluvium at a streambed, even though there is no depression (Field, 1999). tidal spring – A spring whose discharge is controlled by tidal cycles. Near the coast, tidal springs may alternately discharge saline and fresh water. Inland, the pattern of fresh water discharge may simply reflect tidal changes in the potentiometric surface (SDII Global Corp., 2002). turbulent flow – The flow conditions in which inertial forces predominate over viscous forces and in which head loss is not linearly related to velocity. It is typical of flow in surface-water bodies and subsurface conduits in karst terranes, provided that the conduits have a minimum diameter of approximately 2-5 mm, although some research suggests that 5-15 FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 356

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mm may be more appropriate (Modified from Field, 1999). trace – See overflow stream (SDII Global Corp., 2002). uvala – Large, complex sinkholes with irregular bottoms, formed by the coalescence of several smaller closed depressions. The bottom of an uvala is characterized by multiple sinkholes and an irregular bottom (Modified from SDII Global Corp., 2002). unconfined – See nonartesian . vent – An opening that concentrates ground-water discharge at the Earth’s surface, including the bottom of the ocean. The spring point of discharge is significantly larger than that of the average pore space in the surrounding rock and is often considered a cave or fissure. Flow from the opening is mostly turbulent. BULLETINNO.66 357

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BULLETINNO.66 359 APPENDIX B FLORIDA SPRINGS LOCATIONS Appendix B 1 Springs visited by FGS springs teams.

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FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 360 SPRING NAMETYPECOUNTYLATITUDELONGITUDE ALA930971SpringAlachua29 49 40.5940482 38 27.00683 ALA930972SpringAlachua29 50 40.7844682 37 51.08023 BOULWARE SPRINGSSpringAlachua29 37 15.2067482 18 25.90535 DARBY SPRINGSpringAlachua29 51 09.4176782 36 21.46651 GLEN SPRINGSSpringAlachua29 40 30.0420882 20 52.43622 HORNSBY SPRINGSpringAlachua29 51 01.2794082 35 35.52436 MAGNESIA SPRINGSSpringAlachua29 35 00.2635182 08 58.53592 POE SPRINGSpringAlachua29 49 32.5767782 38 56.30233 SANTA FE RIVER RISERiver RiseAlachua29 52 26.0181182 35 29.89039 TREEHOUSE SPRINGSpringAlachua29 51 17.5898282 36 10.35691 BLUFF SPRINGSSpringBay30 25 30.9555185 32 54.19590 ECONFINA UNNAMED SPRINGSpringBay30 25 53.4607385 32 50.76532 GAINER SPRING #1CSpringBay30 25 39.6227685 32 45.82853 GAINER SPRING #2SpringBay30 25 38.6122185 32 53.95200 GAINER SPRING #3SpringBay30 25 44.3030285 32 55.63252 PITT SPRINGSpringBay30 25 58.6791885 32 47.14062 SYLVAN SPRINGSSpringBay30 25 54.3362285 32 53.60107 SYLVAN SPRINGS #2SpringBay30 25 53.7953585 32 50.33000 GROTTO SPRINGSSpringCalhoun30 35 57.8841485 09 51.27854 HAMILTON SPRINGSpringCalhoun30 31 09.3084685 09 47.51557 SALLY SPRINGSpringCalhoun30 34 13.0840785 10 24.31085 ALLIGATOR SPRINGSpringCitrus28 48 01.6173782 35 16.71295 BAIRD SPRINGSpringCitrus28 42 26.9148682 34 41.51827 BAIRD SPRING #2SpringCitrus28 42 29.8828882 34 42.80038 BAIRD SPRING #3SpringCitrus28 42 32.8555182 34 46.71905 BAIRD SPRING #4SpringCitrus28 42 33.3329882 34 48.98521 BANANA SPRINGSpringCitrus28 48 03.6354282 35 17.43986 BEAR SPRINGSpringCitrus28 48 06.4698582 35 14.12002 BLACK SPRINGSSpringCitrus28 52 38.2799682 35 56.40000 BLUE HOLE SPRINGSpringCitrus28 47 55.6342882 35 22.33820 BLUEBIRD SPRINGSSpringCitrus28 47 20.3802782 34 46.25807 CATFISH SPRINGSpringCitrus28 53 52.7999382 35 56.40000 CHASSAHOWITZKA SPRING #1SpringCitrus28 42 58.2420682 34 30.31907 CHASSAHOWITZKA SPRING #2SpringCitrus28 42 57.6640182 34 31.62518 CHASSAHOWITZKA SPRING MAINSpringCitrus28 42 55.8650582 34 34.33253 CITRUS BLUE SPRINGSpringCitrus28 58 09.6015782 18 52.34350 CRAB SPRINGSpringCitrus28 43 01.9169482 34 33.06893 HALLS RIVER SPRING #2SpringCitrus28 49 35.6818182 34 59.62634 HOMASASSA UNNAMED SPRING #1SpringCitrus28 47 53.8683082 35 23.74112 HOMASASSA UNNAMED SPRING #2SpringCitrus28 47 52.9231982 35 22.74140 HOMOSASSA SPRING #1SpringCitrus28 47 56.6673482 35 18.69090 HOMOSASSA SPRING #2SpringCitrus28 47 56.6469682 35 18.78832 HOMOSASSA SPRING #3SpringCitrus28 47 56.6329982 35 18.67376 HOUSE SPRINGSpringCitrus28 53 50.2799682 35 27.60000 HUNTER SPRINGSpringCitrus28 53 39.9472182 35 32.93340 IDIOTS DELIGHT SPRINGSpringCitrus28 53 16.6266282 35 22.03278 JURASSIC SPRINGSpringCitrus28 53 42.2722382 35 23.71117 KING SPRINGSpringCitrus28 52 54.1917182 35 42.17575 KINGS BAY SPRING #1SpringCitrus28 53 17.3373482 35 23.06303 LITTLE HIDDEN SPRINGSpringCitrus28 53 08.8134482 35 38.62216

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BULLETINNO.66 361 SPRING NAMETYPECOUNTYLATITUDELONGITUDE LITTLE SPRINGSSpringCitrus28 54 01.1904882 35 43.33308 MANATEE SANCTUARY SPRINGSpringCitrus28 53 26.8628682 35 33.37429 MILLERS CREEK SPRINGSpringCitrus28 54 03.9599682 36 13.68000 POTTER SPRINGSpringCitrus28 43 53.7611982 35 47.56254 PUMPHOUSE SPRINGSSpringCitrus28 47 47.3836682 35 17.85628 RUTH SPRINGSpringCitrus28 43 56.8750182 35 42.21258 TARPON HOLE SPRINGSpringCitrus28 52 54.6384482 35 41.33285 THREE SISTERS SPRINGSSpringCitrus28 53 19.4111982 35 21.08767 TROTTER MAIN SPRINGSpringCitrus28 47 47.3195882 35 11.02787 UNNAMED SPRINGSpringCitrus28 53 01.3715982 35 43.25219 GOLD HEAD BRANCHSeepsClay29 50 30.1199681 57 14.40000 GREEN COVE SPRINGSpringClay29 59 36.2415881 40 40.47755 LAKE LOWERY EASTSeepClay29 51 40.1238081 58 48.40561 LAKE LOWERY NORTHSeepClay29 52 17.7178481 59 17.63200 LAKE LOWRY WESTSeepClay29 51 57.6834581 59 44.23546 WADESBORO SPRINGSpringClay30 09 26.9999381 43 21.36000 WW GAY 1 SPRINGSpringClay30 09 14.4666481 43 41.50567 WW GAY 2 SPRINGSpringClay30 09 14.0972481 43 42.76178 BLUE HOLE SPRINGSpringColumbia29 58 49.9070382 45 30.37914 CEDAR HEAD SPRINGSpringColumbia29 58 59.8799382 45 31.32000 COL1012971SpringColumbia29 51 24.8833882 43 47.98160 COL1012972SpringColumbia29 51 23.3786982 43 54.11730 COL101971SpringColumbia29 49 55.9612682 40 09.71116 COL101974SpringColumbia29 50 02.3935982 40 36.04462 COL428981SpringColumbia29 51 12.7289582 36 19.87571 COL522981SpringColumbia30 19 15.7597382 45 21.29422 COL522982SpringColumbia30 19 17.2645782 45 23.50213 COL917971SpringColumbia29 55 29.3791482 46 19.16566 COL928971SpringColumbia29 53 10.1859082 45 05.50717 COL930971SpringColumbia29 49 52.1921682 39 24.26238 COLUMBIA SPRINGSpringColumbia29 51 14.7992482 36 43.03174 JONATHAN SPRINGSpringColumbia29 50 01.6422082 40 31.49836 JULY SPRINGSpringColumbia29 50 10.2282782 41 47.02639 MILL POND SPRINGSSpringColumbia29 57 59.9819882 45 35.91104 ROARING SPRINGSpringColumbia29 58 34.3727882 45 28.35706 RUM ISLAND SPRINGSpringColumbia29 50 00.6726182 40 47.39167 SANTA FE SPRINGSpringColumbia29 56 05.2957382 31 49.51351 SAWDUST SPRINGSpringColumbia29 50 24.0501882 42 12.63676 SUNBEAM SPRINGSpringColumbia29 55 41.1399582 46 11.33000 WILSON SPRINGSpringColumbia29 54 00.1816682 45 30.77006 COPPER SPRINGSpringDixie29 36 50.4506982 58 25.89046 DIX95971SpringDixie29 42 15.8341082 57 09.87250 GUARANTO SPRINGSpringDixie29 46 47.2688482 56 23.84945 LITTLE COPPER SPRINGSpringDixie29 38 01.3629182 58 00.64657 MCCRABB SPRINGSpringDixie29 41 07.7585382 57 36.73483 POT HOLE SPRINGSpringDixie29 48 38.4534082 56 09.08124 STEINHATCHEE RIVER RISERiver RiseDixie29 46 11.6837083 19 30.12578 UNNAMED SPRINGSpringDixie29 41 10.5203082 57 35.41763 UNNAMED SPRINGSpringDixie29 49 09.9882 56 00.35 POTTSBURG SPRINGSpringDuval30 17 23.9999681 34 15.24000

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FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 362 SPRING NAMETYPECOUNTYLATITUDELONGITUDE MYSTICArtesian WellEscambia30 51 29.2372687 18 49.32000 BEAR CREEK RISERiver RiseFranklin29 58 54.3017684 27 47.41686 CHATTAHOOCHEE SPRINGSpringGadsden30 41 50.6782084 50 55.82004 BELL SPRINGSpringGilchrist29 35 50.7990582 56 28.21751 CAMPGROUND SPRINGSpringGilchrist29 53 57.4437882 51 57.94092 DEER SPRINGSpringGilchrist29 50 28.1926082 42 26.36683 DEVIL'S EYE SPRINGSpringGilchrist29 50 06.5741382 41 47.72224 DEVILS EAR SPRINGSpringGilchrist29 50 07.2561882 41 47.76176 DOGWOOD SPRINGSpringGilchrist29 50 17.0030082 42 06.45613 GIL1012971SpringGilchrist29 51 21.2449382 43 55.88224 GIL1012972SpringGilchrist29 51 21.7798282 43 57.75409 GIL1012973SpringGilchrist29 51 22.2719482 43 58.42096 GIL84971SpringGilchrist29 49 47.5037482 53 29.18497 GIL928971SpringGilchrist29 52 32.1518382 45 06.81066 GIL99972SpringGilchrist29 55 51.3074682 48 08.69692 GILCHRIST BLUE SPRINGSpringGilchrist29 49 47.6409482 40 58.26536 GINNIE SPRINGSpringGilchrist29 50 10.8213082 42 00.43704 HART SPRINGSSpringGilchrist29 40 32.6669282 57 06.16075 JOHNSON SPRINGSpringGilchrist29 49 53.3930282 40 46.95758 LILLY SPRINGSpringGilchrist29 49 46.9813482 39 40.36496 LITTLE BLUE SPRINGSpringGilchrist29 49 49.1457082 41 01.78264 LITTLE DEVIL SPRINGSpringGilchrist29 50 04.4281082 41 49.31750 LITTLE OTTER SPRINGSpringGilchrist29 38 11.1019982 57 30.33850 LUMBERCAMP SPRINGSSpringGilchrist29 42 23.6999582 56 17.00002 NAKED SPRINGSpringGilchrist29 49 47.7063182 40 52.58593 OASIS SPRINGSpringGilchrist29 55 32.8187382 46 49.34863 OTTER SPRINGSpringGilchrist29 38 41.2879982 56 33.90968 PICKARD SPRINGSpringGilchrist29 49 49.9228782 39 43.51370 ROCK BLUFF SPRINGSSpringGilchrist29 47 56.7024482 55 07.10573 SIPHON CREEK RISERiver RiseGilchrist29 51 22.2879682 43 58.98266 SUN SPRINGSSpringGilchrist29 42 17.0526682 56 00.69796 TRAIL SPRINGSpringGilchrist29 53 54.0893082 52 00.16615 TWIN SPRINGSpringGilchrist29 50 25.6333682 42 21.10921 UNNAMED SPRINGSpringGilchrist29 53 48.5919282 46 01.67347 ALAPAHA RIVER RISERiver RiseHamilton30 26 20.2889083 05 22.42421 HAM1017974SpringHamilton30 25 03.7819282 57 57.46288 HAM610982DryHamilton30 25 02.7622683 12 26.66790 HAM610983SpringHamilton30 25 13.4719383 12 51.37945 HAM610984SpringHamilton30 26 25.5154683 13 10.50028 HAM612982SpringHamilton30 28 29.0871583 14 36.17819 HAM923973SpringHamilton30 25 08.1399783 08 56.64998 HOLTON CREEK RISERiver RiseHamilton30 26 16.5119383 03 27.41134 MORGAN SPRINGSpringHamilton30 25 12.7999683 12 26.50000 POT SPRINGSpringHamilton30 28 14.8890083 14 03.83680 ROSSETER SPRINGSpringHamilton30 32 40.7837883 15 00.20466 SEVEN SISTERS SPRINGSpringHamilton30 25 02.9999383 09 19.19002 TANNER SPRINGSpringHamilton30 27 52.4699683 13 03.83999 ARIPEKA SPRING #1SpringHernando28 26 18.7108482 39 31.62071 ARIPEKA SPRING #2SpringHernando28 26 07.0617582 39 32.15603 BLIND SPRINGRiver RiseHernando28 39 28.3217882 38 04.62095

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BULLETINNO.66 363 SPRING NAMETYPECOUNTYLATITUDELONGITUDE BOAT SPRINGSpringHernando28 26 11.5785282 39 23.43618 GATOR SPRINGSpringHernando28 26 02.7545682 39 05.61341 LITTLE SPRINGSpringHernando28 30 48.4708382 34 51.69968 MAGNOLIA SPRINGSpringHernando28 26 01.9334882 39 08.95630 RITA MARIE SPRINGSSpringHernando28 41 24.5377382 35 20.10944 RYLES SPRINGSpringHernando28 41 13.7955582 36 50.82444 SALT SPRINGSpringHernando28 32 46.7490882 37 08.27512 WEEKI WACHEE SPRINGSpringHernando28 31 01.8859182 34 23.39828 BUCKHORN SPRING MAINSpringHillsborough27 53 21.8108082 18 09.79690 CANAL SPRINGSpringHillsborough28 02 05.2279882 20 34.88255 DOUBLE SPRINGSpringHillsborough28 02 10.4394182 20 37.52772 EUREKA SPRINGMan MadeHillsborough28 00 21.4406682 20 45.15040 EUREKA UNNAMED SPRINGMan MadeHillsborough28 00 26.7267682 20 38.59778 LAST SPRINGSpringHillsborough28 02 02.7886682 20 33.30366 LETTUCE LAKE SPRINGSpringHillsborough28 01 05.5265982 21 00.25600 LITHIA SPRINGS MAJORSpringHillsborough27 51 58.6018482 13 53.29394 PALMA CEIA SPRINGSpringHillsborough27 55 18.7356082 29 17.93494 SULPHUR SPRINGSpringHillsborough28 01 16.0814382 27 05.88568 HOLMES BLUE SPRINGSpringHolmes30 51 06.0345085 53 09.04751 JACKSON SPRINGSpringHolmes30 42 42.0341085 55 41.01654 PONCE DE LEON SPRINGSSpringHolmes30 43 16.3259085 55 50.46575 THUNDERING SPRINGSSpringHolmes30 55 14.7395385 53 27.13902 VORTEX SPRINGSpringHolmes30 46 13.9878585 56 54.50546 BALTZELL SPRINGSpringJackson30 49 50.1599685 14 03.84000 BARREL SPRINGSpringJackson30 35 32.7588485 10 14.44800 BLACK SPRINGSpringJackson30 41 55.4030285 17 40.07576 BLUE HOLE SPRINGSpringJackson30 49 12.5234885 14 41.62272 DOUBLE SPRINGSpringJackson30 42 13.6799685 18 11.16000 GADSEN SPRINGSpringJackson30 42 12.0868285 17 18.42259 GATOR SPRINGSpringJackson30 46 40.3273285 10 01.73597 HAYS SPRINGSpringJackson30 53 42.3312485 13 28.14546 HIDDEN SPRINGSpringJackson30 42 20.1999685 18 26.08999 HILL SPRINGSSpringJackson30 39 51.6294784 55 34.62006 HOLE-IN-THE-ROCK SPRINGSpringJackson30 47 00.1962285 09 22.11250 JACKSON BLUE SPRINGSpringJackson30 47 25.8536085 08 24.31806 JACKSON BLUE SPRING APALACHICOLASpringJackson30 36 59.2834784 55 19.37320 KING SPRINGSpringJackson30 38 11.5206484 55 10.24882 LITTLE LAGOON SPRINGSpringJackson30 37 14.5037685 10 02.87490 MAUND SPRINGSpringJackson30 44 46.7153285 12 55.79978 MILL POND SPRINGSpringJackson30 42 13.3199685 18 27.00000 RACOON SPRINGSpringJackson30 42 24.5699685 18 14.87002 ROCKY CREEK SPRINGSpringJackson30 40 31.2411485 07 55.38263 ROOKS SPRINGSSpringJackson30 41 16.4365885 14 03.79594 SANDBAG SPRINGSpringJackson30 47 19.3944585 13 18.90707 SHANGRI-LA SPRINGSSpringJackson30 47 24.5971385 08 34.38618 SINAI SPRINGSpringJackson30 39 52.5499984 54 37.65690 SPRINGBOARD SPRINGSpringJackson30 42 26.6399685 18 23.76000 TANNER SPRINGSSpringJackson30 49 29.8366785 19 30.68040 TWIN CAVES SPRINGSpringJackson30 47 12.8826285 08 41.77590

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FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 364 SPRING NAMETYPECOUNTYLATITUDELONGITUDE WADELL MILL POND SPRINGSpringJackson30 52 38.2843985 20 41.64000 WEBBVILLE SPRINGSSpringJackson30 50 21.2100085 20 04.32910 WHITE CAVE SPRINGSpringJackson30 37 51.8603584 55 21.86472 BIG BLUE SPRINGSpringJefferson30 19 39.8415483 59 05.37889 BRUMBLEY SPRINGSpringJefferson30 20 41.3868583 58 51.63330 BUZZARD LOG SPRINGSpringJefferson30 19 48.4986783 59 12.80159 CASSIDY SPRINGSSpringJefferson30 19 57.7961883 59 20.53169 GARNER SPRINGSpringJefferson30 19 49.1165483 58 59.21861 HORSEHEAD SPRINGSpringJefferson30 20 41.5006183 59 40.35473 LITTLE BLUE SPRINGSpringJefferson30 19 51.0300183 59 20.53162 LOG SPRINGSpringJefferson30 20 25.9206083 59 34.81300 MAGGIE SPRINGSSpringJefferson30 20 24.2843683 58 57.68033 MINNOW SPRINGSpringJefferson30 19 53.5234883 59 11.73419 THOMAS SPRINGSpringJefferson30 20 22.9683183 59 32.36658 WACISSA SPRING #4SpringJefferson30 20 25.4976783 59 25.92294 WACISSA SPRING #1SpringJefferson30 20 22.1257383 59 30.39677 WACISSA SPRING #2SpringJefferson30 20 23.5892483 59 29.33542 WACISSA SPRING #3SpringJefferson30 20 26.1337983 59 26.67959 WACISSA UNNAMED SPRINGSpringJefferson30 18 08.2152083 58 46.62692 ALLEN MILL POND SPRINGSpringLafayette30 09 46.2278283 14 35.05582 CONVICT SPRINGSpringLafayette30 05 18.0248383 05 45.48203 LAF57982SpringLafayette30 03 40.2320983 03 26.53031 LAF718971SpringLafayette29 57 34.1142182 57 11.94293 LAF718972SpringLafayette30 00 41.8580683 00 15.33938 LAF919972SpringLafayette30 05 31.7295283 06 48.07465 LAF922976SpringLafayette30 15 38.0569383 14 58.86251 LAF924971SpringLafayette30 06 07.9603983 09 57.99049 LAF929971SpringLafayette30 12 40.6073583 14 43.44263 LAF929972SpringLafayette30 11 24.3413283 15 01.50696 LAF929973SpringLafayette30 10 48.0358683 14 51.87034 LAFAYETTE BLUE SPRINGSpringLafayette30 07 33.0033483 13 34.08020 MEARSON SPRINGSpringLafayette30 02 28.8359583 01 30.10127 OWENS SPRINGSpringLafayette30 02 45.3928983 02 28.06919 PERRY SPRINGSpringLafayette30 05 47.0655683 11 17.70104 RUTH SPRINGSpringLafayette29 59 44.7815482 58 36.50272 STEINHATCHEE SPRINGSpringLafayette29 50 28.5456883 18 29.04944 TROY SPRINGSpringLafayette30 00 21.6938582 59 51.00914 TURTLE SPRINGSpringLafayette29 50 50.6146982 53 25.02992 UNNAMED SPRINGSpringLafayette29 53 40.4131683 14 38.92344 ALEXANDER SPRINGSSpringLake29 04 52.6829281 34 33.18089 APOPKA SPRINGSpringLake28 33 59.7652281 40 50.40768 BEAR SPRINGSeepLake28 39 06.1393381 43 00.77887 BLACKWATER SPRINGSSpringLake28 53 17.1254881 29 50.83508 BLUE ALGAE BOIL SPRINGSpringLake28 52 30.3765281 26 26.32506 BLUEBERRY SPRINGSpringLake28 51 02.6344881 26 41.48441 BOULDER SPRINGSSpringLake28 52 17.9683781 27 00.35546 BUGG SPRINGSpringLake28 45 07.1522381 54 05.46221 CAMP LE NO CHE SPRINGSpringLake28 57 08.7160081 32 31.88220 DROTY SPRINGSpringLake28 49 41.0350881 30 37.29701 GREEN ALGAE BOIL SPRINGSpringLake28 52 32.8769481 26 24.73411

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BULLETINNO.66 365 SPRING NAMETYPECOUNTYLATITUDELONGITUDE HOLIDAY SPRINGSpringLake28 44 25.4486081 49 04.68854 LAKE BLUE SPRINGSSpringLake28 44 55.1411581 49 40.11391 MARKEE SPRINGSpringLake28 52 14.1524081 27 09.83128 MOCCASIN SPRINGSSpringLake28 51 08.2054881 26 34.45814 MOORING COVE SPRINGSSpringLake28 45 00.4213181 50 01.22777 MOSQUITO SPRINGSSpringLake29 02 11.3297381 26 04.99063 PALM SPRINGSSpringLake28 50 37.5789181 27 00.34247 SANDYS SPRINGSSpringLake28 44 42.1047281 48 35.94629 SHARKS TOOTH SPRINGSpringLake28 52 23.7263581 26 24.09781 SNAIL SPRINGSSpringLake28 49 25.8438481 29 11.31756 SUN EDEN SPRINGSpringLake28 44 39.9769881 49 11.59727 WOLF HEAD SPRINGSeepLake28 38 41.8674181 42 23.74373 HORN SPRINGSpringLeon30 19 08.8888484 07 43.44719 LEON UNNAMED SPRING #2SpringLeon30 16 51.5373684 08 50.38638 NATURAL BRIDGE SPRINGSpringLeon30 17 06.6647084 08 49.64183 RHODES SPRING #1Karst WindowLeon30 17 01.7899484 09 18.55663 RHODES SPRING #2Karst WindowLeon30 17 11.2590284 09 35.83872 RHODES SPRING #4Karst WindowLeon30 17 00.7141984 09 26.17790 ST MARKS RIVER RISERiver RiseLeon30 16 33.7709684 08 56.15862 BIG KING SPRINGSpringLevy29 06 59.1233882 38 32.13899 FANNING SPRINGSSpringLevy29 35 15.3219182 56 07.09559 LANCASTER SPRINGSpringLevy29 11 26.5211582 59 17.41960 LEV719991SpringLevy29 27 03.6995482 41 43.31526 LEVY BLUE SPRINGSpringLevy29 27 02.6863282 41 56.27890 LITTLE FANNING SPRINGSpringLevy29 35 11.0280182 56 07.69423 LITTLE KING SPRINGSpringLevy29 06 39.0478782 38 52.13515 MANATEE SPRINGSpringLevy29 29 22.2011982 58 36.73866 WEKIVA SPRINGSSpringLevy29 16 49.4942582 39 21.89729 FARA SPRINGSpringMadison30 16 34.4399283 14 08.94790 LAF922975SpringMadison30 15 40.1990883 14 47.69736 LIVINGSTON SPRINGSeepMadison30 28 34.2199683 24 39.80891 MAD610981SpringMadison30 24 53.8624183 12 05.32220 MADISON BLUE SPRING Spring Madison 30 28 49.56870 83 14 39.70763 SUWANACOOCHEE SPRINGSpringMadison30 23 12.0174083 10 18.35922 MANATEE MINERAL SPRINGSpringManatee27 29 51.4080282 32 57.03590 BLUE GROTTO SPRINGSpringMarion29 12 54.9059082 02 59.59133 BUBBLING SPRINGSpringMarion29 06 04.4556882 26 05.45136 CAMP SEMINOLE SPRINGSWell AugmentedMarion29 30 21.7925381 57 05.23206 FERN HAMMOCK SPRINGSSpringMarion29 11 00.8638481 42 29.50128 INDIAN CREEK SPRING #2SpringMarion29 05 35.5920082 25 15.83720 INDIAN CREEK SPRING #3SpringMarion29 05 34.6384782 25 15.20821 INDIAN CREEK SPRING #4SpringMarion29 05 34.8160982 25 16.22651 JACOBS WELL SPRINGSpringMarion29 12 53.9161682 03 06.56150 JUNIPER SPRINGSSpringMarion29 11 01.3417181 42 44.68090 MORMAN BRANCH SPRINGSpringMarion29 11 32.8331081 39 27.86598 ORANGE SPRINGSpringMarion29 30 38.3421681 56 38.65956 RAINBOW BRIDGE SEEPSSeepMarion29 06 06.9369182 26 15.79805 RAINBOW CAVE SPRINGSpringMarion29 05 24.8847482 25 35.23602 RAINBOW EAST SEEPSeepMarion29 06 09.7282182 26 14.29706 RAINBOW SEEP #1SeepMarion29 06 09.7532682 26 15.04144

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FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 366 SPRING NAMETYPECOUNTYLATITUDELONGITUDE RAINBOW SPRING #1SpringMarion29 06 08.9132882 26 14.87918 RAINBOW SPRING #2SpringMarion29 06 08.3450582 26 14.18438 RAINBOW SPRING #3SpringMarion29 06 07.5451782 26 13.97962 RAINBOW SPRING #4SpringMarion29 06 06.8669382 26 13.77319 RAINBOW SPRING #5SpringMarion29 05 54.6068882 26 10.93715 RAINBOW SPRING #6SpringMarion29 05 34.1104282 25 42.83152 RAINBOW SPRING #7SpringMarion29 05 32.1258582 25 36.36966 RAINBOW SPRING NORTHSpringMarion29 06 09.7054682 26 16.36307 RAINBOW UNNAMED SWAMP SPRINGSpringMarion29 05 36.4998582 25 44.31486 RECEPTION HALL SPRINGSpringMarion29 12 52.6066682 03 05.05098 SALT SPRINGSSpringMarion29 21 02.3572881 43 58.05199 SILVER GLEN SPRINGSSpringMarion29 14 45.0381581 38 36.50111 SILVER SPRING #1SpringMarion29 12 53.5063382 03 04.73569 SILVER SPRING #10SpringMarion29 12 55.4972082 02 42.52348 SILVER SPRING #11SpringMarion29 12 55.5893682 02 38.06164 SILVER SPRING #12SpringMarion29 12 56.9724582 02 42.01152 SILVER SPRING #2SpringMarion29 12 54.4295982 03 03.41323 SILVER SPRING #3SpringMarion29 12 55.3944282 03 00.69887 SILVER SPRING #4SpringMarion29 12 58.1721582 02 57.09494 SILVER SPRING #5SpringMarion29 12 58.0018782 02 54.58020 SILVER SPRING #6SpringMarion29 12 56.0398082 02 50.67046 SILVER SPRING #7SpringMarion29 12 56.1442782 02 46.91695 SILVER SPRING #8SpringMarion29 12 57.7361982 02 44.98739 SILVER SPRING #9SpringMarion29 12 56.1634682 02 43.83229 SILVER SPRINGS MAINSpringMarion29 12 58.3421482 03 09.47239 SWEETWATER SPRINGSSpringMarion29 13 07.6009481 39 35.52840 TOBACCO PATCH SPRINGSSpringMarion29 25 42.7274081 55 26.08666 WATERFALL SPRINGSSpringMarion29 06 05.2552882 26 08.39040 WELLS LANDING SPRINGSSpringMarion29 25 15.6558781 55 10.85120 WILSON HEAD SPRINGSpringMarion28 58 47.1436782 19 17.27814 SU-NO-WA SPRINGSeepNassau30 26 17.1651881 52 59.30782 EGLIN BLUE SPRINGSeepOkaloosa30 38 45.8144586 27 06.63498 ROCK SPRINGSSpringOrange28 45 23.2035881 30 06.24503 SULFUR SPRINGSpringOrange28 46 12.6516081 30 33.06002 UNNAMED SPRINGSeepOrange28 40 50.2934581 33 21.42540 WEKIWA SPRINGSpringOrange28 42 42.7914781 27 37.51506 WITHERINGTON SPRINGSpringOrange28 43 53.7294481 29 23.66520 CRYSTAL SPRINGSSpringPasco28 10 55.9231082 11 06.53075 HORSESHOE SPRINGSpringPasco28 23 51.1831782 41 23.82767 CRYSTAL BEACH SPRINGSubmarine SpringPinellas28 05 03.9640682 47 05.10911 HEALTH SPRINGSpringPinellas28 06 23.0853682 46 20.08888 BEECHER SPRINGSSpringPutnam29 26 55.1680181 38 48.70601 FOREST SPRINGSpringPutnam29 27 31.6799381 39 30.60000 MUD SPRINGSpringPutnam29 27 39.5999681 39 41.40000 NASHUA SPRINGSpringPutnam29 30 32.7599681 40 37.20000 SATSUMA SPRINGSpringPutnam29 30 45.3599681 40 31.79996 WELAKA SPRINGSpringPutnam29 29 40.3941581 40 23.69773 WHITEWATER SPRINGSSeepsPutnam29 38 01.3199681 38 34.44000 WARM MINERAL SPRINGSpringSarasota27 03 35.6450082 15 35.83390

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BULLETINNO.66 367 SPRING NAMETYPECOUNTYLATITUDELONGITUDE CLIFTON SPRINGSSpringSeminole28 41 59.5397881 14 17.22397 ELDER SPRINGSeepSeminole28 44 27.7849081 17 28.75769 GINGER ALE SPRINGSpringSeminole28 41 33.5689181 23 27.89736 HARDEN SPRINGMan MadeSeminole28 49 16.9975981 25 00.73049 HEATH SPRINGSeepSeminole28 44 42.6972581 07 41.34605 LAKE JESSUP SPRINGMan MadeSeminole28 42 36.7992081 16 04.76468 MIAMI SPRINGSSpringSeminole28 42 36.5959181 26 34.91135 NOVA SPRINGSpringSeminole28 49 03.0281 25 06.65 SANLANDO SPRINGSSpringSeminole28 41 19.3237481 23 43.06664 STARBUCK SPRINGSpringSeminole28 41 49.2478481 23 28.21542 FENNEY SPRINGSpringSumter28 47 41.9912982 02 17.21058 GUM SPRINGS MAINSpringSumter28 57 31.3979882 13 53.49317 ANDERSON SPRINGSpringSuwannee30 21 12.2747483 11 23.01403 BAPTIZINGKarst WindowSuwannee30 08 01.9054083 08 02.96300 BATHTUB SPRINGSpringSuwannee30 05 30.2145483 05 54.01471 BETTY SPRINGSpringSuwannee29 54 53.1965282 50 23.84185 BLUE SINK SPRINGSpringSuwannee30 20 08.4856982 48 30.39404 BONNET SPRINGSpringSuwannee30 07 27.5631283 08 17.45945 BRANFORD SPRINGSpringSuwannee29 57 17.5252782 55 42.27175 CHARLES SPRINGSpringSuwannee30 10 02.5099783 13 49.27001 COFFEE SPRINGSSpringSuwannee29 57 34.0467182 46 31.17828 COW SPRINGSpringSuwannee30 06 19.0199583 06 49.70999 DEVIL'S EYE SPRINGSSpringSuwannee29 58 25.2253282 45 36.03208 ELLAVILLE SPRINGSpringSuwannee30 23 04.0780083 10 21.01832 FALMOUTHKarst WindowSuwannee30 21 40.1872383 08 05.97030 HIDDEN SPRINGSpringSuwannee30 06 09.3738683 06 50.39762 ICHETUCKNEE SPRINGSpringSuwannee29 59 03.0975082 45 42.72664 LIME RUN SPRINGSpringSuwannee30 23 20.3894283 09 48.11936 LIME SPRINGSpringSuwannee30 23 28.3876483 10 07.31993 LITTLE RIVER SPRINGSpringSuwannee29 59 48.7105482 57 58.74329 LURAVILLE SPRINGSpringSuwannee30 07 10.4009583 10 01.64914 ORANGE GROVEKarst WindowSuwannee30 07 38.1348883 07 50.74802 PEACOCK SPRINGSpringSuwannee30 07 23.6151883 07 59.35274 PUMPSinkholeSuwannee30 08 19.6392883 08 06.97474 ROYAL SPRINGSpringSuwannee30 05 01.3633483 04 29.20753 RUNNING SPRINGSSpringSuwannee30 06 16.0707683 06 57.32302 SHINGLE SPRINGSpringSuwannee29 56 03.8164682 55 13.62360 SHIRLEY SPRINGSpringSuwannee30 12 39.6299583 14 41.34998 STEVENSON SPRINGSpringSuwannee30 25 01.5199783 09 10.62000 SUW1017971DrySuwannee30 25 42.4358483 01 46.56536 SUW1017972SpringSuwannee30 25 22.9507383 00 55.52798 SUW718971SpringSuwannee30 03 50.5646683 03 43.18801 SUW725971SpringSuwannee30 03 43.2557683 03 26.30311 SUW917971SpringSuwannee29 55 56.6082882 48 02.70324 SUW919971SpringSuwannee30 05 01.0901483 05 13.40473 SUW922971SpringSuwannee30 17 08.6899683 13 51.70001 SUWANNEE BLUE SPRINGSpringSuwannee30 04 53.2980583 04 08.47682 SUWANNEE SPRINGSSpringSuwannee30 23 40.1197982 56 04.33547 TELFORD SPRINGSpringSuwannee30 06 25.3782483 09 56.66105 WALKERSinkholeSuwannee30 08 00.6482083 07 47.22877

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FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 368 SPRING NAMETYPECOUNTYLATITUDELONGITUDE BEAVER CREEK SPRINGSpringTaylor29 45 57.4109383 20 06.17885 BIG SPRINGSpringTaylor29 58 27.3693083 44 19.79621 BRADLEY SPRINGSpringTaylor29 42 00.1699683 24 40.06998 CAMP GROUND SPRINGSpringTaylor30 04 04.2651183 33 13.76330 CEDAR ISLAND SPRINGSpringTaylor29 48 58.7296183 35 01.97444 EVA SPRINGSpringTaylor29 40 39.7699783 23 57.31001 FENHOLLOWAY SPRINGSpringTaylor30 04 23.4012783 40 00.32376 FOLSOM SPRINGSpringTaylor30 06 49.8599683 34 41.32999 HAMPTON SPRINGSpringTaylor30 04 53.3597583 39 46.24549 JABO SPRINGSpringTaylor29 52 57.3103983 37 22.50797 NUTALL RIVER RISERiver RiseTaylor30 09 01.7244783 57 47.82391 SPRING WARRIOR SPRINGSpringTaylor29 56 06.0662883 36 35.15659 TAY616992SpringTaylor29 54 45.1126883 39 02.94174 TAY622991SpringTaylor29 52 24.7999483 37 32.59999 TAY69991SpringTaylor29 58 11.6711483 44 43.47150 TAY76991SpringTaylor29 40 34.9099783 23 07.27001 TAY924991SpringTaylor30 06 28.6466083 37 38.61797 TAY924993SpringTaylor30 06 29.9743283 37 41.43925 UNNAMED SPRINGSpringTaylor30 06 25.8586683 37 35.92492 UNNAMED SPRINGSpringTaylor29 52 24.8999583 37 33.80002 WALDO SPRINGSpringTaylor30 02 57.0428283 37 47.73504 WORTHINGTON SPRINGSpringUnion29 55 35.7855282 25 33.30311 DeLEON SPRINGSpringVolusia29 08 03.4081181 21 45.89417 GEMINI SPRINGSSpringVolusia28 51 45.9781681 18 41.05552 GREEN SPRINGSSpringVolusia28 51 46.0392581 14 50.92382 SEMINOLE SPRINGWellVolusia28 50 43.7886281 14 02.65409 VOLUSIA BLUE SPRINGSpringVolusia28 56 50.9415481 20 22.51824 CRAY'S RIVER RISERiver RiseWakulla29 59 22.1999684 24 28.80000 INDIAN SPRINGSpringWakulla30 15 02.8786384 19 19.50193 MCBRIDE SLOUGH SPRINGSpringWakulla30 14 23.9395984 16 10.43450 NEWPORT SPRINGSpringWakulla30 12 45.7014284 10 42.56281 NORTHSIDE SPRING #1SpringWakulla30 14 15.1063884 16 52.31978 NORTHSIDE SPRING #2SpringWakulla30 14 15.3033484 16 52.48625 PANACEA MINERAL SPRING #1SpringWakulla30 02 04.8522884 23 23.63903 PANACEA MINERAL SPRING #2SpringWakulla30 02 04.9792284 23 24.29398 PANACEA MINERAL SPRING #3SpringWakulla30 02 06.1299684 23 26.28935 SALLY WARD SPRINGSpringWakulla30 14 29.0898284 18 38.87953 SHEPHERD SPRING Spring Wakulla 30 07 31.07993 84 17 07.80000 SPRING CREEK RISE #2Submarine SpringWakulla30 04 54.4247084 19 47.62675 SPRING CREEK RISE MAINSubmarine SpringWakulla30 04 48.6374284 19 47.30992 WAKULLA NO NAME SPRINGSpringWakulla30 12 53.3322484 15 59.41858 WAKULLA SPRINGSpringWakulla30 14 06.6438284 18 09.21445 ECUCHEESeepWalton30 44 13.6376986 11 36.57512 EUCHEESeepWalton30 44 20.1890486 12 16.94930 MORRISON SPRINGSpringWalton30 39 28.3808285 54 14.17759 BECKTON SPRINGSpringWashington30 38 55.1291385 41 37.18691 BRUNSON LANDING SPRINGSpringWashington30 36 33.2238685 45 30.88955 CLEMMONS SPRINGSeepWashington30 38 29.0960285 41 34.67252 CYPRESS SPRINGSSpringWashington30 39 31.4861885 41 03.74010 DRINKING SPRINGSpringWashington30 36 44.8267085 49 23.58433

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BULLETINNO.66 369 SPRING NAMETYPECOUNTYLATITUDELONGITUDE GALLOWAY SPRINGSpringWashington30 35 50.8563285 50 31.25684 HIGHTOWER SPRINGSpringWashington30 36 18.1886485 45 55.50811 JACK PAUL SPRINGSSpringWashington30 36 46.2934485 44 01.46141 MILLERS FERRY SPRINGSpringWashington30 34 27.7753885 50 25.72832 PINEY WOOD SPRINGSpringWashington30 39 30.7850085 41 26.30076 SHELL CRACKERSeepWashington30 39 04.3754485 41 14.65876 SKIPPER SPRINGSpringWashington30 34 32.9291885 50 37.58482 UNNAMED SPRINGSeepWashington30 40 09.9095985 39 19.72148 UNNAMED SPRINGSeepWashington30 40 07.6271585 39 20.89912 UNNAMED SPRINGSpringWashington30 34 41.5635685 50 16.77052 UNNAMED SPRINGSpringWashington30 34 40.5834685 50 21.17558WASHINGTON BLUE SPRING CHOCTAWHATCHEESpringWashington30 30 47.7321585 50 49.86766 WASHINGTON BLUE SPRINGS ECONFINASpringWashington30 27 10.1610085 31 49.32757 WILLIFORD SPRINGSpringWashington30 26 22.3864485 32 51.29221

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FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 370

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BULLETINNO.66 371 Appendix B2Location of additional known or reported springs in Florida not visited by FGS spring teams.

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FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 372 SPRIN G COUNTYLATITUDELONGITUDESOURCE ALA112971Alachua29 51 16.9482 36 10.59SRWMD DEEP SPRINGSBay30 30 57.4585 27 09.86NWFWMD GAINER SPRINGS #1ABay30 25 43.1185 32 46.11NWFWMD GAINER SPRINGS #1BBay30 25 43.0985 32 47.34NWFWMD GAINER SPRINGS #1DBay30 25 43.0985 32 46.5NWFWMD GAINER SPRINGS #1EBay30 25 43.1585 32 47.30NWFWMD GAINER SPRINGS #1FBay30 25 43.2085 32 48.22NWFWMD GAINER SPRINGS #1GBay30 25 38.6185 32 48.47NWFWMD GAINER SPRINGS #1HBay30 25 38.5985 32 49.09NWFWMD GAINER SPRINGS #1IBay30 25 38.5585 32 51.68NWFWMD GAINER SPRINGS #4Bay30 25 31.4885 32 54.42NWFWMD GAINER SPRINGS #5Bay30 25 37.0085 32 53.96NWFWMD SYLVAN SPRINGS #2Bay30 26 02.2485 32 55.13NWFWMD SYLVAN SPRINGS #3Bay30 25 56.7785 32 55.77NWFWMD HEILBRONN SPRINGBradford30 01 25.7382 09 19.99 CRUMBLY SPRINGCalhoun30 35 29.1085 10 15.77NWFWMD PEACOCK SPRINGCalhoun30 32 12.6585 09 58.77NWFWMD WINDOW SPRINGCalhoun30 32 49.1885 10 05.87NWFWMD ABDONEY SPRINGCitrus28 47 48.6982 35 10.05SWFWMD BELCHER SPRINGCitrus28 47 48.2982 35 10.63SWFWMD HALLS RIVER #1 SPRINGCitrus28 49 20.8882 35 38.21SWFWMD HALLS RIVER HEAD SPRINGCitrus28 49 36.5182 34 49.18SWFWMD HIDDEN RIVER #2 SPRINGCitrus28 46 07.0182 35 03.63SWFWMD HIDDEN RIVER HEAD SPRINGCitrus28 46 07.3682 34 59.69SWFWMD MCCLAIN SPRINGCitrus28 47 46.5782 35 13.90SWFWMD TARPON HOLE #2 SPRINGCitrus28 52 53.9282 35 37.36SWFWMD THREE SISTERS #2 SPRINGCitrus28 53 17.2082 35 23.11SWFWMD THREE SISTERS RUN SPRINGCitrus28 53 17.1282 35 22.30SWFWMD TROTTER #1 SPRINGCitrus28 47 46.8982 35 10.83SWFWMD COL101975Columbia29 50 01.7682 40 41.55SRWMD COL428982Columbia29 49 38.1682 38 45.68SRWMD COL61981Columbia29 56 04.0082 31 49.99SRWMD COL61982Columbia29 56 17.9082 31 49.33SRWMD GRASSY HOLEColumbia29 58 05.0082 45 35.36SRWMD JAMISON SPRINGSColumbia29 55 32.9782 46 12.44SRWMD DIX625991Dixie29 43 36.8183 20 40.73SRWMD DIX625992Dixie29 43 08.5683 20 46.36SRWMD DIX625993Dixie29 40 37.1883 21 38.96SRWMD DIX625994Dixie29 40 35.6183 21 50.51SRWMD IRON SPRINGSDixie29 40 25.0582 57 27.33SRWMD ROCK SINK SPRINGDixie29 43 40.4582 56 57.4SRWMD GIL1012974Gilchrist29 51 52.1382 44 24.26SRWMD GIL101971Gilchrist29 49 56.4382 40 42.25SRWMD GIL107971Gilchrist29 53 27.6282 52 27.00SRWMD GIL107971Gilchrist29 53 27.6282 52 27.00SRWMD GIL107972Gilchrist29 53 56.3982 51 58.52SRWMD GIL729971Gilchrist29 53 21.6782 52 29.88SRWMD GIL729972Gilchrist29 54 45.9582 50 12.43SRWMD GIL729973Gilchrist29 54 48.2582 50 12.08SRWMD GIL917971Gilchrist29 54 41.0882 50 32.46SRWMD

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BULLETINNO.66 373 SPRIN G COUNTYLATITUDELONGITUDESOURCE GIL917972Gilchrist29 51 36.9882 52 46.32SRWMD GIL917973Gilchrist29 51 31.8582 52 51.07SRWMD GIL928972Gilchrist29 52 49.6582 45 11.91SRWMD GIL99971Gilchrist29 55 16.7982 49 26.77SRWMD GIL99974Gilchrist29 55 06.9682 46 18.26SRWMD HAM1017971Hamilton30 25 33.8083 01 20.89SRWMD HAM1017972Hamilton30 25 40.4783 01 40.50SRWMD HAM1017973Hamilton30 25 23.6483 00 38.32SRWMD HAM1019971Hamilton30 23 24.6282 55 36.60SRWMD HAM1019972Hamilton30 24 01.2982 56 36.34SRWMD HAM1023971Hamilton30 23 10.1282 54 22.87SRWMD HAM522981Hamilton30 20 35.3282 50 29.11SRWMD HAM610981Hamilton30 24 56.4383 11 57.74SRWMD HAM923972Hamilton30 25 08.2383 08 42.53SRWMD LOUISE SPRINGSHamilton30 20 47.3782 49 54.20SRWMD WHITE SPRINGSHamilton30 19 46.8882 45 40.06SRWMD BEAUFORD SPRINGHernando28 38 09.8282 35 47.24SWFWMD BETTY JAY SPRINGHernando28 41 25.3982 35 29.41SWFWMD BLUE RUN SPRINGHernando28 41 12.5082 36 05.17SWFWMD BOBHILL SPRINGHernando28 26 04.9682 38 27.98SWFWMD JENKINS CREEK SPRINGHernando28 31 19.3182 38 02.64SWFWMD MUD SPRINGHernando28 32 46.9882 37 29.35SWFWMD BOYETTE SPRINGHillsborough27 51 13.2082 16 26.52SWFWMD BUCKHORN EAST SPRINGHillsborough27 53 20.6782 18 05.19SWFWMD BUCKHORN SOUTH SPRINGHillsborough27 53 12.8582 18 18.76SWFWMD BUCKHORN WEST SPRINGHillsborough27 53 21.1482 18 16.82SWFWMD GREEN SINKHillsborough27 52 02.9382 17 00.84SWFWMD LITHIA MINOR SPRINGHillsborough27 51 55.1482 13 51.58SWFWMD BOSEL #1Jackson30 49 50.6085 14 02.91NWFWMD BOSEL #2Jackson30 49 50.3185 14 03.42NWFWMD COFFIN SPRINGJackson30 42 27.5285 18 23.34NWFWMD DANIEL SPRING #1Jackson30 56 55.3285 18 57.74NWFWMD DANIEL SPRING #2Jackson30 56 56.9085 18 56.18NWFWMD DANIEL SPRING #3Jackson30 56 55.6185 18 53.18NWFWMD DANIEL SPRING #4Jackson30 56 51.8985 18 54.51NWFWMD DANIEL SPRING #5Jackson30 56 50.9985 18 51.45NWFWMD DANIEL SPRING #6Jackson30 56 43.7585 18 46.34NWFWMD DANIEL SPRING #7Jackson30 56 43.7285 18 46.09NWFWMD DRY CREEK RISEJackson30 41 19.0785 17 27.96NWFWMD HAYS SPRING #1Jackson30 53 44.7985 13 30.35NWFWMD HAYS SPRING #2Jackson30 53 43.6685 13 29.19NWFWMD HELLER SPRING #1Jackson30 49 53.1385 19 37.16NWFWMD INDIAN WASHTUBJackson30 47 17.0285 08 42.46NWFWMD JORDAN SPRINGJackson30 46 10.585 11 57.31NWFWMD MCRAE SPRING #1Jackson30 34 09.5985 10 33.72NWFWMD MCRAE SPRING #2Jackson30 34 09.5985 10 33.72NWFWMD MCRAE SPRING #3Jackson30 34 10.8385 10 33.89NWFWMD MCRAE SPRING #4Jackson30 34 12.5485 10 34.36NWFWMD MCRAE SPRING #5Jackson30 34 12.5485 10 34.36NWFWMD MCRAE SPRING RESURGENCE Jackson30 34 10.4085 10 25.57NWFWMD

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FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 374 SPRINGCOUNTYLATITUDELONGITUDESOURCE ROOKS SPRING #2Jackson30 41 17.3785 14 03.13NWFWMD SIMMS SPRINGJackson30 42 39.0985 12 24.80NWFWMD THE CRACKJackson30 42 25.8685 18 26.48NWFWMD UNNAMED SPRINGJackson30 49 48.9085 14 11.25NWFWMD UNNAMED SPRINGJackson30 49 47.9485 14 12.66NWFWMD JEF312991Jefferson30 20 41.8283 59 45.06SRWMD JEF63991Jefferson30 19 29.8183 59 09.11SRWMD JEF63992Jefferson30 19 23.5183 59 12.09SRWMD JEF64991Jefferson30 20 38.8883 58 49.49SRWMD FLETCHER SPRINGSLafayette29 50 4882 53 34SRWMD IRON SPRINGLafayette29 49 35.5083 18 28.96SRWMD LAF1024001Lafayette30 00 27.0682 58 56.10SRWMD LAF710981Lafayette30 02 42.3683 02 01.91SRWMD LAF919971Lafayette30 06 11.5883 08 51.53SRWMD LAF922977Lafayette30 15 34.8783 15 05.40SRWMD LAF924972Lafayette30 06 17.3083 12 14.10SRWMD LAF929971Lafayette30 12 37.2583 14 45.71SRWMD LAF93971Lafayette29 57 40.8882 57 16.51SRWMD BLACKWATER MINOR #1Lake28 53 17.5481 29 48.99Seminole S.F. BLACKWATER MINOR #2Lake28 53 18.3081 29 50.15Seminole S.F. BLACKWATER MINOR #3Lake28 53 18.0081 29 52.00Seminole S.F. BLACKWATER MINOR #4Lake28 53 17.2981 29 52.60Seminole S.F. BOULDER MINOR #1Lake28 52 18.5381 27 01.73Seminole S.F. DOUBLE RUN SPRINGLake29 40 4781 44 32SJRWMD MARKEE MINOR #1Lake28 52 16.2981 27 10.36Seminole S.F. MESSANT SPRINGLake28 51 2181 29 56SJRWMD SEMINOLE SPRINGLake28 50 4481 31 22SJRWMD UNNAMED SPRINGLake28 52 28.3081 26 42.17Seminole S.F. LN-UNK SPRING #1Leon30 16 5884 09 04NWFWMD LEV97991Levy29 11 30.4082 59 19.41SRWMD MAD610982Madison30 24 54.2483 12 07.05SRWMD MAD612981Madison30 27 02.9683 13 23.83SRWMD MAD612982Madison30 28 20.9583 14 35.67SRWMD MAD922971Madison30 18 24.1783 12 53.62SRWMD MAD922972Madison30 18 12.3483 13 20.80SRWMD MAD922973Madison30 18 08.5483 13 29.34SRWMD MAD922974Madison30 18 08.2783 13 29.82SRWMD MAD922975Madison30 17 36.6383 13 57.21SRWMD MAD922976Madison30 16 56.9283 13 57.55SRWMD BLUEMarion29 30 5181 51 25SJRWMD NICHOLS SPRINGMarion28 50 2282 12 10USGS RAINBOW #8 SPRINGMarion29 05 04.6382 25 44.08SWFWMD RAINBOW SWAMP #4 SPRINGMarion29 05 34.7882 25 16.42SWFWMD RIVERSITESMarion29 26 2981 55 25SJRWMD BARREL SPRINGOrange28 42 4181 28 18SJRWMD CRYSTAL #1 SPRINGPasco28 10 56.5882 11 06.55SWFWMD CRYSTAL #2 SPRINGPasco28 10 56.5882 11 06.67SWFWMD CRYSTAL #3 SPRINGPasco28 10 56.7182 11 06.58SWFWMD CRYSTAL #4 SPRINGPasco28 10 56.6782 11 08.52SWFWMD CRYSTAL #5 SPRINGPasco28 10 58.2482 11 08.53SWFWMD

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BULLETINNO.66 375 SPRINGCOUNTYLATITUDELONGITUDESOURCE CRYSTAL #6 SPRINGPasco28 10 58.7882 11 07.76SWFWMD CRYSTAL COMPOSITEPasco28 10 57.8382 11 08.17SWFWMD CRYSTAL SWAMP #1 SPRINGPasco28 11 1382 10 52SWFWMD CRYSTAL SWAMP #2 SPRINGPasco28 11 0682 10 48SWFWMD CRYSTAL SWAMP #3 SPRINGPasco28 11 0782 11 34SWFWMD SALT SPRING 2Pasco28 17 35.5182 43 04.42SWFWMD CROAKER HOLEPutnam29 26 1881 21 41SJRWMD CHUMUCKLA SPRINGSSanta Rosa30 50 00.9087 17 48.76NWFWMD ISLAND SPRINGSeminole28 49 24.4081 25 01.80FDEP PALM SPRINGSeminole28 41 28.03 81 23 34.23 FDEP UNNAMED SPRINGSeminole28 49 03.2081 25 07.00FDEP CRESCENT BEACH SPRINGSt. Johns29 46 0681 12 30SJRWMD SHANDS BRIDGE SPRINGSt. Johns29 59 1681 37 28SJRWMD A. WAYNE LEE SPRINGSumter28 51 34.9182 05 15.71SWFWMD ALLIGATOR SPRINGSumter28 57 36.8282 13 45.68SWFWMD BELTONS MILLPOND HEAD SPRING 1Sumter28 45 26.5682 03 44.60SWFWMD BELTONS MILLPOND HEAD SPRING 2Sumter28 45 27.4982 03 43.57SWFWMD BELTONS MILLPOND HEAD SPRING 2ASumter28 45 28.3982 03 48.28SWFWMD BELTONS MILLPOND HEAD SPRING 2BSumter28 45 29.2082 03 45.05SWFWMD BELTONS MILLPOND HEAD SPRING 3 -MAIN BOILSumter28 45 29.6782 03 45.31SWFWMD BELTONS MILLPOND HEAD SPRING 4 -BLUE HOLESumter28 45 30.3782 03 47.50SWFWMD BELTONS MILLPOND MAINTENANCE SPRINGSumter28 45 24.3982 04 05.36SWFWMD BELTONS MILLPOND MAINTENANCE SPRING Sumter28 45 25.1682 04 06.25SWFWMD BIG HOLE (Dead Spring)Sumter28 45 33.0582 05 54.94SWFWMD CANAL 485 SPRING 5Sumter28 46 07.5082 07 01.24SWFWMD CANAL 485A SPRING 1BSumter28 46 10.6082 07 04.80SWFWMD CANAL 485A SPRING 2Sumter28 46 12.9482 07 03.38SWFWMD DIXIE LIME & STONE CO. SPRINGSumter28 45 16.1782 03 18.66SWFWMD GUM SPRINGS NO. 1Sumter28 57 33.4982 13 50.83SWFWMD GUM SPRINGS NO. 2Sumter28 57 13.8482 14 12.69SWFWMD GUM SPRINGS NO. 3Sumter28 57 13.2182 14 14.50SWFWMD GUM SPRINGS NO. 4Sumter28 57 10.882 14 26.50SWFWMD HENRY GREEN SPRINGSumter28 52 09.4682 05 40.93SWFWMD SHADY BROOK HEAD SPRING 2Sumter28 47 08.9682 02 44.13SWFWMD SHADY BROOK HEAD SPRING 3Sumter28 46 46.9682 02 36.30SWFWMD SHADY BROOK HEAD SPRING 4Sumter28 45 15.9682 04 59.30SWFWMD SUMTER BLUESumter28 47 08.9682 02 44.13SWFWMD MATTAIR SPRINGSSuwannee30 22 41.0582 53 28.03SRWMD PEACOCK SLOUGHSuwannee30 09 2483 09 56SRWMD SUW1019971Suwannee30 22 58.0382 54 54.59SRWMD SUW1023971Suwannee30 23 47.2982 56 13.93SRWMD SUW107971Suwannee29 54 46.3482 50 42.54SRWMD SUW917972Suwannee30 01 57.6683 00 48.62SRWMD SUW919972Suwannee30 05 27.2183 05 50.46SRWMD SUW919974Suwannee30 06 19.3283 07 16.75SRWMD SUW922972Suwannee30 18 46.4083 12 35.11SRWMD SUW922973Suwannee30 18 47.5983 12 35.31SRWMD SUW922974Suwannee30 18 48.1983 12 35.48SRWMD SUW923971Suwannee30 23 31.0183 10 01.04SRWMD SUW923972Suwannee30 24 15.9283 09 27.76SRWMD

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FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 376 SPRINGCOUNTYLATITUDELONGITUDESOURCE SUW925971Suwannee30 25 39.8183 03 03.81SRWMD SUW925972Suwannee30 25 39.8583 03 33.49SRWMD SUW925973Suwannee30 25 27.1983 04 08.44SRWMD SUW925974Suwannee30 26 12.0883 04 43.79SRWMD SUW925975Suwannee30 26 13.4583 05 13.01SRWMD UNNAMED SPRINGSuwannee29 53 48.1682 52 22.18SRWMD BLUE CREEK SPRINGTaylor29 50 41.0183 33 28.04SRWMD CARLTON SPRINGTaylor30 03 2883 35 15SRWMD EWING SPRINGSTaylor30 04 2683 39 57SRWMD TAY616991Taylor29 55 09.4683 40 56.15SRWMD TAY625991Taylor29 44 38.5483 20 42.25SRWMD TAY625993Taylor29 43 53.1283 20 47.93SRWMD TAY625995Taylor29 44 02.4583 20 49.70SRWMD TAY69992Taylor29 58 14.6883 44 47.73SRWMD TAY730991Taylor30 09 12.6883 51 20.63SRWMD TAY76992Taylor29 45 4183 20 06SRWMD TAY819991Taylor29 50 47.6583 36 33.07SRWMD WOODS CK RISETaylor30 07 26.7083 37 27.26SRWMD SPRING CREEK #1Wakulla30 04 48.9184 19 47.46FGS SPRING CREEK #10Wakulla30 04 28.3884 19 39.80FGS SPRING CREEK #11Wakulla30 04 26.4184 19 41.41FGS SPRING CREEK #12Wakulla30 04 34.3584 19 26.39FGS SPRING CREEK #13Wakulla30 04 33.0884 19 24.89FGS SPRING CREEK #3Wakulla30 04 54.0784 19 45.90FGS SPRING CREEK #4Wakulla30 04 47.9784 19 50.55FGS SPRING CREEK #5Wakulla30 04 43.0684 19 48.76FGS SPRING CREEK #6Wakulla30 04 30.3784 19 43.60FGS SPRING CREEK #7Wakulla30 04 33.1384 19 46.52FGS SPRING CREEK #8Wakulla30 04 27.1084 19 36.44FGS SPRING CREEK #9Wakulla30 04 48.0684 19 54.69FGS BARKING SPRINGWashington30 26 59.0585 31 53.86NWFWMD BATHTUB SPRINGWashington30 27 21.8685 31 58.62NWFWMD BURNT OUT SPRINGWashington30 40 55.3285 38 45.66NWFWMD ECONFINA BLUE SPRING #2Washington30 27 11.1685 31 52.50NWFWMD ECONFINA BLUE SPRING #3Washington30 27 05.5585 31 52.19NWFWMD GLOWING SPRINGWashington30 27 22.2585 31 55.96NWFWMD STRICKLAND SPRING #1Washington30 26 28.8785 32 38.84NWFWMD STRICKLAND SPRING #2Washington30 26 26.6485 32 41.63NWFWMD SURNT SOCK SPRINGWashington30 40 01.1485 39 48.29NWFWMD UNNAMED SPRINGWashington30 34 40.4485 50 21.36W. Shirling UNNAMED SPRINGWashington30 36 32.1685 46 31.98W. Shirling UNNAMED SPRINGWashington30 36 32.1685 46 31.98W. Shirling UNNAMED SPRINGWashington30 36 32.485 46 33.96W. Shirling UNNAMED SPRINGWashington30 36 43.5685 49 23.52W. Shirling UNNAMED SPRINGWashington30 39 48.9685 40 14.16W. Shirling UNNAMED SPRINGWashington30 39 54.7285 39 55.08W. Shirling UNNAMED SPRING Washin g ton 30 40 14.485 39 17.28W. Shirling UNNAMED SPRING Washin g ton 30 40 22.585 39 09.84W. Shirling UNNAMED SPRING Washin g ton 30 40 22.585 39 09.84W. Shirling UNNAMED SPRING Washin g ton 30 40 26.485 39 01.08W. Shirling

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BULLETINNO.66 377 SPRINGCOUNTYLATITUDELONGITUDESOURCE UNNAMED SPRING Washin g ton 30 40 27.4885 38 52.8W. Shirling UNNAMED SPRING Washin g ton 30 40 26.7685 38 58.92W. Shirling UNNAMED SPRING Washin g ton 30 40 28.6885 38 59.1W. Shirling UNNAMED SPRING Washin g ton 30 40 3085 38 52.08W. Shirling UNNAMED SPRING Washin g ton 30 40 29.8885 38 52.5W. Shirling UNNAMED SPRING Washin g ton 30 40 31.0885 38 51.72W. Shirling UNNAMED SPRING Washin g ton 30 40 32.1685 38 50.88W. Shirling UNNAMED SPRING Washin g ton 30 40 32.1685 38 50.88W. Shirling UNNAMED SPRING Washin g ton 30 40 32.1685 38 51.36W. Shirling UNNAMED SPRING Washin g ton 30 40 39.1285 38 45.24W. Shirling UNNAMED-303913085411701 Washin g ton 30 39 13.2685 41 16.51NWFWMD UNNAMED-303934085403401 Washin g ton 30 39 3485 40 34.2NWFWMD UNNAMED-303935085402901 Washin g ton 30 39 34.9385 40 29.07NWFWMD UNNAMED-303937085402901 Washin g ton 30 39 36.5185 40 28.62NWFWMD UNNAMED-303937085404001 Washin g ton 30 39 36.5385 40 39.58NWFWMD UNNAMED-303938085401801 Washin g ton 30 39 37.7585 40 17.84NWFWMD UNNAMED-303938085404301 Washin g ton 30 39 37.8985 40 43.21NWFWMD UNNAMED-303939085401901 Washin g ton 30 39 39.2385 40 18.79NWFWMD UNNAMED-303939085402501 Washin g ton 30 39 39.1585 40 24.57NWFWMD UNNAMED-303940085404001 Washin g ton 30 39 39.5785 40 40.00NWFWMD UNNAMED-303941085401701 Washin g ton 30 39 41.1685 40 17.06NWFWMD UNNAMED-303941085401901 Washin g ton 30 39 40.7785 40 18.75NWFWMD UNNAMED-303942085402401 Washin g ton 30 39 41.7985 40 24.32NWFWMD UNNAMED-303946085401901 Washin g ton 30 39 46.2385 40 19.24NWFWMD UNNAMED-303949085401701 Washin g ton 30 39 49.3785 40 16.67NWFWMD UNNAMED-303949085401702 Washin g ton 30 39 49.3785 40 17.44NWFWMD UNNAMED-303950085400901 Washin g ton 30 39 50.25.85 40 09.18NWFWMD UNNAMED-303953085400201 Washin g ton 30 39 53.3485 40 02.19NWFWMD UNNAMED-303955085401001 Washin g ton 30 39 54.5785 40 10.22NWFWMD UNNAMED-303956085394801 Washin g ton 30 39 55.8685 39 47.72NWFWMD UNNAMED-303956085401001 Washin g ton 30 39 55.7785 40 10.07NWFWMD UNNAMED-303957085400201 Washin g ton 30 39 57.4885 40 01.61NWFWMD UNNAMED-303959085395301 Washin g ton 30 39 58.6285 39 53.15NWFWMD UNNAMED-304002085394901 Washin g ton 30 40 01.9685 39 48.55NWFWMD UNNAMED-304002085395001 Washin g ton 30 40 01.8685 39 49.95NWFWMD WILLIFORD RUN #2 Washin g ton 30 26 22.4585 32 52.39NWFWMD WILLIFORD RUN #3 Washin g ton 30 26 22.0485 32 53.42NWFWMD WILLIFORD RUN #4 Washin g ton 30 26 21.9985 32 54.11NWFWMD WILLIFORD RUN #5 Washin g ton 30 26 21.1685 32 54.41NWFWMD WILLIFORD RUN #6 Washin g ton 30 26 21.1685 32 54.41NWFWMD WILLIFORD RUN #7 Washin g ton 30 26 20.7385 32 54.81NWFWMD WILLIFORD RUN SPRING #1 Washin g ton 30 26 22.4685 32 52.39NWFWMD

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379 BULLETIN 66 APPENDIX C Descriptions of additional springs visited byFGSspringsteams.

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APPENDIX C TABLE OF CONTENTS Alachua County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .393 ALA930971 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393 ALA930972 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394 Boulware Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .395 Darby Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 96 Glen Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397 Magnesia Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .398 Bay County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .399 Bluff Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399 Econfina Unnamed Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .400 Pitt Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .401 Sylvan Springs No. 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .402 Sylvan Springs No. 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .403 Bradford County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .404 Heilbronn Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .404 Calhoun County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .404 Grotto Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 04 Hamilton Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 5 Sally Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .406 Citrus County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .407 Alligator Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 07 Baird Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407 Baird Spring No. 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .408 Baird Spring No. 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .408 Baird Spring No. 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .409 Baird Spring No. 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .409 Banana Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 0 Bear Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411 Blue Hole Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .412 Bluebird Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .412 Chassahowitzka Spring No. 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .414 Crab Spring (Crab Creek Spring) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .415 HallÂ’s River Spring No. 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .416 Homosassa Unnamed Spring No. 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .417 Homosassa Unnamed Spring No. 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .417 House Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 18 Kings Bay Springs Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .418 Black Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .418 Catfish Corner Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .419 IdiotÂ’s Delight Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .419 Jurassic Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .420 King Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .420 Kings Bay Spring No. 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .421 Little Hidden Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .422 Little Spring (Independence Spring) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .422 Manatee Sanctuary Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .424 MillerÂ’s Creek Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .425 380 FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY

PAGE 400

Potter Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426 Pumphouse Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .427 Ruth Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428 Three Sisters Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .429 Trotter Main Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .430 Unnamed Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .431 Clay County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .432 Wadesboro Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .432 W.W. Gay Spring No. 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .432 W.W. Gay Spring No. 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .433 Columbia County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .434 COL101971 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434 COL101974 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435 COL428981 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436 COL522981 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437 COL522982 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438 COL917971 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439 COL930971 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440 COL1012971 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 41 COL1012972 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 42 Jonathan Spring (COL101972) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .442 July Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .443 Mill Pond Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .444 Rum Island Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .445 Sawdust Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .446 Sunbeam Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .447 Wilson Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447 Dixie County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .448 DIX95971 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .448 Little Copper Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .449 McCrabb Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .450 Pothole Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 51 Unnamed Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .452 Unnamed Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .453 Duval County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .453 Pottsburg Creek Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .453 Franklin County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .453 Bear Creek Rise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 3 Gadsden County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .454 Chattahoochee Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .454 Gilchrist County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .456 Bell Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .456 Campground Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .457 Deer Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458 DevilÂ’s Eye Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .459 Dogwood Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .460 GIL84971 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .461 GIL99972 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .462 GIL928971 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463 381 BULLETIN 66

PAGE 401

GIL1012971 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 64 GIL1012972 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 65 GIL1012973 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 66 Johnson Spring (GIL101971) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .467 Lily Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .468 Little Blue Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .469 Little Devil Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47 0 Little Otter Spring (GIL94972) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .471 Lumbercamp Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .472 Naked Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 73 Oasis Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .474 Pickard Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 75 Trail Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .476 Twin Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477 Hamilton County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .478 HAM610982 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47 8 HAM610983 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47 9 HAM610984 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48 0 HAM612982 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48 1 HAM923973 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48 2 HAM1017974 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .483 Morgan Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48 3 Pot Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .484 Seven Sisters Spring (HAM923971) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .485 Tanner Springs (HAM612981) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .486 White Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 487 Hernando County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .488 Aripeka Spring No. 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .488 Aripeka Spring No. 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .489 Blind Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .490 Boat Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .491 Ryles Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .492 Rita Marie Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .493 Hillsborough County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .494 Canal Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 94 Double Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495 Eureka Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .496 Last Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .496 Lettuce Lake Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .497 Palma Ceia Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .498 Holmes County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .499 Jackson Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 99 Thundering Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .500 Vortex Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501 Jackson County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .502 Barrel Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502 Jackson Blue Spring Apalachicola . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .503 Gator Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .504 Hill Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .505 382 FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY

PAGE 402

Hole-in-the-Rock Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .506 King Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 507 Little Lagoon Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .508 Maund Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 09 Rocky Creek Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .510 Rooks Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 511 Sandbag Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .512 Sinai Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .513 Tanner Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 14 Twin Caves Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .515 Waddell Mill Pond Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .516 Webbville Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .517 White Cave Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .517 Jefferson County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .519 Wacissa River Springs Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .519 Brumbley Spring (JEF64991) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .519 Buzzard Log Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .520 Cassidy Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52 1 Garner Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52 2 Horsehead Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .523 Little Blue Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .524 Log Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .525 Maggie Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 25 Minnow Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52 6 Thomas Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52 7 Wacissa Spring No. 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .528 Wacissa Spring No. 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .528 Wacissa Spring No. 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .529 Wacissa Unnamed Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .529 Lafayette County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .530 Convict Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 30 LAF57982 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .531 LAF718971 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532 LAF718972 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 533 LAF919972 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 534 LAF922975 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 535 LAF922976 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 536 LAF924971 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 537 LAF929971 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 537 LAF929972 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 538 LAF929973 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 539 Perry Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .540 Steinhatchee Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .541 Unnamed Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .542 Lake County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .543 Blackwater Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .543 Blue Algae Boil Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .544 Blueberry Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .545 Boulder Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54 6 383 BULLETIN 66

PAGE 403

Camp Le No Che Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .547 Droty Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .548 Green Algae Boil Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .548 Holiday Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 49 Lake Blue Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .550 Markee Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55 0 Moccasin Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55 1 Mooring Cove Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .552 Mosquito Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55 3 Palm Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 554 SandyÂ’s Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 55 Sharks Tooth Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .556 Snail Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 557 Sun Eden Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .558 Levy County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .559 Big King Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55 9 Lancaster Spring (LEV97991) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .559 LEV719991 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 560 Little Fanning Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .561 Little King Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .562 Wekiva Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .563 Madison County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .564 Fara Spring (MAD922977) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .564 MAD610981 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52 4 MAD612982 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56 5 Manatee County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .566 Manatee Mineral Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .566 Marion County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .567 Camp Seminole Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .567 Indian Creek Springs Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .567 Indian Creek Spring No. 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .567 Indian Creek Spring No. 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .568 Indian Creek Spring No. 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .569 Morman Branch Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .570 Rainbow Springs Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .571 Rainbow Cave Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .571 Rainbow Spring No. 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .571 Rainbow Spring No. 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .571 Rainbow Spring No. 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .573 Rainbow Spring No. 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .573 Rainbow Spring North . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .574 Rainbow Unnamed Swamp Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .574 Waterfall Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .576 Silver Springs Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .577 JacobÂ’s Well Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .577 Silver Spring No. 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .577 Silver Spring No. 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .578 Silver Spring No. 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .578 Silver Spring No. 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .578 384 FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY

PAGE 404

Silver Spring No. 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .578 Silver Spring No. 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .580 Silver Spring No. 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .580 Silver Spring No. 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .580 Silver Spring No. 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .580 Silver Spring No. 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .580 Silver Spring No. 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .580 Silver Spring No. 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .581 Sweetwater Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .581 Tobacco Patch Landing Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .583 Wells Landing Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .584 Wilson Head Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .585 Orange County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .586 Sulfur Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 586 Witherington Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .587 Pasco County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .589 Horseshoe Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .589 Pinellas County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .590 Crystal Beach Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .590 Health Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 591 Polk County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .592 Kissengen Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .592 Putnam County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .594 Forest Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 94 Mud Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .595 Nashua Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59 6 Satsuma Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .597 Seminole County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .598 Clifton Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 598 Ginger Ale Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .599 Harden Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60 0 Miami Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 01 Nova Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 602 Suwannee County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .603 Anderson Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .603 Bathtub Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 04 Betty Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .605 Blue Sink Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .606 Coffee Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 07 Cow Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .608 DevilÂ’s Eye Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .609 Hidden Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 0 Lime Run Spring (or Sink) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .611 Lime Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 612 Luraville Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 13 Orange Grove Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .614 Peacock Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 5 Royal Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .616 Shingle Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 17 385 BULLETIN 66

PAGE 405

Shirley Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 18 Stevenson Spring (SUW 923973) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .619 Suwannee Blue Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .620 SUW718971 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62 1 SUW725971 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62 2 SUW917971 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62 3 SUW922971 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62 4 SUW1017971 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .625 SUW1017972 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .626 Taylor County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .627 Beaver Creek Spring (TAY76992) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .627 Big Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .628 Bradley Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 29 Camp Ground Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .630 Cedar Island Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .630 Eva Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .631 Fenholloway Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .632 Folsom Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63 3 Hampton Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .634 Jabo Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .635 Spring Warrior Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .636 TAY616992 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 637 TAY69991 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .638 TAY622991 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 639 TAY76991 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .640 TAY924991 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 641 TAY924993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 641 Unnamed Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .642 Union County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .643 Worthington Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .643 Volusia County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .644 Gemini Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .644 Green Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 45 Wakulla County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .646 Indian Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 646 McBride Slough Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .647 Northside Spring No. 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .648 Northside Spring No. 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .649 Sally Ward Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .649 Wakulla No Name Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .650 Washington County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 651 Drinking Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65 1 Galloway Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65 1 Hightower Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .652 Jack Paul Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .653 MillerÂ’s Ferry Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .654 Piney Wood Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .655 Skipper Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 56 Unnamed Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .657 386 FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY

PAGE 406

Figure 1.ALA930971 (photo by D. Hornsby) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .393 Figure 2.ALA930972 (photo by D. Hornsby) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .394 Figure 3. Boulware Spring (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .395 Figure 4. Darby Spring (photo by D. Hornsby) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .396 Figure 5A. Glen Spring (photo by B. Osburn) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .397 Figure 5B. Glen Spring (photo by B. Osburn) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .397 Figure 6.Magnesia Spring (photo by A. Willet) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .398 Figure 7.Bluff Springs (photo by R. Meegan) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .399 Figure 8.Econfina Unnamed Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .400 Figure 9.Pitt Spring (photo by R. Meegan) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .401 Figure 10.Sylvan Springs No. 1 (photo by R. Meegan) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .402 Figure 11.Sylvan Springs No. 2 (photo by R. Meegan) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .403 Figure 12.Grotto Springs No. 1 (photo by R. Meegan) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .404 Figure 13.Hamilton Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .405 Figure 14.Sally Spring (photo by A. Chelette) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .406 Figure 15.Baird Spring No. 1 (photo by SWFWMD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .408 Figure 16.Baird Spring No. 2 (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .409 Figure 17.Banana Spring (photo by R. Meegan) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .410 Figure 18.Bear Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .411 Figure 19.Blue Hole Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .412 Figure 20Bluebird Springs (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .413 Figure 21.Chassahowitzka Spring No. 2 (photo by R. Meegan) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .414 Figure 22.Crab Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .415 Figure 23.HallÂ’s River Spring No. 2 (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .416 Figure 24.Homosassa Unnamed Spring No. 2 (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .417 Figure 25.Kings Bay Springs Group, Catfish Corner Spring (photo by Springs Fever)419 Figure 26.Kings Bay Springs Group, Idiots Delight Spring (photo by SWFWMD) . . .420 Figure 27.Kings Bay Springs Group, Jurassic Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . .421 Figure 28.Kings Bay Springs Group, King Spring (photo by R. Meegan) . . . . . . . . . .422 Figure 29.Kings Bay Springs Group, Little Hidden Spring (photo by R. Meegan) . . .423 Figure 30.Kings Bay Springs Group, Little Spring (photo by R. Meegan) . . . . . . . . . .423 Figure 31.Kings Bay Springs Group, Manatee Sanctuary Spring (photo by R. Means)424 Figure 32.Potter Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .426 Figure 33A.Pumphouse Springs (photo by R. Meegan) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .427 Figure 33B. Pumphouse Springs (photo by R. Meegan) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .428 Figure 34.Ruth Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .429 Figure 35.Three Sisters Springs (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .430 Figure 36.Trotter Main Spring (photo by R. Meegan) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .431 Figure 37.W. W. Gay Spring No. 1 (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .432 Figure 38.W. W. Gay Spring No. 2 (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .433 Figure 39.COL101971 (photo by D. Hornsby) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .434 Figure 40.COL101974 (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .435 Figure 41.COL428981 (photo by D. Hornsby) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .436 Figure 42.COL522981 (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .437 Figure 43.COL522982 (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .438 Figure 44.COL917971 (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .439 Figure 45.COL930971 (photo by D. Hornsby) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .440 Figure 46.COL1012971(photo by D. Hornsby) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .441 Figure 47.Jonathan Spring (photo by D. Hornsby) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .442 387 BULLETIN 66

PAGE 407

Figure 48.July Spring (photo by T. Scott) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .443 Figure 49.Mill Pond Springs (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .444 Figure 50.Rum Island Spring (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .445 Figure 51.Sawdust Spring (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .446 Figure 52.Sunbeam Spring (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .447 Figure 53.Wilson Spring (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .448 Figure 54.DIX95971 (photo by D. Hornsby) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .449 Figure 55.Little Copper Spring (photo by D. Hornsby) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .450 Figure 56.McCrabb Spring (photo by D. Hornsby) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .451 Figure 57.Pothole Spring (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .452 Figure 58.Bear Creek Rise (photo by R. Meegan) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .454 Figure 59.Chattahoochee Spring (photo by A. Willet) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .455 Figure 60.Bell Spring (photo by D. Hornsby) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .456 Figure 61.Campground Spring (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .457 Figure 62.Deer Spring (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .458 Figure 63.DevilÂ’s Eye Spring (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .459 Figure 64.Dogwood Spring (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .460 Figure 65.GIL84971 (photo by D. Hornsby) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .461 Figure 66.GIL99972 (photo by D. Hornsby) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .462 Figure 67.GIL928971 (photo by D. Hornsby) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .463 Figure 68.GIL1012971 (photo by D. Hornsby) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .464 Figure 69.GIL1012972 (photo by D. Hornsby) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .465 Figure 70.GIL1012973 (photo by D. Hornsby) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .466 Figure 71Johnson Spring (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .467 Figure 72.Lily Spring (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .468 Figure 73.Little Blue Spring (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .469 Figure 74.Little Devil Spring (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .470 Figure 75.Lumbercamp Springs (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .472 Figure 76.Naked Spring (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .473 Figure 77.Oasis Spring (photo by D. Hornsby) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .474 Figure 78.Pickard Spring (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .475 Figure 79.Trail Spring (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .476 Figure 80.Twin Spring (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .477 Figure 81.HAM610982 (photo by D. Hornsby) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .478 Figure 82.HAM610983 (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .479 Figure 83.HAM610984 (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .480 Figure 84.HAM612982 (photo by D. Hornsby) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .481 Figure 85.HAM923973 (photo by D. Hornsby) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .482 Figure 86.Morgan Spring (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .483 Figure 87.Pot Spring (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .484 Figure 88.Seven Sisters Spring (photo by D. Hornsby) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .485 Figure 89.Tanner Springs (photo by D. Hornsby) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .486 Figure 90.White Springs (photo by T. Scott) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .487 Figure 91.White Springs (photo by anonymous) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .487 Figure 92.Aripeka Spring No. 1 (photo by R. Meegan) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .488 Figure 93.Aripeka Spring No. 2 (photo by R. Meegan) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .489 Figure 94.Blind Spring (photo by R. Meegan) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .490 Figure 95.Boat Spring (photo by R. Meegan) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .491 Figure 96.Ryles Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .492 388 FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY

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Figure 97.Canal Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .494 Figure 98.Double Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .495 Figure 99.Last Spring (photo by R. Meegan) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .496 Figure 100.Lettuce Lake Spring (photo by R. Meegan) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .497 Figure 101.Palma Ceia Spring (photo by R. Meegan) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .498 Figure 102.Jackson Spring (photo by A. Willet) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .499 Figure 103.Thundering Springs (photo by A. Willet) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .500 Figure 104.Vortex Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .501 Figure 105.Barrel Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .502 Figure 106.Jackson Blue Spring Apalachicola (photo by A. Willet) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .503 Figure 107.Gator Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .504 Figure 108A.Hill Springs (photo by A. Willet) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .505 Figure 108B.Hill Springs (photo by A. Willet) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .505 Figure 109.Hole-in-the-Rock Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .506 Figure 110.King Spring (photo by A. Willet) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .507 Figure 111.Little Lagoon Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .508 Figure 112.Maund Spring (photo by R. Meegan) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .509 Figure 113.Rocky Creek Spring (photo by A. Willet) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .510 Figure 114.Rooks Rprings (photo by A. Willet) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .511 Figure 115.Sandbag Spring (photo by R. Meegan) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .512 Figure 116.Sinai Spring (photo by A. Willet) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .513 Figure 117.Tanner Springs (photo by A. Willet) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .514 Figure 118.Twin Caves Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .515 Figure 119.Waddell Mill Pond Spring (photo by A. Willet) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .516 Figure 120.Webbville Springs (photo by A. Willet) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .517 Figure 121.White Cave Spring (photo by A. Willet) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .518 Figure 122.Wacissa River Springs Group, Brumbley Spring (photo by A. Willet) . . .519 Figure 123.Wacissa River Springs Group, Buzzard Log Spring (photo by D. Hornsby)520 Figure 124.Wacissa River Springs Group, Cassidy Springs (photo by R. Means) . . . .521 Figure 125.Wacissa River Springs Group, Garner Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . .522 Figure 126.Wacissa River Springs Group, Horsehead Spring (photo by D. Hornsby) .523 Figure 127.Wacissa River Springs Group, Little Blue Spring (photo by A. Willet) . . .524 Figure 128.Wacissa River Springs Group, Log Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . .525 Figure 129.Wacissa River Springs Group, Minnow Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . .526 Figure 130.Wacissa River Springs Group, Thomas Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . .527 Figure 131.Wacissa River Springs Group, Wacissa Spring No. 3 (photo by R. Means)528 Figure 132.Convict Spring (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .530 Figure 133.LAF57982 (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .531 Figure 134.LAF718971 (photo by D. Hornsby) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .532 Figure 135.LAF718972 (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .533 Figure 136.LAF919972 (photo by D. Hornsby) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .534 Figure 137.LAF922975 (photo by D. Hornsby) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .535 Figure 138.LAF922976 (photo by D. Hornsby) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .536 Figure 139.LAF929971 (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .537 Figure 140.LAF929973 (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .539 Figure 141.Perry Spring (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .540 Figure 142.Steinhatchee Spring (photo by R. Jones) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .541 Figure 143.Blackwater Springs (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .543 Figure 144.Blue Algae Boil Spring (FGS photo archives) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .544 389 BULLETIN 66

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Figure 145.Blueberry Spring (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .545 Figure 146.Boulder Springs (FGS photo archives) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .546 Figure 147.Camp Le No Che Spring (photo by SJRWMD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .547 Figure 148.Droty Spring (FGS photo archives) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .548 Figure 149.Holiday Spring (photo by SJRWMD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .549 Figure 150.Markee Spring (photo by SJRWMD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .550 Figure 151.Moccasin Spring (FGS photo archives) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .551 Figure 152.Mooring Cove Spring (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .552 Figure 153.Mosquito Spring (photo by A. Willet) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .553 Figure 154.Palm Spring (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .554 Figure 155.SandyÂ’s Spring (photo by SJRWMD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .555 Figure 156.Sharks Tooth Spring (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .556 Figure 157.Snail Springs (photo by SJRWMD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .557 Figure 158.Sun Eden Spring (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .558 Figure 159.Lancaster Spring (photo by A. Willet) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .559 Figure 160.LEV 719991 (photo by D. Hornsby) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .560 Figure 161.Little Fanning Spring (photo by D. Hornsby) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .561 Figure 162.Little King Spring (photo by Springs Fever) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .562 Figure 163.Wekiva Spring (photo by A. Willet) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .563 Figure 164.MAD610981 (photo by A. Willet) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .564 Figure 165.Manatee Mineral Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .566 Figure 166Indian Creek Springs Group, Indian Creek Spring No. 2 (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .568 Figure 167.Indian Creek Springs Group, Indian Creek Spring No. 4 (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .569 Figure 168.Morman Branch Spring (photo by A. Willet) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .570 Figure 169.Rainbow Springs Group, Rainbow Spring No. 2 (photo by R. Means) . . . .572 Figure 170.Rainbow Springs Group, Rainbow Spring No. 3 (photo by R. Meegan) . . .572 Figure 171.Rainbow Springs Group, Rainbow Spring No. 5 (photo by R. Meegan) . . .573 Figure 172.Rainbow Springs Group, Rainbow Spring No. 7 (photo by R. Means) . . . .574 Figure 173.Rainbow Springs Group, Rainbow Spring North (photo by R. Means) . . .575 Figure 174.Rainbow Springs Group, Rainbow Unnamed Swamp Spring (photo by R. Meegan) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .575 Figure 175.Silver Springs Group, JacobÂ’s Well Spring (photo by R. Meegan) . . . . . . .577 Figure 176.Silver Springs Group, Silver Spring No. 4 (photo by R. Meegan) . . . . . . .579 Figure 177.Silver Springs Group, Silver Spring No. 5 (photo by R. Meegan) . . . . . . .579 Figure 178A.Sweetwater Springs (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .581 Figure 178B.Sweetwater Springs (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .582 Figure 179.Tobacco Patch Landing Springs (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .583 Figure 180.Wells Landing Spring (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .584 Figure 181.Wilson Head Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .585 Figure 182A.Sulfur Spring (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .586 Figure 182B.Sulfur Spring (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .587 Figure 183.Witherington Spring (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .588 Figure 184.Horseshoe Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .589 Figure 185.Crystal Beach Spring (photo by R. Meegan) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .590 Figure 186.Health Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .591 Figure 187.Kissengen Spring old photo (anonymous) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .592 Figure 188.Kissengen Spring (photo by T. Scott) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .592 390 FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY

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Figure 189.Forest Springs (photo by SJRWMD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .594 Figure 190.Mud Spring (photo by SJRWMD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .595 Figure 191.Nashua Spring (photo by SJRWMD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .596 Figure 192.Satsuma Spring (photo by SJRWMD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .597 Figure 193.Clifton Springs (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .598 Figure 194.Ginger Ale Spring (photo by A. Willet) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .599 Figure 195.Harden Spring (photo by A. Willet) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .600 Figure 196.Miami Spring (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .601 Figure 197.Nova Spring (FGS photo archives) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .602 Figure 198.Anderson Spring (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .603 Figure 199.Bathtub Spring (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .604 Figure 200.Betty Spring (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .605 Figure 201.Blue Sink Spring (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .606 Figure 202.Coffee Springs (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .607 Figure 203.Cow Spring (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .608 Figure 204.DevilÂ’s Eye Springs (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .609 Figure 205.Hidden Spring (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .610 Figure 206.Lime Run Spring (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .611 Figure 207.Lime Spring (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .612 Figure 208.Luraville Spring (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .613 Figure 209.Orange Grove Spring (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .614 Figure 210. Peacock Springs (photo by A. Willet) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .615 Figure 211. Royal Spring (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .616 Figure 212. Shingle Spring (photo by D. Hornsby) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .617 Figure 213. Shirley Spring (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .618 Figure 214. Stevenson Spring (SUW 923973) (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .619 Figure 215. Suwannee Blue Springs (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .620 Figure 216. SUW718971 (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .621 Figure 217. SUW725971 (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .622 Figure 218. SUW917971 (photo by D. Hornsby) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .623 Figure 219. SUW922971 (photo by D. Hornsby) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .624 Figure 220. SUW1017971 (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .625 Figure 221. SUW1017972 (photo by D. Hornsby) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .626 Figure 222. Beaver Creek Spring (photo by A. Willet) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .627 Figure 223. Big Spring (photo by A. Willet) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .628 Figure 224. Bradley Spring (photo by D. Hornsby) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .629 Figure 225. Cedar Island Spring (photo by A. Willet) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .630 Figure 226. Eva Spring (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .631 Figure 227. Fenholloway Spring (photo by A. Willet) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .632 Figure 228. Folsom Spring (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .633 Figure 229. Hampton Spring (photo by R. Means) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .634 Figure 230. Jabo Spring (photo by A. Willet) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .635 Figure 231. Spring Warrior Spring (photo by A. Willet) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .636 Figure 232. TAY616992 (photo by A. WIllet) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .637 Figure 233. TAY69991 (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .638 Figure 234. TAY622991 (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .639 Figure 235. TAY76991 (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .640 Figure 236. TAY924991 (photo by A. Willet) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .641 Figure 237. TAY924993 (photo by A. Willet) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .642 391 BULLETIN 66

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Figure 238. Worthington Spring (photo by T. Roberts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .643 Figure 239.Gemini Springs (photo by SJRWMD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .644 Figure 240. Green Spring (photo by SJRWMD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .645 Figure 241. Indian Spring (photo by A. Willet) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .646 Figure 242. McBride Slough Spring (photo by R. Meegan) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .647 Figure 243. Northside Spring No. 1 (photo by R. Meegan) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .648 Figure 244. Northside Spring No. 2 (photo by R. Meegan) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .649 Figure 245. Sally Ward Spring (photo by R. Meegan) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .650 Figure 246. Galloway Spring (photo by A. Chelette) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .651 Figure 247. Hightower Springs (photo by A. Chelette) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .652 Figure 248. Jack Paul Springs (photo by A. Chelette) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .653 Figure 249. MillerÂ’s Ferry Spring (photo by A. Chelette) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .654 Figure 250. Piney Wood Spring (photo by A. Chelette) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .655 Figure 251. Skipper Spring (photo by A. Chelette) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .656 Figure 252. Unnamed Spring (photo by A. Chelette) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .657 392 FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY

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DESCRIPTIONS OF ADDITIONAL SPRINGS VISITEDBYFGSSPRINGSTEAMS Note : Descriptions include data from Springs Fever Internet site, Rosenau et al (1977) and various springs publications by the Water Management Districts. During the nearly three years that FGS springs teams visited and described Florida’s springs, water levels were low due to an extended drought. Because of the low water levels, the springs appeared differently and had different depths than the springs had during normal water levels.ALACHUA COUNTY ALA930971 Location – Lat. 29° 49’ 40.59” N, Long. 82° 38’ 27.01” W (NW¼ NW¼ NW¼ sec. 5, T. 8 S, R. 17 E). ALA930971 is located on the Santa Fe River 2.5 miles (4 km) west of High Springs. From the junction of US 441 and US 41 in High Springs, drive southwest on US 41 for 0.8 miles (1.3 km). Turn west (right) on SR 340 (Poe Springs Road) and travel 2.5 miles (4 km). Turn north (right) into Poe Spring County Park at the park sign. Once inside the park, follow signs to the boat ramp on the river. The spring is along the south bank of the Santa Fe River 0.8 miles (1.3 km) upstream from the county park boat ramp. BULLETIN 66 393 Figure 1. ALA930971 (photo by D. Hornsby).

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Description – ALA930971 vent is in the riverbed and feeds directly into the Santa Fe River. No spring boil was visible in February 2003 and the spring was barely detectable. Minimal aquatic vegetation can be seen growing in the tannic river water. Two large cypress trees growing along the bank denote the spring’s location. To the east is swampy lowland characterized by soft soils, cypress trees, and cypress knees giving way to a hardwood forest. Hornsby and Ceryak (1998) reported that the spring had a 10 ft (3.1 m) wide boil with a maximum depth-to-vent of 6.5 ft (2.0 m). The land surrounding the spring is owned by the Suwannee River Water Management District. ALA930972 Location Lat. 29° 50’ 40.49” N, Long. 82° 37’ 51.08” W (SE¼ SW¼ SE¼ sec. 29, T. 7 S, R. 17 E). ALA930972 is located approximately 2 miles (3.2 km) northwest of the town of High Springs. From the intersection of US 27 and SR 45 in High Springs, travel 2.3 miles (3.7 km) northwest on US 27 to the Santa Fe River. Go 0.1 miles (0.16 km) past the river and turn north (right) into the River Rise Preserve State Park boat ramp parking area. The spring is across the Santa Fe River from the boat ramp. Description – ALA930972 is in the riverbed and flows into the Santa Fe River. The depth to the spring vent is 15.0 ft (4.6 m) and the water clarity in the vicinity is excellent. Flow out of the vent produces a prominent boil that is approximately 2.0 ft (0.6 m) in diameter. The riverbank rises 6.0 ft (1.8 m) high from the surface of the spring and consists of limestone covered by a thin soil horizon. Forests along the riverbank are dominated by cypress, FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 394 Figure 2. ALA930972 (photo by D. Hornsby).

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oak, and palmetto. A rope swing and a large oak branch hang over the river directly beside the spring vent. The land surrounding the spring is owned by the Suwannee River Water Management District. Boulware Spring Location – Lat 29° 37’ 15.21” N, Long. 82° 18’ 25.91” W (NE¼ NE¼ SE¼ sec. 16, T. 10 S, R. 20 E). Boulware Spring is located about 1.5 miles (2.4 km) miles southeast of Gainesville. From the intersection of SR 331(Williston Rd) and CR 329 (4 th Street) in southeast Gainesville, travel 1.5 miles (2.4 km) southeast on 4 th Street until reaching Boulware Springs Park on the west (right) side of the road. Turn into the park, and follow signs to the spring. Description – Boulware Spring has been completely altered from its original state. Gainesville built a water treatment plant around it. Spring water flows from the base of a semicircular brick wall measuring 18 ft (5.5 m) in radius, and is contained within a cistern. Water exits the vent area and flows into a deeper part of the cistern, where Hydrilla and algae growth are extensive. Clear water flows south into the first of two 12 ft (3.7 m) by 20 ft (6.1 m) concrete retaining pools, both of which are covered with duckweed. Sand and aquatic plants cover the northwest ledge near where spring water issues. The spring disBULLETIN 66 395 Figure 3. Boulware Spring (photo by T. Roberts).

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charges into a stream, eventually entering into Payne’s Prairie. East of the cistern is an adjacent two story building that was once used for water treatment and distribution. Historically, this site was used as the city’s source of drinking water. Boulware Spring is now a city park. Darby Spring Location – Lat. 29° 51’ 09.42” N, Long. 82° 36’ 21.48” W (NE¼ SW¼ NW¼ sec. 27, T. 7 S, R. 17 E). Darby Spring is located approximately 1.8 miles (2.9 km) north of High Springs. From the intersection of US 441 and CR 236 (Main Street) in High Springs, travel 1.8 miles (2.9 km) northwest on US 441 to the Santa Fe River. The spring is approximately 0.1 miles (0.16 km) upstream from the public boat ramp off SR 441 along the south bank of the Santa Fe River. Description – The Darby Spring pool has a diameter of 40 ft (12.2 m) and a depth of 10 ft (3.1 m). In December 2002, the spring pool had an abundance of aquatic vegetation and was covered with duckweed. The bottom of the pool and the spring vent were not discernable. During the December 2002 visit, the spring was no longer flowing and its run contained stagnant water. The run is 150 ft (45.7 m) long, 4.0 ft (1.2 m) wide and 0.5 ft (0.15 m) deep. The run bottom is soft detritus and is covered with leaves and tree branches. High ground surrounding the spring gently slopes upward to 7.0 ft (2.1 m). To the east, there is a large, grassy pasture. Darby Spring is located on wooded private property. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 396 Figure 4. Darby Spring (photo by D. Hornsby).

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Glen Spring BULLETIN 66 397 Figure 5A. Glen Spring (photo by B. Osburn). Figure 5B. Glen Spring (photo by B. Osburn).

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Location – Lat. 29° 40’ 30.04” N, Long. 82° 20’ 52.44” W (SE¼ SE¼ SW¼ sec. 30, T. 9 S, R. 20 E). Glen Spring is located in Gainesville. From the intersection of US 441 (NW 13thSt.) and Glen Springs Road, travel west on Glen Springs Road for approximately 0.5 miles (0.8 km). The spring is at the head of a ravine approximately 250 ft (76.2 m) southwest of the road. Description – Glen Spring has been altered into a series of adjoining swimming pools enclosed in concrete walls. The first pool contains the spring vent. It is 18 ft (5.5 m) long, 10 ft (3.1 m) wide, 4 ft (1.2 m) deep, and has exposed limestone near the vent. The spring pool has clear, blue-green water and a sand bottom. Water flows from the first pool into a larger swimming pool where green algae are abundant. The spring run is 500 ft (152.4 m) long, 2.5 ft (0.8 m) wide, 0.2 ft (0.06 m) deep. It flows southeast in a steep ravine into Hogtown Creek. The land around the spring slopes gently to 10 ft (3.1 m) above the water surface. Apartments and residences are visible nearby just north of the spring. A dense hardwood forest inhabits land adjacent to the spring and its run. The spring is located on private property, and appears to be in a state of disuse. Discharge on April 17, 2000, was 0.13 cfs (SJRWMD). Magnesia Spring Location – Lat. 29° 35’ 00.26” N, Long. 82° 08’ 58.54” W (SW¼ NE¼ NW¼ sec. 31, T. 10 S, R. 22 E). The spring is located approximately 4.0 miles (6.4 km) west of Hawthorne. From the intersection of SR 20 (Hawthorne Road) and US 301/200 (Main St.) in Hawthorne, travFLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 398 Figure 6. Magnesia Spring (photo by A. Willet).

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el 0.4 miles (0.6 km) south on Main St. Turn west (right) onto CR 2082 and go 3.8 miles (6.1 km). Turn south (left) onto SE 161stTerrace and proceed 0.4 miles (0.6 km) to the park containing Magnesia Spring. Description – The spring vent is at the bottom of a 25 ft (7.6 m) deep oval, 60 ft. (18.3 m) by 75 ft. (22.9 m), concrete swimming pool filled with aquatic vegetation, green algae, and a variety of small fish. The spring water is slightly murky. Two artesian wells on either side of the pool supplement the flow of this spring. A small spring run, 4.0 ft (1.2 m) wide and 0.4 ft (0.1 m) deep, flows west 800 ft (243.8 m) into Lochloosa Creek. There are also two recreational swimming pools that can be filled by spring water. The spring is on private property. BAY COUNTY Bluff Springs Location – Lat. 30° 25’ 30.96” N, Long. 85° 32’ 54.20” W (NE¼ SE¼ SW¼ sec. 4, T. 1 S, R. 13 W). Bluff Springs are located approximately 18 miles (29 km) north of Panama City. From the intersection of US 231 and SR 20, travel west on SR 20 approximately 7 miles (11.3 km) to Econfina Creek. Put in at the canoe launch on the north side of the highway just east of the creek. Bluff Springs are located along the west bank of Econfina Creek approximately 0.7 miles (1.1 km) downstream from the canoe launch or about 750 ft (228.6 m) downstream from the Gainer Springs Group. BULLETIN 66 399 Figure 7. Bluff Springs (photo by R. Meegan).

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Description – Bluff Springs is a cluster of at least four springs emerging from fissures at the base of 20 ft (6.1 m) high limestone and sand bluffs. The largest spring vent issues into a 10 ft (3.1 m) diameter pool that measures 2.7 ft (0.8 m) in depth. A second and third vent are 25 ft (7.6 m) and 35 ft (10.7 m) to the north, respectively, and a fourth vent is 20 ft (6.1 m) to the south (downstream) of the main vent, all along the base of the bluff. The springs have clear water and sand bottoms. The springs flow 30 ft (9.1 m) due east through a shallow run into Econfina Creek. The bluff is covered with lush vegetation and exposed limestone is heavily scalloped. Surrounding lands are heavily forested in the lowlands along the creek and in the uplands to the west. Bluff Springs is surrounded by NWFWMD land. Econfina Unnamed Spring Location – Lat. 30° 25’ 53.46” N, Long. 85° 32’ 50.77” W (SE¼ SE¼ NW¼ sec. 4, T. 1 S, R. 13 W). Econfina Unnamed Spring is located approximately 18 miles (29 km) north of Panama City. From the intersection of US 231 and SR 20 travel west on SR 20 approximately 7 miles (11.3 km) to Econfina Creek. Just past the creek on the north (right) side of the road is Pitt Springs Recreation Area. From inside the recreation area, the spring can be accessed by following a hiking trail on the northwest side of the parking lot. It is the second spring encountered on this trail before reaching Sylvan Springs and is 30 ft (9.1 m) south of the trail. Description – Econfina Unnamed Spring is a small spring with an irregular shaped spring pool measuring 15 ft (4.6 m) north to south and 10 ft (3.1 m) east to west. The spring pool is approximately 1 ft (0.3 m) deep, and it has a sand and detritus bottom. Clear water issues from a small limestone opening; however, no flow was evident in June 2003. The narrow spring run flows southward through a hardwood forest and flows through a pipe under SR 20. The spring is underneath a dense forest canopy within Northwest Florida Water Management District lands. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 400 Figure 8. Econfina Unnamed Spring (photo by R. Means).

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Pitt Spring Location – Lat. 30° 25’ 58.68” N, Long. 85° 32’ 47.14” W (NW¼ SW¼ NE¼ sec. 4, T. 1 S, R. 13 W). Pitt Spring is located approximately 18 miles (29 km) north of Panama City. From the intersection of US 231 and SR 20 travel west on SR 20 approximately 7 miles (11.3 km) to Econfina Creek. Just past the creek on the north (right) side of the road is Pitt Springs Recreation Area. The spring is inside the recreation area. Description – The entire spring pool is enclosed by a 5 ft (1.5 m) high stone retaining wall with wooden access walkways. Pitt Spring pool is 60 ft (18.3 m) in diameter. Depth over the vent is estimated at 8 ft (2.4 m). No vegetation grows in the spring pool and the bottom is bare white sand. The water is clear and blue. Stairs lead into the pool from the south side. The 1.5 ft (0.5 m) deep spring run flows 50 ft (15.2 m) east into the Econfina River, approximately 700 ft (213.4 m) north of the SR 20 bridge. A parking area is just east and north of the spring. The rest of the surrounding land is upland hardwood forest to the west and forested lowlands along Econfina Creek to the east. The spring has been developed by the Northwest Florida Water Management District into a popular recreation park featuring the spring, hiking trails, and access to Econfina Creek. BULLETIN 66 401 Figure 9. Pitt Spring (photo by R. Meegan).

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Sylvan Springs No. 1 Location – Lat. 30° 25’ 54.33” N, Long. 85° 32’ 53.60” W (SE¼ SE¼ NW¼ sec. 4, T. 1 S, R. 13 W). Sylvan Springs No. 1 is located approximately 18 miles (29 km) north of Panama City. From the intersection of US 231 and SR 20 travel west on SR 20 approximately 7 miles (11.3 km) to Econfina Creek. Just past the creek on the north (right) side of the road is Pitt Springs Recreation Area. Park inside the recreation area. A hiking trail beginning at the north side of the parking lot leads to Sylvan Springs. It is the first spring encountered along the north (right) side of the trail. Description – Sylvan Springs is comprised of as many as eight spring vents that are situated along a limestone fissure near the west side of a large, approximately 125 ft. (38.1 m) diameter, shallow spring pool. The spring pool averages 1 ft (0.3 m) deep with a maximum depth of 2 ft (0.6 m) over one of the vents. Sylvan Springs No. 1 has a sand and scalloped limestone bottom with some algae. The water is light blue and clear. The springhead is a wide, shallow, oval with two forested islands. Its spring run flows approximately 0.1 miles (0.16 km) north where it joins Econfina Creek. Eight feet (2.4 m) high vertical banks meet the pool’s edge on the south and west sides. Lands to the east and north are low-lying along Econfina Creek. All surroundings are heavily forested. A path and wooden bench are along the southwest side of the pool. Sylvan Springs No. 1 is pristine and within Northwest Florida Water Management District lands. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 402 Figure 10. Sylvan Springs No. 1 (photo by R. Meegan).

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Sylvan Springs No. 2 Location – Lat. 30° 25’ 53.80” N, Long. 85° 32’ 50.33” W (SE¼ SE¼ NW¼ sec. 4, T. 1 S, R. 13 W). Sylvan Springs No. 2 is located approximately 18 miles (29 km) north of Panama City. From the intersection of US 231 and SR 20 travel west on SR 20 approximately 7 miles (11.3 km) to Econfina Creek. Just past the creek on the north (right) side of the road is Pitt Springs Recreation Area. Park inside the recreation area. A hiking trail beginning at the north side of the parking lot leads to Sylvan Spring No. 2. It is the second spring encountered along the north (right) side of the trail. Description – Sylvan Spring No. 2 forms a circular pool directly adjacent to the hiking trail and about 600 ft (183 m) from the parking lot. The spring pool is 20 ft (6.1 m) in diameter with a sand and detritus bottom. In June 2003, the spring was stagnant, greenish, and barely flowing. The spring vent is located in a noticeably deeper spot in the center of the pool. Depth over the vent is estimated at 5 ft (1.6 m). The spring pool and spring run average 2 ft (0.6 m) deep. The spring run is as wide as the pool and flows northwest into Sylvan Spring Run. All surrounding lands are heavily forested. Sylvan Spring No. 2 is within Northwest Florida Water Management District lands. BULLETIN 66 403 Figure 11. Sylvan Springs No. 2 (photo by R. Meegan).

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BRADFORD COUNTY Heilbronn Spring Location Lat. 30 1’ 25.75” N, Long. 82 9’ 22.06” W (sec. 30, T. 5 S, R. 12 E). Drive 5.8 miles (9.3 km) northwest of Starke on SR 16, from the junction with SR 301. Turn left on a dirt road just before the bridge. Drive 0.2 miles (0.3 km) to the spring Description – A concrete wall encircles the spring pool of this private spring, therefore access was not permitted on the day of visit in February of 2003. Three homes are in close vicinity to the spring, as well as a dense forest of cypress trees and palmettos. Scattered sweet gum trees also surround the spring. North of the spring is Water Oak Creek, which is fed by seeps in the same general area as the spring pool. Spring Fever claims that this spring is 14.5 ft (4.4 m) deep and 10.0 ft (3.0 m) in diameter. CALHOUN COUNTY Grotto Springs Location – Lat. 30 35’ 57.88” N, Long. 85 09’ 51.28” W (NW NW SW sec. 5, T. 2 N, R. 9 W). Grotto Springs are located along the Chipola River approximately 9.3 miles (15 km) southwest of I-10 and are accessible by boat. From the intersection of I-10 and SR 71 travel south on SR 71 6.8 miles (10.9 km) to the intersection with CR 278 (Peacock Bridge Road). FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 404 Figure 12. Grotto Springs No. 1 (photo by R. Meegan).

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Turn west (right) onto CR 278 and drive 0.6 miles (1.0 km) to the boat ramp on the east side of the Chipola River. By boat, travel approximately 2.3 miles (3.7 km) downstream from the CR 278 boat ramp to the mouth of the spring run on the east (left) side of the river. The springs are about 0.2 miles (0.3 km) upstream at the head of the run. Access to the springs is by walking up the shallow spring run to its head. Description – Grotto Springs consists of a cluster of at least four spring vents. The springs are situated at the head of an elongated and impounded portion of the uppermost part of the spring run. The impoundment at the head of the spring run is approximately 30 ft (9.1 m) wide and 150 ft (45.7 m) long. The main vent discharging the most flow emerges from a cave in 6 ft (1.8 m) high limestone bank on the northeast side of the impoundment. A second vent, composed of at least three shallow boils, is 20 ft (6.1 m) southeast and downstream of the main vent. The third spring vent issues from an orifice in limestone downstream from the first two vents. A fourth spring vent discharges from a square-shaped, man-made cut in limestone. Grotto Springs Run flows underneath a forest canopy about 1000 ft (304.8 m) southwest into the Chipola River.It has a limestone, sand, and gravel bottom. Surrounding lands are privately owned and heavily forested. Several sink depressions, caves, and karst windows are scattered throughout the uplands north and east of Grotto Springs. Hamilton Spring Location – Lat. 30° 31’ 09.30” N, Long. 85° 09’ 47.52” W (NE¼ NW¼ NW¼ sec. 5, T. 1 N, R. 9 W). Hamilton Spring is located along the Chipola River approximately 4 miles (6.4 km) southwest of Altha and is accessible by boat. From Altha, drive west 2.3 miles (3.7 km) on BULLETIN 66 405 Figure 13. Hamilton Spring (photo by R. Means).

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CR 274 (Chipola Street). Turn north (right) onto a dirt road indicated by a public boat ramp sign. Follow the road 0.8 miles (1.3 km) to the boat ramp on the Chipola River. The spring is located just below Bullet Bend on the west bank of the Chipola River approximately 3.4 miles (5.5 km) south (downstream) of the boat ramp. Description – Hamilton Spring pool is approximately 30 ft (9.1 m) north to south and 20 ft (6.1 m) east to west. The spring vent is in the south end of the oval shaped pool and issues clear, bluish water. Spring depth averages 3 ft (0.9 m). Hamilton Spring Run averages 3 ft (0.9 m) deep and 25 ft (7.6 m) wide. Both the spring and run have sand and limestone bottoms. The run travels 210 ft (64 m) north where it flows under a 20 ft (6.1 m) wide land bridge. Spring water reemerges on the other (north) side of the land bridge in what appears to be a separate spring pool with a slight boil on the water surface. Gentle flow in the pool travels northeast about 30 ft (9.1 m) toward a 4 ft (1.2 m) high berm that separates the spring waters from the adjacent Chipola River. Spring flow enters the river presumably underneath the berm. Hamilton Spring is within a forested lowland along the Chipola River bordered on the west by a steep 30 ft (9.1 m) high bluff and on the east by the river. Two houses are visible in the distance to the southwest and northwest of the spring on top of the bluffs. Two narrow PVC pipes lead down into the spring from the direction of the high ground. Sally Spring FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 406 Figure 14. Sally Spring (photo by A. Chelette).

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Location – Lat. 30° 34’ 13.08” N, Long. 85° 10’ 24.31” W (NW¼ NW¼ SE¼ sec. 18, T. 2 N, R. 9 W). Sally Spring is located on the Chipola River approximately 2.8 miles (4.5 km) northwest of Altha and is accessible by boat. From Altha, drive west 2.3 miles (3.7 km) on CR 274 (Chipola Street). Turn north (right) onto a dirt road indicated by a public boat ramp sign. Follow the road 0.8 miles (1.3 km) to the boat ramp on the Chipola River. Sally Spring is on the east side of the river 1.8 miles (3.0 km) upstream from the boat ramp. Description – Sally Spring sits in a semicircular cove along the banks of the Chipola River. The spring pool is 16 ft (4.9 m) in diameter and 4 ft (1.2 m) deep with a sand and limestone bottom. Spring water is clear and slightly bluish. A gentle boil is observed on the pool surface. The spring emerges from a cave at the base of 15 ft (4.6 m) high limestone river banks. The riparian corridor in the vicinity of the spring is forested, and planted pines grow in the uplands to the east. Sally Spring has virtually no spring run but there is a distinct interface between clear spring water and the darker, murky water of the Chipola River. CITRUS COUNTY Alligator Spring Location – Lat. 28° 48’ 01.62” N, Long. 82° 35’ 16.71” W (SE¼ NW¼ NE¼ sec. 28, T. 19 S, R. 17 E). Alligator Spring is located within the Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Park. From the intersection of US 98 and CR 490A in Homosassa Springs, travel west on CR 490A for 0.6 miles (1.0 km). Turn south (left) on Fishbowl Drive and travel 0.3 miles (0.5 km) to the State Wildlife Park. Alligator Spring is within the park on the northeast side of the enclosed pool that contains live, captive alligators. Description – Alligator Spring occupies a man-made spring pool measuring 150 ft (45.7 m) by 100 ft (30.5 m). Spring depth was estimated at 5 ft (1.5 m) to 8 ft (2.4 m) over the vent. A gentle spring boil was visible during the November 2003 visit. Water is clear near the spring vent; however, the rest of the spring pool has slightly murky water. The spring has a dark, detritus-covered sand bottom. There are approximately 25 captive alligators within the enclosed spring pool, which is a popular visitor attraction. The pool is fenced off and surrounded by a foot path. A footbridge and weir are located on the south side of the spring. Water flows from the spring pool through the weir and into an adjacent water-filled enclosure containing a captive hippopotamus. The spring run then flows 350 ft (106.7 m) southwest into the Homosassa River just below the head springs. The land surrounding Alligator Spring is part of the Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Park and contains trails, animal enclosures, and wildlife interpretive displays. Baird Springs Baird Springs consists of at least four different springs near the head of Baird Creek 0.5 miles (0.8 km) southwest of Chassahowitzka. From the intersection of US 98 and CR 480 in Chassahowitzka travel west 1.8 miles (2.9 km) on CR 480 to a boat ramp on the Chassahowitzka River. Baird Creek flows into the river from the south 0.55 miles (0.9 km) downstream from the Chassahowitzka boat ramp. Baird Springs and Creek are within the Chassahowitzka National Wildlife Refuge, inside the large, heavily forested Chassahowitzka Swamp basin. BULLETIN 66 407

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Baird Spring No. 1 Location – Lat. 28° 42’ 26.91” N, Long. 82° 34’ 41.52” W (NW¼ NE¼ NW¼ sec. 35, T. 20 S, R. 17 E). Baird Spring No. 1 is located at the head of Baird Creek approximately 0.7 miles (1.1 km) upstream from the mouth of the creek. Description – Baird Spring No. 1, forming the headwaters of Baird Creek, discharges from an elongated limestone fissure 3 ft (0.9 m) to 5 ft. (1.5 m) wide, 20 ft. (6.1 m) long and 6 ft (1.8 m) deep. During the April 2003 visit, there was very little flow and no visible boil. The water is clear and light blue. The spring has a sand bottom with limestone near the vent. Baird Creek initially averages 1 ft (0.3 m) deep and 5 ft (1.5 m) wide then widens and deepens downstream several hundred feet (one hundred meters). Baird Creek has a sand bottom. The spring is within a swamp forest. Baird Spring No. 2 Location – Lat. 28° 42’ 29.88” N, Long. 82° 34’ 42.80” W (NW¼ NE¼ NW¼ sec. 35, T. 20 S, R. 17 E). Baird Spring No. 2 is located in a small cove off the east bank of Baird Creek approximately 400 ft (121.9 m) downstream from Baird Spring. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 408 Figure 15. Baird Spring No. 1 (photo by SWFWMD).

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Description – Baird Spring No. 2 has a maximum depth of 11 ft (3.4 m). No boil was observed on the spring surface in April 2003. The spring is clear and has a sand bottom. The spring is within a forested swamp. Baird Spring No. 3 Location – Lat. 28° 42’ 32.86” N, Long. 82° 34’ 46.72” W (NE¼ NW¼ NW¼ sec. 35, T. 20 S, R. 17 E). Baird Spring No. 3 is located approximately 450 ft (137.2 m) downstream from Baird Spring No. 2. Description – Baird Spring No. 3 occupies a large bowl-shaped depression on the east side of Baird Creek. Depth in the center of the spring measures 15.8 ft (4.8 m). The spring water is clear. No boil was observed in April 2003. Baird Spring No. 3 has a sand bottom. Surrounding land is heavily forested swampy lowlands. Baird Spring No. 4 Location – Lat. 28° 42’ 33.33” N, Long. 82° 34’ 48.99” W (NE¼ NW¼ NW¼ sec. 35, T. 20 S, R. 17 E). Baird Spring No. 4 is located in a cove on the west side of Baird Creek 150 ft (45.7 m) downstream from Baird Spring No. 3. BULLETIN 66 409 Figure 16. Baird Spring No. 2 (photo by R. Means).

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Description – Baird Spring No. 4 was slightly tannic in April 2003. The spring depression has a deep center with a maximum measured depth of 62 ft (18.9 m). No boil was visible during the April 2003 visit. Although the bottom could not be seen, the spring is believed to have steep limestone ledges. Baird Spring No. 4 is within heavily forested swampy lowlands. Banana Spring Location – Lat. 28° 48’ 03.64” N, Long. 82° 35’ 17.44” W (SE¼ NW¼ NE¼ sec. 28, T. 19 S, R. 17 E). Banana Spring is located southeast of the reptile house in a man-made pool within the Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Park. From the intersection of US 98 and CR 490A in Homosassa Springs, travel west on CR 490A for 0.6 miles (1.0 km). Turn south (left) on Fishbowl Drive and travel 0.3 miles (0.5 km) to the State Wildlife Park. Park officials report that the spring vent is beneath the overhanging banana trees on the north side of the pool. Description – Banana Spring pool measures 60 ft (18.3 m) by 40 ft (12.2 m). There are two fountains within the spring pool. No spring boil was visible on the pool surface in November 2003, and the water was dark and murky. The spring run flows under a footbridge at the south end of the pool and into Alligator Spring. The combined flow enters the Homosassa River just downstream from Homosassa Springs. A gate across one of the Park’s bridges blocks entrance to the spring run from the Homosassa River. Access to the spring is not permitted; however, the spring may be viewed from adjacent boardwalks. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 410 Figure 17. Banana Spring (photo by R. Meegan).

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Bear Spring Location – Lat. 28° 48’ 06.47” N, Long. 82° 35’ 14.12” W (NW¼ NE¼ NE¼ sec. 28, T. 19 S, R. 17 E). Bear Spring is located within the Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Park at the head of a spring run that, combined with Banana and Alligator Springs, flows southwesterly and joins the main Homosassa Springs, forming the head of the Homosassa River. Bear Spring is behind the black bear enclosure and aviary at the north end of the park. From the intersection of US 98 and CR 490A in Homosassa Springs, travel west on CR 490A for 0.6 miles (1.0 km). Turn south (left) on Fishbowl Drive and travel 0.3 miles (0.5 km) to the State Wildlife Park. Description – Bear Spring pool is elongated, measuring 60 ft (18.3 m) north-south and 20 ft (6.1 m) east-west. There are two small vents in the northern and eastern sections of the pool. Depth of the spring pool is estimated to be 5 ft (1.5 m). There were slight boils over each vent. In November 2003, the spring had clear water. The pool had a dark appearance because the spring bottom consisted of dark-colored detritus and some exposed sand. Hydrilla is present in the pool. A pipe from the aviary drains into the south side of Bear Spring pool. Bear Spring is within dense woods on the northeast side of Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Park. Nearby there are boardwalks and animal enclosures to the south and west. BULLETIN 66 411 Figure 18. Bear Spring (photo by R. Means).

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Blue Hole Spring Location – Lat. 28° 47’ 55.63” N, Long. 82° 35’ 22.34” W (NE¼ SW¼ NE¼ sec. 28, T. 19 S, R. 17 E). This spring is located within the Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Park just west of the education center. It is located on the south side of the Homosassa River 300 ft (91.4 m) downstream from a footbridge/barricade over Homosassa River. From the intersection of US 98 and CR 490A in Homosassa Springs, travel west on CR 490A for 0.6 miles (1.0 km). Turn south (left) on Fishbowl Drive and travel 0.3 miles (0.5 km) to the State Wildlife Park. Description – Blue Hole Spring occupies a 75 ft (22.9 m) by 25 ft (7.6 m) cove off of the upper Homosassa River. The steep-sided spring vent issues blue water from under a wooden walk bridge. Limestone is exposed surrounding the vent, which is estimated at 15 ft (4.6 m) deep. No boil was visible during the November 2003 visit; however, the spring was observed flowing. The spring water flows north, directly into the Homosassa River. Blue Hole Spring is surrounded by a mixture of trees and grassy lawn. An education center is west of the spring, and a boardwalk passes over the spring along the Homosassa River. The spring can only be observed from the boardwalk. Bluebird Springs Location – Lat. 28° 47’ 20.38” N, Long. 82° 34’ 46.26” W (NE¼ NW¼ NW¼ sec. 34, T. 19 S, R. 17 E). Bluebird Spring is located in a municipal park off CR 490 (Yulee Drive) 0.9 mi (1.5 km) southeast of Homosassa Springs. From the intersection of US 19/98 and CR 490 head southwest on CR 490 approximately 0.7 miles (1.1 km) to the intersection with Bluebird FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 412 Figure 19. Blue Hole Spring (photo by R. Means).

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Springs Lane. Head south (left) on Bluebird Springs Lane approximately 0.2 miles (0.3 km) to the springs. Description – Bluebird Springs has been enhanced with concrete walls creating a squareshaped spring pool near the vent. This portion of the spring pool measures 75 ft (22.9 m) east to west. The overall spring pool is approximately 120 ft (36.6 m) wide and 225 ft (68.6 m) long. Water issues from a limestone fissure. Depth over the fissure is 15 ft (4.6 m). The spring bottom consists of sand, detritus, and limestone. The spring water is clear with a greenish hue. Algae are abundant on all substrates in the slow-moving spring. Another spring vent is approximately 150 ft (45.7 m) east of the main vent, up a short, narrow run which converges with flow from the main vent. Limestone crops out near spring vents, otherwise, the bottom is sandy with aquatic vegetation common. Their combined flow travels south and west 280 ft (85.3 m) through a 100 ft (30.5 m) wide run with grassy lawn along its banks. It narrows to about 15 ft (4.6 m) wide and 3 ft (0.9 m) deep then enters low, swampy woodlands and flows under a dense forest canopy. From this point, the spring run travels an unknown distance westward virtually parallel to the Homosassa River and is presumed to eventually enter the river. The area is a developed county park with facilities and picnic tables; however, no swimming is allowed in the springs. There was not enough flow to create boils on the spring surface in March 2003. BULLETIN 66 413 Figure 20. Bluebird Springs (photo by R. Means).

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Chassahowitzka Spring No. 2 Location – Lat. 28° 42’ 57.66” N, Long. 82° 34’ 31.63” W (NW¼ NW¼ SE¼ sec. 26, T. 20 S, R. 17 E). From Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Park, drive south on US 19/98 5.8 miles (9.3 km). Turn west (right) on CR 480 and drive about 1.8 miles (2.9 km) to the public boat access area. Chassahowitzka Spring No. 2 flows into the north side of the Chassahowitzka River 575 ft (175.3 m) upstream from the Chassahowitzka boat ramp. Description – The Chassahowitzka Spring No. 2 spring pool measures 30 ft (9.1 m) from north to south and 20 ft (6.1 m) from east to west. The spring consists of at least five spring vents clustered on the bottom of Chassahowitzka Spring No. 1 spring run. Slight boils are visible over two of the vents. The deepest vent measures 9.7 ft (3.0 m). Hydrilla is abundant near the spring. A rusty, water-extraction pipe runs into one of the spring vents. The spring pool has a sand and limestone bottom. The spring water is clear and light blue. At least three of the spring vents tap into a single conduit. It is possible for a swimmer to enter one vent and exit through a different vent. Chassahowitzka Spring No. 2 is located approximately 175 ft (53.3 m) downstream from Chassahowitzka Spring No. 1. Spring water from Chassahowitzka Spring No. 2 discharges into the Chassahowitzka Spring No. 1 Run. From this point, their combined flow travels approximately 100 ft (30.5 m) southwest down a shallow, limestone and sand-bottomed run into the upper Chassahowitzka River. Adjacent lands north, east and west are densely forested lowlands associated with the FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 414 Figure 21. Chassahowitzka Spring No. 2 (photo by R. Meegan).

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Chassahowitzka River, owned by the Chassahowitzka National Wildlife Refuge. A private residence is visible 150 ft (45.7 m) southwest across the Chassahowitzka River. Crab Spring (Crab Creek Spring) Location – Lat. 28° 43’ 01.92” N, Long. 82° 34’ 33.07” W (SE¼ SE¼ NW¼ sec. 26, T. 20 S, R. 17 E). From Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Park, drive south on US 19/98 5.8 miles (9.3 km). Turn west (right) on CR 480 and drive about 1.8 miles (2.9 km) to the public boat access area. Crab Spring Run enters the north side of the Chassahowitzka River 400 ft (121.9 m) downstream from the Chassahowitzka boat ramp. Crab Spring is at the head of the run near a private residence. Description – The Crab Spring pool measures 75 ft (22.9 m) in diameter and it consists of at least four separate spring vents. The largest vent is on the east side of the spring pool with a depth of 8 ft (2.4 m). The water is bluish and slightly murky. Prominent boils occur over each vent. The spring pool bottom is sand and limestone near the vents but the rest of the pool is covered by aquatic grasses and exotic aquatic plants that have a thick brown algal coating. A private estate occupies the northern side of the spring pool with lowland forest surrounding the rest of the area. The spring flows 700 ft (213.4 m) southwest to the Chassahowitzka River. BULLETIN 66 415 Figure 22. Crab Spring (photo by R. Means).

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Hall’s River Spring No. 2 Location – Lat. 28° 49’ 35.68” N, Long. 82° 34’ 59.63” W (SW¼ SW¼ NW¼ sec. 15, T. 19 S, R. 17 E). This spring sits in the heavily vegetated channel of Hall’s River Head Spring Run approximately 0.2 miles (0.3 km) east of US 19, north of Homosassa Springs. The spring must be accessed by boat from the Homosassa River. From the intersection of US 98 and CR 490A in Homosassa Springs, travel west on CR 490A for 0.6 miles (1.0 km). Turn south (left) on Fishbowl Drive and travel 0.3 miles (0.5 km) to the State Wildlife Park. There are several public and private boat landings in the vicinity. Description – The Hall’s River Spring No. 2 spring pool measures 40 ft (12.2 m) north to south and 30 ft (9.1 m) east to west. The spring occupies a widening of Hall’s River Head Spring Run. Hall’s River Spring No. 2 discharges from a 1.5 ft (0.5 m) diameter opening in limestone. Several additional small sand boils issue from the pool bottom. The bottom is soft sand and detritus. The spring water is clear and light blue. Emergent and submerged vegetation are abundant along the spring run. Combined flow from Hall’s River Head Spring and Hall’s River Spring No. 2 travels west approximately 300 ft (91.4 m) through a 2 ft (0.6 m) deep, 8 ft (2.4 m) wide spring run that enters the uppermost portion of Hall’s River from the east. An extensive canal system exists upstream from where the spring enters Hall’s River. Residences are scattered along the modified banks of Hall’s River approximately 400 ft (121.9 m) to the northeast of the Hall’s River Spring No. 2, but the spring itself is surrounded by forested lowlands. Hall’s River Head Spring is located approximately 900 ft (274.3 m) upstream from Hall’s River Spring No. 2. The head spring is difficult to reach. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 416 Figure 23. Hall’s River Spring No. 2 (photo by R. Means).

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Homosassa Unnamed Spring No. 1 Location – Lat. 28° 47’ 53.87” N, Long. 82° 35’ 23.74” W (NW¼ SW¼ NE¼ sec. 28, T. 19 S, R. 17 E). From the intersection of US 98 and CR 490A in Homosassa Springs, travel west on CR 490A for 0.6 miles (1.0 km). Turn south (left) on Fishbowl Drive and travel 0.3 miles (0.5 km) to the Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Park. Homosassa Unnamed Spring No. 1 is located immediately west of the wooden observation deck off the bank of the Homosassa River within the state park. Description – Homosassa Unnamed Spring No. 1 occupies a bowl-shaped depression in a widened section of the upper Homosassa River. The underwater depression is estimated to be 25 ft (7.6 m) in diameter. Depth over the vent measured 13.7 ft (4.2 m) with the surrounding river averaging 5 ft (1.5 m) deep. Water is clear and light blue-green. The spring has a sand bottom. This spring was not flowing appreciably during the November 2003 visit. Homosassa Unnamed Spring No. 2 Location – Lat. 28° 47’ 52.92” N, Long. 82° 35’ 22.74” W (SE¼ SW¼ NE¼ sec. 28, T. 19 S, R. 17 E). From the intersection of US 98 and CR 490A in Homosassa Springs, travel west on CR 490A for 0.6 miles (1.0 km). Turn south (left) on Fishbowl Drive and travel 0.3 miles (0.5 km) to the State Wildlife Park. This small spring occupies a cove adjacent to the Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Park education pavilion. It is approximately 100 ft (30.5 m) south of the park’s wooden observation deck overlooking the Homosassa River. BULLETIN 66 417 Figure 24. Homosassa Unnamed Spring No. 2 (photo by R. Means).

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Description – The spring pool measures 25 ft (7.6 m) in diameter and is 3.1 ft (0.9 m) deep. The spring water is clear and greenish. A short, shallow spring run flows 30 ft (9.1 m) north into the Homosassa River. The spring and its run are stagnant. The bottom is sand with abundant algae and detritus. During the November 2003 visit, the spring was not flowing appreciably. HouseSpring Location – Lat. 28° 53’ 50.28 ” N, Long. 82° 35’27.60” W (NW¼ NW¼ SE¼ sec. 21, T. 18 S, R. 17 E). The spring is located within the city of Crystal River. From the intersection of US 98 and NE 3rdstreet head west on NE 3rdstreet for approximately 0.3 mile (0.5 km). The spring is situated behind a row of houses on the north side of NE 3rdStreet. Description – House Spring has an oval shaped spring pool. In January 2003, the spring was stagnant, and no boil was observed on the spring surface. The spring pool bottom had an abundance of tree debris and leaves. House Spring is surrounded by private residences, and is under a tree and plant canopy. During the January 2003 visit, House Spring was not flowing . Kings Bay Springs Group GroupLocation -Lat. 28° 53” N., Long. 82° 35” W. (sections 20, 21 and 28, T. 18 S., R. 17 E.). The Kings Bay Springs Group is located in Kings Bay west of Crystal River. Coming into Crystal River from the north on US 19/98, King’s Bay can be accessed via numerous boat landings north and south of the Bay. GroupDescription There are about 30 known springs, including Tarpon Hole and Hunter Spring, that either issue from the bottom of Kings Bay or flow into the bay from side creeks. Their combined flow feeds Crystal River, which flows approximately 7 miles (11.3 km) northwest to the Gulf of Mexico. Surrounding land is coastal lowlands with brackish marsh and hardwood-palm hammock to the west and the City of Crystal River to the east. The whole system is tidally influenced, and Kings Bay is brackish. Rosenau et al. (1977) referred to these springs as the Crystal River Springs Group. BLACK SPRINGS Lat. 28° 52’ 38.28 ” N, Long. 82° 35’ 56.40” W (SW¼ SW¼ SW¼ sec. 28, T. 18 S, R. 17 E). The Kings Bay Springs Group is located in Kings Bay west of the city of Crystal River. Coming into Crystal River from the north on US 19/98, King’s Bay can be accessed via numerous boat landings north and south of the Bay. The spring is located in a small cove on the south end of Kings Bay approximately 1.5 miles (2.4 km) southeast of Crystal River. Black Springs occupies an oval spring pool that measures 35 ft (10.7 m) by 60 ft (18.3 m). Several spring vents and a fissure feed into the spring pool. Prominent boils can be seen on the spring surface over the vents. The spring water is clear with a lightly tannic hue. The spring bottom consists of sand, algae-covered limestone, fine silt, and tree debris. The spring pool flows in a northwesterly direction, into a canal, which, in turn, leads into Kings Bay. The banks of the spring are heavily vegetated. Residential properties encircle the spring pool and nearby canal system. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 418

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CATFISH CORNER SPRING Lat. 28° 53’ 52.80” N, Long. 82° 35’ 56.40” W (NE¼ NW¼ SW¼ sec. 21, T. 18 S, R. 17 E). The Kings Bay Springs Group is located in Kings Bay west of the city of Crystal River. Coming into Crystal River from the north on US 19/98, King’s Bay can be accessed via numerous boat landings north and south of the Bay. Catfish Corner Spring is at the end of a dock in Kings Bay, just west of the boat ramp at the Best Western Hotel in Crystal River (off US 19/98). Catfish Corner Spring flows from a vent directly into Kings Bay. The vent appears to be approximately 3 ft (0.9 m) in diameter. Water depth at the spring vent is approximately 18 ft (5.5 m). The vent was not visible from the water surface in January 2003 because of turbid conditions; however, the spring produced a prominent boil on the water surface. Catfish Corner Spring is surrounded by private residences and commercial property. There is a boat dock within 50 ft (15.2 m) of the spring. I DIOT’S DELIGHT SPRING Lat. 28° 53’ 16.63” N, Long. 82° 35’ 22.03” W (SE¼ NW¼ NE¼ sec. 28, T. 18 S, R. 17 E). The Kings Bay Springs Group is located in Kings Bay west of the city of Crystal River. Coming into Crystal River from the north on US 19/98, King’s Bay can be accessed via numerous boat landings north and south of the Bay. Idiot’s Delight Spring is located along a canal in Kings Bay 0.4 miles (0.6 km) northeast of Paradise Point. Rosenau et al (1977) indicate that Idiot’s Delight Spring issues from a group of three vertical shafts the largest of which is five feet (1.5 m) in diameter. The spring is in a canal created by the channelization of natural tidal creeks and spring runs and by canal construction which occurred as development surrounded Kings Bay. The spring waters are clear and blue-greenish. A slight boil is visible on the surface of the canal over the vent. Depth over the vent measures 6.0 ft (1.8 m). The bottom is algae laden and sandy with some exposed limestone. Three Sisters Springs mouth is situated approximately 30 ft (9.1 m) north of this spring. This spring is a snorkeling and diving hot spot. BULLETIN 66 419 Figure 25. Kings Bay Springs Group, Catfish Corner Spring (photo by Springs Fever).

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JURASSIC SPRINGLat. 28° 53’ 42.27” N, Long. 82° 35’ 23.71” W (SE¼ NW¼ SE¼ sec. 21, T. 18 S, R. 17 E). The Kings Bay Springs Group is located in Kings Bay west of the city of Crystal River. Coming into Crystal River from the north on US 19/98, King’s Bay can be accessed via numerous boat landings north and south of the Bay. Jurassic Spring is located in a cove along the east side of Hunter Spring Run, approximately 800 ft (243.8 m) east of Hunter Spring. Jurassic Spring occupies a cove opening that is blocked off by a floating PVC pipe. The spring cove mouth measures 100 ft (30.5 m) wide north to south. Depth of the spring is estimated at 10-12 ft (3.1-3.7 m). The spring bottom consists of sand and silt. The water is clear and greenish. No boil was seen in November 2003. There are private residences on the north and south sides of the spring. The south side has private docks. There are a few cedar and palm trees around the banks. This spring appears to be a swimming area for local residents. Discharge from Jurassic Spring flows directly into Hunter Spring Run. Hunter Spring Run appears to have been heavily channelized to accommodate boat traffic. Hunter Spring Run has heavy development on both sides. KING SPRINGLat. 28° 52’ 54.19” N, Long. 82° 35’ 42.18” W (SW¼ NE¼ SW¼ sec. 28, T. 18 S, R. 17 E). The Kings Bay Springs Group is located in Kings Bay west of the city of Crystal River. Coming into Crystal River from the north on US 19/98, King’s Bay can be accessed via numerous boat landings north and south of the Bay. King Spring is located on the south side of Banana Island in Kings Bay, just outside Crystal River. King Spring is situated 85 ft (25.9 m) southwest of Tarpon Hole Spring. King Spring’s boil is visible on the bay surface. The spring bottom around the vent is sand and limestone. Depth over the vent is estimated at 15 ft (4.6 m). The spring water typically is clear, but bay water influence sometimes causes limited visibility. King Spring occupies a spring alcove on the south side of Banana Island in Kings Bay. Banana Island is completely forested. Other springs in the same alcove include Tarpon Hole and Mullet’s Gullet. King Spring, along with Tarpon Hole, FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 420 Figure 26. Kings Bay Springs Group, Idiots Delight Spring (photo by SWFWMD).

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is one of the most popular snorkeling and scuba diving destinations in the area as encounters with manatees are frequent. However, the area surrounding these springs is closed off during certain months for manatee protection. King Spring is within the Crystal River National Wildlife Refuge. KINGS BAY SPRING NO. 1Lat. 28° 53’ 17.34” N, Long. 82° 35’ 23.06” W (SE¼ NW¼ NE¼ sec. 28, T. 18 S, R. 17 E). The Kings Bay Springs Group is located in Kings Bay west of the city of Crystal River. Coming into Crystal River from the north on US 19/98, King’s Bay can be accessed via numerous boat landings north and south of the Bay. The spring is located along a canal in Kings Bay 0.4 miles (0.6 km) northeast of Paradise Point, approximately 50 ft (15.2 m) northwest of the mouth of Three Sisters Springs. Kings Bay Spring No. 1 occupies a cove on the north side of an east-west trending canal on the east side of Kings Bay. The spring pool is roughly circular with a diameter of approximately 20 ft (6.1 m). Water depth measures 6.4 ft (2.0 m) over the vent. Clear, bluish water issues from the small, circular vent. The bottom is sand with some dark silt and detritus. Limestone is exposed inside the vent opening. A thick layer of dark green algae covers the majority of the bottom. The land immediately surrounding the spring, on the north side of the canal, is private and undeveloped and supports a hardwood and palm forest and some open marsh land. The south side of the canal is developed with dense housing. This spring is a swimming and snorkeling hot spot. BULLETIN 66 421 Figure 27. Kings Bay Springs Group, Jurassic Spring (photo by R. Means).

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LITTLE HIDDEN SPRING Lat. 28° 53’ 08.81” N, Long. 82° 35’ 38.62” W (NE¼ SE¼ NW¼ sec. 28, T. 18 S, R. 17 E). The Kings Bay Springs Group is located in Kings Bay west of the city of Crystal River. Coming into Crystal River from the north on US 19/98, King’s Bay can be accessed via numerous boat landings north and south of the Bay. Little Hidden Spring is located on the north side of Parker Island within Kings Bay just west of Crystal River. Little Hidden Spring occupies a spring pool that measures 35 ft (11 m) east to west and 25 ft (7.6 m) north to south. There are two separate spring vents within the pool, an east and a west vent. Depths in the spring range from 2 ft to 4 ft (0.6 and 1.2 m) over the east and west vents, respectively. The spring pool has a sand bottom with some aquatic vegetation. The spring water is clear and colorless. Both spring vents produce slight boils on the spring surface. Little Hidden Spring is underneath a forest canopy. Its short spring run is 10 ft (3.1 m) wide, 1 ft (0.3 m) deep, and flows 50 ft (15 m) north into a narrow passage between Parker Island and the mainland. Parker Island is a forested island within the Crystal River National Wildlife Refuge. LITTLE SPRING (INDEPENDENCE SPRING) Lat. 28° 54’ 01.19” N, Long. 82° 35’43.33” W (NW¼ SE¼ NW¼ sec. 21, T. 18 S, R. 17 E). The Kings Bay Springs Group is located in Kings Bay west of the city of Crystal River. Coming into Crystal River from the north on US 19/98, King’s Bay can be accessed via numerous boat landings north and south of the Bay. This spring is located in Bicentennial Park in Crystal River. It is 50 ft (15.2 m) north of the Crystal River Police Station and City Hall. Little Spring is surrounded by a 4 ft (1.2 m) high retaining wall. It has an oval-shaped spring pool that measures 80 ft (24.4 m) by 70 ft (21.3 m). The depth is estimated to be approximately 3 ft (0.9 m). Several spring vents FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 422 Figure 28. Kings Bay Springs Group, King Spring (photo by R. Meegan).

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BULLETIN 66 423 Figure 29. Kings Bay Springs Group, Little Hidden Spring (photo by R. Meegan). Figure 30. Kings Bay Springs Group, Little Spring (photo by R. Meegan).

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are reported to be within the spring pool. There is a 20 ft (6.1 m) high water fountain in the center of the pool. Due to the turbulence caused by the fountain, no visible boil or vent could be seen during the October 2003 visit. The spring water is slightly murky and light blue. The pool is filled with exotic aquatic vegetation. The spring run flows north approximately 30 ft (9.1 m) through a narrow cut in the wall and underneath a green wooden foot bridge. It then joins with another clear stream that has been channelized. The combined flow heads east under US 19 and into Kings Bay. The spring is part of a city picnic area and is surrounded by grassy lawns and buildings. Swimming is not allowed. MANATEE SANCTUARY SPRING Lat. 28° 53’ 26.86” N, Long. 82° 35’ 33.37” W (NW¼ NW¼ NE¼ sec. 28, T. 18 S, R. 17 E). The Kings Bay Springs Group is located in Kings Bay west of the city of Crystal River. Coming into Crystal River from the north on US 19/98, King’s Bay can be accessed via numerous boat landings north and south of the Bay. Manatee Sanctuary Spring is located on the bottom of a north-south trending canal off of the east side of Kings Bay. The canal entrance is northeast of the northern tip of Buzzard Island. The Manatee Sanctuary Spring pool is beneath canal waters and is denoted by a deeper section of the canal along its east side. The bowl shaped depression is 24.9 ft (7.6 m) deep. Sand, mud, and limestone are exposed on the spring bottom. Canal and spring water are blue and clear. The spring discharges from a small vent in the bottom of the depression. No boil on the water surface was visible during the November 2003 visit. The east side of the spring is undeveloped with a line of cedar trees at the waters edge. Residences are present along the canal’s west side. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 424 Figure 31. Kings Bay Springs Group, Manatee Sanctuary Spring (photo by R. Means).

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BULLETIN 66 425 MILLER’S CREEK SPRING Lat. 28° 54’ 03.96 ” N, Long. 82° 36’13.68” W (NW¼ SE¼ NE¼ sec. 20, T. 18 S, R. 17 E). The Kings Bay Springs Group is located in Kings Bay west of the city of Crystal River. Coming into Crystal River from the north on US 19/98, King’s Bay can be accessed via numerous boat landings north and south of the Bay. Miller’s Creek Spring is located east of Crystal River at the head of Miller Creek. Miller’s Creek Spring discharges from beneath a mud bank at a depth of 1.0 ft (0.3 m), with no distinct spring pool. The spring produces a prominent turbulence underneath a dense covering of vegetation around the spring edge. The water is clear with a light yellowish-brown hue. The spring discharges straight into a spring run which feeds into Millers Creek, a tributary of the Crystal River. It is 32 ft (9.8 m) long, 3 ft (0.9 m) wide, and approximately 4 ft (1.2 m) in depth. The run has a mud and detritus bottom. Miller’s Creek Spring is situated on private land that is forested with pines, palmetto, and some saw grass.

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Potter Spring Location – Lat. 28° 43’ 53.76” N, Long. 82° 35’ 47.56” W (SE¼ SW¼ NW¼ sec. 22, T. 20 S, R. 17 E). The spring is located 2 miles (3.2 km) northwest of Chassahowitzka at the head of Potter Creek. From Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Park, drive south on US 19/98 5.8 miles (9.3 km). Turn west (right) on CR 480 and drive about 1.8 miles (2.9 km) to the public boat access area. Potter Creek enters the north side of the Chassahowitzka River 1.5 miles (2.4 km) downstream from the Chassahowitzka boat ramp. Description – The Potter Spring pool measures 50 ft (15.2 m) in diameter. Depth over the vent is 15.2 ft (4.6 m); however the rest of the pool is shallow, averaging 2ft (0.6 m) deep. Some limestone is present at the vent but the rest of the area has a soft sand bottom. The water is clear, light yellow-greenish. There is an abundance of aquatic vegetation that is coated with brown algae. During the April 2003 visit, there was very little flow from this spring and no boil was visible on the spring surface. The narrow spring run of Ruth Spring enters Potter Spring pool from the northeast. Combined flow from Ruth and Potter Springs forms Potter Creek which travels south 0.75 miles (1.2 km) down a 50 ft (15.2 m) wide run that is thick with aquatic vegetation. It has an average depth of 2 ft (0.6 m). There are numerous limestone boulders in the run that make portages necessary when canoeing. Native aquatic grasses are abundant in the sand and limestone-bottomed spring run. The run empties into the north side of the middle Chassahowitzka River. Potter Spring is within the Chassahowitzka National Wildlife Refuge and surrounded by dense palm and hardwood forest. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 426 Figure 32. Potter Spring (photo by R. Means).

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Pumphouse Springs Location – Lat. 28° 47’ 47.38” N, Long. 82° 35’ 17.86” W (SE¼ SW¼ NE¼ sec. 28, T. 19 S, R. 17 E). The