Title: HaTanin
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00093718/00019
 Material Information
Title: HaTanin
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Center for Jewish Studies, University of Florida
Publisher: Center for Jewish Studies, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2007
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Bibliographic ID: UF00093718
Volume ID: VID00019
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Full Text

No.18, Spring 2007



Hart On
(P. 2)

Sorek On
(p. 8)

(p. 16)

Caputo & Sterk's
"East in the West"
(p. 20 )

www St ufiledu


Director's Notes

HaTanin gives all of us here at UF as well as
our supporters within the community an op-
portunity to reflect upon what the Center has
done over the past year. So what have we been
up to? The best way I could sum that up is by
indicating the general feeling of exhaustion
for all of us who have attended the twenty-two
public programs the CJS has organized both
on and off campus during the 2006/07 aca-
demic year-actually twenty-three if I count
our very successful annual summer institute
for holocaust teachers (SHIFT). The Center is
extremely active, and is about to become even
more so and I'll explain why in a moment.
Much of the resources for the Center's activities come from
grants, gifts, and the various endowment funds the names of
which appear throughout this issue. The
makes it possible to publish HaTanin and the
S1 li iiil i ih, I i i helps underwrite the Center's
operating expenses. But two grants are particularly helpful
to the Center's curricular growth: -I i. ii through the
American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise (AICE) helped fund
a post-doctoral award in Israel studies last year and the same
fund in conjunction with the CJS's
Enables us to bring a senior scholar
from the Hebrew University this coming year; the
together with the I. ii through the Center
for Cultural Judaism is funding a post-doctoral award in Lat-
in-American Jewish studies, several new course development
awards and an eight-session faculty seminar on the subject of
Jewish secularism. The latter is a very ambitious undertaking
requiring considerable time commitment from faculty in terms
of reading and preparation. But its long-term impact on teach-
ing and curriculum should be considerable.
This year heralded the arrival of our new colleague, Tamir
Sorek, who holds the newly-created position of Assistant
Professor of Israel studies at the Center and in the Sociol-
ogy Department. Sorek received a Ph.D. from the Hebrew
University's Department of Sociology and Anthropology
and previously taught at Maryland and Cornell. Just as we're
completing this issue of HaTanin, the library completed a search
to replace Robert Singerman, our distinguished Judaica bib-
liographer who retired last year. In August, Seth Jerchower
will take over as head of UF's Judaica collection. Jerchower
comes to us from the University of Pennsylvania's Center for
Advanced Judaic Studies where he is the public services and

Judaic research and instructional services
librarian. This is an important position to us
in no small part because at more than 85,000
volumes, the Price Library is a cornerstone of
the Center and provides us with the largest
Judaica collection in the southeast.
2007 inaugurated the Center's first inter-
national conference, "For the Life of the Flesh
is in the Blood," February 18-19. Sponsored
by the it brought together some
eighteen scholars from Israel, Europe and
North America. This powerful two-day event
bridged locations, time periods and disciplines
and the volume that will emerge from it will
be the first publication that the Center produces. The second
conference, "Imaging the Unimaginable: The Iconicization of
Auschwitz" takes place November 11-12, 2007 in conjunc-
tion with Yad Vashem's "Auschwitz Album" exhibition to be
shown on campus throughout the month of November. Both
conference and exhibit are made possible through a generous
gift by 1
Finally, let me say something about the primary task we
have as faculty-teaching. The Center is offering a large num-
ber of new courses this coming year, itself a good indication
of how quickly we are growing and the strong demand for our
courses among UF students. But I'm particularly pleased by the
number of students coming into my office looking for support to
study Hebrew in Israel. Language training is the sine qua non of
advanced Judaic studies. The fact that so many of our students
are heading in that direction tells me as much as 1 need to
know about the impact of our faculty on the lives and careers of
the fifty-thousand students who study at this university.
Though we have been very fortunate with support from
major foundations we heavily depend on contributions from
numerous individuals. I would like to take this opportunity to
thank one of them for his unswerving devotion to the Cen-
ter. Indeed, I was recently recognized for his ef-
forts with a UF Foundation Lifetime Achievement Volunteer
Award. Congratulations and thank you Gary.
If you, too, would like to help us, become a Friend of the
CJS. If you are not yet one, please fill out and return to us the
envelope inside this issue. If building an endowment is some-
thing you're considering, contact me directly:
jkugelma@jst.ufl.edu or 352.392.9245

Jack Kugelmass, Director and Melton Professor

and is Associate Professor of Modern
Jewish History. He has been a Visiting
Professor at the University of Michigan and
a Visiting Fellow at the Center fir Jewish
Studies in Oxford, England. His f rthcomingI
book is titled The Heialhy Jew: The Synbiosis
i[ jludaism & Mdern Medicine and will be pub-
lished by Cambridge University Press in 2007-

a graduate student at UCLA I was beginning research on a book
about the history of Jewish statistics. It turned out to be a book on
Jewish social sciences, race, and health. I had never encountered
any of this material before. So, my fascination with these topics
comes from discovering this enormous amount of material that I
had no idea existed.
SThe origins of my first book stem from Todd Endelmen and
David Sorkin, who at different times, came to UCLA and mentioned
fto my advisor and me that this was a topic no one had worked on. Steve
Zipperstein at some point said, "Why don't you do the history of Jewish sta-
tistics?" and so I said, "That sounds like the most boring topic I've ever heard." He
responded, "Okay, so go see. If it doesn't work, it doesn't work." I went to the library
and very quickly found the Journal for the Demography and Statistics of the Jews, opened
it up, and there was all of this material about Jews and race, health, disease, anthropol-
ogy, criminology, suicide-an enormous variety of things. It was mostly statistics but
the narratives were fascinating. 1 discovered that Jews had been deeply involved in
talking about themselves in racial terms and in terms that normative historiography
had almost never talked about. They had been involved in what would eventually be
one of the agents of their demise in Europe. I thought, "Okay, this is an extraordinarily
rich topic."

But, it really was discovering a book by Alfred Nossig that sealed the deal. He was a
Zionist from Poland who made what became the Bureau for Jewish Statistics in Berlin
happen in the early twentieth century. In 1894 he published a book called The Social
Hygiene of Ancient Nations. He made the argument that the Mosaic code, as he called
it, the Torah, or the first Five Books was a health code. It was not religious but scientific,
and in large measure it accounts for why the Jews are such a healthy people (hence the
title of my new book The Healthy Jew.) So, I read that book and wrote an article about


Mitchell Hart

The Healthy Jew




it, but it really didn't work for the first study. I continued to
collect this material over about a decade. Then I looked at the
Nossig book, and it had an enormous bibliography. He had col-
lected the material which he used for his own work, I discovered
a long article by Moritz Steinschneider, the great bibliographer,
who railed against scholars trying to prove that Moses had been
the inventor or the founder of what, in the nineteenth cen-
tury, was called preventative medicine or social hygiene. The
argument was that Moses was really a physician rather than
a religious leader, and Jewish survival and health hinged on
Moses's insights into the relationship between health and the
environment. So, kashrut and nidah are preventive medicine,
and the entire Torah then can be reinterpreted as a hygienic
code. Nossig and then Steinschneider had hundreds of sources
and they had both been working in the 1890s, so there was
this ready-made bibliography. In some sense, they had done this
work together, even though in the end Steinschneider came
out and said, "This is foolishness. This violates every principle
of historical research." Eventually I went back and looked at
all of this material and then followed it up from the 1930s and
into the '60s. Actually, my book ends with a discussion of cur-
rent debates over Jews and genetics, the continuing discussion
about the relationship between Judaism and Jewish collective
survival. So the debates of a hundred years ago are still going
on, though the science has changed.
The importance of this, in one sense at least, is that it
forces us to reevaluate the contours of modern Jewish intel-
lectual history or Jewish intellectual and cultural endeavor. If
you move back in time you will discover that the intellectual
history of race, or racial thinking, of the scientific disciplines



that eventually will be implicated in genocide was much more
complicated than that, and Jews were not just objects but sub-
jects of these disciplines. They used these things for their own
purposes at a time before the Holocaust and Nazism, when a
certain reductionistic thinking takes hold. The further back in
time you go, you find that the Jews in Europe and in America
were involved in this type of intellectual endeavor in a way
that would be unexpected.

ne of the more surprising findings is the argument
that Jews suffered from, or were immune to, certain
illnesses. Alcoholism, for example, was said to be
one of them. The largest increase in Jewish alcoholics came
with Jewish academics, or so some authorities argued. Another
concerned Jews and hemorrhoids, which was also a topic for
social scientists. This was an old argument that went back to
the Enlightenment and was part of a progressive anti-Ortho-
dox critique. The heder and yeshiva were presumably the two
things largely responsible. The fact that Jewish men sat all day
on hard benches, studying Talmud led to hemorrhoids. There
is an entire sub-discourse on Jews and their food. There was
debate on whether or not Jewish foods were healthy. Some
people argued that the Jews owed much of their vitality to the
foods that they ate, and others believed that the well-known
problems that Jews have with their stomachs and digestive sys-
tems, including hemorrhoids, had to do with the fatty foods
that East-European Jews eat.
The most interesting visual imagery was produced by a
very famous Australian-born British anthropologist named
Joseph Jacobs. In 1900 he came to America and was part of
the team that produced the Jewish Encyclopedia. But when he
was in England in the 1880s and '90s he produced some of the
earliest works on Jewish statistics and Jewish anthropology, and
he's the one who developed what is by now a very familiar and
widely reproduced set of images of the Jewish nose. He came
up with what was known as the nostrility index, and he also
made the nose that everybody takes as a classic Jewish beak,
which he described as an inverted nine [Figure 11. He was an
associate of Francis Galton, the founder of eugenics, and he
and Galton worked on visual representations of Jewish youth
in London. Jacobs and Galton analyzed them and they came to
contradictory opinions about what these images revealed. Both
of them believed that you could look at pictures and examine
the shapes of people's faces and their eyes and tell something
about the collective character about the peoples that these
individuals belonged to.
Galton, who had a somewhat anti-Semitic interpretation,
believed that in these images he could find the classic Jewish
involvement with money and a certain avariciousness. Jacobs


line of race and found continuity.

A rthur Ruppin, the well-
known Zionist, was one
of the leading Jewish
social scientists of the early twen-
tieth century, and at the end of
one of his large volumes there are
about thirty ancient and contem-
porary images of Jews. I looked
through his papers in the Zionist

d ( J Pncyclopedi
j" I F Iswg 2 ~

Archive in Jerusalem and it turns out that he collected, in Europe and at Hebrew
University, large numbers of glass-plate photographs and postcards picturing Jews
from around the world. It was very common to juxtapose a variety of Jewish men and
women, Tunisian Jews next to Galician Jews, in order to say, "Look, very different
nations, very different geographies, but they're Jewish."
My next project? There are two. One is largely made up of material that 1

believed he could see kind-heartedness and deep em-
pathy with the world. So they are working together
on what are called composite photographs and come
to very different conclusions. Jewish scholars were
also deeply fascinated by ancient representations of
Jews, or what racial discourse at the time identified
as Jews. Racial scientists used the drawings found on
ancient monuments, such as bas-reliefs and steles,
and drew conclusions based on racial characteristics
and coloring. There are lots of ancient Egyptian and
Assyrian representations of Jewish captives. Both
Jewish and non-Jewish anthropologists believed that
the Jews of today were physically the exact same Jews
of 3,000 years ago. This could be proven by looking
at those representations because the shapes of the
noses, beards, and facial figures are characteristically
"Jewish." As one very famous anthropologist said,
"When I walk on the streets of Poland or Galicia
today, it's as if I'm looking at the pictures of 3,000 years ago."
Of course one of the chief interests of anthropologists at the time was this notion
of racial continuity. Is it "genetic," in our terms, or does it change over time? And, are
the Jews a "pure race" or are they a "mixed race?" Part of it was about the physical,
anatomical traits. So to see Jewish faces 3,000 years ago that they believed looked like
the Jews you would encounter on the Lower East Side or on the streets of Warsaw of
their day, proved to them that Jews were a pure race, that they had, for the most part,
ceased to intermix with other peoples thousands of years ago, and that you could
trace them literally over time and see that they had not changed. In some sense,
many Jews were as thrilled by these conclusions as were non-Jews. This was at a time
when a sort of racial nationalism had taken hold. So, they were actually fascinated
by images. Leonardo's Last Supper becomes an object of analysis, because there you
have pictures of twelve or thirteen Jews, and they looked just like the Jews of 2,000
years before and they look like the Jews of today. So they did this sort of visual time-

couldn't put into The Healthy Jew. 1
had an entire section on the apolo-
getic impulse to the discourse that I
was looking at, but it interrupts the flow
of the narrative, so I took it out. 1 am
very interested in Jewish apologetics
and the theoretical questions that it
raises. Why is it necessary? When did
it become bad? I have found very little
secondary literature on the nature of
Jewish apologetics.
Because I've got the topic of health
covered and have already done work on
historians and apologetics, next 1 want
to focus on Jesus. I'm fascinated by the
ongoing "project" of reclaiming Jesus
for the Jews which began in Europe and
continues in North America. That leads
me to my second project, the more ambi-
tious one, which is Jews and the crucifix.
How can Jews approach the central
image of Western culture? What does
it mean when Jews try to look at Jesus
on the cross and can't? This I got just
walking into the Metropolitan Museum
one day and monitoring my own reac-
tion to eyeing the crucifix. I suspect this
project will materialize very quickly or
go on for a long time. S

fEmviiit'is". W'.


Geoffrey Giles


antiquarian bookshops, which still con-
tained lots of German books from the
!Y GILES teaches time of the Nazi occupation, which Poles
artmennt of today have little interest in buying. One
the Univerity
tP cialirg itn of the best such treasure troves was the
and modern bookshop in the basement of the Jewish
He has ed study Cultural Center in Krakow, an utterly
locaust sites for chaotic pile of old books and ephemera
aust EJduatio0nl that always repaid a couple of hours of
n and has been
n hjas n-Rce.- patient digging. And it was there that I
te United Stateas found among their stack of old postcards
Memorial a cartoon image, ridiculing an ugly and
'ashigton, D.C. hopelessly overweight Jewish woman
taking the cure at Karlsbad, and wob-
bling along on a bicycle in an attempt
... to take some exercise but actually being
C" pushed and pulled by a couple of panting
hotel porters. [Figure 1] 1 found the card
[N 1900 offensive on several levels, notably for
its clearly anti-Semitic caricature, and
immediately bought it! That was the be-
ginning of another collection, to which I
have regularly added. Our wonderful (and now retired) Judaica
bibliographer, Robert Singerman, a published expert on anti-
Semitic propaganda in his own right, was not only encourag-
ing, but was able to point me towa-'
a couple of obscure books on the
genre that we have right here in
the UF library.
Karlsbad (today Karlovy Vary
in the Czech Republic) was, and
is, a health resort. The warm and
foul-tasting water from the springs
has a strong purgative effect that
can flush out the system for those
with intestinal or urinary problem!
brought on by over-indulgence in
food and drink for the rest of the
year. It was particularly favored
by the crowned heads of Europe
and the aristocracy, but the client
broadened out to include the middle


interest in Karlsbad began entirely by accident.
In the late 1980s I had traced my family tree
in England back to the 1570s in the villages
of Holderness, on Yorkshire's east coast. These
villages are, now as then, generally unremarkable apart from
some stunningly beautiful churches. The largest of them, Pa-
trington, had little else of interest beyond the pub and a clut-
tered antique shop. I browsed around the shop with dreams of
finding long-lost family heirlooms, but the item that caught
my eye was a souvenir-drinking cup, dated 1904, showing the
Sprudel Colonnade at the spa town of Karlsbad. Here was
something, at least, for the German historian. That was the
beginning of my collection of these unusual cups with hollow
handles. 1 now have about thirty of them, dating from 1879
up to 1941, when the deteriorating war, then communism,
put an end to their production.
A few years later in the mid-1990s, I began leading travel-
ing seminars for college faculty to the death camps in Poland.
One of the bonuses for me was the opportunity to trawl the

nations), shows three Jews
leering over a document,
and apparently congratu-
lating themselves on some
successful financial trans-
action, or more likely,

F, orthodox Jews
are not gener-
Sally portrayed
as overweight, but here the emphasis
veers much more frequently toward
toilet humor. One of the milder exam-
pies, from 1906, shows "The Stockbro-
ker" [Figure 31, who is so obsessed with
making money, that he cannot keep off
the telephone even while sitting on the
toilet. We know he is Jewish because of
the hooked nose, the garish clothing,
the awkward position of the feet, and

class, and especially Or-
thodox Jews, toward the
end of the nineteenth GNss i.
century, at the same time
as anti-Semitism was be-
coming more threatening.
It became progressively less
exclusive, as Jewish wel-
fare organizations began to
send even poor Jews there,
who had fled pogroms in
Russia, in order to recuper-
ate from illness. To some
visitors, Karlsbad's upper
class image seemed tainted
by all these Jews, and this
bred resentment. Jews in
caftans, and the growing
number of overweight middle-class Jews, now fed a growing demand for comical post-
cards in the very decade when sending postcards from one's travels was all the rage.
The heyday of these images seems to be from about 1895-1905, and a number of
stereotypes come together. Along with the image of the fat, wealthy and often loudly
dressed Jew, there are suggestions of uncleanliness. One of the spa treatments in Karls-
bad was a mud bath. Yet the picture here [Figure 2] is more suggestive of dirt clinging
to the Jew. Note also the contrast between the muscular, Teutonic bath attendant
and his flabby Jewish client. The latter's thick lips and huge, red nose (he evidently
drinks too much!) count among the common attributes depicted. Others are exagger-
ated hand gestures, round shoulders, bow legs, flat feet, and generally bad posture. An
image posted by an American in 1902 (the cards were popular with visitors from all


the publisher of the card.
The most offensive cards, in my
mind, are those showing Orthodox Jews
as even less in control of their bodily
functions than other spa guests. There
are a number of postcards, showing
people out walking, and rushing to the (r"5 aU5
strategically placed but scarce priv-
ies along the woodland paths, at the
moment when the laxative effect of
the waters suddenly takes hold. Yet it
is always the caftan-clad Jew who does
not make it in time, and defecates in
his pants. A particularly gross card from
the beginning of the century bears the i+nb i*u ir
caption: "Greetings from the Karlsbad A,, 1.f,,, ,,
Sprudel." The Sprudel is the main spring i..,,, i, ..
in Karlsbad, which shoots a jet of hot iUkm ai ,,k *1 .IiI
water some thirty feet into the air. Illus- d A
treated on the card are three Orthodox
Jews, minding their own business, while r. ....- -.
a lady in a plain, pink dress, no doubt
non-Jewish, walks her pet dog by them
on the colonnade above. Seeing them, the dog releases an im-
pressive jet of urine onto the head of one of the Jews, splashing
the sleeve of another. The third is shocked but laughs. The text
on another example of this card that I have seen, written by a
French lady, says: "Dear Cousin, I hope that the folks [there] in
Alet have a different system for showering than this poor devil
that I'm sending you is getting." Probably the use of the word
"devil" to describe the Jew should not be over-interpreted, but
it does reflect a common idiom.

finally, we have the theme of "once a Jew, always a Jew."
In this picture, we see a Jew whose "cure" at Karlsbad
has evidently been a success, in that he has lost a great
deal of weight, so that his trousers and vest hang loosely from
him IFigure 4]. But the bandy legs and facial features still clear-
ly identify him as Jewish. The caption is a little rhyme, which
one might translate as follows:

Everything has now shrunk smaller
Belly and chest are A la mode
jusr the nose has stayed enormous
And too, alas, the legs are bowed!

None of these cards advocates violence or even discrimi-
nation against Jews. Indeed, several cards simply portray
them as part of a diverse, cosmopolitan clientele at this and

other spas (such as nearby Marienbad
and Franzensbad). Yet, they do por-
tray them as significantly different in
character as well as appearance, and
therefore this must count as part of
the process of "othering" the Jew and
promoting a climate of discrimination
that was, indeed, already nascent, and
grew in the 1920s to the point where
some spa hotels and taverns refused to
cater to Jews. The fact that the cards
were bought and sent openly by spa
guests from all nations suggests that
they were generally viewed as more
comical than outright offensive. But in
the light of subsequent history, they of-
fer a warning that seemingly harmless
jokes and stereotypes create a climate
in which discrimination of a much
more dismissive and, indeed, deadly
J j kind can blossom. @
FI, 4

Tamir Sorek

'"Are you yourself

a occaaer player?"

TAMIR SOREK is Assisant PrMf r o f Isrel Studies at the Center tIr Jewish Studies and the
Department ot SIciology. le graduated from the I lebrew University of Jerusalem in 2002, was
a Post-doctoral Fellow in the Center or Jewish Studies, University of Maryland and taught for
three years at Cornell University. Sorek has published widely on Jewish-Arab reluaions in Israel.
His Torthcomiang bixok is titled Arab Suc er in a uwish Stat: The Integuraii Enclave (Canmriduge
University Press, 2007). Sorek's work is supported through the ...

I HAVE OFTEN BEEN ASKED at academic conferences, social parties, and
even in the classroom by my students, whether I'm a soccer player. As a social sci-
entist, who studies soccer, people assume that I have a personal commitment to the
game. The truth is that I do play soccer, but I have never developed the devotion
of an athlete.
As a child on a kibbutz in the Western Galilee, and a mediocre player on our
very mediocre soccer team, I sometimes participated in regional soccer competi-
tions against teams representing Arab towns and villages. These competitions were
among the rare opportunities for us, the Jewish youth from the kibbutz, to meet Arab

youth, who despite their numerical pre-
dominance in the Galilee, were almost
invisible to us. My memories from these
encounters include sentiments of alert
and worry; I always felt that for our
Arab rivals, it was much more than a
game, as if they were trying by whatever
means they had to prove something to
us or to themselves.
Holding a very superficial and selec-
tive knowledge about the social history
of the landscape of my childhood, as well
as about the political dynamics which
have shaped Arab-Jewish relations in
Israel, I did not yet have the tools to de-
cipher the political complexity of these
encounters. Years later, as a graduate
student in the Department of Sociol-
ogy and Anthropology at the Hebrew
University, equipped with much more
historical and political knowledge,
as well as theoretical perspectives and
methodological tools, I had the oppor-
tunity to investigate in a scholarly way
Arab-Jewish soccer encounters and to
study the tensions I felt as a teenager.
Between 1998 and 2001, I conducted
ethnographic research on Arab soccer
in Israel. The resulting dissertation
constitutes the core of my new book
Arab Soccer in a Jewish State. This long
journey, which began as an attempt to
study the Other, has taught me much
about my side in the Israeli-Palestinian
conflict and even about the ways the
boundaries between Them and Us have
been constructed.

soccer was not my initial dis-
sertation subject. Living in
Jerusalem in the mid-1990s
I was fascinated (and terrified) by the
new phenomenon of suicide bombings.
I intended to write my dissertation
about it, but after closer examination,




I understood that any insight 1 could produce would be ex-
tremely speculative, with a very shaky empirical base: I could
not conduct fieldwork, nor could I interview the most rele-
vant subjects. After 9/11, several related academic books and
articles were published, mainly by political scientists. None
of them made me regret my decision.
The immediate trigger for switching was probably the as-
cendance of the first Arab team to the top division of Israeli
soccer in 1996, Ha-Po'el Taybeh. This event sent me to the
sport columns to count how many Arab teams played in all
the divisions of the Israeli Football Association. When 1 found
that over forty percent of the teams were Arab (Arabs
are only sixteen percent of the Israeli population) I
knew that I had found a very interesting subject
of research. I was advised by some colleagues to
give up, since sport will always be considered
marginal in the academic world. True, nobody
in Israel had ever written a dissertation on
sports. However, 1 thought that through this
project 1 could study more "prestigious" topics,
such as national identity, citizenship, and ethnic
conflicts. So I persisted, but I kept these warnings
in mind: I publish only in mainstream social science
journals that deal with identity, ethnicity, and national-
ism, and stay away from those exclusively related to sports.

o a certain extent, my findings have proven that
there is no justification for the marginal position
that sport occupies in the social sciences. Soccer
in Israel is a social arena in which the political conscious-
ness of a significant number of individuals is shaped. Initially,
I expected to find in soccer a sphere of confrontation, a site
where nationalist sentiments and tensions between Jew and
Arab are intensified-an expectation perhaps, stemming from
my experience as a teenager. The data, however, revealed
something more nuanced. For Arab fans, soccer is a stage for
emphasizing commonality with the Jewish majority. Through
soccer, they seek acceptance and legitimacy as Israeli citizens.
Therefore, Israel's "cheering culture" is dominated by Hebrew
including the songs, cheers, scarves, stickers and even the
curses. Arabic, their first language, has only marginal place
in the cheering repertoire. Palestinian flags, which prevail at
political rallies, never appear in the stadium. A countrywide
survey I conducted showed that Arab men who attend the
soccer stadium tend more to vote for Zionist parties and can-
didates. Furthermore, attempts by Arab journalists to nurture
nationalist pride around Arab teams in the Arabic press, have
no echo in the stadium.
Interestingly, this political character of soccer is exactly

the role assigned to it in the 1960s by the Israeli authorities,
who encouraged the establishment of Arab soccer teams as
long as they played in the official Israeli Football Association.
Through archival research and interviews with prominent
key functionaries from the past, I found evidence that sport
was deemed, by the authorities, a pacifying force with the
potential to distance Arab citizens from nationalist ideology
and protest.

in more than one way. Some adopt an optimistic view, since
Jews and Arabs find common ground with the language
of sport uniting them. The more skeptical interpreta-
tion is that soccer offers only a mirage of equality,
disconnected from the reality of discrimination.
I argue that although soccer does have the
potential to improve inter-ethnic relations,
under the current political situation, its po-
tential to do so is very limited. The "brother-
hood of people" in the soccer sphere cannot be
a substitute for a truly egalitarian policy.
I started this study during a relatively opti-
mistic period in Jewish-Arab and Israeli-Palestinian
relations. Then came the crisis of October 2000 when Is-
raeli police killed Arab demonstrators, followed by four years of
the second Intifada during which more than 3,000 Palestinians
and 1,000 Israelis lost their lives in horrific violence. It is in this
context, in particular, that many good people consider soccer
to be an island of sanity and tolerance in a sea of enmity. My
aim is not to undermine this conviction, but my book does shed
light on the less well-known and discussed aspects of soccer in
Israel, as well as on the complex (and not always innocent) role
which soccer plays in the relations between the Jewish majority
and the Arab-Palestinian minority.

AS A NEW FACULTY MEMBER at the Center for Jewish
Studies I have the opportunity to take part in developing the
teaching of Israeli society, politics, and culture. Fortunately,
UF has one of the largest and most diverse concentrations of
scholars who study Israel in American universities. From this
year on, students can choose the Israel Studies track in their
major in Jewish Studies. I find it especially important that the
establishment of this track coincides with the development of
a new multi-disciplinary Near East and Middle East Studies
program in the college. This combination will be helpful in
teaching Israel from a broad perspective, both from the stand-
point of Jewish history and within the modern Middle East.
1 hope that this track will be the basis for a future nationally
recognized graduate program in Israel Studies. *


and the




S Center for Jewish Studies at U. His disserta-
nion King, Sinhedrin and Temple: Cwti-'emrairy Mc'meinw Seeking cc)
Esablish a "Torah State" and Rebuild the Third Temple (1984-2004)
will he published shortly by the Mapnes Press, Hebrew Universit\
Dr. Inhari a ppointment was also supported through uinds from the
a .. tihe (JS.

The following is a precis of Dr. Inbari's

_j." Ji ~ 1Ltcttre ton to tii
AUGUST 2005, Israel evacuated the Jewish settlements
in the Gaza Strip-mainly in Gush Katif-as well as four
settlements in northern Samaria. This action, known as
the Disengagement, constituted a profound crisis for a sig-
nificant section of the Israeli population particularly the
one most closely identified with religious Zionism and with the settlement movement
in the Territories.
After the Six Day War in June 1967, an increasing number of religious Zion-
ists saw the realization of Zionism as a manifestation of God's desire to redeem His
people. This perception led thousands of religious Israelis to join the Gush Emunim
settlement movement in the Territories. For them, the Disengagement raised ques-
tions regarding the proper approach toward a Jewish state that relinquishes Jewish
land. At the same time, the evacuation revealed a rift within the religious leader-
ship associated with Merkaz HaRav Yeshiva, the leading rabbinical school of the
Gush Emunim movement. One faction espouses a sense of disillusionment with the

CJS's faculty seminar.

as a manifestation of the coming era
of Redemption. Proponents called for
passive opposition to the eviction of
the settlements, and urged religious
soldiers to disobey army orders, though
they did not advocate actual rebellion
against the State. A second faction
opposed even passive resistance. Pro-
ponents viewed the Disengagement as
a manifestation of spiritual weakness
that could be corrected only through
heightened spirituality. This approach
called for a broad informational cam-
paign to "settle the hearts," in order to
correct the distortion embodied in the

State of Israel and advocates the replacement of the current regime by a theocracy Disengagement plan. &


t rn~in hntl

lar music. With the completion of the
thesis, I received the Kirtchuk prize-an
award given to the best final graduate
paper in Spanish and Latin American
Studies. This accomplishment further
enhanced an enthusiasm for the subject.
Like so many people in Israel, 1 took Jew-
ish culture for granted, so there were no
Jewish topics that attracted my attention.
Rather, I was interested in other cultures
and places. In a quest to experience the
unknown, I also backpacked, like many
Israelis, in the most remote places of
Asia and South America.
Another quest brought me to the
US-three years ago I began work on a
Ph.D. in the Department of Languages
and Literatures at Arizona State Uni-
versity in Tempe, where I was recruited
through a scholarship for students with
outstanding academic achievement.
Back in the Diaspora, I had to recon-
sider my identity. This was something
that I had considered solved, after so
many years in Israel. I had moved to
Israel by myself, as an undergraduate
at the Hebrew University, and identity
and the need for attachment to a place
were some of the reasons that induced
me to make alyah. From an early age I
experienced the situation of being an
outsider. In my first years of elementary
school, my family moved from Argen-
tina to Zurich, Switzerland. My father, a
sociologist, and my mother, an architect
relocated in their pursuit of challeng-
ing and rewarding career opportuni-
ties. After a few years, we moved back
to Argentina, switching from German
to Spanish again. In reality, Argentina
was different from what I had fantasized
about in Switzerland, and I was never
able to recover a sense of belonging to
my native country. Many years later,
in Jerusalem, I realized that somehow
I will always look at the world from

PATRICIA NURIEL joins the Center tri Jewish Studies and Department of Romance
Languages as a Research Porstdctoral Associate. She is completing her dissertation Memory
and ldeneily in the Contemporary Latin American Jewish Novel at Arizona State Universiry. This
appointment is made possible through the i ii and
a generous grant from the through the Center for Cultural Judaism.

Shile pursuing a masters degree in the Department of
Spanish and Latin American Studies at the Hebrew
University in Jerusalem, I started studying the "bolero
novel," a trend in contemporary Spanish-American lit-
erature where the text establishes intertextual relations
With Latin-American popular music. For the M.A. thesis, I
looked at two novels-by Puerto Rican and Peruvian authors, Luis Rafael SAnchez and
Alfredo Bryce Echenique-and explored the tensions between the literary text and
Afro-Caribbean music, between canonized and non-canonized culture, or elite and
popular culture. The analysis considered the ways in which popular culture penetrates
the text, how the text exploits the potentialities of popular music, incorporates popu-
lar discourse and deconstructs it. I was fascinated by Caribbean music before I started
the thesis and even before I travelled to any Caribbean country. This had nothing to
do with my having been born in Latin America. Salsa music was not trendy during
my teenage years in Argentina, before I came to Israel. It was the boom of salsa clubs
in Tel Aviv at the beginning of the 1990s that inspired my interest in these energetic
rhythms. Noticing the attraction to Caribbean music my thesis director, Professor
Myrna Solotorevsky, suggested that I work on the link between literature and popu-


a foreigner's perspective, in spite of a
strong attachment and love for Israel
and to the Hebrew language.

I studying in the Spanish program
at ASU sharpened once again a
sense of alterity. The combina-
tion of being Israeli and Argentinean
has not always been easily understood
by people, and since I am a native
Spanish speaker, I am perceived as an-
other South American graduate student.
When certain scholars suggested that I
work on Jewish Latin American writ-
ing, I found that this topic could bring
a certain sense of continuity to my per-
sonal story. The moment this became
most clear was after a trip to Mexico
to which I was invited by the Jew-
ish Studies Program at ASU. There 1
met Jewish writers-Angelina Mufiiz
Huberman and Sara Sefchovich-aca-
demicians and members of the Jewish
community. After long conversations
with various professors, 1 liked the idea
that Latin-American Jewish writing is
an area that crosses borders-Argentina,
Brazil, Mexico and other countries-
and is not confined to a fixed geographi-
cal region. I was particularly keen on
working on Brazilian literature. I have
had considerable interest in Portuguese
ever since 1 started studying it at the He-
brew University and continued at ASU,
where I was given the opportunity to
teach a beginners course. In addition, 1
consider Latin-American Jewish studies
a challenging area of research that shows
the contribution of the Latin-American
Diaspora to Jewish literature, enriching
the field of Jewish Studies.
In 2007, I traveled to Buenos Aires
to meet different representatives of a
new generation of Jewish writers. These
encounters contributed a great deal to
my dissertation. The focus of the study
is Argentinean, Uruguayan, Mexican,

continued on page 13, right column

An Avenue to Exploring Jewish Life

HARVEY GOLDBERG join, s th Cenr fr Jewish StLudics, UF from the Hebrew University o
Jerusalem for the 2007-08 academic year. His publications include ICa e wellers and Curtes (Gro'-
ers: A JcTuish Ctommunniu in I ia' and Isrtuel anid most recently Jewish Pas-sages: (L.ycles o PJetish ifje.
Professor Glder appointment is made possible through a
a nd the t :he CJ S

without realizing it at the time, my steps toward combining
anthropology with an interest in Jewish life began during my
year in Israel as an American college student. During the
High Holidays of 1958, I attended a synagogue belonging
to a group of Jews who had come from Morocco. I was spell-
bound how their pronunciation of Hebrew, their melodies, and even the precise words
of their Sephardi prayer book differed from what I had studied in my youth, but,
were recognizable enough for me to feel connected to them. This attraction deepened
throughout the year, and intensified when 1 spent six weeks living on a moshav (im-
migrant village) of people from a mountainous region in Libya. I knew that I wanted
to devote my studies to understanding how Jewish traditions could be so variable, yet
constitute part of a larger reality called the Jewish people and Jewish culture.
There was no academic field at the time that focused on Jewish communities and
history in the modem Middle East. Yet the teacher of my introductory anthropology
course, Marvin Harris-who later spent a number of years teaching at UF-convinced
me that his discipline would allow me to cultivate a range of interests, from my fas-
cination with the biblical text to my curiosity about Jews from the Middle East, the
topic that eventually became my field of specialization. This began in the form of
eighteen months of doctoral fieldwork in a second village of immigrants from rural
Libya which formed the basis of a subsequent monograph Cave Dwellers and Citrus



Growers: A Jewish Community in Libya and Israel. Like other social science researchers
at the time, I first focused on how these newcomers adjusted to Israeli society, but then
realized that a stress on sociological problems overlooked a very basic question: what
was the nature of the Jewish traditions that pervaded the life of these groups, and how
did those traditions play out in the concrete reality of social life in North Africa and
in Israel?
A major challenge in answering these questions was that written sources concern-
ing Jews in Middle Eastern countries were relatively limited, in comparison to what
was available with reference to Jews in Europe. Meeting this challenge meant drawing
upon methods from conventional history and adding to them the special perspectives
of anthropology. Gradually, some important documents became available, includ-
ing a history of the Jews of Libya written by a
S0 member of its community Mordecai Hakohen.
This document existed only in manuscript form.
After moving to Israel in 1972, I undertook to
edit the manuscript and publish it in the He-
brew original, while translating sections of the
book into English as The Book of Mordecai. In
Another direction, anthropology enabled me to
interpret a sumptuous festival celebrated by Jews
oFi np ,,( :a, in w whin cii, ii, u,, in Morocco at the end of Passover called the Mi-
U~il Tih lw drvi u [iJixu ,rr Is ii i f iii l il ,,
.irmiuAN ,i, onji,-r mouna, about which few written records exist,
but which had been so important to communi-
ties there that they recreated the celebration in Israel while refiguring its meanings
in this new setting. The Mimouna has now become a regular part of Israel's festival
calendar, and has spread even further as one can see by its appearance on the internet

having shown how Jewish studies and anthropology could reinforce one
another in researching Jewish culture in North Africa, some colleagues
invited my participation in projects related to my own background, as a
Jew in America. In one paper, published in Key Texts in American Jewish Culture, 1
showed that anthropology was viewed as an important discipline in seeking to bring
Jewish religion and culture to the attention of the informed American public in the
period after World War II. In quite a different direction, other colleagues connected
to Jewish education mobilized me as an ethnographer, in the summer of 1994, to ac-
company American teenagers on an educational trip to Israel, spending five weeks
together with them on their hikes, on their bus, and during their leisure activities in
the evenings. Fitting in with the young people was quite a fieldwork challenge, for not
only was there a gap between my age and theirs, but I was older than most of their par-
ents. Nevertheless, 1 gained insight into the way they shaped their emerging identities
while incorporating their Jewish and general schooling, expanding their knowledge
and sensibilities through the Israel tour, and envisioning a trajectory of Jewish in-
volvements in the future. The findings of that research, along with other studies, fed
into the formulation of the program now known as Birthright Israel.
The book Jewish Passages: Cycles of Jewish Life gave me the opportunity to weave
together what 1 had learned as an ethnographer, among Jews from North Africa and
from North America, with insights into the Jewish past provided by the evolving
field of cultural history. I was able to juxtapose the identity-driven travel of the late

twentieth century with ancient and me-
dieval pilgrimages, or compare an eve-
of-circumcision celebration that 1 ob-
served in an Israeli village in 1964 with
both parallel festivities in Italy in the
Middle Ages, or innovative ceremonies
among contemporary Jews seeking ways
to make circumcision speak to their situ-
ation, when boys and girls are expected
to receive equivalent starts in life. The
book seeks to show threads of continuity
within the well-known ruptures between
Jewish pasts and the present, indicating
how both central authoritative texts and
the responses of "ordinary people" flow
together into the ongoing creation of
Jewish society and culture. *

Nuriel continued from page 12

and Brazilian authors and explores the
particularities of contemporary Latin-
American Jewish narrative. My research
poses the following questions: Can we
speak of an ethnic Latin American nar-
rative? If so, what is the locus of the
minority voice? Does it consist of the
ethnicity of the author, the characters,
or the subject matter? Can we infer
minority identity through characteristic
cultural themes and discourses such as
mythological structure, psychoanalytic
approaches investigating the ambiva-
lence in subjectivity, preoccupations
with a perceived and imposed sense of
change, consciousness of Diaspora, overt
or covert experiences of discrimination,
post-assimilation nostalgia for a once in-
tegral community, trauma of immigration
and loss of an Old Country, quest for sur-
vival, or a continuing need to articulate
a boundary between the Self and Other
particularly as its social reality dimin-
ishes? A crucial theme of the research is
memory, both individual and collective:
how it is constructed and how it revises,
mythologizes, idealizes and rescues the
past which, in turn, reincorporates itself
into the Latin-American present. V


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and Jewish ethnography and folkloristics (and was awarded an
MA in Comparative History for its completion), took graduate
seminars in the history of anthropological thought, and even
found time for a related side-project, an article examining the
work of two prominent English Jewish folklorists.

Shis line of inquiry successfully prepared me for
my historical-anthropological project, but it also
exposed me to a related historical process that in
the end interested me even more; the development of Jewish
nationalism in Russia. 1 realized that politics could not be
separated from much of the cultural and historical work
conducted by Jewish intellectuals in late imperial Russia, and
that many of their cultural and historical projects aimed to
build a foundation for a reconstituted secular Jewish national
life in Russia. In particular, I became fascinated with the
political party and movement associated with the Jewish
historian Simon Dubnov, whose influence on Jewish politics
and nationalism, to my astonishment, had never been fully
assessed. In his political and historical theories Dubnov
argued that Jews historically used communal institutions to
establish spheres of autonomy, thereby preserving Jewish
national consciousness through millennia of settlement and
migration in the Diaspora. By the early nineteenth century,
many Russian and East European Jews agreed with Dubnov's
belief that in order to avoid the assimilation accompanying
secularization among Western Jewry, Russian Jewry needed
to reconstruct Jewish communal autonomy. Though Dubnov
undoubtedly romanticized the medieval Jewish communal
structures, he tapped into fears every Jewish community faced
in the modern world about how to preserve community and
identity in an era of increasing secularization.
The resulting dissertation, entitled Alternative to Zion: The
Jewish Autonomist Movement in Late Imperial and Revolutionary
Russia, draws on documentary sources and archival collections
in Russia, Ukraine, Israel, and the US to trace the development
of the idea of non-territorial autonomy for Russian Jewry
between the turn of the twentieth century and the Russian
civil war. In it, I present a complex interpretation of the rise
of Jewish nationalism in Russia (Zionist and non-Zionist)
by accounting for such factors as the declining influence of
Russian liberalism, the increased nationalism of surrounding
populations, and most importantly, the increasingly popular
belief that Jews should demand equality both as individuals
and as a nation. While in the early years of the twentieth
century political Zionists claimed that only a Jewish state
could achieve Jewish "normalization," an alternative and
equally radical path to the realization of Jewish national rights
still lay open; to demand self-government for the Jews of the

hoad iot\ AseaesP aroessi

hilp E00owmei

~iki arti 01ri 1t~rn I~rO01erhi

Crecinbu Fni vyl I Mr~essiP En t i in

!r~rhir au Vioeite ~ah iVi siain tco I I Edw~i 01

dill MMroldall ue e 0!f 1eiirlrpFrr

Sarre NI r"etr leltv Piot 1 mdsl w indt~rr

C I'rr 1tci E~omn 1i wry Nlc'oiSt

Russian empire. By claiming that Russia's "Jewish question"
could be solved as part of a general solution to its "nationalities
question," Russian Jewish nationalists fostered the belief
that Jewish national claims, whether in Palestine or Russia,
deserved to be redressed alongside their civil emancipation.
My research at the Center for Jewish Studies focuses on
revising and expanding my dissertation for publication as a
book-length monograph. I hope in providing an analysis of
the movement for Jewish autonomy and national rights in late
imperial Russia, this book will improve our understanding of
the changing nature of Jewish national consciousness in the
early twentieth century. &

Thanks ftr agreeing to meet with me.

(Rabbi Brenner leads Daniel over to a
couch. The Rabbi sits down opposite him in
an arm chair, removes his shoes, and crosses
his feet under his legs .

I wanted to tell you I liked what you did
the other night w% ith the parents.
1TL it } I I TI I I k ll k".
I thought it was pretty halsy.

Well, I write screenplln s tor a living.
And there's this new project I'm working
on, that I'm thinking a lot about, and it's
causing me sonie problemLs.

Well, it's still in the early stages, hut

here's the basic premise: Someone is kill-
ing a bunch c p powerful people-high
level executics, politicians, people
like that. I 's a sniper of some sort, land
he's steadily knocking itf these people.
They're bad people.

Not exactly.

I guess because I really want this guy tot
kill these people. The plot will eventu-

ally involve a federal agent who is trying
to catch the sniper. But I realize 1 don't
want him to catch him. I just want to
write the scenes w here the sniper ills all
the had, powerful guys.

[The rabbi raises one of his hands, which
had been resting still in his lap, toward his
patchy, overgrouwr beard and starts twisting
a dozen whiskers together.]

Well, for one thing, I'll never he able
to sell it-

Yes, a number of them.

IlHeliunki HoueymoMn,

It was originally caled Capfitres




C aptul,' is about a screenwriter, Daniel BloomI., wvho starts writing a sreeenplaiy he reIalizes
he shouldn't he writing. While containing to wxtrk on the morilly troubling script against
his better judgement, Daniel finds himself setting out on a strange spiritual journey, all
this while his aminly tails apart around him.

h it

much all the time

Probhaly Blur it' nIt jIsT tht I 1mean';
here'' the thing, I want to write this
icreenpl ip hIec ase he cause I've i tal y
lost my patience with cveryrhin" g It's nrit
j ust pauienc. It's 1ore thin that. Ever-
thing's just omnplitely ..cnlpletel, ..
tii ym utind i I I-eari

Evecrythi inl cu pleie y lucked! The
gTi \' inent, the noruporatr ins, eery

I c.in't sItnp thinking I; ii t it. It's I n
like exer thcltgh tihin.gs were great, or
evllen g~od, hit 1 jut can't hbel eve the
deterioration rot the last few yea.rs.

(The rabbi corntinues twisting parts of his

A:ind I dn't like thlit thlis is xhat it's
doinl ti me. It's made e hsessive\ I
read the piper, kni wing I'l get pissed,
and then I get pissed, I ha:e conv cirsa-
tins about wit with Iy Iriends, knci wing
I'll wind tip despondent, and I do. And
lnow... now iil taken oecr in work.

[The rabbi lowers his hand back to his lap.j

ICC- ~IXI like rk ti~le Qoti 1

r IA? hit l~~n

I ixajited tor trik rt I leon-le ahutr ihis.

I le toldl n" to~Iilt a gUI aind pretriod
I xx o.n kilhn Mtlrnrreont.i

I i-\.. rappecl ni ?,ii x.ii

We, \ don't rtalk InuIL ,ihi ut nix
NI) ripi ta

rri-l d~""abl hi l It 's a I i~ng srri

You iust seemed diffeenit. The other
night. lRabis don't usually i alk like

Yes. Sometinlles anilywax.

I don't really know. I din't like feeling
this, I don't like hating the world this

I d ,i ,I tlll Jit. ,

I'in 'tlitl.i 1

I Wvnrarii'it lc

IHow do \ou lmanae?

Living in hias world.

You don'im

Is thart a problem, pnrote.lionallv,

1 don't know, The congregants come

IDaniel doesn't answer, stares, instead, at
some open packing boxes filled with hooks.]


Yt it rect I ti~ I 1 lne it,

YnrU I j 1rts \ Xlhit t\cI" thA I icil I
S Ione ,hroin A, I rr t Il ni fIt ing tIF
Lr. tlx&

to in lotr l-dership dnd a uii ne and
1)r cgth JThe1 In- f a In1'cnL whht

ht Lo 1 11 n by oure here, I' l tell

1:re l \,iv ere did you cometn
Irlrr ox

IBut yIu are. 1 cameI here thinking vyu
iniuht be ahle tt help me In'm desperate.
1 )I u in v H e m'y ide hIw Ihi rd it wts
flr me It decide to see if rhis place Lcould

l doesn't answer, sta:
, at some open packing
d with books.

'XIIl 'ihilll rihII hu .nxer,

That being thie balls parr.

I wkant it know it religion can help.

[Rabbi Brenner places his hands on the
armrests of his chair, lifts his entire body off
the seat, re-crosses his legs in the opposite
direction and lowers himself back down.]

otllr me an thing it substanceL

Rabbi, I Lame here opel to the i1dea ol
thinkiking about eing more Jewish

Listen to yonl You're lnot gcointo h I;Il
six months here. I'll just leaxe, but ySu
talk like tlhis 10i sime ml the sc .'ngregants
here, they'll have you tossed out like
tha Pirobhally ticre ourt a way to bring a
suit against y u0 ir even the temple

1-ItI\ % d IJJ o get I hi jI hI

Tkut yon';e, I, o'Ie If, L

I'm nI i sure.I

Chris Marker
Nora M. Alter
University of illinois Press, 2006

Marker's 1953 debut filmic essay, The
Statues Also Die (with Alain Resnais),
exposed the European art market's
**-M j complicity in the perpetuation of co-
S lonialism, and provided a bold model
for other politically committed film-
makers. Thus began Marker's long struggle against global
injustice, a trajectory that included his involvement with
Night and Fog, La Jetie, Le Joli Mai, Far from Vietnam, Le fond
du I'air est rouge, and Prime Time in the Camps. Alter's careful
study includes previously uncollected and untranslated inter-
views with the director and investigates the core themes and
motivations behind an often unpredictable and transnational
cinematic practice that defies easy classification.

*Theatrum ludaicum
Galili Shahar
Aisthesis Verlag Biefefeld, 2007

This book follows the emergence of a
new movement in the German-Jew-
"" ish discourse of modernity in the first
ihairum jidiicum-
i i decades of the twentieth century. It
........ was the literature and theory of Ex-
pressionism, Dada, Neue Sachlichkeit
and the Epic theatre that opened new horizons for modern-
ist interpretations of Judaism. Authors of Jewish origin such as
Ernst Toller, Franz Werfel, Franz Kafka, Walter Mehring, Yvan
Goll, Else Lasker-Schiler and Walter Benjamin used the tools
of the avant-garde-the technique of the fragment, the con-
cept of montage, the discourse of ecstasy and the method of
verfremdungseffekt to create a critical reading of Judaism and
modernity. The book shows the influence of the avant-garde
on the writings of Gustav Landauer, Martin Buber and Franz
Rosenzweig and explains its contribution to the creation of
modernist theological thought.

Jews, Sports, and the Rites
of Citizenship
Jack Kugelmass

To many, an association between Jews
and sports seems almost oxymoronic-
yet Jews have been prominent in box-
ing, basketball, and fencing, and some
would argue that hurler Sandy Koufax
is America's greatest athlete ever. In Jews, Sports, and the Rites
of Citizenship, Jack Kugelmass shows that sports-significant in
constructing nations and in determining their degree of exclu-
sivity-also figures prominently in the Jewish imaginary. This
interdisciplinary collection brings together the perspectives of
anthropologists and historians to provide both methodological
and regional comparative frameworks for exploring the mean-
ing of sports for a minority population.

* Is Arab Soccer in a Jewish
Tamir Sorek
Cambridge Press, 2007

Over the last two decades, soccer has
become a major institution within the
popular culture of the Arab-Palestin-
ian citizens of Israel, who have at-
tained disproportionate success in this
field. Given their marginalization from many areas of Israeli
society, as well as the ongoing Israeli-Palestinian conflict, such
a prominent Arab presence highlights the tension between
their Israeli citizenship and their belonging to the Palestinian
people. Bringing together sociological, anthropological and
historical approaches, Tamir Sorek examines how soccer can
potentially be utilized by ethnic and national minorities as
a field of social protest, a stage for demonstrating distinctive
identity, or as a channel for social and political integration.
Relying on a rich combination of quantitative and qualita-
tive methods, he argues that equality in the soccer sphere
legitimizes contemporary inequality between Jews and Arabs
in Israel and pursues wider arguments about the role of sport
in ethno-national conflicts.

234w I a ~kj_

Nina Caputo & Andrea Sterk

Afions X aiJl hi -cmrt

NINA CAPUTO is Assistant Professor of History specialiing in Medieval Jewry.
ANDREA STERK is Associae Professor of History and Affliate Faculiy in Religion.

natplit of the rtlationsiips between religious groups
in Europe and the Middle East has often been framed in terms of
opposition: religious and cultural conflicts, political tensions, so-
cial incompatibilities. This approach has shaped scholarly as well
as public discourse. Well-entrenched assumptions about cultural
and religious norms among Muslims, Christians, and Jews lend
credence to the belief that the tensions that are so well integrated into our cultural
and political vernacular today have remained unchanged since the dawn of Islam.
The lecture series The East in the West?: Muslims and Jews in Christian Europe
invited speakers who grappled with questions related to religious and cultural ex-
changes, the tensions posed by the encounter between religious fundamentalism
and Western ideologies of secularism or liberalism, and interaction between European
and Middle Eastern notions of authority and power. These thematic questions were
formulated in order to tease out continuities as well as radical breaks in the way that
interfaith relations have been negotiated at key points in history since the early
Middle Ages. The cross-disciplinary and broad historical approaches represented in
this series encouraged participants to break out of traditionally narrow points of view
which promote tightly focused scholarship casting geographic or cultural contexts and
historical periods in isolation.

Scholars in Jewish Studies are also
struggling with similar questions. Jewish
studies is not merely the study of Jews.
To understand Jews is also to understand
that they live within dynamic cultures
and societies, and not just as segregated
communities. For some time, Jewish
studies at the University of Florida has
brought together scholars and students
from across the disciplines in an effort
to challenge traditional conceptions
of Judaism and Jewish history and to
reconsider commonly-held categories
of classification. We are interested in
challenging students, faculty, and com-
munity members to see the shifting pat-
terns of interaction and multiple levels
of engagement among Jews, Christians,
and Muslims.
Remie Constable, Professor of Me-
dieval History at the University ofNotre
Dame, discussed gaming and courtly
culture in medieval Spain. Her paper
was a small part of a broader project
comparing the situation of Muslims liv-
ing in different regions of Spain, France,
and Italy in the thirteenth century. This
is an important period because in many
ways it sees the creation and solidifica-
tion of European attitudes towards Is-
lam in the wake of the Crusades in the
Near East and territorial conquests in
Spain. Using an array of documentary,
legal, economic and other sources, she is
looking at the variety of ways in which
Christian rulers accommodated Muslim
subjects in their realms. In her talk at
UF, Constable examined the relationship
between the images and the text of the
Libro de Ajedrez. The illustrations pres-
ent a fascinating array of people playing
chess together-Muslims, Christians,
and Jews, slaves and soldiers, women
and children-which she used to ex-
amine social relations in the medieval



court of Castile.
Whereas Constable examined a period of relatively peace-
ful coexistence, the panel discussion "Politics and Religious
Identities in Pre-Modern Europe" focused on situations of
political and religious coercion. Benjamin Ehlers (University of
Georgia) and Pawel Kras (University
of Lublin, Poland) examined the role
of the Inquisition in standardizing
behavior and disciplining social and
religious deviants. Ehlers discussed
the diverging experiences of bap-
tized Jews (conversos) and Muslims
(moriscos) in the Inquisitorial age in
Spain. He considered the conflicting
demands placed upon both groups as
Christian authorities both pressured
converts to assimilate and threatened
them with expulsion. Kras examined
parallel relationships between the
Inquisition, Muslim Tartars, and
the Jewish population in Poland.
Michelle Campos (University of
Florida) reflected on the continuing
legacy of these tensions in Modern
Europe and the Middle East.
The other two lectures in the
series turned to the modern era. Focusing on philosophical
questions, Gil Anidjar (Columbia University) considered the
timely question of how the Christian West continues to cast
the Jew and the Arab as the enemy, a single force perceived
to be at odds with Western (Christian) values. His reflections
were particularly valuable for understanding the factors that
helped produce and kindle current conflicts in modern Europe,
the US, and the Middle East. Matthew Connelly, on the other
hand, considered these tensions from the perspective of politi-
cal and historical conflicts within the boundaries of Europe.
Using Muslim minorities as his test case, this talk examined
how population projections and policies have served to define
cultural differences, in particular how conceptions of fertility
and infertility shape identities among people who consider
themselves Western.

since 9/11 Jewish-Muslim-Christian relations in
Europe have captivated popular imagination and
concern as much as academic discourse. This series
emerged first out of our own deep interests in the vibrant cultural
and religious history of the pre-moder world. We quickly
discovered, however, that both graduate and undergraduate
students at the University of Florida were also preoccupied

with these questions. In particular, students wanted to know
much more about Islam, the Muslim world, and its relation to
the West, broadly defined. It was also evident that while these
desires and interests are strong, there were few faculty with
expertise in the relevant fields of study. Most glaring is the
absence of a historian of premodern
Islam. The lectures in The East in
the West were intended to begin a
conversation among members of the
UF community addressing questions
related to interfaith relations from
the rise of Islam in the Seventh
through the thirteenth century, a
crucial period for the crystallization
of both Muslim and Jewish identities
and institutions.
An indication of the growing
interest in this conversation was
the unprecedented response and
widespread support for the series.
Along with the collaboration of
several faculty from the Center for
Medieval and Early Modern Studies
and the working group for Near and
1,m, 1 n I ir .i..x It :t.ii Middle Eastern Studies, several pro-
grams and departments provided the
necessary financial support. We are grateful to The Center
for the Humanities and the Public Sphere and our generous
co-sponsors: The Center for Jewish Studies, Alexander Grass
Chair in Jewish Studies, Center for European Studies, and
Department of History. S


Madu possible through these endc,'mnients aul gfts:
a Alexander Grass Eminent Scholar Chair
u Charlotte A. Gunzburger Endowment
O Gary R. Gerson Lecture Series Endowment
a HIarry Rich Endowment for IHolocaust
o Jewish Council for North-Central FL
o Jewish Federation of Volusia and Flagler
o Kahn Visiting Scholar Endowment
o Robert Russell Memorial Foundation
o Schram Memorial Fund

SIMONE SlCHWEBER, "Fundamental Funnels:
How Christians & Jews Teach the Hlolocaust,"
June 15, Hilel.

S1 IFT (Summer Holocaust Institute for
Florida Teachers,) June 12-16, university of

SHARON DiFINO, "After Glikl: Jewish
Women Writers in Germany and the Nether-
lands from the eighteenth century to WWII,"
September 21, Faculty Seminar.

GWYNN KESSLER, "Before 1 Formed Ytou
in the Belly, I Knew You: Jacob & Esau in the
Womb," September 28, Hillel.

GALILI SHAlJAR, "The Language of Al-
legory: Yiddish in the Thought of Rosenzweig,
Kafka, & Freud," October 5, Hillel.

MOTTI INBARI, "Gush Emunim's Rabbinic
Responses to the Disengagement,'" October 25,
Faculty Seminar.

MITCHELL HART, "The Pathological Circle:
Zionism and the 'Health' of European Jewry,"
October 29, Museum of Arts and Sciences,
Dayton RBeach.

DANIEL OYARIN, "Literary Fat Rabbis; The
Rabbis & the Syriac Connection," November
I, Hillel.

MOTTI INBARI, "The Disengagement as a
Religious Dilemma," December 10, Museum of
Arts and Sciences, Daytona Beach.

Christians, Jews, and Chess: Gaming and
Courtly Culture in Medieval Spain," January
18, Smathers Library.

TAMIR SOREK, "Ethnic Solidarity and Israeli
Soccer," January 28, Museum of Arts and Sci-
ences, Daytona Beach.

JACK KUGELMASS, "Shtedts Without Jews:
Early Accounts of Postwar P land by Emigre
Travelers," January 31, Faculty Seminar.

AMY J. LEVINE, "Jesus and Judaism: Why the
Connection Matters," February I, Listler Hall.

JEREMY COHEN, "Comipeting for the Blood
of the Cross: Mistress Rachel the Martyr of
Mainz," February 15, Ilillel.


7HZsrra ii
I`; I1 L
"- :~;
~1- I
- I;

BLOOD," An International Conference,
February 18-19, Hillel.

GIL ANIDJAR, "On the Muslim Question,"
February 20, Smathers Library

and Religious Identities in Pre-Modern Europe:
Case Studies in Poland and Spain," March 1,
Smathers Library.

DAVID RECHTER, "The Habsburg Empire,
167- 1918: Good for the Jews"' March 6,

MATT JACOBS, "Imagining a Quagmire,"
March 7, Faculty Seminar.

"THE ISTER Screening and Roundtable Dis-
cussion," March 20, Dauer HIall. Discussants:
Eric Kligerman, Iragan Kujundzic, Scott
Nygren, Gallii Shahar, and Maureen Turim.

KENNETH 11. WALD, "Israel and American
Jewish Politics," March 25, Museum of Arts and
Sciences, Daytona Beach.

MATTHEW CONNELLY, "Reproducing the
West: The Ilistory and Politics of Population
Growth and Movement," April 5, Smathers

SAMUEL KASSOW, "Between History and
Catastrophe: Emanuel Ringelhlum's Secret
Gherto Archive," April 12, Reit: Union.

ETGAR KERET, "A Reading by Etgar Keret,"
April 18, Reit: Union.

For the latest in events:



The Presence of Jewish Absence:

Trauma, Memory, & Return

of the Jewish Voice in-

The Tin Drum

he tendency to repeat, as a means of coping with a past trauma, mani-
fests itself in Oskar Matzerath, the protagonist in Gunter Grass's novel,
The Tin Drum (1959). Using several theoretical models of mourning
this paper investigates the transference f Jewish trauma onto Oskar,
and aids in understanding Oskar's task of retelling a silenced Jewish
past. Relying solely on his drum as the means by which he retells this past transforms
Oskar's drum from merely an instrument into both the locus of trauma and the me-
dium of memory. Using the theories of Cathy Caruth and Sigmund Freud, my analysis
suggests that the suicide of Oskar's toy merchant, Sigismund Markus, compels Oskar
to confront the traumatic Jewish past as his own. In doing so, Markus becomes the
stand-in for all Jewish victims, and through Oskar's drum one gets a fragmented and
belated telling of the silenced Jewish past. In keeping with Freud's studies on trauma,
Oskar grows up during the years of World War II, yet his narrative spans the time
before and after the war. Willing himself to stop growing at the age of three with a
deliberate fall, he observes and relives German history through his ever-present tin
drum; his physical appearance and perceived mental handicap grant him access to
various events which would normally be forbidden to the German citizen.

Separated into three parts, Grass, through Oskar, illustrates life in Germany be-
fore, during and after the war. However, this history is by no means linear. Instead,
the reader must decipher the inextricably linked history of Oskar's past and present.
What ultimately differentiates this past from his present, aside from the obvious lapse
in time, is the presence, and then absence, of a Jewish voice. Though not an overtly
"Jewish" story, The Tin Drum contains so many allusions to the presence of Jewish
absence, that the reader cannot ignore the relevance of this voice and its silencing.
In a close reading of Oskar's retelling of history through his drums, I conclude that
while Oskar gives a voice to the silenced Jewish victim, the willingness of the German
public to confront its past ultimately fails. Perhaps seen as the final critique on Ger-
man society at the time, unless one is able to confront and work through the past, the
potential for violence and destruction is always present. S

NATALIE PRAGER hails frmn Orlando,
Florida and is a senior majoring in Jewish
Studies. Following graduation she hopes to
spend a year in London and possibly
Berlin. Afreriards she plans to attend
graduate school in comparative literature
with a focus on both German-Jewish and
Hebrew literatures.

Judaism Women's

Reproductive Rights

T here is a perception that American Jews across sectarian lines are
strongly pro-choice. How do American Jews, unlike many other reli-
gious groups in America, use religious mores as justifications for voting
literally on issues such as birth control and abortion?
My essay examines the unique moral standpoint of the American Jewish com-
munity on women's reproductive rights, using both halachic (Jewish law-based)
and political perspectives to provide a fuller insight into Jewish voting behavior. In
addition, by exploring the nuances in opinion between Jewish religious leaders and
the Jewish community at large, as well as between different Jewish sects, it showed
the absence of a so-called "Jewish view" on any particular issue.

Beginning with halachic source texts and rabbinic perspectives, my essay es-
tablishes the traditional Jewish views on abortion, differentiating between Orthodox,
Conservative, and Reform readings of the issue, and then covers the actual practices
of the American Jewish community, which do not always coincide with rabbinic
doctrine. Next I delve into political and personal pressures which may move the
general American Jewish community to support a pro-choice stance even beyond
the guidelines of religion. An investigation of the approaches towards contraception
within Judaism revealed a generally positive view of sexuality. Finally, a discussion
of the Jewish mandate to procreate provides a potential source of division within
the Jewish community, as the problem of a dwindling Jewish population leads some
Jewish leaders to condemn contraception and abortion (when employed as means to
avoid having children).
Based on principles such as the value of the mother's life over potential life
and the non-human status of the fetus in Judaism, most non-Orthodox rabbis have
arrived at a qualifiedly pro-choice stance, making allowances for emotional distress
as well as life-threatening situations, even while condemning abortion-on-demand.
Just as the views of Jewish and Christian religious leaders show a discrepancy on
this issue, so do the views of Jewish religious leaders and the Jewish community at
large. The majority of American Jews are pro-choice, despite rabbinic limitations
on abortion. This in turn provokes horror in some Orthodox rabbis, who see abor-
tion in Judaism as limited to very specific instances, and resent what they see as the
corruption of Jewish tradition.
Nevertheless, between Jewish authorities and the more strongly pro-choice
general Jewish community, Jews form a powerful political bloc influencing the na-
tional-level abortion debate. Unless shrinking Jewish population causes Jewish
leaders to reverse their stance on these issues, Jews will likely remain some of the
strongest supporters of women's reproductive rights. *

MI1KA TURIM-NYGREN is a sophomlore
English major with creative writing, minoring
in French and Jewish studies This precis is
from her term paper for Ken Wald's Judaism
and Politics course, Fall 2006 for which she
was awarded second price in this year's Alex-
ander Grass student essay contest.

We Don't Eat

Meat With the

I i n !

*i l


REBECCA KLEIN is currently completing her
dJcitoral deJree in anthropulogy at UF She
has conducedJ antrhropological and archaeto-
lotgical fielJwdork in Israel, Aiustralia, South
Africa, and the US. Iler dissertation fieldwork
was carried out in northwestern Ethiopia
over the course of twelve months in 2003-04.
Klein's research was supported through the

In 1984 & 1991, two events occurred
that dramatically changed the lives of
thousands of people. These events, called
Operations Moses and Solomon, respec-
tively, involved airlifting close to thirty-
thousand Beta Israel, the "Black Jews"
of Ethiopia, out of the country of their i, isiem 4A w, r r
birth to their new homeland, Israel.
This migration has allowed the Beta Israel to live enveloped in what they con-
sider to be their cultural and religious heritage, and to raise their children according
to traditional Jewish law. It also inevitably leads to the imminent loss of a unique and
fascinating culture. As the next generation is born and raised in Israel, the opportu-
nity to learn about life as a Jew in Ethiopia is slowly dying out.

In the past several decades, as world awareness and interest has grown, much
historical research has been done on the Beta Israel. However, there has been virtually
no ethnographic or archaeological research documenting Beta Israel life in Ethiopia.
That is to say, we know very little about how the Beta Israel organized their daily lives,
or their day-to-day relations with Christian neighbors.
One of the most significant periods of Beta Israel history is the Gonder Era
(1636-1755). This period began with the establishment of Ethiopia's first permanent
capital city since the thirteenth century, Gonder. Gonder brought people of diverse
ethnic and religious backgrounds together in an urban setting. The Beta Israel, who
have historically held low-status artisan positions, were incorporated into the eco-
nomic sphere of this urban center, while remaining socially and religiously outcast.
They found themselves surrounded by Amhara, and were forced to interact on a daily
basis. This study looks at how they responded to this from an archaeological and
ethnographic perspective. Through this approach I have attempted to address such
questions as: did the Beta Israel seek to become assimilated into Gonder society? Did
they prefer to remain apart? And how might the pottery traditions of these people be
used as an indicator of these responses? O

IKk Ii Jr ritih .iIJ I. i'a,"r

Rebecca Klein

A rit L '.J- 1 f[,j

Explore the particularities of contempo-
rary Jewish Latin American narrative of
Argentinean, Uruguayan, Mexican, and
Brazilian authors. The course poses the
following questions: Can we speak of an
ethnic Latin American narrative? What
is the locus of the minority voice? Does
it consist of the ethnicity of the author,
the characters, or the subject matter?

Robert Kawashima

An exploration of Jewish and Chris-
tian apocalypticism through a survey
of apocalyptic texts from the Hebrew
Bible, Second Temple Jewish literature
(including the Dead Sea Scrolls), and
the New Testament.

Anthropology & the He-
brew Bible
Harvey Goldberg

The links between anthropology and
the study of the Hebrew Bible were
considered close to one another in
the nineteenth century, and their
mutual relevance has continued to be
reformulated. The course examines
the classic works of William Robertson
Smith and James Frazer, and then traces
the reemergence of interest in the topic
due to the writings of Edmund Leach and
Mary Douglas in the 1960s. Changing
ways of understanding the Bible in terms
of archeology and the geography of the
Middle East will also be discussed.

The course focuses on the highly distinct
character of Jewish literary production
in the modern period, in comparison
to both pre-modern Jewish writing and
non-Jewish modem literature. Emphasis
is placed on reading this literature with-
in its historical, social, and political con-
text. Readings include material on the
Jewish Enlightenment, immigration, as-
similation, Zionism, and other relevant

Gender & Genesis
Gwynn Kessler

Close readings of primary biblical sources
and contemporary feminist and queer
scholarship about these texts, as we
explore what the first book of the Bible
says about God, gender, power, sexuality,
and "family values."

History & Catastrophe
Galili Shahar

Introduction to German and Jewish
Culture. Historical discussions on the
"process of civilization" in Germany
(secularization, modernization, "the
dialectic of Enlightenment"), and
analyses of the ambivalent position
of the Jews as historical and symbolic
subjects in modern Europe. The
course is interdisciplinary and includes
philosophical texts (Kant, Nietzsche,
Benjamin and Heidegger); literature
(Goethe, Lessing, Kleist, Heine, Kafka,
Sebald); theory (Elias, Freud, Adorno
& Horkheimer) and historiography.

Introduction to Modern
Contemporary Jewish Jewish Literature
Latin American Narrative Todd Hasak-Lowy
Patricia Nuriel

topics. Though all texts are available in
English, a majority of the primary read-
ings are translated from other languages,
including Yiddish, Hebrew, Russian,
German, Ladino, and Judeo-Arabic.

Israeli Society
Tamir Sorek

Introduction to major themes in con-
temporary Israeli society. The course
juxtaposes the different subjective
points of view and motivations of the
various actors involved and focuses on
the following: The tension between the
definition of Israel as a Jewish state and
its democratic aspirations; the place of
religion in defining national identity
and in politics; the effects of the Israeli-
Palestinian conflict; the fragile status of
the Arab Palestinian citizens of Israel;
intra-Jewish ethnic divides; gender iden-
tities; struggles over collective memory,
and the implication of globalization on
Israeli society and culture.

Jewish Diaspora in Latin
Patricia Nuriel

The course focuses on historical, po-
litical, social and cultural aspects of
the dispersion of Jews throughout Latin

Jewish Identity in Litera-
Leah Hochman

Political, social, cultural, and even phys-
ical assessments of Jews and Jewishness
and the major themes of modern iden-

~c~sr ~s~iao~o i~~QG~O~

tity: the nature of political freedom,
religious toleration, social integration,
self-determination, assimilation, and

Jewish Political Move-
Simon Rabinovitch

The course introduces students to the
history of Jewish political ideologies,
parties and movements in the modern
world. To answer the question what
is Jewish politics we examine nine-
teenth-century Jewish integration, na-
tional self-consciousness, and political
mobilization. The creation of Jewish
forms of agrarian socialism, Marxism
and liberalism will be considered in
the context of European urbanization
and modernization. We will follow the
creation of Jewish political parties in
Europe and their descendants in the
Americas and Israel.

Jews of Medieval Spain
Nina Caputo

Explores the history of Jewish commu-
nities in the Iberian peninsula from the
early Middle Ages through the Expulsion
of 1492. It examines broad questions
related to Jewish life and culture during
this period, as well as more specific ques-
tions about the unique characteristics of
Sephardic Jewry. Through a close study
of primary sources and recent secondary
scholarship, students analyze the impact
of Muslim and Christian Iberian soci-
ety on the cultural and religious life of
Sephardic Jewry and the role Jews and
Judaism played in shaping Spanish so-
ciety and culture.

Life Cycle Celebrations in
Harvey Goldberg

A combined historical and anthropo-

logical survey of life cycle celebrations
-around birth, bar/bat mitzvah, iden-
tity, travel, marriage, community, old
age, and death-both as they are ex-
pressed in textual materials and in re-
cent ethnographic work. Emphasis will
be placed on how these celebrations
have changed over time and vary from
place to place, highlighting meanings
that they have taken on and that con-
tinue to be revised in specific historical
and cultural settings.

Performing Judaism:
Feasts & Fasts
Gwynn Kessler

An introduction to Judaism as lived,
enacted, and embodied through a critical
examination of Jewish holiday and
lifecycle rituals. Study the beginnings
of Jewish rituals and chart their
development throughout centuries of
Jewish history, noting how ritual allows
Judaism to retain ancient roots and
grow new branches. Discussions will be
informed by contemporary scholarship
in performance studies, ritual studies,
gender studies, and anthropology. These
current approaches will help compare
(and contrast) Jewish rituals with rituals
of other religions.

Religion, Culture, and
Identities in Israel
Harvey Goldberg

Examination of the cultural backgrounds
of the various groups that make up Israeli
society and how they have entered into
dynamic interaction within the context
of Israeli life creating new identities.
This includes an introduction to the
cultural traditions of Jews from Middle
Eastern countries, a survey of religious
ideologies that have developed within
Jewry, and the way they have impacted
and are contested in the Israeli public
sphere today.

Sigmund Freud: Judaism,
Psychoanalysis and Lit-
Galili Shahar

Freud's discourse on literature was one
of the origins of the psychoanalytical
project-a framework in which he
developed major concepts such as
the Uncanny (unheimliche). However,
the writings on literature and art also
include his other, hidden text-the
text on the Jewish question. Discussed
in the seminar: Jokes and their Relation
to the Unconscious and his essays on
Shakespeare, Goethe, Hoffmann and
Dostoyevsky. We conclude with reading
Freud's historical novel Moses and
Monotheism-a book that documents the
complexity of Freud's psychoanalytical
project and its Jewish implications.

E'ninrSitRl (cholars


Fall 2007

CJS Courses

Anthropology of the Hebrew Bible
Arab/Israeli Conflict
The Book of Job
Comparative Mysticism
Dead Sea Scroll & Literature
Freud: Judaism, Psych. & Literature
Gender and Genesis
Hebrew Scriptures
History & Catastrophe: Intro.
Introduction to Judaism
Israeli Society
Jewish American Fiction
Jewish Cult. in N. Africa & Israel
Jewish Ethnography
Jewish History 711-1492
Jewish Mysticism
Jewish Political Movements
Jews in European Film
Jews in Latin America
Memory in Jewish Literature
Mod. European Jewish History
Perform. Judaism: Fasts/Feasts
Reading in Hebrew Lit.
Religion, Cult. & Identities in Israel
Religion & Politics
Senior Honors Thesis
Wisdom Hebrew Bible
Women in Mod. Hebrew Fiction

for more course information:

undergraduate scholarships

indergraduate/Oraduat to wlsh

For more scholarship information:www.s.ufl.edu/shlarshi

An international conference at the
" Ownership of Auschwitz, given its significance as a world heritage site
" National memory and how deeply contested that is among the various
nationalities involved
* Ethical issues of aestheticization of photographs and paintings whose
value as documents is quite clear, but which may very well speak to us on
another level
" Graphic representations about the camp including post-war documentary
and feature film

The Panush Fund was established in 1986 by family and
friends of Anne and Bernard Panush at the time of their 75th
birthdays. The lives of the Panush's reflected their lifelong
dedication to Jewish causes and education, and contributions
to better the world around them. Indeed, they were quietly
but fervently committed to educating others about Jewish val-
ues and transmitting their heritage. They, and other members
of the family, were respected icons of communal leadership
in the Detroit metropolitan area and later in the Gulf Coast
community they retired to.
Anne and Bernard hoped the Fund honoring them would
facilitate "the pursuit of Judaica, the enhancement of Jewish
thought and Jewish studies, and the transmitting of our heri-
tage to the coming generation." This endowment therefore
is used to support faculty and student development and/or
research in Judaica at the University of Florida. The (then)
new University of Florida Center for Jewish Studies was an
ideal beneficiary of this philanthropy being that the Panushes
retired to Clearwater, FL, a decade previously and their son
(then a member of the faculty of the University of Florida

College of Medicine), daughter-in-law, and three grandchil-
dren lived in Gainesville; the family was good friends with
members of the original faculty of the Center (Professors
Barry Mesch, Warren Bargad, and Shelly Isenberg); indeed
Anne and Bernard made Gainesville their second home and
had high regard for the University's academic programs.

Sernard and Anne Panush were born in north-
east Poland, immigrated to Detroit, where
they spent most of their lives, retired to
Florida, and then moved to New Jersey to be
closer to family.
Bernard Panush died September 15, 2006 at age 94. Born
in Szczuczyn, Poland, in 1911, he received a rich classical and
religious education before coming to the United States at
age 17. He was a classmate of Yitzhak Shamir (former Prime
Minister of Israel), ardent Zionist, and admirer of Vladimir
Jabotinsky. He was arrested and briefly jailed in Bialystok for
distributing leaflets supporting a Jewish candidate for the Sejm


(Polish parliament). He arrived in Man-
hattan the day of the stock market crash
in 1929. The family went immediately to
the home of cousins in Brooklyn and re-
ceived American names to replace their
Yiddish ones (Berl becoming Bernard).
He enrolled in college and, speaking
no English, was promptly remanded to
high school for a year. He subsequently
obtained bachelors and masters degrees
in economics from Wayne State Uni-
versity, and was offered a scholarship
to Harvard Business School which he
regrettably declined as it would have
been insufficient to support his studies.
Bernard and his older brother attended
Scranton College, a Catholic school,
for a year or two as that was where they
could find extracurricular work; Ber-
nard as the faculty and his brother as
the principal of the local Hebrew
school. He married the love of his
life, whom he met at the Hebrew-
speaking society and who taught
him English.
Bernard Panush served
in the US Army during
WWII. He accepted a
position with the city
of Detroit and retired as
Deputy Director of De-
troit's Dept. of Envi-
ronmental Protection.
He was extraordinari-
ly active in Jewish and
civic affairs, assuming

important leadership roles in the communities in which he lived.

Snne Hecker Panush, 94, was born in Suwalki, Poland, and arrived in
the United States in 1920. Her father sold Singer sewing machines
in what was then Russia and was impressed into the Czar's cavalry;
when conscripted he told officials, "on me you shouldn't count" and
contributed to the Russian debacle in the 1905 Russo-Japanese War.
He fled to America at the first opportunity, scratching out a living as a peddler and
sleeping with his horse until he could afford to send for his family. Anne Panush
also graduated Wayne with a degree in education and taught in the Detroit public
schools. She, too, was recognized for her excellence but eschewed offers of greater
administrative or leadership responsibilities outside of the classroom. She taught He-
brew to children and adults and served as secretary of the Jewish Historical Society
of Michigan. She was devoted to her husband and her family, to whom she was the
quintessential eysheskhayl (woman of valor).
Anne and Bernard Panush were content with their portion in life, endeavored
to make the world better by their deeds, lived lives immersed in yidishkeyt (Jewish
content), and were/are immensely proud of their children, grandchildren, and great-
grandchildren (and even of their dogs). They kveld (burst with pleasure)
that their daughter, a teacher and editor moved to Israel with her
husband in 1972, and visited their Israeli family frequently as long
as their health permitted. In 1988 Bernard Panush and his son
had an opportunity to visit eastern Poland together. This proved
to be a very emotional, informative, and special experience for
both. Together, they found the home of Mr. Panush's birth (his
family had the resources to buy either a cow or the home and
his mother who made all the decisions--
chose the cow and rented the house), the
buildings of family stores, the shtetl's square
(with probably the same horse and wagon
as in his childhood), the synagogue of his
bar mitzvah, the gymnasium of his formative
education, the apartment in Bialystok where the
family resided while awaiting funds to emigrate,
a private audience with the mayor of Bialystok
(whose predecessor jailed him), the remnants of
pre-WWII Eastern-European Jewry, and a culture
that is no more. Anne and Bernard Panush fled,
survived, and prospered. They remembered what
once was and devoted themselves to assuring that
others, too, would understand and cherish
their heritage. S


SETH JERCHOWER is the newly appointed
Head of the Isser and Rae Price Library of Ju-
daica. He brings to the collections fourteen
years of experience, first as Research Associ-
ate to Special Collections at the Library of the
Jewish Theological Seminary of America, then
at University of Pennsylvania, where he served
as both Judaic Studies Research and Instruc-
tional Services Librarian and Public Services
Librarian at the Center for Advanced Judaic
Studies. While at Penn State he was active
in the development and design of electronic resources such
as the CAJS web site, its virtual exhibits, and managing all
Judaic Studies internet resources. Additionally, he oversaw
the University's collection of Cairo Genizah Fragments and
played a key role in its cataloging and digitization.
Seth received his B.A. in Italian from Rutgers College, and
his Laurea from the University of Florence, Italy. Currently, he
is a Ph.D. candidate at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences
Sociales, Paris, for which he is completing his dissertation, a
critical edition of a medieval Judeo-Italian translation of the
book of The Prophets. His professional interests cover a range

of topics, including historic bibliography, lin-
guistics, Jewish languages, Italian, Sephardic,
and Indian Jewish history and culture, Atlantic
studies, and Jewish-American popular culture.
He characterizes the Price Library as a
"bibliographer's collection, thanks to the work
of Librarian Emeritus Robert Singerman. As
we approach the second decade of the twenty-
first century, we find an array of technological
advances that allow scholars to fully realize a
republic of letters, as veritable as it is virtual.
In the IT age, the academic library is no longer an isolated
institution, but an active protagonist in the exchange of infor-
mational resources worldwide, including more diverse means
of document delivery, digitization, audio-visual streaming,
and e-book repositories, to name but a few. The role of the
library in the academy is a complementary one, and with the
diverse range of courses and research areas of the CJS faculty,
the Judaica collections at the University of Florida now are
uniquely poised to grow in scope and content, consolidating
the Gator Nation's standing as an international center of edu-
cation and research in Jewish studies."

Center for Jewish Studies
PO Box 118020
Gainesville, FL 32611-8020


New Head of the

Judaica Colleetio:


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